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Sample records for plant cytochrome p450

  1. Cytochrome P450-Mediated Phytoremediation using Transgenic Plants: A Need for Engineered Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Jin, Mengyao; Weemhoff, James L

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for versatile and ubiquitous Cytochrome P450 (CYP) biocatalysts for biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. In the last decade there has been an increase in realization of the power of CYP biocatalysts for detoxification of soil and water contaminants using transgenic plants. However, the major limitations of mammalian CYP enzymes are that they require CYP reductase (CPR) for their activity, and they show relatively low activity, stability, and expression. On the other hand, bacterial CYP enzymes show limited substrate diversity and usually do not metabolize herbicides and industrial contaminants. Therefore, there has been a considerable interest for biotechnological industries and the scientific community to design CYP enzymes to improve their catalytic efficiency, stability, expression, substrate diversity, and the suitability of P450-CPR fusion enzymes. Engineered CYP enzymes have potential for transgenic plants-mediated phytoremediation of herbicides and environmental contaminants. In this review we discuss: 1) the role of CYP enzymes in phytoremediation using transgenic plants, 2) problems associated with wild-type CYP enzymes in phytoremediation, and 3) examples of engineered CYP enzymes and their potential role in transgenic plant-mediated phytoremediation. PMID:25298920

  2. Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Bak, Søren; Paquette, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    There are 272 cytochrome P450 genes (including 26 pseudogenes) in the Arabidopsis genome. P450s thus form one of the largest families of proteins in higher plants. This explosion of the P450 family is thought to have occurred via gene duplication and conversion, and to result from the need of sessile plants to adapt to a harsh environment and to protect themselves from pathogens and predators. P450s sometimes share less than 20% identity and catalyze extremely diverse reactions. Their biological functions range from the synthesis of structural macromolecules such as lignin, cutin or suberin, to the synthesis or catabolism of all types of hormone or signaling molecules, the synthesis of pigments and defense compounds, and to the metabolism of xenobiotics. In despite of a huge acceleration in our understanding of plant P450 functions in the recent years, the vast majority of these functions remain completely unknown. PMID:22303202

  3. Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren; Beisson, Fred; Bishop, Gerard; Hamberger, Björn; Höfer, René; Paquette, Suzanne; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    There are 244 cytochrome P450 genes (and 28 pseudogenes) in the Arabidopsis genome. P450s thus form one of the largest gene families in plants. Contrary to what was initially thought, this family diversification results in very limited functional redundancy and seems to mirror the complexity of plant metabolism. P450s sometimes share less than 20% identity and catalyze extremely diverse reactions leading to the precursors of structural macromolecules such as lignin, cutin, suberin and sporopollenin, or are involved in biosynthesis or catabolism of all hormone and signaling molecules, of pigments, odorants, flavors, antioxidants, allelochemicals and defense compounds, and in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The mechanisms of gene duplication and diversification are getting better understood and together with co-expression data provide leads to functional characterization. PMID:22303269

  4. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-07-08

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, "nanodiscs", and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and -300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s(-1). POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products.

  5. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, “nanodiscs”, and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and −300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s−1. POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products. PMID:27386958

  6. Relevance of cytochrome P450s in plants: also one of Ron Estabrook's research interests.

    PubMed

    Shet, Manjunath S

    2007-01-01

    I worked with Dr. Ronald Estabrook for nearly 10 years at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, Texas. In Ron's lab, when I joined I was initially involved in the isolation, purification, and characterization of cytochrome P450s and NADPH-P450(c) reductase(s) from plants, which was his new exploratory project at the time. We developed methods for the isolation, solubilization, and purification of P450s and NADPH-P450(c) reductase from plant tissue microsomes. We carried out number of in vitro experiments to study the involvement P450s and NADPH-P450(c) reductase in the biosynthesis of number of phytoalexins. We successfully isolated, purified, and cloned NADPH-P450(c) reductase from etiolated mung bean (Vigna radiate) seedlings. In addition, a series of studies were undertaken to show that purified mung bean NADPH-P450(c) reductase was able to catalyze P450-supported reactions for mammalian and bacterial P450s. My stay in Ron's lab was very educational and productive. He provided the necessary support and led the way through the maze in different research projects in the lab, which allowed me to understand the roles of P450s in humans, animals, plants, and microorganisms. He liked to teach and discover new things everyday in the lab. He is a great scientist, as well as loving and caring mentor.

  7. A gene-fusion approach to enabling plant cytochromes p450 for biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Schückel, Julia; Rylott, Elizabeth L; Grogan, Gideon; Bruce, Neil C

    2012-12-21

    Cytochromes P450 from plants have the potential to be valuable catalysts for industrial hydroxylation reactions, but their application is hindered by poor solubility, the lack of suitable expression systems and the requirement of P450s for auxiliary redox-transport proteins for the delivery of reducing equivalents from NAD(P)H. In the interests of enabling useful P450 activity from plants, we have developed a suite of vectors for the expression of plant P450s as non-natural genetic fusions with reductase proteins. First, we have fused the P450 isoflavone synthase (IFS) from Glycine max with the bacterial P450 reductase domain (Rhf-RED) from Rhodococcus sp., by using our LICRED vector developed previously (F. Sabbadin, R. Hyde, A. Robin, E.-M. Hilgarth, M. Delenne, S. Flitsch, N. Turner, G. Grogan, N. C. Bruce, ChemBioChem 2010, 11, 987-994) creating the first active bacterial-plant fusion P450 enzyme. We have then created a complementary vector, ACRyLIC for the fusion of selected plant P450 enzymes to the P450 reductase ATR2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The applicability of this vector to the creation of active P450 fusion enzymes was demonstrated using both IFS1 and the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) from A. thaliana. Overall the fusion vector systems will allow the rapid creation of libraries of plant P450s with the aim of identifying enzyme activities with possible applications in industrial biocatalysis. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. An expression tag toolbox for microbial production of membrane bound plant cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Albacete, Dario; Cavaleiro, Ana Mafalda; Christensen, Ulla; Seppälä, Susanna; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2017-04-01

    Membrane-associated Cytochromes P450 (P450s) are one of the most important enzyme families for biosynthesis of plant-derived medicinal compounds. However, the hydrophobic nature of P450s makes their use in robust cell factories a challenge. Here, we explore a small library of N-terminal expression tag chimeras of the model plant P450 CYP79A1 in different Escherichia coli strains. Using a high-throughput screening platform based on C-terminal GFP fusions, we identify several highly expressing and robustly performing chimeric designs. Analysis of long-term cultures by flow cytometry showed homogeneous populations for some of the conditions. Three chimeric designs were chosen for a more complex combinatorial assembly of a multigene pathway consisting of two P450s and a redox partner. Cells expressing these recombinant enzymes catalyzed the conversion of the substrate to highly different ratios of the intermediate and the final product of the pathway. Finally, the effect of a robustly performing expression tag was explored with a library of 49 different P450s from medicinal plants and nearly half of these were improved in expression by more than twofold. The developed toolbox serves as a platform to tune P450 performance in microbial cells, thereby facilitating recombinant production of complex plant P450-derived biochemicals. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 751-760. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Plant cytochrome P450s: nomenclature and involvement in natural product biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Saiema; Mohamed, Rozi

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s constitute the largest family of enzymatic proteins in plants acting on various endogenous and xenobiotic molecules. They are monooxygenases that insert one oxygen atom into inert hydrophobic molecules to make them more reactive and hydro-soluble. Besides for physiological functions, the extremely versatile cytochrome P450 biocatalysts are highly demanded in the fields of biotechnology, medicine, and phytoremediation. The nature of reactions catalyzed by P450s is irreversible, which makes these enzymes attractions in the evolution of plant metabolic pathways. P450s are prime targets in metabolic engineering approaches for improving plant defense against insects and pathogens and for production of secondary metabolites such as the anti-neoplastic drugs taxol or indole alkaloids. The emerging examples of P450 involvement in natural product synthesis in traditional medicinal plant species are becoming increasingly interesting, as they provide new alternatives to modern medicines. In view of the divergent roles of P450s, we review their classification and nomenclature, functions and evolution, role in biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and use as tools in pharmacology.

  10. The cytochrome p450 homepage.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R

    2009-10-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described.

  11. Cytochrome P450s from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda): responses to plant allelochemicals and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, M; Hilliou, F; Fricaux, T; Audant, P; Feyereisen, R; Le Goff, G

    2015-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is a polyphagous lepidopteran pest that encounters a wide range of toxic plant metabolites in its diet. The ability of this insect to adapt to its chemical environment might be explained by the action of major detoxification enzymes such as cytochrome P450s (or CYP). Forty-two sequences coding for P450s were identified and most of the transcripts were found to be expressed in the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body of S. frugiperda larvae. Relatively few P450s were expressed in the established cell line Sf9. In order to gain information on how these genes respond to different chemical compounds, larvae and Sf9 cells were exposed to plant secondary metabolites (indole, indole-3-carbinol, quercetin, 2-tridecanone and xanthotoxin), insecticides (deltamethrin, fipronil, methoprene, methoxyfenozide) or model inducers (clofibrate and phenobarbital). Several genes were induced by plant chemicals such as P450s from the 6B, 321A and 9A subfamilies. Only a few genes responded to insecticides, belonging principally to the CYP9A family. There was little overlap between the response in vivo measured in the midgut and the response in vitro in Sf9 cells. In addition, regulatory elements were detected in the promoter region of these genes. In conclusion, several P450s were identified that could potentially be involved in the adaptation of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Spectral characterization and chiral interactions of plant microsomal cytochrome P450 with metolachlor and herbicide safeners.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    The content and spectral characteristics of cytochrome P450 (Cyt P450) and cytochrome b(5) (Cyt b(5)) extracted from shoots of etiolated maize and rice seedlings were studied by using ultraviolet (UV) difference spectrophotometry. The results showed that fenclorim, rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor may induce the same P450 isoenzyme with lambda(max) at 453 nm, while naphthalic anhydride (NA) induced another one with lambda(max) at 447 nm. The microsomal Cyt P450 and Cyt b(5) content of maize seedlings was higher than that of rice, and the Cyt b(5) content was higher than that of Cyt P450. Maize and rice microsomal Cyt P450 and Cyt b(5) were induced at different levels by the four chemicals, with the order as follows: NA > fenclorim > rac-metolachlor > S-metolachlor with p < 0.05. When induced by NA, fenclorim, rac-metolachlor and S-metolachlor, the maize Cyt P450 content was, respectively, 5.63-, 3.30-, 3.02- and 2.48-fold that of the control, the rice Cyt P450 content was 8.54-, 2.20-, 1.91- and 1.33-fold that of the control, the maize Cyt b(5) content was 9.89-, 5.49-, 4.69- and 3.40-fold that of the control, and the rice Cyt b(5) content was 7.76-, 4.56-, 2.60- and 1.82-fold that of the control. An enantio-difference existed when rac- and S-metolachlor combined with plant Cyt P450. The interaction of microsomal Cyt P450 with S-metolachlor is higher than that with rac-metolachlor, which may be one of the reasons why S-metolachlor is superior at killing weeds compared with rac-metolachlor. These results will help to develop an understanding of the tolerance for and selectivity of rac- and S-metolachlor.

  13. The Cytochrome P450 Homepage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described. PMID:19951895

  14. Plant activation of aromatic amines mediated by cytochromes P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Chiapella, C; Radovan, R D; Moreno, J A; Casares, L; Barbé, J; Llagostera, M

    2000-10-31

    To know the mechanisms involved in the activation of promutagenic aromatic amines mediated by plants, we used Persea americana S117 system (S117) for the activation of 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and m-phenylenediamine (m-PDA) in Ames assays. In these assays, the effect of the diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs), of the 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), an inhibitor of cytochromes P450 (cyt-P450s) and of the methimazole, a high-affinity substrate for FMOs, was studied. The efficacy of both inhibitors and of the methimazole was verified to find that they did partially inhibit the mutagenesis of both aromatic amines, activated with rat liver S9. Similarly, both inhibitors and methimazole did produce a significant decrease in 2-AF and m-PDA mutagenesis, when the activation system was S117, indicating that, similar to what occurs in mammalian systems, plant FMOs and cyt-P450s can metabolize aromatic amines to mutagenic product(s). However, the affinity of both FMOs and cyt-P450s of plant for 2-AF and m-PDA was different. Data obtained indicate that the activities of plant FMOs must be the main enzymatic system of m-PDA activation while, in 2-AF activation, plant cyt-P450s have the most relevant activities. In addition, peroxidases of the S117 system must contribute to 2-AF activation and some isoforms of FMOs and/or cyt-P450s of the S117 system, uninhibited by the inhibitors used, must be the responsible for a partial activation of m-PDA.

  15. Metazoan cytochrome P450 evolution.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D R

    1998-11-01

    There are 37 cytochrome P450 families currently identified in animals. The concept of higher order groupings of P450 families called P450 CLANS is introduced. The mammalian CYP3 and CYP5 families belong to the same clan as insect CYP6 and CYP9. All mitochondrial P450s seem to belong to the same clan. Lack of mitochondrial P450s in C. elegans suggests that mitochondrial P450s probably arose from the mistargeting of a microsomal P450 after the coelomates diverged from acoelomates and pseudocoelomates. Different taxonomic groups appear to have recruited different ancestral P450s for expansion as they evolved, since each major taxon seems to have one large cluster of P450s. In insects, this cluster derives from the ancestor to the CYP4 family. Vertebrates and C. elegans may have used the same ancestor independently to generate the CYP1, 2, 17, and 21 families in vertebrates and a large distinctive clan with 45 genes in C. elegans.

  16. Chemical regulation of abscisic acid catabolism in plants by cytochrome P450 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kitahata, Nobutaka; Saito, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Umezawa, Taishi; Shimada, Yukihisa; Min, Yong Ki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yoshida, Shigeo; Asami, Tadao

    2005-07-15

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is an important factor for conferring drought stress resistance on plants. Therefore, small molecules that regulate ABA levels in plants can be useful both for investigating functions of ABA and for developing new plant growth regulators. Abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism in plants is primarily regulated by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, which is a cytochrome P450 (P450). We tested known P450 inhibitors containing a triazole group and found that uniconazole-P inhibited ABA catabolism in cultured tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells. In a structure-activity study of uniconazole, we found a more effective ABA catabolic inhibitor (diniconazole) than uniconazole-P. Diniconazole, a fungicide, acted as a potent competitive inhibitor of recombinant Arabidopsis ABA 8'-hydroxylase, CYP707A3, in an in vitro assay. Diniconazole-treated plants retained a higher ABA content and higher transcription levels of ABA response genes during rehydration than did untreated plants and were more drought stress tolerant than untreated plants. These results strongly suggest that ABA catabolic inhibitors that target ABA 8'-hydroxylase can regulate the ABA content of plants and conferred drought stress resistance on plants. The optical resolution of diniconazole revealed that the S-form isomer, which is a weak fungicidal isomer, was more active as an ABA catabolic inhibitor than was the R-form isomer.

  17. Evolutionary origin of mitochondrial cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Omura, Tsuneo; Gotoh, Osamu

    2017-05-01

    Different molecular species of cytochrome P450 (P450) are distributed between endoplasmic reticulum (microsomes) and mitochondria in animal cells. Plants and fungi have many microsomal P450s, but no mitochondrial P450 has so far been reported. To elucidate the evolutionary origin of mitochondrial P450s in animal cells, available evidence is examined, and the virtual absence of mitochondrial P450 in plants and fungi is confirmed. It is also suggested that a microsomal P450 is the ancestor of animal mitochondrial P450s. It is likely that the endoplasmic reticulum-targeting sequence at the amino-terminus of a microsomal P450 was converted to a mitochondria-targeting sequence possibly by point mutations of a few amino acid residues or by an exon-shuffling/moving event shortly after animal lineage diverged from plants and fungi in the course of evolution of eukaryotes. It is suggested that the microsome-type P450 first imported into mitochondria utilized the existing ferredoxin in the matrix to receive electrons from NADPH, retained its oxygenase activity in the mitochondria, and gradually diversified to several P450s with different substrate specificities in the course of the evolution of animals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary interplay between sister cytochrome P450 genes shapes plasticity in plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenhua; Tavares, Raquel; Forsythe, Evan S.; André, François; Lugan, Raphaël; Jonasson, Gabriella; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Tohge, Takayuki; Beilstein, Mark A.; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of the cytochrome P450 gene family is often proposed to have a critical role in the evolution of metabolic complexity, in particular in microorganisms, insects and plants. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of this complexity are poorly understood. Here we describe the evolutionary history of a plant P450 retrogene, which emerged and underwent fixation in the common ancestor of Brassicales, before undergoing tandem duplication in the ancestor of Brassicaceae. Duplication leads first to gain of dual functions in one of the copies. Both sister genes are retained through subsequent speciation but eventually return to a single copy in two of three diverging lineages. In the lineage in which both copies are maintained, the ancestral functions are split between paralogs and a novel function arises in the copy under relaxed selection. Our work illustrates how retrotransposition and gene duplication can favour the emergence of novel metabolic functions. PMID:27713409

  19. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Matowane, Godfrey; Chen, Wanping; Sun, Yuxin; Letsimo, Elizabeth Mpholoseng; Parvez, Mohammad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence). Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea), Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis) and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala), revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea) to 14 (M. osmundae). Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  20. Genome-Wide Annotation and Comparative Analysis of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases in Basidiomycete Biotrophic Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuxin; Letsimo, Elizabeth Mpholoseng; Parvez, Mohammad; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are an exceptional source of diverse and novel cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), heme-thiolate proteins, with catalytic versatility. Agaricomycotina saprophytes have yielded most of the available information on basidiomycete P450s. This resulted in observing similar P450 family types in basidiomycetes with few differences in P450 families among Agaricomycotina saprophytes. The present study demonstrated the presence of unique P450 family patterns in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens that could possibly have originated from the adaptation of these species to different ecological niches (host influence). Systematic analysis of P450s in basidiomycete biotrophic plant pathogens belonging to three different orders, Agaricomycotina (Armillaria mellea), Pucciniomycotina (Melampsora laricis-populina, M. lini, Mixia osmundae and Puccinia graminis) and Ustilaginomycotina (Ustilago maydis, Sporisorium reilianum and Tilletiaria anomala), revealed the presence of numerous putative P450s ranging from 267 (A. mellea) to 14 (M. osmundae). Analysis of P450 families revealed the presence of 41 new P450 families and 27 new P450 subfamilies in these biotrophic plant pathogens. Order-level comparison of P450 families between biotrophic plant pathogens revealed the presence of unique P450 family patterns in these organisms, possibly reflecting the characteristics of their order. Further comparison of P450 families with basidiomycete non-pathogens confirmed that biotrophic plant pathogens harbour the unique P450 families in their genomes. The CYP63, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5137 and CYP5341 P450 families were expanded in A. mellea when compared to other Agaricomycotina saprophytes and the CYP5221 and CYP5233 P450 families in P. graminis and M. laricis-populina. The present study revealed that expansion of these P450 families is due to paralogous evolution of member P450s. The presence of unique P450 families in these organisms serves as evidence of how a host

  1. Cytochromes P450 in Nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodiscs have proven to be a versatile tool for the study all types of membrane proteins, including receptors, transporters, enzymes and viral antigens. The self-assembled Nanodisc system provides a robust and common means for rendering these targets soluble in aqueous media while providing a native like bilayer environment that maintains functional activity. This system has thus provided a means for studying the extensive collection of membrane bound cytochromes P450 with the same biochemical and biophysical tools that have been previously limited to use with the soluble P450s. These include a plethora of spectroscopic, kinetic and surface based methods. Significant improvements in homogeneity and stability of these preparations open new possibilities for detailed analysis of equilibrium and steady-state kinetic characteristics of catalytic mechanisms of human cytochromes P450 involved in xenobiotic metabolism and in steroid biosynthesis. The experimental methods developed for physico-chemical and functional studies of membrane cytochromes P450 incorporated in Nanodiscs allow for more detailed understanding of the scientific questions along the lines pioneered by Professor Klaus Ruckpaul and his array of colleagues and collaborators. PMID:20685623

  2. Cytochrome P450s and molecular epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.

    1993-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) represent a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that are found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms and in many microorganisms. A number of these enzymes are involved in biosynthetic pathways of steroid synthesis but in mammals the vast majority of P450s function to metabolize foreign chemicals or xenobiotics. In the classical phase I reactions on the latter, a membrane-bound P450 will hydroxylate a compound, usually hydrophobic in nature, and the hydroxyl group will serve as a substrate for the various transferases or phase II enzymes that attach hydrophilic substituents such as glutathione, sulfate or glucuronic acid. Some chemicals, however, are metabolically-activated by P450s to electrophiles capable of reacting with cellular macromolecules. The cellular concentrations of the chemical and P450, reactivity of the active metabolite with nucleic acid and the repairability of the resultant adducts, in addition to the nature of the cell type, likely determines whether a chemical will be toxic and kill the cell or will transform the cell. Immunocorrelative and cDNA-directed expression have been used to define the substrate specificities of numerous human P450s. Levels of expression of different human P450 forms have been measured by both in vivo and in vitro methodologies leading to the realization that a large degree of interindividual differences occur in P450 expression. Reliable procedures for measuring P450 expression in healthy and diseased subjects will lead to prospective and case- cohort studies to determine whether interindividual differences in levels of P450 are associated with susceptibility or resistance to environmentally-based disease.

  3. Canine cytochrome P-450 pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Court, Michael H

    2013-09-01

    The cytochrome P-450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cytochrome P450-activated prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    A prodrug is a compound that has negligible, or lower, activity against a specified pharmacological target than one of its major metabolites. Prodrugs can be used to improve drug delivery or pharmacokinetics, to decrease toxicity, or to target the drug to specific cells or tissues. Ester and phosphate hydrolysis are widely used in prodrug design because of their simplicity, but such approaches are relatively ineffective for targeting drugs to specific sites. The activation of prodrugs by the cytochrome P450 system provides a highly versatile approach to prodrug design that is particularly adaptable for targeting drug activation to the liver, to tumors or to hypoxic tissues. PMID:23360144

  5. Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Sharon Lafferty; Shang, Tanya Q.; Wilson, Angela M.; Tangen, Jeff; Westergreen, Aram D.; Newman, Lee A.; Strand, Stuart E.; Gordon, Milton P.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, especially trichloroethylene (TCE), are the most widespread groundwater contaminants in the United States. Existing methods of pumping and treating are expensive and laborious. Phytoremediation, the use of plants for remediation of soil and groundwater pollution, is less expensive and has low maintenance; however, it requires large land areas and there are a limited number of suitable plants that are known to combine adaptation to a particular environment with efficient metabolism of the contaminant. In this work, we have engineered plants with a profound increase in metabolism of the most common contaminant, TCE, by introducing the mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1. This enzyme oxidizes a wide range of important pollutants, including TCE, ethylene dibromide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and vinyl chloride. The transgenic plants had a dramatic enhancement in metabolism of TCE of up to 640-fold as compared with null vector control plants. The transgenic plants also showed an increased uptake and debromination of ethylene dibromide. Therefore, transgenic plants with this enzyme could be used for more efficient remediation of many sites contaminated with halogenated hydrocarbons. PMID:10841534

  6. Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Doty, S L; Shang, T Q; Wilson, A M; Tangen, J; Westergreen, A D; Newman, L A; Strand, S E; Gordon, M P

    2000-06-06

    Chlorinated solvents, especially trichloroethylene (TCE), are the most widespread groundwater contaminants in the United States. Existing methods of pumping and treating are expensive and laborious. Phytoremediation, the use of plants for remediation of soil and groundwater pollution, is less expensive and has low maintenance; however, it requires large land areas and there are a limited number of suitable plants that are known to combine adaptation to a particular environment with efficient metabolism of the contaminant. In this work, we have engineered plants with a profound increase in metabolism of the most common contaminant, TCE, by introducing the mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1. This enzyme oxidizes a wide range of important pollutants, including TCE, ethylene dibromide, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and vinyl chloride. The transgenic plants had a dramatic enhancement in metabolism of TCE of up to 640-fold as compared with null vector control plants. The transgenic plants also showed an increased uptake and debromination of ethylene dibromide. Therefore, transgenic plants with this enzyme could be used for more efficient remediation of many sites contaminated with halogenated hydrocarbons.

  7. Dwarfism and cytochrome P450-mediated C-6 oxidation of plant steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Bishop, G; Nomura, T; Yokota, T; Montoya, T; Castle, J; Harrison, K; Kushiro, T; Kamiya, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Bancos, S; Szatmári, A-M; Szekeres, M

    2006-12-01

    BRs (brassinosteroids) are plant steroid hormones that are essential for normal plant development. The dramatic dwarfism exhibited by mutants in the CYP (cytochrome P450) enzymes involved in BR biosynthesis indicates a role for these hormones in plant growth and development. Since the mid-1990s, collaborative research has been geared towards developing a better understanding of the CYP85 class of CYPs involved in BR biosynthesis in both Arabidopsis and tomato. Some of the most recent observations include the fact that certain CYP85 CYPs catalyse the synthesis of the most bioactive BR, BL (brassinolide). Current evidence suggests that evolution of this function may have occurred independently in different dicotyledonous species. Interestingly, BL accumulates in tomato fruits, highlighting a key role for this hormone in fruit development. At the same time as developing a better understanding of the enzymatic function of these CYPs, we have also carried out experiments towards characterizing where and when these genes are expressed and mechanisms of their regulation. As expected for a hormone involved in growth and development, biosynthetic gene promoter activity is associated with young rapidly growing cells and with fruit development.

  8. A novel cytochrome P450 CYP6AB14 gene in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential role in plant allelochemical detoxification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) play a prominent role in the adaptation of insects to host plant chemical defenses. To investigate the potential role of P450s in adaptation of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to host plant allelochemicals, an expressed sequence data set derived from 6th...

  9. A novel cytochrome P450 CYP6AB14 gene in spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential role in plant allelochemical detoxification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) play a prominent role in the adaptation of insects to host plant chemical defenses. To investigate the potential role of P450s in adaptation of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to host plant allelochemicals, an expressed sequence data set derived from 6th...

  10. A Conserved Cytochrome P450 Evolved in Seed Plants Regulates Flower Maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhua; Boachon, Benoît; Lugan, Raphaël; Tavares, Raquel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Demais, Valérie; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Brunaud, Véronique; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Pencik, Ales; Achard, Patrick; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2015-12-07

    Global inspection of plant genomes identifies genes maintained in low copies across taxa and under strong purifying selection, which are likely to have essential functions. Based on this rationale, we investigated the function of the low-duplicated CYP715 cytochrome P450 gene family that appeared early in seed plants and evolved under strong negative selection. Arabidopsis CYP715A1 showed a restricted tissue-specific expression in the tapetum of flower buds and in the anther filaments upon anthesis. cyp715a1 insertion lines showed a strong defect in petal development, and transient alteration of pollen intine deposition. Comparative expression analysis revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in pollen development, cell wall biogenesis, hormone homeostasis, and floral sesquiterpene biosynthesis, especially TPS21 and several key genes regulating floral development such as MYB21, MYB24, and MYC2. Accordingly, floral sesquiterpene emission was suppressed in the cyp715a1 mutants. Flower hormone profiling, in addition, indicated a modification of gibberellin homeostasis and a strong disturbance of the turnover of jasmonic acid derivatives. Petal growth was partially restored by the active gibberellin GA3 or the functional analog of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, coronatine. CYP715 appears to function as a key regulator of flower maturation, synchronizing petal expansion and volatile emission. It is thus expected to be an important determinant of flower-insect interaction. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Insect cytochromes P450: diversity, insecticide resistance and tolerance to plant toxins.

    PubMed

    Scott, J G; Liu, N; Wen, Z

    1998-11-01

    In the last decade, studies of individual insect P450s have blossomed. This new information has furthered our understanding of P450 diversity, insecticide resistance and tolerance to plant toxins. Insect P450s can be adult specific, larval specific or life stage independent. Similarly, insect P450s vary as to the tissues where they are expressed and in their response to inducers. Insect P450s can now be rapidly sequenced using degenerate PCR primers. Given the huge diversity represented by the Class Insecta, this technique will provide vast amounts of new information about insect P450s and the evolution of the P450 gene superfamily. CYP6D1 is responsible for monooxygenase-mediated resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the house fly. CYP6D1 is ubiquitously expressed in adults with 10-fold higher levels found in the resistant strain compared to susceptible strains. CYP6D1 is on autosome 1 in house fly. The high level of expression found in the resistant strain is due to genes on autosomes 1 and 2. Whether or not the different CYP6D1 alleles found in resistant and susceptible strains have any role in resistance remains to be elucidated. The CYP6B gene subfamily is involved in the metabolism of host plant toxins (i.e. furanocoumarins). CYP6B gene transcripts in two Papilio (swallowtail) species have been shown to be induced by host plant toxins and in turn to metabolize these toxins. CYP6B P450s play a critical role in allowing Papilio to adapt to furanocoumarin-containing host plants. Similarities in structural and promoter regions of the CYP6B genes suggest that they are derived from a common ancestral gene. Although the P450 monooxygenases of insects are important for the metabolism of hormones and phermones, no individual P450 has yet been shown to metabolize an endogenous compound. Advances in this area are critical because they will provide important new information about insect physiology, biochemistry and development.

  12. Development of a plant viral-vector-based gene expression assay for the screening of yeast cytochrome p450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kathleen; Nguyen, Long V; Khan, Faizah; Pogue, Gregory P; Vojdani, Fakhrieh; Panda, Sanjay; Pinot, Franck; Oriedo, Vincent B; Rasochova, Lada; Subramanian, Mani; Miller, Barbara; White, Earl L

    2003-02-01

    Development of a gene discovery tool for heterologously expressed cytochrome P450 monooxygenases has been inherently difficult. The activity assays are labor-intensive and not amenable to parallel screening. Additionally, biochemical confirmation requires coexpression of a homologous P450 reductase or complementary heterologous activity. Plant virus gene expression systems have been utilized for a diverse group of organisms. In this study we describe a method using an RNA vector expression system to phenotypically screen for cytochrome P450-dependent fatty acid omega-hydroxylase activity. Yarrowia lipolytica CYP52 gene family members involved in n-alkane assimilation were amplified from genomic DNA, cloned into a plant virus gene expression vector, and used as a model system for determining heterologous expression. Plants infected with virus vectors expressing the yeast CYP52 genes (YlALK1-YlALK7) showed a distinct necrotic lesion phenotype on inoculated plant leaves. No phenotype was detected on negative control constructs. YlALK3-, YlALK5-, and YlALK7-inoculated plants all catalyzed the terminal hydroxylation of lauric acid as confirmed using thin-layer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods. The plant-based cytochrome P450 phenotypic screen was tested on an n-alkane-induced Yarrowia lipolytica plant virus expression library. A subset of 1,025 random library clones, including YlALK1-YlALK7 constructs, were tested on plants. All YlALK gene constructs scored positive in the randomized screen. Following nucleotide sequencing of the clones that scored positive using a phenotypic screen, approximately 5% were deemed appropriate for further biochemical analysis. This report illustrates the utility of a plant-based system for expression of heterologous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and for the assignment of gene function.

  13. Reactive intermediates in cytochrome p450 catalysis.

    PubMed

    Krest, Courtney M; Onderko, Elizabeth L; Yosca, Timothy H; Calixto, Julio C; Karp, Richard F; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T

    2013-06-14

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis.

  14. Reactive Intermediates in Cytochrome P450 Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Calixto, Julio C.; Karp, Richard F.; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis. PMID:23632017

  15. Two cytochrome P-450 isoforms catalysing O-de-ethylation of ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, D; Gabriac, B; Teutsch, H; Durst, F

    1990-01-01

    The O-dealkylating activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-de-ethylase (ECOD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase (EROD) have been fluorimetrically detected in microsomes prepared from manganese-induced Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Cytochrome P-450 dependence of the reactions was demonstrated by light-reversed CO inhibition, NADPH-dependence, NADH-NADPH synergism and by use of specific inhibitors: antibodies to NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, mechanism-based inactivators and tetcyclasis. Apparent Km values of 161 microM for 7-ethoxycoumarin and 0.4 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin were determined. O-De-ethylase activity was also detected in microsomes prepared from several other plant species, including wheat, maize, tulip, avocado and Vicia. ECOD and EROD were low or undetectable in uninduced plant tissues, and both activities were stimulated by wounding or by chemical inducers. Two distinct cytochrome P-450 isoforms are involved in ECOD and EROD activities since (1) they showed different distributions among plant species; (2) they showed contrasting inhibition and induction patterns; and (3) ECOD but not EROD activity was supported by cumene hydroperoxide. PMID:2241905

  16. Unusual Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F. Peter; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes primarily catalyze mixed-function oxidation reactions, plus some reductions and rearrangements of oxygenated species, e.g. prostaglandins. Most of these reactions can be rationalized in a paradigm involving Compound I, a high-valent iron-oxygen complex (FeO3+), to explain seemingly unusual reactions, including ring couplings, ring expansion and contraction, and fusion of substrates. Most P450s interact with flavoenzymes or iron-sulfur proteins to receive electrons from NAD(P)H. In some cases, P450s are fused to protein partners. Other P450s catalyze non-redox isomerization reactions. A number of permutations on the P450 theme reveal the diversity of cytochrome P450 form and function. PMID:23632016

  17. A world of cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R

    2013-02-19

    The world we live in is a biosphere influenced by all organisms who inhabit it. It is also an ecology of genes, with some having rather startling effects. The premise put forth in this issue is cytochrome P450 is a significant player in the world around us. Life and the Earth itself would be visibly different and diminished without cytochrome P450s. The contributions to this issue range from evolution on the billion year scale to the colour of roses, from Darwin to Rachel Carson; all as seen through the lens of cytochrome P450.

  18. Biochemical analysis of a multifunctional cytochrome P450 (CYP51) enzyme required for synthesis of antimicrobial triterpenes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Katrin; Hughes, Richard K.; Sainsbury, Frank; Lomonossoff, George P.; Rejzek, Martin; Fairhurst, Shirley; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Melton, Rachel E.; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Bak, Søren; Osbourn, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Members of the cytochromes P450 superfamily (P450s) catalyze a huge variety of oxidation reactions in microbes and higher organisms. Most P450 families are highly divergent, but in contrast the cytochrome P450 14α-sterol demethylase (CYP51) family is one of the most ancient and conserved, catalyzing sterol 14α-demethylase reactions required for essential sterol synthesis across the fungal, animal, and plant kingdoms. Oats (Avena spp.) produce antimicrobial compounds, avenacins, that provide protection against disease. Avenacins are synthesized from the simple triterpene, β-amyrin. Previously we identified a gene encoding a member of the CYP51 family of cytochromes P450, AsCyp51H10 (also known as Saponin-deficient 2, Sad2), that is required for avenacin synthesis in a forward screen for avenacin-deficient oat mutants. sad2 mutants accumulate β-amyrin, suggesting that they are blocked early in the pathway. Here, using a transient plant expression system, we show that AsCYP51H10 is a multifunctional P450 capable of modifying both the C and D rings of the pentacyclic triterpene scaffold to give 12,13β-epoxy-3β,16β-dihydroxy-oleanane (12,13β-epoxy-16β-hydroxy-β-amyrin). Molecular modeling and docking experiments indicate that C16 hydroxylation is likely to precede C12,13 epoxidation. Our computational modeling, in combination with analysis of a suite of sad2 mutants, provides insights into the unusual catalytic behavior of AsCYP51H10 and its active site mutants. Fungal bioassays show that the C12,13 epoxy group is an important determinant of antifungal activity. Accordingly, the oat AsCYP51H10 enzyme has been recruited from primary metabolism and has acquired a different function compared to other characterized members of the plant CYP51 family—as a multifunctional stereo- and regio-specific hydroxylase in plant specialized metabolism. PMID:23940321

  19. Rearrangement Reactions Catalyzed by Cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.; Nelson, Sidney D.

    2010-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s promote a variety of rearrangement reactions both as a consequence of the nature of the radical and other intermediates generated during catalysis, and of the neighboring structures in the substrate that can interact either with the initial radical intermediates or with further downstream products of the reactions. This article will review several kinds of previously published cytochrome P450-catalyzed rearrangement reactions, including changes in stereochemistry, radical clock reactions, allylic rearrangements, “NIH” and related shifts, ring contractions and expansions, and cyclizations that result from neighboring group interactions. Although most of these reactions can be carried out by many members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, some have only been observed with select P450s, including some reactions that are catalyzed by specific endoperoxidases and cytochrome P450s found in plants. PMID:20971058

  20. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  1. Immobilized Cytochrome P450 for Monitoring of P450-P450 Interactions and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Chris D; Hickey, Katherine M; Wollenberg, Lance A; Flora, Darcy R; Tracy, Timothy S; Gannett, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) protein-protein interactions have been shown to alter their catalytic activity. Furthermore, these interactions are isoform specific and can elicit activation, inhibition, or no effect on enzymatic activity. Studies show that these effects are also dependent on the protein partner cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and the order of protein addition to purified reconstituted enzyme systems. In this study, we use controlled immobilization of P450s to a gold surface to gain a better understanding of P450-P450 interactions between three key drug-metabolizing isoforms (CYP2C9, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6). Molecular modeling was used to assess the favorability of homomeric/heteromeric P450 complex formation. P450 complex formation in vitro was analyzed in real time utilizing surface plasmon resonance. Finally, the effects of P450 complex formation were investigated utilizing our immobilized platform and reconstituted enzyme systems. Molecular modeling shows favorable binding of CYP2C9-CPR, CYP2C9-CYP2D6, CYP2C9-CYP2C9, and CYP2C9-CYP3A4, in rank order.KDvalues obtained via surface plasmon resonance show strong binding, in the nanomolar range, for the above pairs, with CYP2C9-CYP2D6 yielding the lowestKD, followed by CYP2C9-CYP2C9, CYP2C9-CPR, and CYP2C9-CYP3A4. Metabolic incubations show that immobilized CYP2C9 metabolism was activated by homomeric complex formation. CYP2C9 metabolism was not affected by the presence of CYP3A4 with saturating CPR concentrations. CYP2C9 metabolism was activated by CYP2D6 at saturating CPR concentrations in solution but was inhibited when CYP2C9 was immobilized. The order of addition of proteins (CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CPR) influenced the magnitude of inhibition for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. These results indicate isoform-specific P450 interactions and effects on P450-mediated metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis, Classification, Evolution, and Expression Analysis of the Cytochrome P450 93 Family in Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hai; Ran, Feng; Dong, Hong-Li; Wen, Jing; Li, Jia-Na; Liang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 93 family (CYP93) belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily plays important roles in diverse plant processes. However, no previous studies have investigated the evolution and expression of the members of this family. In this study, we performed comprehensive genome-wide analysis to identify CYP93 genes in 60 green plants. In all, 214 CYP93 proteins were identified; they were specifically found in flowering plants and could be classified into ten subfamilies—CYP93A–K, with the last two being identified first. CYP93A is the ancestor that was derived in flowering plants, and the remaining showed lineage-specific distribution—CYP93B and CYP93C are present in dicots; CYP93F is distributed only in Poaceae; CYP93G and CYP93J are monocot-specific; CYP93E is unique to legumes; CYP93H and CYP93K are only found in Aquilegia coerulea, and CYP93D is Brassicaceae-specific. Each subfamily generally has conserved gene numbers, structures, and characteristics, indicating functional conservation during evolution. Synonymous nucleotide substitution (dN/dS) analysis showed that CYP93 genes are under strong negative selection. Comparative expression analyses of CYP93 genes in dicots and monocots revealed that they are preferentially expressed in the roots and tend to be induced by biotic and/or abiotic stresses, in accordance with their well-known functions in plant secondary biosynthesis. PMID:27760179

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis, Classification, Evolution, and Expression Analysis of the Cytochrome P450 93 Family in Land Plants.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Ran, Feng; Dong, Hong-Li; Wen, Jing; Li, Jia-Na; Liang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 93 family (CYP93) belonging to the cytochrome P450 superfamily plays important roles in diverse plant processes. However, no previous studies have investigated the evolution and expression of the members of this family. In this study, we performed comprehensive genome-wide analysis to identify CYP93 genes in 60 green plants. In all, 214 CYP93 proteins were identified; they were specifically found in flowering plants and could be classified into ten subfamilies-CYP93A-K, with the last two being identified first. CYP93A is the ancestor that was derived in flowering plants, and the remaining showed lineage-specific distribution-CYP93B and CYP93C are present in dicots; CYP93F is distributed only in Poaceae; CYP93G and CYP93J are monocot-specific; CYP93E is unique to legumes; CYP93H and CYP93K are only found in Aquilegia coerulea, and CYP93D is Brassicaceae-specific. Each subfamily generally has conserved gene numbers, structures, and characteristics, indicating functional conservation during evolution. Synonymous nucleotide substitution (dN/dS) analysis showed that CYP93 genes are under strong negative selection. Comparative expression analyses of CYP93 genes in dicots and monocots revealed that they are preferentially expressed in the roots and tend to be induced by biotic and/or abiotic stresses, in accordance with their well-known functions in plant secondary biosynthesis.

  4. Cytochrome P-450 from the Mesocarp of Avocado (Persea americana)

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, Daniel P.; Leto, Kenneth J.

    1989-01-01

    The microsomal fraction from the mesocarp of avocado (Persea americana) is one of few identified rich sources of plant cytochrome P-450. Cytochrome P-450 from this tissue has been solubilized and purified. Enzymatic assays (p-chloro-N-methylaniline demethylase) and spectroscopic observations of substrate binding suggest a low spin form of the cytochrome, resembling that in the microsomal membrane, can be recovered. However, this preparation of native protein is a mixture of nearly equal proportions of two cytochrome P-450 polypeptides that have been resolved only under denaturing conditions. Overall similarities between these polypeptides include indistinguishable amino acid compositions, similar trypsin digest patterns, and cross reactivity with the same antibody. The amino terminal sequences of both polypeptides are identical, with the exception that one of them lacks a methionine residue at the amino terminus. This sequence exhibits some similarities with the membrane targeting signal found at the amino terminus of most mammalian cytochromes P-450. Images Figure 3 PMID:16666677

  5. A collection of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes involved in modification and detoxification of herbicide atrazine in rice (Oryza sativa) plants.

    PubMed

    Rong Tan, Li; Chen Lu, Yi; Jing Zhang, Jing; Luo, Fang; Yang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases constitute one of the largest families of protein genes involved in plant growth, development and acclimation to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, whether these genes respond to organic toxic compounds and their biological functions for detoxifying toxic compounds such as herbicides in rice are poorly understood. The present study identified 201 genes encoding cytochrome P450s from an atrazine-exposed rice transcriptome through high-throughput sequencing. Of these, 69 cytochrome P450 genes were validated by microarray and some of them were confirmed by real time PCR. Activities of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) and p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (PNOD) related to toxicity were determined and significantly induced by atrazine exposure. To dissect the mechanism underlying atrazine modification and detoxification by P450, metabolites (or derivatives) of atrazine in plants were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). Major metabolites comprised desmethylatrazine (DMA), desethylatrazine (DEA), desisopropylatrazine (DIA), hydroxyatrazine (HA), hydroxyethylatrazine (HEA) and hydroxyisopropylatrazine (HIA). All of them were chemically modified by P450s. Furthermore, two specific inhibitors of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and malathion (MAL) were used to assess the correlation between the P450s activity and rice responses including accumulation of atrazine in tissues, shoot and root growth and detoxification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative modelling of cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Kirton, Stewart B; Baxter, Carol A; Sutcliffe, Michael J

    2002-03-31

    The superfamily of enzymes known as the cytochromes P450 (P450s) comprises a wide-ranging class of proteins with diverse functions. They are known, amongst other things, to be involved in the hormonal regulation of metabolism and reproduction, as well as having a major clinical significance through their association with diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hepatitis. Knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein gives insight into its function. The 3D structures of P450s are therefore of considerable scientific interest. A number of high-resolution structures of P450s have been determined by X-ray crystallography and studies of these structures have provided valuable insights into the mechanism of these enzymes. Only one of these structures is mammalian and as yet there is no structural information on human P450s in the public domain. Until such a structure is solved it is necessary to employ alternative methods to gain structural insight into how human P450s perform their biological function. Here we report on the use of comparative modelling to predict the structure of human P450s based on knowledge of their amino acid sequences plus the 3D structures of other (not human) P450s. As an illustrative example of these techniques we have modelled the structure of P450 2C5 using five bacterial P450 structures as templates. We examine the importance of selecting suitable templates, obtaining a good amino acid sequence alignment, and evaluating the models generated. To improve the quality of the models an iterative cycle of sequence alignment, model building, and model evaluation is employed. The result is a model with excellent stereochemistry, good amino acid side chain environment properties, and a Calpha trace similar to the crystal structure.

  7. Whole genome co-expression analysis of soybean cytochrome P450 genes identifies nodulation-specific P450 monooxygenases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) catalyze oxidation of various substrates using oxygen and NAD(P)H. Plant P450s are involved in the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites performing diverse biological functions. The recent availability of soybean genome sequence allows us to ident...

  8. Nerval influences on liver cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Klinger, W; Karge, E; Danz, M; Krug, M

    1995-09-01

    In male young adult Wistar rats the influences of nucleus raphe electrocoagulation, spinal cord dissection (cordotomy between C7 and Th1), vagotomy and denervation of liver hilus by phenol on liver cytochrome P450-system (cytochrome P450 concentration, ethylmorphine N-demethylation and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation activities, hexobarbitone sleeping time) were investigated. In general the influences were small or negligible when compared with sham operated controls, only after vagotomy the depressing effect of sham operation was abolished. In all cases sham operation had a depressing effect until up to five weeks after operation.

  9. Interactions of Avocado (Persea americana) Cytochrome P-450 with Monoterpenoids

    PubMed Central

    Hallahan, David L.; Nugent, Jonathan H. A.; Hallahan, Beverly J.; Dawson, Glenn W.; Smiley, Diane W.; West, Jevon M.; Wallsgrove, Roger M.

    1992-01-01

    The microsomal fraction of avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp is a rich source of cytochrome P-450 active in the demethylation of xenobiotics. Cytochrome P-450 from this tissue has been purified and well characterized at the molecular level (DP O'Keefe, KJ Leto [1989] Plant Physiol 89: 1141-1149; KR Bozak, H Yu, R Sirevag, RE Christoffersen [1990] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 3904-3908). Despite this extensive characterization, the role of the enzyme in vivo was not established. Optical and electron paramagnetic resonance binding studies described here suggest that the monoterpenoids, nerol and geraniol, are substrates of avocado cytochrome P-450 (spectral dissociation constant of 7.2 and 35 micromolar, respectively). Avocado microsomes have been shown to catalyze the hydroxylation of these monoterpenoids, and both nerol and geraniol have been shown to inhibit the activity of avocado cytochrome P-450 toward the artificial substrate 7-ethoxycoumarin, with nerol a competitive inhibitor of this activity. PMID:16668790

  10. Characterization of orphan human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Stark, Katarina; Guengerich, F Peter

    2007-01-01

    Of the 57 human cytochromes P450 (P450) and 58 pseudogenes discovered to date, (http://drnelson.utmem.edu/CytochromeP450.html ), 1/4 still remain "orphans" in the sense that their function, expression sites, and regulation are still largely not elucidated. The post-human genome-sequencing project era has presented the research community with novel challenges. Despite many insights gathered about gene location and genetic variations in our human genome, we still lack important knowledge about these novel P450 enzymes and their functions in endogenous and exogenous metabolism, as well as their possible roles in the metabolism of toxicants and carcinogens. Our own list of such orphans currently consists of 13 members: P450 2A7, 2S1, 2U1, 2W1, 3A43, 4A22, 4F11, 4F22, 4V2, 4X1, 4Z1, 20A1, and 27C1. Some of the orphans, e.g. P450s 2W1 and 2U1, already have putative assigned functions in arachidonic acid metabolism and may activate carcinogens. However, at this point, for the majority of them more knowledge is available about their genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms than of their biological functions. It is noteworthy that most P450 orphans express high interspecies sequence conservation and have orthologs in rodents (e.g. CYP4X1/Cyp4x1, CYP4V2/Cyp4v3). This review summarizes recent knowledge about the P450 orphans and questions remaining about their specific roles in human metabolism.

  11. Flower colour and cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  12. [Cytochrome P450 enzymes and microbial drug development - A review].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shengying

    2016-03-04

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes broadly exist in animals, plants and microorganisms. This superfamily of monooxygenases holds the greatest diversity of substrate structures and catalytic reaction types among all enzymes. P450 enzymes play important roles in natural product biosynthesis. In particular, P450 enzymes are capable of catalyzing the regio- and stereospecific oxidation of non-activated C-H bonds in complex organic compounds under mild conditions, which overrides many chemical catalysts. This advantage thus warrants their great potential in microbial drug development. In this review, we introduce a variety of P450 enzymes involved in natural product biosynthesis; provide a brief overview on protein engineering, biotransformation and practical application of P450 enzymes; and discuss the limits, challenges and prospects of industrial application of P450 enzymes.

  13. Molecular cloning of a family of xenobiotic-inducible drosophilid cytochrome P450s: Evidence for involvement in host-plant allelochemical resistance

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Phillip B.; MacIntyre, Ross J.; Fogleman, James C.

    1997-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s constitute a superfamily of genes encoding mostly microsomal hemoproteins that play a dominant role in the metabolism of a wide variety of both endogenous and foreign compounds. In insects, xenobiotic metabolism (i.e., metabolism of insecticides and toxic natural plant compounds) is known to involve members of the CYP6 family of cytochrome P450s. Use of a 3′ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) strategy with a degenerate primer based on the conserved cytochrome P450 heme-binding decapeptide loop resulted in the amplification of four cDNA sequences representing another family of cytochrome P450 genes (CYP28) from two species of isoquinoline alkaloid-resistant Drosophila and the cosmopolitan species Drosophila hydei. The CYP28 family forms a monophyletic clade with strong regional homologies to the vertebrate CYP3 family and the insect CYP6 family (both of which are involved in xenobiotic metabolism) and to the insect CYP9 family (of unknown function). Induction of mRNA levels for three of the CYP28 cytochrome P450s by toxic host-plant allelochemicals (up to 11.5-fold) and phenobarbital (up to 49-fold) corroborates previous in vitro metabolism studies and suggests a potentially important role for the CYP28 family in determining patterns of insect–host-plant relationships through xenobiotic detoxification. PMID:9380713

  14. Molecular evolutionary dynamics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases across kingdoms: Special focus on mycobacterial P450s

    PubMed Central

    Parvez, Mohammad; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Bamal, Hans Denis; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Xie, Ting; Yang, Haoran; Chen, Hengye; Theron, Chrispian William; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Salewe, Vuyani; Mongale, Bogadi Lorato; Matowane, Retshedisitswe Godfrey; Abdalla, Sara Mohamed Hasaan; Booi, Wool Isaac; van Wyk, Mari; Olivier, Dedré; Boucher, Charlotte E.; Nelson, David R.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Blackburn, Jonathan Michael; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Mashele, Samson Sitheni; Chen, Wanping; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2016-01-01

    Since the initial identification of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs/P450s), great progress has been made in understanding their structure-function relationship, diversity and application in producing compounds beneficial to humans. However, the molecular evolution of P450s in terms of their dynamics both at protein and DNA levels and functional conservation across kingdoms still needs investigation. In this study, we analyzed 17 598 P450s belonging to 113 P450 families (bacteria −42; fungi −19; plant −28; animal −22; plant and animal −1 and common P450 family −1) and found highly conserved and rapidly evolving P450 families. Results suggested that bacterial P450s, particularly P450s belonging to mycobacteria, are highly conserved both at protein and DNA levels. Mycobacteria possess the highest P450 diversity percentage compared to other microbes and have a high coverage of P450s (≥1%) in their genomes, as found in fungi and plants. Phylogenetic and functional analyses revealed the functional conservation of P450s despite belonging to different biological kingdoms, suggesting the adherence of P450s to their innate function such as their involvement in either generation or oxidation of steroids and structurally related molecules, fatty acids and terpenoids. This study’s results offer new understanding of the dynamic structural nature of P450s. PMID:27616185

  15. Cytochrome P450s and cytochrome P450 reductase in the olfactory organ of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Pottier, M-A; Bozzolan, F; Chertemps, T; Jacquin-Joly, E; Lalouette, L; Siaussat, D; Maïbèche-Coisne, M

    2012-12-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are involved in many physiological functions in insects, such as the metabolism of signal molecules, adaptation to host plants and insecticide resistance. Several P450s have been reported in the olfactory organs of insects, the antennae, and have been proposed to play a role in odorant processing and/or xenobiotic metabolism. Despite recent transcriptomic analyses in several species, the diversity of antennal P450s in insects has not yet been investigated. Here, we report the identification of 37 putative P450s expressed in the antennae of the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis, as well as the characterization of a redox partner, cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. littoralis P450s belong to four clades defined by their conservation with vertebrate P450s and their cellular localization. Interestingly, the CYP3 and CYP4 clans, which have been described to be mainly involved in the metabolism of plant compounds and xenobiotics, were largely predominant. More surprisingly, two P450s related to ecdysteroid metabolism were also identified. Expression patterns in adult and larval tissues were studied. Eight P450s appeared to be specific to the chemosensory organs, ie the antennae and proboscis, suggesting a specific role in odorant and tastant processing. Moreover, exposure of males to a plant odorant down-regulated the transcript level of CPR, revealing for the first time the regulation of this gene by odorants within insect antennae. This work suggests that the antennae of insects are a key site for P450-mediated metabolism of a large range of exogenous and endogenous molecules. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Special issue: Cytochrome P450 structure and function: introduction.

    PubMed

    Munro, Andrew W; Leys, David

    2012-05-01

    The 17th International Conference on Cytochrome P450 Biochemistry, Biophysics and Structure was held in Manchester, UK from 26-30 June 2011. This issue of FEBS J. contains review and primary research articles reflecting the breadth of science covered at this conference, and reflecting the impact of P450-related research in fields as diverse as steroid metabolism, plant biochemistry, structural biology and biotechnology.

  17. Detection of human lung cytochromes P450 that are immunochemically related to cytochrome P450IIE1 and cytochrome P450IIIA.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Wrighton, S A; Guenthner, T M

    1992-07-07

    We have used monoclonal antibodies that were prepared against and specifically recognize human hepatic cytochromes P450 as probes for solid phase radioimmunoassay and Western immunoblotting to directly demonstrate the presence in human lung microsomes of cytochromes P450 immunochemically related to human liver cytochromes P450IIE1 (CYP2E1) and P450IIIA (CYP3A). The detected levels of these cytochromes are much lower than levels in human liver microsomes, but similar to the levels seen in microsomes from untreated baboon lung. Proteins immunochemically related to two other constitutive hepatic cytochromes P450, cytochrome P450IIC8 (CYP2C8) and cytochrome P450IIC9 (CYP2C9), were not detectable in lung microsomes.

  18. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Franklin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples. PMID:27642356

  19. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher D; Rai, Prem P; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Piskaut, Pius; Franklin, Michael R; Barrows, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  20. [Characteristics of steroid metabolism in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants bearing the CYP11A1 cDNA of cytochrome P450(SCC) from the bovine adrenal cortex].

    PubMed

    Spivak, S G; Berdichevets, I N; Litvinovskaia, R P; Drach, S V; Kartel', N A; Shpakovskiĭ, G V

    2010-01-01

    In the mitochondria of animal steroidogenic tissues, cytochrome P450(SCC), encoded by the CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone - the general precursor of all steroid hormones. In this work, we study the steroid metabolism in transgenic tobacco plants carrying the CYP11A1 cDNA cytochrome P450(SCC)from the bovine adrenal cortex. The transgenic plants under investigation markedly surpass the control wild-type plants by size and are characterized by a shortened period of vegetative growth (by rapid flowering); their leaves contain pregnenolone - the product of a reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450(SCC). The level of progesterone in transgenic tobacco leaves is higher than in the control plants of the wild type. The seeds of the transgenic plants contain less (24R)-brassinosteroids than the wild-type tobacco plants. The results obtained indicate that the synthesis of an active P450(SCC) cytochrome in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants has a profound effect on steroid metabolism and is responsible for the specific phenotypic features of transgenic plants bearing CYP11A1 cDNA.

  1. Herbicide-resistant tobacco plants expressing the fused enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, N; Nagasawa, A; Sakaki, T; Yabusaki, Y; Ohkawa, H

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) plants expressing a genetically engineered fused enzyme between rat cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and yeast NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase were produced. The expression plasmid pGFC2 for the fused enzyme was constructed by insertion of the corresponding cDNA into the expression vector pNG01 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and nopaline synthase gene terminator. The fused enzyme cDNA was integrated into tobacco genomes by Agrobacterium infection techniques. In transgenic tobacco plants, the fused enzyme protein was localized primarily in the microsomal fraction. The microsomal monooxygenase activities were approximately 10 times higher toward both 7-ethoxycoumarin and benzo[a]pyrene than in the control plant. The transgenic plants also showed resistance to the herbicide chlortoluron. PMID:7972515

  2. Keeping the spotlight on cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Shalan, Hadil; Kato, Mallory; Cheruzel, Lionel

    2017-06-06

    This review describes the recent advances utilizing photosensitizers and visible light to harness the synthetic potential of P450 enzymes. The structures of the photosensitizers investigated to date are first presented along with their photophysical and redox properties. Functional photosensitizers range from organic and inorganic complexes to nanomaterials as well as the biological photosystem I complex. The focus is then on the three distinct approaches that have emerged for the activation of P450 enzymes. The first approach utilizes the in situ generation of reactive oxygen species entering the P450 mechanism via the peroxide shunt pathway. The other two approaches are sustained by electron injections into catalytically competent heme domains either facilitated by redox partners or through direct heme domain reduction. Achievements as well as pitfalls of each approach are briefly summarized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Novel extrahepatic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Karlgren, Maria . E-mail: Maria.Karlgren@imm.ki.se; Miura, Shin-ichi; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly expressed in the liver and are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Because of the initiatives associated with the Human Genome Project, a great progress has recently been seen in the identification and characterization of novel extrahepatic P450s, including CYP2S1, CYP2R1, CYP2U1 and CYP2W1. Like the hepatic enzymes, these P450s may play a role in the tissue-specific metabolism of foreign compounds, but they may also have important endogenous functions. CYP2S1 has been shown to metabolize all-trans retinoic acid and CYP2R1 is a major vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Regarding their metabolism of xenobiotics, much remains to be established, but CYP2S1 metabolizes naphthalene and it is likely that these P450s are responsible for metabolic activation of several different kinds of xenobiotic chemicals and contribute to extrahepatic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  4. De-bugging and maximizing plant cytochrome P450 production in Escherichia coli with C-terminal GFP fusions.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulla; Vazquez-Albacete, Dario; Søgaard, Karina M; Hobel, Tonja; Nielsen, Morten T; Harrison, Scott James; Hansen, Anders Holmgaard; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Seppälä, Susanna; Nørholm, Morten H H

    2017-02-15

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are attractive enzyme targets in biotechnology as they catalyze stereospecific C-hydroxylations of complex core skeletons at positions that typically are difficult to access by chemical synthesis. Membrane bound CYPs are involved in nearly all plant pathways leading to the formation of high-value compounds. In the present study, we systematically maximize the heterologous expression of six different plant-derived CYP genes in Escherichia coli, using a workflow based on C-terminal fusions to the green fluorescent protein. The six genes can be over-expressed in both K- and B-type E. coli strains using standard growth media. Furthermore, sequences encoding a small synthetic peptide and a small bacterial membrane anchor markedly enhance the expression of all six genes. For one of the CYPs, the length of the linker region between the predicted N-terminal transmembrane segment and the soluble domain is modified, in order to verify the importance of this region for enzymatic activity. The work describes how membrane bound CYPs are optimally produced in E. coli and thus adds this plant multi-membered key enzyme family to the toolbox for bacterial cell factory design.

  5. NADPH: cytochrome P-450 reductase in olfactory epithelium. Relevance to cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Reed, C J; Lock, E A; De Matteis, F

    1986-01-01

    The presence of a very active cytochrome P-450-dependent drug-metabolizing system in the olfactory epithelium has been confirmed by using 7-ethoxycoumarin, 7-ethoxyresorufin, hexobarbitone and aniline as substrates, and the reasons for the marked activity of the cytochrome P-450 in this tissue have been investigated. The spectral interaction of hexobarbitone and aniline with hepatic and olfactory microsomes has been examined. By this criterion there was no evidence for marked differences in the spin state of the cytochromes of the two tissues, or for the olfactory epithelium containing a greater amount of cytochrome capable of binding hexobarbitone, a very actively metabolized substrate. Rates of NADPH and NADH: cytochrome c reductase activity were found to be higher in the olfactory epithelium than in the liver, and direct evidence was obtained for a greater amount of the NADPH-dependent flavoprotein in the olfactory microsomes. Investigation of male rats and male and female mice, as well as male hamsters, demonstrated that, in all cases, the cytochrome P-450 levels of the olfactory epithelium were lower than those of the liver, while the 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase and NADPH:cytochrome c reductase activities were higher. A correlation was found between 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase and NADPH:cytochrome c reductase activities for both tissues in all species examined. The ratio of reductase to cytochrome P-450 was found to be considerably higher in the olfactory epithelium (1:2-1:3) than in the liver (1:11-1:15), regardless of the species examined, suggesting that facilitated electron flow may contribute significantly to the cytochrome P-450 catalytic turnover in the olfactory tissue. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3101674

  6. Molecular evolution and population genetics of two Drosophila mettleri cytochrome P450 genes involved in host plant utilization

    PubMed Central

    Bono, Jeremy M.; Matzkin, Luciano M.; Castrezana, Sergio; Markow, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptation is one of the primary goals of evolutionary biology. The evolution of xenobiotic resistance in insects has proven to be an especially suitable arena for studying the genetics of adaptation, and resistant phenotypes are known to result from both coding and regulatory changes. In this study, we examine the evolutionary history and population genetics of two Drosophila mettleri cytochrome P450 genes that are putatively involved in the detoxification of alkaloids present in two of its cactus hosts: saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and senita (Lophocereus schottii). Previous studies demonstrated that Cyp28A1 was highly upregulated following exposure to rotting senita tissue while Cyp4D10 was highly upregulated following exposure to rotting saguaro tissue. Here, we show that a subset of sites in Cyp28A1 experienced adaptive evolution specifically in the D. mettleri lineage. Moreover, neutrality tests in several populations were also consistent with a history of selection on Cyp28A1. In contrast, we did not find evidence for positive selection on Cyp4D10, though this certainly does not preclude its involvement in host plant use. A surprising result that emerged from our population genetic analyses was the presence of significant genetic differentiation between flies collected from different host plant species (saguaro and senita) at Organ Pipe National Monument, Arizona, USA. This preliminary evidence suggests that D. mettleri may have evolved into distinctive host races that specialize on different hosts, a possibility that warrants further investigation. PMID:18510584

  7. An in vivo assay for elucidating the importance of cytochromes P450 for the ability of a wild mammalian herbivore (Neotoma lepida) to consume toxic plants.

    PubMed

    Skopec, Michele M; Malenke, Jael R; Halpert, James R; Denise Dearing, M

    2013-01-01

    An in vivo assay using the cytochrome P450 (P450) suicide inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and 24-h food intake was developed to determine the relative importance of P450s in two populations of Neotoma lepida with respect to biotransformation of plant secondary compounds in the animals' natural diets. The efficacy of ABT as a P450 inhibitor was first validated using hypnotic-state assays with and without pretreatment with ABT. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg ABT by gavage increased hexobarbital sleep times 3-4-fold in both populations, showing effective inhibition of P450s in woodrats. Next, the Great Basin population was fed a terpene-rich juniper diet, and the Mojave population was fed a phenolic-rich creosote diet, with rabbit chow serving as the control diet in each group. Treatment with ABT inhibited food intake in the Great Basin population fed the juniper diet to a greater extent (35%) than the Great Basin population fed the control diet (19%) or the Mojave population fed the creosote diet (16%). The food intake of the Mojave population fed the control diet was not significantly inhibited by ABT. The findings suggest that the biotransformation of terpenes in juniper relies more heavily on P450s than that of phenolics in creosote. This assay provides an inexpensive and noninvasive method to explore the relative importance of P450s in the biotransformation strategies of wild mammalian herbivores.

  8. An in vivo assay for elucidating the importance of cytochromes P450 for the ability of a wild mammalian herbivore (Neotoma lepida) to consume toxic plants

    PubMed Central

    Skopec, Michele M.; Malenke, Jael; Halpert, James R.; Dearing, M. Denise

    2014-01-01

    An in vivo assay using the cytochrome P450 (P450) suicide inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and 24 hour food intake was developed to determine the relative importance of P450s in two populations of Neotoma lepida with respect to biotransformation of plant secondary compounds (PSCs) in the animals’ natural diets. The efficacy of ABT as a P450 inhibitor was first validated using hypnotic state assays with and without pretreatment with ABT. Pretreatment with 100mg/kg ABT by gavage increased hexobarbital sleep times 3–4 fold in both populations, showing effective inhibition of P450s in woodrats. Next, the Great Basin population was fed a terpene-rich juniper diet, and the Mojave population was fed a phenolic-rich creosote diet, with rabbit chow serving as the control diet in each group. Treatment with ABT inhibited food intake in the Great Basin population fed the juniper diet to a greater extent (35%) than the Great Basin population fed the control diet (19%) or the Mojave population fed the creosote diet (16%). The food intake of the Mojave population fed the control diet was not significantly inhibited by ABT. The findings suggest that the biotransformation of terpenes in juniper relies more heavily on P450s than that of phenolics in creosote. This assay provides an inexpensive and non-invasive method to explore the relative importance of P450s in the biotransformation strategies of wild mammalian herbivores. PMID:23995490

  9. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the ‘cytochrome P450 genesis locus’, where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution. PMID:23297357

  10. [Purification of cytochrome P-450 and NADPH cytochrome p-450 reductase from human liver].

    PubMed

    Isa, M; Cumps, J; Fossoul, C; Atassi, G

    1990-01-01

    Two methods for the purification of cytochromes-P450 from microsomes of human liver are described. Method A: Cyt-P450 were solubilized from microsomes using a non ionic detergent, the Lubrol. The Cyt-P450 were purified by affinity, hydrophobicity followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-5PW column (HPLC) with an overall yield of 18% and a specific activity of 10 nmole/mg of protein. The recovery of NADPH Cyt-P450 reductase by method A (affinity) is about 60% with a specific activity of 16.2 U.I./mg of protein. Method B: Cyt-P450 were solubilized from microsomes using a zwitterionic detergent, the CHAPS. Cyt-P450 were filtered and separated by chromatofocusing on Mono-P column (HPLC). By this method it was possible to increase strongly the specific activity keeping a yield of 50% of Cyt-P450. Also it was possible to apply this method to small samples of human liver like biopsies (0.5 to 2.5 g).

  11. Cytochrome P450 diversity in the tree of life.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R

    2017-05-11

    Sequencing in all areas of the tree of life has produced >300,000 cytochrome P450 (CYP) sequences that have been mined and collected. Nomenclature has been assigned to >41,000 CYP sequences and the majority of the remainder has been sorted by BLAST searches into clans, families and subfamilies in preparation for naming. The P450 sequence space is being systematically explored and filled in. Well-studied groups like vertebrates are covered in greater depth while new insights are being added into uncharted territories like horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus), tardigrades (Hypsibius dujardini), velvet worm (Euperipatoides_rowelli), and basal land plants like hornworts, liverworts and mosses. CYPs from the fungi, one of the most diverse groups, are being explored and organized as nearly 800 fungal species are now sequenced. The CYP clan structure in fungi is emerging with 805 CYP families sorting into 32 CYP clans. >3000 bacterial sequences are named, mostly from terrestrial or freshwater sources. Of 18,379 bacterial sequences downloaded from the CYPED database, all are >43% identical to named CYPs. Therefore, they fit in the 602 named P450 prokaryotic families. Diversity in this group is becoming saturated, however 25% of 3305 seawater bacterial P450s did not match known P450 families, indicating marine bacterial CYPs are not as well sampled as land/freshwater based bacterial CYPs. Future sequencing plans of the Genome 10K project, i5k and GIGA (Global Invertebrate Genomics Alliance) are expected to produce more than one million cytochrome P450 sequences by 2020. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity and evolution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Sello, Mopeli Marshal; Jafta, Norventia; Nelson, David R; Chen, Wanping; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Parvez, Mohammad; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Sitheni Mashele, Samson; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as drug targets against pathogens, as well as in valuable chemical production and bioremediation, has been explored. In this study we performed comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s in 13 newly explored oomycete pathogens. Three hundred and fifty-six P450s were found in oomycetes. These P450s were grouped into 15 P450 families and 84 P450 subfamilies. Among these, nine P450 families and 31 P450 subfamilies were newly found in oomycetes. Research revealed that oomycetes belonging to different orders contain distinct P450 families and subfamilies in their genomes. Evolutionary analysis and sequence homology data revealed P450 family blooms in oomycetes. Tandem arrangement of a large number of P450s belonging to the same family indicated that P450 family blooming is possibly due to its members' duplications. A unique combination of amino acid patterns was observed at EXXR and CXG motifs for the P450 families CYP5014, CYP5015 and CYP5017. A novel P450 fusion protein (CYP5619 family) with an N-terminal P450 domain fused to a heme peroxidase/dioxygenase domain was discovered in Saprolegnia declina. Oomycete P450 patterns suggested host influence in shaping their P450 content. This manuscript serves as reference for future P450 annotations in newly explored oomycetes.

  13. Diversity and evolution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Sello, Mopeli Marshal; Jafta, Norventia; Nelson, David R; Chen, Wanping; Yu, Jae-Hyuk; Parvez, Mohammad; Kgosiemang, Ipeleng Kopano Rosinah; Monyaki, Richie; Raselemane, Seiso Caiphus; Qhanya, Lehlohonolo Benedict; Mthakathi, Ntsane Trevor; Sitheni Mashele, Samson; Syed, Khajamohiddin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are heme-thiolate proteins whose role as drug targets against pathogens, as well as in valuable chemical production and bioremediation, has been explored. In this study we performed comprehensive comparative analysis of P450s in 13 newly explored oomycete pathogens. Three hundred and fifty-six P450s were found in oomycetes. These P450s were grouped into 15 P450 families and 84 P450 subfamilies. Among these, nine P450 families and 31 P450 subfamilies were newly found in oomycetes. Research revealed that oomycetes belonging to different orders contain distinct P450 families and subfamilies in their genomes. Evolutionary analysis and sequence homology data revealed P450 family blooms in oomycetes. Tandem arrangement of a large number of P450s belonging to the same family indicated that P450 family blooming is possibly due to its members’ duplications. A unique combination of amino acid patterns was observed at EXXR and CXG motifs for the P450 families CYP5014, CYP5015 and CYP5017. A novel P450 fusion protein (CYP5619 family) with an N-terminal P450 domain fused to a heme peroxidase/dioxygenase domain was discovered in Saprolegnia declina. Oomycete P450 patterns suggested host influence in shaping their P450 content. This manuscript serves as reference for future P450 annotations in newly explored oomycetes. PMID:26129850

  14. Transcription factor cap n collar C regulates multiple cytochrome P450 genes conferring adaptation to potato plant allelochemicals and resistance to imidacloprid in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say).

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Megha; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2017-04-01

    Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata is a notorious pest of potato. Co-evolution with Solanaceae plants containing high levels of toxins (glycoalkaloids) helped this insect to develop an efficient detoxification system and resist almost every chemical insecticide introduced for its control. Even though the cross-resistance between plant allelochemicals and insecticides is well acknowledged, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not understood. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in detoxification of potato plant allelochemicals and imidacloprid resistance in the field-collected CPB. Our results showed that the imidacloprid-resistant beetles employ metabolic detoxification of both potato plant allelochemicals and imidacloprid by upregulation of common cytochrome P450 genes. RNAi aided knockdown identified four cytochromes P450 genes (CYP6BJ(a/b), CYP6BJ1v1, CYP9Z25, and CYP9Z29) that are required for defense against both natural and synthetic chemicals. These P450 genes are regulated by the xenobiotic transcription factors Cap n Collar C, CncC and muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis, Maf. Studies on the CYP9Z25 promoter using the luciferase reporter assay identified two binding sites (i.e. GCAGAAT and GTACTGA) for CncC and Maf. Overall, these data showed that CPB employs the metabolic resistance mediated through xenobiotic transcription factors CncC and Maf to regulate multiple P450 genes and detoxify both imidacloprid and potato plant allelochemicals.

  15. Cytochrome P450 expression in oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; Shaw, D; Weaver, R J; McKay, J A; Ewen, S W; Melvin, W T; Burke, M D

    1994-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes play a central part in the metabolism of carcinogens and anti-cancer drugs. The expression, cellular localisation, and distribution of different forms of P450 and the functionally associated enzymes epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferases have been investigated in oesophageal cancer and non-neoplastic oesophageal tissue using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the different enzymes was confined to epithelial cells in both non-neoplastic samples and tumour samples except the CYP3A was also identified in mast cells and glutathione S-transferase pi was present in chronic inflammatory cells. CYP1A was present in a small percentage of non-neoplastic samples but both CYP2C and CYP3A were absent. Epoxide hydrolase was present in half of the non-neoplastic samples and the different classes of glutathione S-transferase were present in a low number of samples. In carcinomas CYP1A, CYP3A, epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase pi were expressed in at least 60% of samples. The expression of glutathione S-transferases alpha and mu were significantly less in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8200549

  16. A passion for P450s (rememberances of the early history of research on cytochrome P450).

    PubMed

    Estabrook, Ronald W

    2003-12-01

    Many members of the superfamily of hemeproteins, known as cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP), are currently described in the literature (over 2000 at the date of this writing) [see Nelson, 2003 (http://drnelson.utmem.edu/CytochromeP450.html)]. In mammalian tissues, the P450s play central roles in drug and xenobiotic metabolism as well as steroid hormone synthesis, fat-soluble vitamin metabolism, and the conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to biologically active molecules. P450s also play a major role in plants by catalyzing the synthesis of a large number of secondary metabolites. Today we appreciate the unique oxygen chemistry catalyzed by the P450 enzymes as well as the dramatic effect of protein structural changes resulting in modifications of substrate specificity. Recent scientific advances have shown the importance of genetic differences (polymorphisms) in altering the physiological response of an animal to endo- and exo-biotic chemicals. In many instances these changes can be directly attributed to small differences in the amino acid sequence of a P450. The present article describes some of the early events associated with the establishment of the biological function of P450s. The 1950s and 1960s showed the transition of P450 from an unknown spectroscopic curiosity to the major player it now occupies in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The P450s are now recognized to occupy a great variety of phylogenetically distributed isoform activities. Much has been learned about the P450s, but much more remains as poorly understood. It has been almost 50 years since this class of unique proteins were discovered and their catalytic functions characterized. The present article describes the background and early history of research leading to our present knowledge of the cytochromes P450. Hopefully we will learn lessons from this history as we venture forward down the path of future scientific discovery.

  17. Ectopic expression of an apple cytochrome P450 gene MdCYPM1 negatively regulates plant photomorphogenesis and stress response in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Ping; Li, Rui; Qu, Feng-Jia; You, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2017-01-29

    Cytochrome P450s play an important role in plant growth and are involved in multiple stresses response. However, little is known about the functions of cytochrome P450s in apple. Here, a Malus × domestica cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1 gene, MdCYPM1, was identified and subsequently cloned from apple 'Gala' (Malus × domestica). To verify the functions of MdCYPM1, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the apple MdCYPM1 gene under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Four transgenic lines (#3, #5, #7 and #8) were selected for further study. The transgenic plants exhibited a series of skotomorphogenesis phenotypes relative to wild-type controls, such as reduction of the chlorophyll, anthocyanins content and hypocotyls elongation. In addition, overexpression of MdCYPM1 influenced auxin transport and flowering time in transgenic Arabidopsis. Furthermore, MdCYPM1 expression was induced by salt and mannitol treatments, and the transgenic plants were negatively regulated by salinity and osmotic stresses during germination. These results suggest that MdCYPM1 plays a vital role in plant growth and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcriptional Regulation of Grape Cytochrome P450 Gene Expression in Response to Xylella fastidiosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are versatile redox proteins that mediate biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds as plant defense agents against a range of pathogens and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in the...

  19. Canine cytochrome P450 (CYP) pharmacogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Court, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The cytochrome P450 (CYP) drug metabolizing enzymes are essential for the efficient elimination of many clinically used drugs. These enzymes typically display high interindividual variability in expression and function resulting from enzyme induction, inhibition, and genetic polymorphism thereby predisposing patients to adverse drug reactions or therapeutic failure. There are also substantial species differences in CYP substrate specificity and expression that complicate direct extrapolation of information from humans to veterinary species. This article reviews the available published data regarding the presence and impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP-dependent drug metabolism in dogs in the context of known human-dog CYP differences. Canine CYP1A2, which metabolizes phenacetin, caffeine, and theophylline, is the most widely studied polymorphic canine CYP. A single nucleotide polymorphism resulting in a CYP1A2 premature stop codon (c.1117C>T; R383X) with a complete lack of enzyme is highly prevalent in certain dog breeds including Beagle and Irish wolfhound. This polymorphism was shown to substantially affect the pharmacokinetics of several experimental compounds in Beagles during preclinical drug development. However, the impact on the pharmacokinetics of phenacetin (a substrate specific for human CYP1A2) was quite modest probably because other canine CYPs are capable of metabolizing phenacetin. Other canine CYPs with known genetic polymorphisms include CYP2C41 (gene deletion), as well as CYP2D15, CYP2E1, and CYP3A12 (coding SNPs). However the impact of these variants on drug metabolism in vitro or on drug pharmacokinetics is unknown. Future systematic investigations are needed to comprehensively identify CYP genetic polymorphisms that are predictive of drug effects in canine patients. PMID:23890236

  20. Cytochrome P450 gene polymorphism and cancer.

    PubMed

    Agundez, Jose A G

    2004-06-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals. Several CYP enzymes metabolically activate procarcinogens to genotoxic intermediates. Phenotyping analyses revealed an association between CYP enzyme activity and the risk to develop several forms of cancer. Research carried out in the last decade demonstrated that several CYP enzymes are polymorphic due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene duplications and deletions. As genotyping procedures became available for most human CYP, an impressive number of association studies on CYP polymorphisms and cancer risk were conducted. Here we review the findings obtained in these studies regarding CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP8A1 and CYP21 gene polymorphisms. Consistent evidences for association between CYP polymorphisms and lung, head and neck, and liver cancer were reported. Controversial findings suggest that colorectal and prostate cancers may be associated to CYP polymorphisms, whereas no evidences for a relevant association with breast or bladder cancers were reported. We summarize the available information related to the association of CYP polymorphisms with leukaemia, lymphomas and diverse types of cancer that were investigated only for some CYP genes, including brain, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, pituitary, cervical epithelium, melanoma, ovarian, kidney, anal and vulvar cancers. This review discusses on causes of heterogeneity in the proposed associations, controversial findings on cancer risk, and identifies topics that require further investigation. In addition, some recommendations on study design, in order to obtain more conclusive findings in further studies, are provided.

  1. Cannabinoids and Cytochrome P450 Interactions.

    PubMed

    Zendulka, Ondřej; Dovrtělová, Gabriela; Nosková, Kristýna; Turjap, Miroslav; Šulcová, Alexandra; Hanuš, Lumír; Juřica, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This review consists of three parts, representing three different possibilities of interactions between cannabinoid receptor ligands of both exogenous and endogenous origin and cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs). The first part deals with cannabinoids as CYP substrates, the second summarizes current knowledge on the influence of various cannabinoids on the metabolic activity of CYP, and the third outline a possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system and cannabinoid ligands in the regulation of CYP liver activity. We performed a structured search of bibliographic and drug databases for peer-reviewed literature using focused review questions. Biotransformation via a hydrolytic pathway is the major route of endocannabinoid metabolism and the deactivation of substrates is characteristic, in contrast to the minor oxidative pathway via CYP involved in the bioactivation reactions. Phytocannabinoids are extensively metabolized by CYPs. The enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 catalyze most of their hydroxylations. Similarly, CYP represents a major metabolic pathway for both synthetic cannabinoids used therapeutically and drugs that are abused. In vitro experiments document the mostly CYP inhibitory activity of the major phytocannabinoids, with cannabidiol as the most potent inhibitor of many CYPs. The drug-drug interactions between cannabinoids and various drugs at the CYP level are reported, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The direct activation/inhibition of nuclear receptors in the liver cells by cannabinoids may result in a change of CYP expression and activity. Finally, we hypothesize the interplay of central cannabinoid receptors with numerous nervous systems, resulting in a hormone-mediated signal towards nuclear receptors in hepatocytes.

  2. Functional expression in yeast and characterization of a clofibrate-inducible plant cytochrome P-450 (CYP94A1) involved in cutin monomers synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tijet, N; Helvig, C; Pinot, F; Le Bouquin, R; Lesot, A; Durst, F; Salaün, J P; Benveniste, I

    1998-06-01

    The chemical tagging of a cytochrome P-450-dependent lauric acid omega-hydroxylase from clofibrate-treated Vicia sativa seedlings with [1-14C]11-dodecynoic acid allowed the isolation of a full-length cDNA designated CYP94A1. We describe here the functional expression of this novel P-450 in two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains overproducing their own NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase or a reductase from Arabidopsis thaliana. The results show a much higher efficiency of the yeast strain overproducing the plant reductase compared with the yeast strain overproducing its own reductase for expressing CYP94A1. The methyl end of saturated (from C-10 to C-16) and unsaturated (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) fatty acids was mainly oxidized by CYP94A1. Both E/Z and Z/E configurations of 9, 12-octadecadienoic acids were omega-hydroxylated. Lauric, myristic and linolenic acids were oxidized with the highest turnover rate (24 min-1). The strong regioselectivity of CYP94A1 was clearly shifted with sulphur-containing substrates, since both 9- and 11-thia laurate analogues were sulphoxidized. Similar to animal omega-hydroxylases, this plant enzyme was strongly induced by clofibrate treatment. Rapid CYP94A1 transcript accumulation was detected less than 20 min after exposure of seedlings to the hypolipidaemic drug. The involvement of CYP94A1 in the synthesis of cutin monomers and fatty acid detoxification is discussed.

  3. Recent Structural Insights into Cytochrome P450 Function

    PubMed Central

    Peter Guengerich, F.; Waterman, Michael R.; Egli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are important in the metabolism of drugs, steroids, fat-soluble vitamins, carcinogens, pesticides, and many other types of chemicals. Their catalytic activities are important issues in areas such as drug-drug interactions and endocrine function. During the past 30 years, structures of P450s have been very helpful in understanding function, particularly the mammalian P450 structures available in the past 15 years. We review recent activity in this area, focusing on the past two years (2014–2015). Structural work with microbial P450s includes studies related to the biosynthesis of natural products and the use of parasitic and fungal P450 structures as targets for drug discovery. Studies on mammalian P450s include the utilization of information about ‘drug-metabolizing’ P450s to improve drug development and also to understand the molecular bases of endocrine dysfunction. PMID:27267697

  4. Catalytic properties of the plant cytochrome P450 CYP73 expressed in yeast. Substrate specificity of a cinnamate hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Pierrel, M A; Batard, Y; Kazmaier, M; Mignotte-Vieux, C; Durst, F; Werck-Reichhart, D

    1994-09-15

    The catalytic properties of CYP73, a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase isolated from Helianthus tuberosus tuber [Teutsch, H. G., Hasenfratz, M. P., Lesot, A., Stoltz, C., Garnier, J. M., Jeltsch, J. M., Durst, F. & Werck-Reichhart, D. (1993) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 90, 4102-4106] and expressed in an optimised yeast system [Urban, P., Werck-Reichart, D., Teutsch, G. H., Durst, F., Regnier, S., Kazmaier, M. & Pompon, D. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem. 222, 843-850] have been investigated. Microsomes from transformed yeast catalysed trans-cinnamate hydroxylation with high efficiency. CYP73 was highly specific for its natural substrate, and did not catalyse oxygenation of p-coumarate, benzoate, ferulate, naringenin or furanocoumarins. No metabolism of terpenoids or fatty acids, known substrates of plant P450s, was observed. CYP73 however demethylated the natural coumarin herniarin into umbelliferone. In addition, it was shown to oxygenate five xenobiotics and mechanism-based inactivators, including the herbicide chlorotoluron. All substrates of CYP73 were small planar aromatic molecules. Comparison of the kinetic parameters of CYP73 for its various substrates showed that, as expected, cinnamate was by far the best substrate of this P450. The physiological and toxicological significance of these observations are discussed.

  5. Induction of rat hepatic cytochromes P450 by toxic ingredients in plants: lack of correlation between toxicity and inductive activity.

    PubMed

    Yamada, H; Nakamura, T; Oguri, K

    1998-12-01

    "Animal-Plant Warfare" is one of the hypotheses for the evolution of drug-metabolizing P450s. To address the validity of this hypothesis, we examined the induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s by 12 plant toxins in rats, using hepatic activity for testosterone metabolism as the index. The compounds tested were aconitine, morphine, tubocurarine, physostigmine, pilocarpine, muscarine, cocaine, atropine, amygdalin, digitonin, nicotine and solanine. Drinking water containing a test compound was given to rats for 4 days, and the hepatic activity of testosterone metabolism was determined together with monitoring body weight gain and liver weight as the indices of toxicity. The results showed that while cocaine and nicotine have a minor ability to increase testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylase activity, a marker activity for the CYP2B1 and 2, all other compounds did not have any such effect. No correlation was observed between a change in 16 beta-hydroxylase and toxicity caused by toxins. Therefore, these results did not support the idea that the inducibility of the CYP2B subfamily in animals is acquired through "Animal-Plant Warfare". Several compounds examined here increased or decreased hepatic activities of testosterone 2 alpha-, 6 beta-, 7 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylation and 17-oxidation, indicating a possible effect on the CYP2A, 2C and 3A subfamily. Of these effects, a moderate correlation (r < 0.49) was observed in the changes in the activities of 2 alpha-/16 alpha-hydroxylation and 17-oxidation vs. that in toxicity. It is therefore suggested that inhibition or suppression of the expression of CYP2C11 is one of the mechanisms in the toxicity of plant toxins for rats, although it comes from an examination using limited numbers of compounds.

  6. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA encoding the Jerusalem artichoke cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, a major plant cytochrome P450 involved in the general phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, H G; Hasenfratz, M P; Lesot, A; Stoltz, C; Garnier, J M; Jeltsch, J M; Durst, F; Werck-Reichhart, D

    1993-01-01

    Cinnamate 4-hydroxylase [CA4H; trans-cinnamate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (4-hydroxylating), EC 1.14.13.11] is a cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the first oxygenation step of the general phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants. The compounds formed are essential for lignification and defense against predators and pathogens. We recently reported the purification of this enzyme from Mn(2+)-induced Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber tissues. Highly selective polyclonal antibodies raised against the purified protein were used to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA expression library from wound-induced Jerusalem artichoke, allowing isolation of a 1130-base-pair insert. Typical P450 domains were identified in this incomplete sequence, which was used as a probe for the isolation of a 1.7-kilobase clone in a lambda gt10 library. A full-length open reading frame of 1515 base pairs, encoding a P450 protein of 505 residues (M(r) = 57,927), was sequenced. The N terminus, essentially composed of hydrophobic residues, matches perfectly the microsequenced N terminus of the purified protein. The calculated pI is 9.78, in agreement with the chromatographic behavior and two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of CA4H. Synthesis of the corresponding mRNA is induced in wounded plant tissues, in correlation with CA4H enzymatic activity. This P450 protein exhibits the most similarity (28% amino acid identity) with avocado CYP71, but also good similarity with CYP17 and CYP21, or with CYP1 and CYP2 families. According to current criteria, it qualifies as a member of a new P450 family. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8097885

  7. Cytochrome P450 3A, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5 in the upper airways in horse.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Olsén, L; Tallkvist, J; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2008-08-01

    Gene and protein expression as well as catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A were studied in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa and the tracheal mucosa of the horse. We also examined the activity of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (NADPH P450 reductase), the amount of cytochrome b(5) and the total CYP content in these tissues. Comparative values for the above were obtained using liver as a control. The CYP3A related catalytic activity in the tissues of the upper airways was considerably higher than in the liver. The CYP3A gene and protein expression, on the other hand, was higher in the liver than in the upper airway tissues. Thus, the pattern of CYP3A metabolic activity does not correlate with the CYP3A gene and protein expression. Our results showed that the activity of NADPH P450 reductase and the level of cytochrome b(5) in the relation to the gene and protein expression of CYP3A were higher in the tissues of the upper airways than in the liver. It is concluded that CYP3A related metabolism in horse is not solely dependent on the expression of the enzyme but also on adequate levels of NADPH P450 reductase and cytochrome b(5).

  8. Engineering Cytochrome P450 Biocatalysts for Biotechnology, Medicine, and Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Importance of the field: Cytochrome P450 enzymes comprise a superfamily of heme monooxygenases that are of considerable interest for the: 1) synthesis of novel drugs and drug metabolites, 2) targeted cancer gene therapy, 3) biosensor design, and 4) bioremediation. However, their applications are limited because cytochrome P450, especially mammalian P450 enzymes, show a low turnover rate and stability, and require a complex source of electrons through cytochrome P450 reductase and NADPH. Areas covered in this review: In this review, we discuss the recent progress towards the use of P450 enzymes in a variety of above-mentioned applications. We also present alternate and cost-effective ways to perform P450-mediated reaction, especially using peroxides. Furthermore, we expand upon the current progress in P450 engineering approaches describing several recent examples that are utilized to enhance heterologous expression, stability, catalytic efficiency, and utilization of alternate oxidants. What the reader will gain: The review will provide a comprehensive knowledge in the design of P450 biocatalysts for potentially practical purposes. Finally, we provide a prospective on the future aspects of P450 engineering and its applications in biotechnology, medicine, and bioremediation. Take home message: Because of its wide applications, academic and pharmaceutical researchers, environmental scientists, and health care providers are expected to gain current knowledge and future prospects of the practical use of P450 biocatalysts. PMID:20064075

  9. Thiomers: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of different thiolated polymers (thiomers) on the catalytic activity of CYP450s on one hand and to explore new inhibitors for CYP activity on the other hand. Several thiolated polymers including poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cysteine), chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA), and thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer along with brij 35, myrj 52 and the well-established CYPP450 inhibitor verapamil were screened for their CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 inhibitory activity, and their IC(50) values were determined. Both enzyme inhibition assays were performed in 96-well microtiter plates. 7-Benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin (BFC) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) were used as fluorescent substrates in order to determine CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity, respectively. All investigated compounds inhibited CYP3A4 as well as CYP2A6 activity. All tested (thiolated) polymers were found to be more potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 than of CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Apart from verapamil that is a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, brij 35 and myrj 52 were explored as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Among the tested polymers, the rank order for CYP3A4 inhibition was PAA-cysteine (100 kDa)>brij 35>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>myrj 52>PAA (100 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa). On the other hand, the rank order of CYP2A6 inhibition was brij 35>PAA-cysteine (100kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>PAA (100 kDa)>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>myrj 52. Thus, this study suggests that (thiolated) polymers display a promising potential to inhibit cytochrome P450s activity and might turn out to be potentially valuable tools for improving the oral bioavailability of actively secreted compounds by avoiding intestinal metabolism.

  10. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds. PMID:26393579

  11. Induction by alkaloids and phenobarbital of Family 4 Cytochrome P450s in Drosophila: evidence for involvement in host plant utilization.

    PubMed

    Danielson, P B; Foster, J L; McMahill, M M; Smith, M K; Fogleman, J C

    1998-07-01

    In vertebrates, cytochrome P450s of the CYP2 and CYP3 families play a dominant role in drug metabolism, while in insects members of the CYP6 and CYP28 families have been implicated in metabolism of insecticides and toxic natural plant compounds. A degenerate 3' RACE strategy resulted in the identification of fifteen novel P450s from an alkaloid-resistant species of Drosophila. The strong (17.4-fold) and highly specific induction of a single gene (CYP4D10) by the toxic isoquinoline alkaloids of a commonly utilized host-plant (saguaro cactus) provides the first indication that members of the CYP4 family in insects may play an important role in the maintenance of specific insect-host plant relationships. Strong barbiturate inducibility of CYP4D10 and two other D. mettleri P450 sequences of the CYP4 family was also observed, suggesting a pattern of xenobiotic responsiveness more similar to those of several vertebrate drug-metabolizing enzymes than to putative vertebrate CYP4 homologs.

  12. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-09-18

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds.

  13. Substrate Binding to Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Isin, Emre M.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2016-01-01

    P450s have attracted tremendous attention due not only to their involvement in the metabolism of drug molecules and endogenous substrates but also the unusual nature of the reaction they catalyze, namely the oxidation of unactivated C-H bonds. The binding of substrates to P450s, which is usually viewed as the first step in the catalytic cycle, has been studied extensively via a variety of biochemical and biophysical approaches. These studies were directed towards answering different questions related to P450s including, mechanism of oxidation, substrate properties, unusual substrate oxidation kinetics, function, and active site features. Some of the substrate binding studies extending over a period of more than forty years of dedicated work has been summarized in this review and categorized by the techniques employed in the binding studies. PMID:18622598

  14. Cytochromes P450 for terpene functionalisation and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Pateraki, Irini; Heskes, Allison Maree; Hamberger, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved the capacity to produce a striking array of specialised metabolites. Terpenoids are the oldest and most diverse class of such compounds and have attracted interest for industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The development of biotechnological alternatives for their production is the focus of intense research. Photosynthetic systems provide new strategies for autotrophic metabolic engineering. Focusing on cytochromes P450, involved in the functionalisation of the core terpene molecules, this review highlights the latest approaches in this field and looks towards recent discoveries that have the potential to shape the future of terpenoid bioengineering.

  15. Expression of cytochrome P450 regulators in cynomolgus macaque.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yasuhiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-09-11

    1. Cytochrome P450 (P450) regulators including nuclear receptors and transcription factors have not been fully investigated in cynomolgus macaques, an important species used in drug metabolism studies. In this study, we analyzed 17 P450 regulators by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, and tissue expression. 2. Gene and genome structures of 17 P450 regulators were similar to the human orthologs, and the deduced amino acid sequences showed high sequence identities (92-95%) and more closely clustered in a phylogenetic tree, with the human orthologs. 3. Many of the P450 regulator mRNAs were preferentially expressed in the liver, kidney, and/or jejunum. Among the P450 regulator mRNAs, PXR was most abundant in the liver and jejunum, and HNF4α in the kidney. In the liver, the expression of most P450 regulator mRNAs did not show significant differential expression (>2.5-fold) between cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia, China, and Indonesia, or rhesus macaques. 4. By correlation analysis, most of the P450 regulators were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated to other P450 regulators, and many of them were also significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with P450s. 5. These results suggest that 17 P450 regulators of cynomolgus macaques had similar molecular characteristics to the human orthologs.

  16. Molecular modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szklarz, Grazyna D.; Halpert, James R.

    1997-05-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450 3A4 was modeled based on crystallographic coordinates of four bacterial P450s: P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The P450 3A4 sequence was aligned to those of the known proteins using a structure-based alignment of P450 BM-3, P450cam, P450terp, and P450eryF. The coordinates of the model were then calculated using a consensus strategy, and the final structure was optimized in the presence of water. The P450 3A4 model resembles P450 BM-3 the most, but the B' helix is similar to that of P450eryF, which leads to an enlarged active site when compared with P450 BM-3, P450cam, and P450terp. The 3A4 residues equivalent to known substrate contact residues of the bacterial proteins and key residues of rat P450 2B1 are located in the active site or the substrate access channel. Docking of progesterone into the P450 3A4 model demonstrated that the substrate bound in a 6β-orientation can interact with a number of active site residues, such as 114, 119, 301, 304, 305, 309, 370, 373, and 479, through hydrophobic interactions. The active site of the enzyme can also accommodate erythromycin, which, in addition to the residues listed for progesterone, also contacts residues 101, 104, 105, 214, 215, 217, 218, 374, and 478. The majority of 3A4 residues which interact with progesterone and/or erythromycin possess their equivalents in key residues of P450 2B enzymes, except for residues 297, 480 and 482, which do not contact either substrate in P450 3A4. The results from docking of progesterone and erythromycin into the enzyme model make it possible to pinpoint residues which may be important for 3A4 function and to target them for site-directed mutagenesis.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones, which are needed for normal development and reproduction. The hormonal changes associated with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase ... which are essential for normal sexual development and reproduction; corticosteroids, which are involved in the body's response ...

  18. Cytochrome P450 Organization and Function Are Modulated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Phospholipid Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Brignac-Huber, Lauren M; Park, Ji Won; Reed, James R; Backes, Wayne L

    2016-12-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) comprise a superfamily of proteins that catalyze numerous monooxygenase reactions in animals, plants, and bacteria. In eukaryotic organisms, these proteins not only carry out reactions necessary for the metabolism of endogenous compounds, but they are also important in the oxidation of exogenous drugs and other foreign compounds. Eukaryotic P450 system proteins generally reside in membranes, primarily the endoplasmic reticulum or the mitochondrial membrane. These membranes provide a scaffold for the P450 system proteins that facilitate interactions with their redox partners as well as other P450s. This review focuses on the ability of specific lipid components to influence P450 activities, as well as the role of the membrane in P450 function. These studies have shown that P450s and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase appear to selectively associate with specific phospholipids and that these lipid-protein interactions influence P450 activities. Finally, because of the heterogeneous nature of the endoplasmic reticulum as well as other biologic membranes, the phospholipids are not arranged randomly but associate to generate lipid microdomains. Together, these characteristics can affect P450 function by 1) altering the conformation of the proteins, 2) influencing the P450 interactions with their redox partners, and 3) affecting the localization of the proteins into specific membrane microdomains. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-15

    Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant

  20. Structural Characterization of Human Cytochrome P450 2C19

    PubMed Central

    Reynald, R. Leila; Sansen, Stefaan; Stout, C. David; Johnson, Eric F.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the structural features underlying the distinct substrate and inhibitor profiles of P450 2C19 relative to the closely related human enzymes, P450s 2C8 and 2C9, the atomic structure (Protein Data Bank code 4GQS) of cytochrome P450 2C19 complexed with the inhibitor (2-methyl-1-benzofuran-3-yl)-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylphenyl)methanone (Protein Data Bank chemical component 0XV) was determined to 2.87 Å resolution by x-ray crystallography. The conformation of the peptide backbone of P450 2C19 is most similar to that of P450 2C8, but the substrate-binding cavity of P450 2C8 is much larger than that of P450 2C19 due to differences in the amino acid residues that form the substrate-binding cavities of the two enzymes. In contrast, the substrate-binding cavity of P450 2C19 is much more similar in size to that of the structure of the P450 2C9 flurbiprofen complex than to that of a modified P450 2C9 or that of P450 2C8. The cavities of the P450 2C19 0XV complex and the P450 2C9 flurbiprofen complex differ, however, because the helix B-C loops of the two enzymes are dissimilar. These conformational differences reflect the effects of adjacent structural elements that interact with the B-C loops and that differ between the two enzymes. The availability of a structure for 2C19 will facilitate computational approaches for predictions of substrate and inhibitor binding to this enzyme. PMID:23118231

  1. Regulation of cytochrome P450 mRNA expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected secondary plant metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Klausen, Christina Lindgaard; Ekstrand, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus) has been shown to induce enzymes of pharmacokinetic relevance (cytochrome P450; CYP). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selected secondary plant metabolites with a global extract of chicory root, on the expression of hepatic CYP mRNA (1A2, 2A19, 2C33, 2D25, 2E1 and 3A29), using primary porcine hepatocytes. Of the tested secondary plant metabolites, artemisinin, scoparone, lactucin and esculetin all induced increased expression of specific CYPs, while esculin showed no effect. In contrast, a global extract of chicory root decreased the expression of CYP1A2, 2C33, 2D25 and 3A29 at high concentrations. The results suggest that purified secondary metabolites from chicory affect CYP expression and thereby might affect detoxification in general, and that global extracts of plants can have effects different from individual components.

  2. Use of bioconjugation with cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Julie; Auclair, Karine

    2017-06-16

    Bioconjugation, defined as chemical modification of biomolecules, is widely employed in biological and biophysical studies. It can expand functional diversity and enable applications ranging from biocatalysis, biosensing and even therapy. This review summarizes how chemical modifications of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s or CYPs) have contributed to improving our understanding of these enzymes. Genetic modifications of P450s have also proven very useful but are not covered in this review. Bioconjugation has served to gain structural information and investigate the mechanism of P450s via photoaffinity labeling, mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) and fluorescence studies. P450 surface acetylation and protein cross-linking have contributed to the investigation of protein complexes formation involving P450 and its redox partner or other P450 enzymes. Finally, covalent immobilization on polymer surfaces or electrodes has benefited the areas of biocatalysis and biosensor design. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation of indigo by recombinant mammalian cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Gillam, E M; Aguinaldo, A M; Notley, L M; Kim, D; Mundkowski, R G; Volkov, A A; Arnold, F H; Soucek, P; DeVoss, J J; Guengerich, F P

    1999-11-19

    The development of bicistronic systems for coexpression of recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) with their redox partner, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (NPR), has enabled P450 activity to be reconstituted within bacterial cells. During expression of recombinant P450 2E1 and some other forms, we observed the formation of a blue pigment in bacterial cultures. The pigment was extracted from cultures and shown to comigrate with standard indigo on TLC. UV-visible spectroscopy and mass spectrometric analysis provided further support for identification of the pigment as indigo. Indigo is known to form following the spontaneous oxidation of 3-hydroxyindole. Accordingly, we speculated that indole, formed as a breakdown product of tryptophan in bacteria, was hydroxylated by the P450 system, leading to indigo formation. Bacterial membranes containing recombinant P450 2E1 and human NPR were incubated in vitro with indole and shown to catalyze formation of a blue pigment in a time- and cofactor-dependent manner. These studies suggest potential applications of mammalian P450 enzymes in industrial indigo production or in the development of novel colorimetric assays based on indole hydroxylation. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Molecular Cloning, Heterologous Expression, and Functional Characterization of an NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene from Camptotheca acuminata, a Camptothecin-Producing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Yang, Yun; Yang, Lixia; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CAM), a complex pentacyclic pyrroloqinoline alkaloid, is the starting material for CAM-type drugs that are well-known antitumor plant drugs. Although many chemical and biological research efforts have been performed to produce CAM, a few attempts have been made to uncover the enzymatic mechanism involved in the biosynthesis of CAM. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidoreduction reactions are ubiquitously presented in living organisms, especially in the biosynthetic pathway of most secondary metabolites such as CAM. Due to a lack of its reduction partner, most catalytic oxidation steps involved in the biosynthesis of CAM have not been established. In the present study, an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) encoding gene CamCPR was cloned from Camptotheca acuminata, a CAM-producing plant. The full length of CamCPR cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2127-bp nucleotides, corresponding to 708-amino acid residues. CamCPR showed 70 ~ 85% identities to other characterized plant CPRs and it was categorized to the group II of CPRs on the basis of the results of multiple sequence alignment of the N-terminal hydrophobic regions. The intact and truncate CamCPRs with N- or C-terminal His6-tag were heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity toward a chemical substrate ferricyanide and a protein substrate cytochrome c. The N-terminal His6-tagged CamCPR showed 18- ~ 30-fold reduction activity higher than the C-terminal His6-tagged CamCPR, which supported a reported conclusion, i.e., the last C-terminal tryptophan of CPRs plays an important role in the discrimination between NADPH and NADH. Co-expression of CamCPR and a P450 monooxygenase, CYP73A25, a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from cotton, and the following catalytic formation of p-coumaric acid suggested that CamCPR transforms electrons from NADPH to the heme center of P450 to support its oxidation reaction. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that

  5. Molecular Cloning, Heterologous Expression, and Functional Characterization of an NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase Gene from Camptotheca acuminata, a Camptothecin-Producing Plant.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xixing; Pu, Xiang; Chen, Fei; Yang, Yun; Yang, Lixia; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2015-01-01

    Camptothecin (CAM), a complex pentacyclic pyrroloqinoline alkaloid, is the starting material for CAM-type drugs that are well-known antitumor plant drugs. Although many chemical and biological research efforts have been performed to produce CAM, a few attempts have been made to uncover the enzymatic mechanism involved in the biosynthesis of CAM. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidoreduction reactions are ubiquitously presented in living organisms, especially in the biosynthetic pathway of most secondary metabolites such as CAM. Due to a lack of its reduction partner, most catalytic oxidation steps involved in the biosynthesis of CAM have not been established. In the present study, an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) encoding gene CamCPR was cloned from Camptotheca acuminata, a CAM-producing plant. The full length of CamCPR cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2127-bp nucleotides, corresponding to 708-amino acid residues. CamCPR showed 70 ~ 85% identities to other characterized plant CPRs and it was categorized to the group II of CPRs on the basis of the results of multiple sequence alignment of the N-terminal hydrophobic regions. The intact and truncate CamCPRs with N- or C-terminal His6-tag were heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes showed NADPH-dependent reductase activity toward a chemical substrate ferricyanide and a protein substrate cytochrome c. The N-terminal His6-tagged CamCPR showed 18- ~ 30-fold reduction activity higher than the C-terminal His6-tagged CamCPR, which supported a reported conclusion, i.e., the last C-terminal tryptophan of CPRs plays an important role in the discrimination between NADPH and NADH. Co-expression of CamCPR and a P450 monooxygenase, CYP73A25, a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from cotton, and the following catalytic formation of p-coumaric acid suggested that CamCPR transforms electrons from NADPH to the heme center of P450 to support its oxidation reaction. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that

  6. Activation of Oxygen by Cytochrome P-450 and Other Haemoproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelitsa, D. I.

    1982-11-01

    Data on the activation of molecular oxygen by the full microsomal hydroxylating system containing cytochrome P-450 as the terminal oxygenase are examined. The nature of the hydroxylating agent, which is the oxenoid Fe3+O, is analysed. The autoxidation reactions of cytochrome P-450 from various sources, haemoglobin, myoglobin, and peroxidases are compared and the role of the axial ligands of the haem iron and the structure of the active centres of the haemoproteins in this process is demonstrated. The possible mechanisms of the oxidation of organic compounds by peroxides with participation of cytochrome P-450, cytochrome c, haemoglobin, and catalase are examined critically. Haemoproteins have been divided into three groups in terms of the type of peroxide oxidation reactions. The relative contributions of the radical and two-electron reactions in the oxidation of compounds by peroxides with participation of different haemoproteins are analysed. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  7. Light-driven biocatalysis with cytochrome P450 peroxygenases.

    PubMed

    Girhard, Marco; Kunigk, Elmar; Tihovsky, Svetlana; Shumyantseva, Victoria V; Urlacher, Vlada B

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 peroxygenases P450(Bsβ) (CYP152A1) from Bacillus subtilis and P450(Cla) (CYP152A2) from Clostridium acetobutylicum belong to a unique group of P450s with high synthetic potential. They consume hydrogen peroxide via the peroxide shunt and therefore do not require additional electron transfer proteins for biocatalytic activity. Their high synthetic potential is, however, impaired by their rather poor operational stability in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Herein, we report the use of a light-driven approach utilizing light-excited flavins (riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide, or flavin adenine dinucleotide) and the electron donor ethylenediaminetetraacetate as the electron source for the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide. This approach represents a simple and easily applicable way to promote oxyfunctionalization reactions catalyzed by P450 peroxygenases and is useful for biocatalysis with these enzymes. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  9. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Glenville; Prosser, David E.; Kaufmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D signal transduction system involves a series of cytochrome P450-containing sterol hydroxylases to generate and degrade the active hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which serves as a ligand for the vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional gene expression described in companion articles in this review series. This review updates our current knowledge of the specific anabolic cytochrome P450s involved in 25- and 1α-hydroxylation, as well as the catabolic cytochrome P450 involved in 24- and 23-hydroxylation steps, which are believed to initiate inactivation of the vitamin D molecule. We focus on the biochemical properties of these enzymes; key residues in their active sites derived from crystal structures and mutagenesis studies; the physiological roles of these enzymes as determined by animal knockout studies and human genetic diseases; and the regulation of these different cytochrome P450s by extracellular ions and peptide modulators. We highlight the importance of these cytochrome P450s in the pathogenesis of kidney disease, metabolic bone disease, and hyperproliferative diseases, such as psoriasis and cancer; as well as explore potential future developments in the field. PMID:23564710

  10. Enhanced expression of cytochrome P450 in stomach cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G. I.; Taylor, M. C.; Burke, M. D.; Melvin, W. T.

    1998-01-01

    The cytochromes P450 have a central role in the oxidative activation and detoxification of a wide range of xenobiotics, including many carcinogens and several anti-cancer drugs. Thus the cytochrome P450 enzyme system has important roles in both tumour development and influencing the response of tumours to chemotherapy. Stomach cancer is one of the commonest tumours of the alimentary tract and environmental factors, including dietary factors, have been implicated in the development of this tumour. This type of tumour has a poor prognosis and responds poorly to current therapies. In this study, the presence and cellular localization of several major forms of P450, CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A have been investigated in stomach cancer and compared with their expression in normal stomach. There was enhanced expression of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer with CYP1A present in 51% and CYP3A present in 28% of cases. In contrast, no P450 was identified in normal stomach. The presence of CYP1A and CYP3A in stomach cancer provides further evidence for the enhanced expression of specific forms of cytochrome P450 in tumours and may be important therapeutically for the development of anti-cancer drugs that are activated by these forms of P450. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9569036

  11. The Interaction of Microsomal Cytochrome P450 2B4 with its Redox Partners, Cytochrome P450 Reductase and Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    1 Cytochrome P450 2B4 is a microsomal protein with a multi-step reaction cycle similar to that observed in the majority of other cytochromes P450. The cytochrome P450 2B4-substrate complex is reduced from the ferric to the ferrous form by cytochrome P450 reductase. After binding oxygen, the oxyferrous protein accepts a second electron which is provided by either cytochrome P450 reductase or cytochrome b5. In both instances, product formation occurs. When the second electron is donated by cytochrome b5, catalysis (product formation) is ∼ 10 to 100-fold faster than in the presence of cytochrome P450 reductase. This allows less time for side product formation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) and improves by ∼ 15% the coupling of NADPH consumption to product formation. Cytochrome b5 has also been shown to compete with cytochrome P450 reductase for a binding site on the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 2B4. These two different effects of cytochrome b5 on cytochrome P450 2B4 reactivity can explain how cytochrome b5 is able to stimulate, inhibit, or have no effect on cytochrome P450 2B4 activity. At low molar ratios (<1) of cytochrome b5 to cytochrome P450 reductase, the more rapid catalysis results in enhanced substrate metabolism. In contrast, at high molar ratios (>1) of cytochome b5 to cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5 inhibits activity by binding to the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 and preventing the reductase from reducing ferric cytochrome P450 to the ferrous protein, thereby aborting the catalytic reaction cycle. When the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cytochrome b5 are equal, it will appear to have no effect on the enzymatic activity. It is hypothesized that cytochrome b5 stimulates catalysis by causing a conformational change in the active site, which allows the active oxidizing oxyferryl species of cytochrome P450 to be formed more rapidly than in the presence of reductase. PMID:21055385

  12. Role of Cytochrome P450s in Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases and hydroxylases play a regulatory role in the activation and suppression of inflammation by generating or metabolizing bioactive mediators. CYP2C and CYP2J epoxygenases convert arachidonic acid to anti-inflammatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, which have protective effects in a variety of disorders including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. CYP4A and CYP4F hydroxylases have the ability to metabolize multiple substrates related to the regulation of inflammation and lipid homeostasis, and it is a challenge to determine which substrates are physiologically relevant for each enzyme; the best-characterized activities include generation of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and inactivation of leukotriene B4. The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450s is modulated by cytokines during inflammation, resulting in changes to the pharmacokinetics of prescribed medications. Cytochrome P450s are therefore the focus of intersecting challenges in the pharmacology of inflammation: not only do they represent targets for development of new anti-inflammatory drugs but they also contribute to variability in drug efficacy or toxicity in inflammatory disease. Animal models and primary hepatocytes have been used extensively to study the effects of cytokines on cytochrome P450 expression and activity. However, it is difficult to predict changes in drug exposure in patients because the response to inflammation varies depending on the disease state, its time course, and the cytochrome P450 involved. In these circumstances, the development of endogenous markers of cytochrome P450 metabolism might provide a useful tool to reevaluate drug dosage and choice of therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequence analysis of ripening-related cytochrome P-450 cDNAs from avocado fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Bozak, K R; Yu, H; Sirevåg, R; Christoffersen, R E

    1990-01-01

    The ripening of avocado fruit is associated with the expression of a number of mRNAs concomitant with overt changes in texture and flavor. Two overlapping cDNAs for a mRNA that accumulates during ripening were identified. Sequence analysis of these two cDNAs revealed a polypeptide of 471 amino acids with characteristics of a typical P-450: an N-terminal hydrophobic membrane anchor, a conserved heme-binding domain in the C-terminal region, and patches of similarity to various P-450 family members. Further evidence that this polypeptide represents a cytochrome P-450 oxidase comes from the recent isolation and characterization of a cytochrome P-450 from ripe avocado mesocarp [O'Keefe, D. P. & Leto, K. J. (1989) Plant Physiol. 89, 1141-1149]. The N terminus of the predicted polypeptide in the cDNAs is identical to the N terminus of the purified avocado P-450. Gel blot analysis of RNA from fruit at various stages of ripening showed the accumulation of an 1800-nucleotide P-450 mRNA that hybridized to the P-450 cDNA. The P-450 protein predicted by the avocado cDNA sequence shares less than 40% positional identity with any known P-450 gene family. We propose therefore that it be placed in a separate family, P450LXXI, and that the corresponding gene from avocado be named cyp71A1. Images PMID:1692626

  14. Determinants of thermostability in the cytochrome P450 fold.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kurt L; Thomson, Raine E S; Strohmaier, Silja J; Gumulya, Yosephine; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2017-08-16

    Cytochromes P450 are found throughout the biosphere in a wide range of environments, serving a multitude of physiological functions. The ubiquity of the P450 fold suggests that it has been co-opted by evolution many times, and likely presents a useful compromise between structural stability and conformational flexibility. The diversity of substrates metabolized and reactions catalyzed by P450s makes them attractive starting materials for use as biocatalysts of commercially useful reactions. However, process conditions impose different requirements on enzymes to those in which they have evolved naturally. Most natural environments are relatively mild, and therefore most P450s have not been selected in Nature for the ability to withstand temperatures above ~40°C, yet industrial processes frequently require extended incubations at much higher temperatures. Thus, there has been considerable interest and effort invested in finding or engineering thermostable P450 systems. Numerous P450s have now been identified in thermophilic organisms and analysis of their structures provides information as to mechanisms by which the P450 fold can be stabilized. In addition, protein engineering, particularly by directed or artificial evolution, has revealed mutations that serve to stabilize particular mesophilic enzymes of interest. Here we review the current understanding of thermostability as it applies to the P450 fold, gleaned from the analysis of P450s characterized from thermophilic organisms and the parallel engineering of mesophilic forms for greater thermostability. We then present a perspective on how this information might be used to design stable P450 enzymes for industrial application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Spectroscopic quantitation of cytochrome P-450 in human lung microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Guenthner, T M

    1990-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 content of human lung microsomes was measured by difference spectroscopy of the carbon monoxide-complexed hemoprotein. These measurements were only possible after the microsome preparation had been subjected to centrifugation over a discontinuous sucrose gradient, to remove an opaque black contaminant. The specific concentration of total cytochrome P-450 in human lung microsomes is essentially identical to that of microsomes prepared under identical conditions from untreated baboon lungs, but is only 0.7% of the specific content found in lung microsomes from untreated rabbits. These measurements correspond well to the observed metabolic capacities of the various microsome samples.

  16. Conformational selectivity in cytochrome P450 redox partner interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, Scott A.; Batabyal, Dipanwita; Nguyen, Brian D.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The heme iron of cytochromes P450 must be reduced to bind and activate molecular oxygen for substrate oxidation. Reducing equivalents are derived from a redox partner, which requires the formation of a protein–protein complex. A subject of increasing discussion is the role that redox partner binding plays, if any, in favoring significant structural changes in the P450s that are required for activity. Many P450s now have been shown to experience large open and closed motions. Several structural and spectral studies indicate that the well-studied P450cam adopts the open conformation when its redox partner, putidaredoxin (Pdx), binds, whereas recent NMR studies indicate that this view is incorrect. Given the relevance of this discrepancy to P450 chemistry, it is important to determine whether Pdx favors the open or closed form of P450cam. Here, we have used both computational and experimental isothermal titration calorimetry studies that unequivocally show Pdx favors binding to the open form of P450cam. Analyses of molecular-dynamic trajectories also provide insights into intermediate conformational states that could be relevant to catalysis. PMID:27439869

  17. Purification of the pyrazole-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Palakodety, R.; Clejan, L.; Krikun, G.; Feierman, D.; Cederbaum, A.I.

    1987-05-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, pyrazole, appears to induce a cytochrome P-450 isozyme with properties similar to the ethanol-inducible P-450. The pyrazole-inducible P-450 isozyme was purified from the liver microsomes of rats treated with pyrazole essentially by the procedure of Ryan et al and also by chromatofocussing. The final preparation appeared homogenous by SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular weight of 52,000, had a specific content of 11 nmoles P-450 per mg protein, showed very high activity of low K/sub m/ dimethylnitrosamine demethylase and produced a type II binding spectrum with dimethylsulfoxide. The enzyme was also active with aniline and aminopyrine as substrates. Pyrazole itself served as an excellent substrate with 4-hydroxy pyrazole being the product. An antibody against the pyrazole-inducible P-450 raised in chickens recognized a protein with mol.wt of about 52,000 in control microsomes. This band was highly enriched in microsomes from rats treated with pyrazole, 4-methyl-pyrazole, ethanol or acetone, but not phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene. In summary, the pyrazole-inducible P-450 has been purified and appears to be identical in its catalytic and immunological properties to the alcohol-inducible P-450.

  18. Interactions among Cytochromes P450 in Microsomal Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Davydov, Dmitri R.; Davydova, Nadezhda Y.; Sineva, Elena V.; Halpert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The body of evidence of physiologically relevant P450-P450 interactions in microsomal membranes continues to grow. Here we probe oligomerization of human CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2E1 in microsomal membranes. Using a technique based on luminescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrate that all three proteins are subject to a concentration-dependent equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric states. We also observed the formation of mixed oligomers in CYP3A4/CYP3A5, CYP3A4/CYP2E1, and CYP3A5/CYP2E1 pairs and demonstrated that the association of either CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 with CYP2E1 causes activation of the latter enzyme. Earlier we hypothesized that the intersubunit interface in CYP3A4 oligomers is similar to that observed in the crystallographic dimers of some microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (Davydov, D. R., Davydova, N. Y., Sineva, E. V., Kufareva, I., and Halpert, J. R. (2013) Pivotal role of P450-P450 interactions in CYP3A4 allostery: the case of α-naphthoflavone. Biochem. J. 453, 219–230). Here we report the results of intermolecular cross-linking of CYP3A4 oligomers with thiol-reactive bifunctional reagents as well as the luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements of interprobe distances in the oligomers of labeled CYP3A4 single-cysteine mutants. The results provide compelling support for the physiological relevance of the dimer-specific peripheral ligand-binding site observed in certain CYP3A4 structures. According to our interpretation, these results reveal an important general mechanism that regulates the activity and substrate specificity of the cytochrome P450 ensemble through interactions between multiple P450 species. As a result of P450-P450 cross-talk, the catalytic properties of the cytochrome P450 ensemble cannot be predicted by simple summation of the properties of the individual P450 species. PMID:25533469

  19. Monooxygenation of small hydrocarbons catalyzed by bacterial cytochrome p450s.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Osami; Watanabe, Yoshihito

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) catalyze the NAD(P)H/O2-dependent monooxygenation of less reactive organic molecules under mild conditions. The catalytic activity of bacterial P450s is very high compared with P450s isolated from animals and plants, and the substrate specificity of bacterial P450s is also very high. Accordingly, their catalytic activities toward nonnative substrates are generally low especially toward small hydrocarbons. However, mutagenesis approaches have been very successful for engineering bacterial P450s for the hydroxylation of small hydrocarbons. On the other hand, "decoy" molecules, whose structures are very similar to natural substrates, can be used to trick the substrate recognition of bacterial P450s, allowing the P450s to catalyze oxidation reactions of nonnative substrates without any substitution of amino acid residues in the presence of decoy molecules. Thus, the hydroxylation of small hydrocarbons such as ethane, propane, butane and benzene can be catalyzed by P450BM3, a long-alkyl-chain hydroxylase, using substrate misrecognition of P450s induced by decoy molecules. Furthermore, a number of H2O2-dependent bacterial P450s can catalyze the peroxygenation of a variety of nonnative substrates through a simple substrate-misrecognition trick, in which catalytic activities and enantioselectivity are dependent on the structure of decoy molecules.

  20. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Dysosma

  1. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4) Activity by Extracts from 57 Plants Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Mohamed L; Youssef, Fadia S; Gad, Haidy A; Wink, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Herbal medicine is widely used all over the world for treating various health disorders. It is employed either alone or in combination with synthetic drugs or plants to be more effective. Objective: The assessment of the effect of both water and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in vitro for the first time. Materials and Methods: The inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity was evaluated using a luminescence assay. The principal component analysis (PCA) was used to correlate the inhibitory activity with the main secondary metabolites present in the plant extracts. Molecular modeling studies on CYP3A4 (PDB ID 4NY4) were carried out with 38 major compounds present in the most active plant extracts to validate the observed inhibitory effect. Results: Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis paniculata, Arctium lappa, Areca catechu, Bupleurum marginatum, Chrysanthemum indicum, Dysosma versipellis, and Spatholobus suberectus inhibited CYP3A4 is more than 85% (at a dose of 100 μg/mL). The corresponding methanol extracts of A. catechu, A. paniculata, A. catechu, Mahonia bealei, and Sanguisorba officinalis inhibited the enzyme by more than 50%. Molecular modeling studies revealed that two polyphenols, namely hesperidin and rutin, revealed the highest fitting scores in the active sites of the CYP3A4 with binding energies equal to -74.09 and -71.34 kcal/mol, respectively. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that many TCM plants can inhibit CYP3A4, which might cause a potential interference with the metabolism of other concomitantly administered herbs or drugs. SUMMARY In this study, the inhibitory activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of 57 widely used plants from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against the main phase I metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 was tested in vitro for the first time.Aqueous extracts of Acacia catechu, Andrographis

  2. The cytochrome P450 superfamily: biochemistry, evolution and drug metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Danielson, P B

    2002-12-01

    Cytochrome p450s comprise a superfamily of heme-thiolate proteins named for the spectral absorbance peak of their carbon-monoxide-bound species at 450 nm. Having been found in every class of organism, including Archaea, the p450 superfamily is believed to have originated from an ancestral gene that existed over 3 billion years ago. Repeated gene duplications have subsequently given rise to one of the largest of multigene families. These enzymes are notable both for the diversity of reactions that they catalyze and the range of chemically dissimilar substrates upon which they act. Cytochrome p450s support the oxidative, peroxidative and reductive metabolism of such endogenous and xenobiotic substrates as environmental pollutants, agrochemicals, plant allelochemicals, steroids, prostaglandins and fatty acids. In humans, cytochrome p450s are best know for their central role in phase I drug metabolism where they are of critical importance to two of the most significant problems in clinical pharmacology: drug interactions and interindividual variability in drug metabolism. Recent advances in our understanding of cytochrome p450-mediated drug metabolism have been accelerated as a result of an increasing emphasis on functional genomic approaches to p450 research. While human cytochrome p450 databases have swelled with a flood of new human sequence variants, however, the functional characterization of the corresponding gene products has not kept pace. In response researchers have begun to apply the tools of proteomics as well as homology-based and ab initio modeling to salient questions of cytochrome p450 structure/function. This review examines the latest advances in our understanding of human cytochrome p450s.

  3. Cytochrome P450 and Non-Cytochrome P450 Oxidative Metabolism: Contributions to the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Efficacy of Xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Foti, Robert S; Dalvie, Deepak K

    2016-08-01

    The drug-metabolizing enzymes that contribute to the metabolism or bioactivation of a drug play a crucial role in defining the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties of that drug. Although the overall effect of the cytochrome P450 (P450) family of drug-metabolizing enzymes in this capacity cannot be understated, advancements in the field of non-P450-mediated metabolism have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This is perhaps a direct result of our ability to systematically avoid P450 liabilities by introducing chemical moieties that are not susceptible to P450 metabolism but, as a result, may introduce key pharmacophores for other drug-metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, the effects of both P450 and non-P450 metabolism at a drug's site of therapeutic action have also been subject to increased scrutiny. To this end, this Special Section on Emerging Novel Enzyme Pathways in Drug Metabolism will highlight a number of advancements that have recently been reported. The included articles support the important role of non-P450 enzymes in the clearance pathways of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs over the past 10 years. Specific examples will detail recent reports of aldehyde oxidase, flavin-containing monooxygenase, and other non-P450 pathways that contribute to the metabolic, pharmacokinetic, or pharmacodynamic properties of xenobiotic compounds. Collectively, this series of articles provides additional support for the role of non-P450-mediated metabolic pathways that contribute to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties of current xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. Cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolism in bovine corneal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Masferrer, J.; Schwartzman, M.L.; Abraham, N.G.; Dunn, M.W.; McGiff, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    The presence of the cytochrom P450 system and its involvement in the metabolism of AA was studied in the corneal epithelium. This tissue contains cytochrome P450 as assessed directly by measurement of the carbon monoxide reduced spectrum (specific activity of 161 pmol/10 mg protein) and indirectly by measuring the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) - a cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme (11-39 pmol 3-OH benzopyrene/mg protein/10 min). When corneal epithelial microsomes were incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid, 30-50% of the total radioactivity was converted to two peaks, I and II. Further separation using high performance liquid chromatography has shown that each peak contains two metabolites, A,B and C,D. Metabolite formation was dependent on the addition of NADPH (1 mM) and inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A (100 ..mu..M) suggesting a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. Compound C (5-10 ..mu..M) inhibited the activity of corneal epithelial Na-K-ATPase by 30-60%, being 100-fold more potent than ouabain. Compound D (10-100 ng) induced a dose dependent relaxation of the rat caudal artery. Compound D also inhibited corneal Na-K-ATPase activity but less potently than compound C. These compounds may be important to transport processes of ocular epithelia and participate in the control of the ocular circulation and aqueous humor dynamics.

  5. Expression patterns of bark beetle cytochromes P450 during host colonization: Likely physiological functions and potential targets for pest management

    Treesearch

    Dezene P. W. Huber; Melissa Erickson; Christian Leutenegger; Joerg Bohlmann; Steven J. Seybold

    2007-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 family genes (P450s) are found in a diverse array of organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals to plants to arthropods. Although there are exceptions to this rule, organisms generally contain a fairly large number of P450 genes and pseudogenes in their genomes. For instance, among arthropods whose genomes are well characterized, the mosquito,

  6. Unusual properties of the cytochrome P450 superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, David C.; Waterman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    During the early years of cytochrome P450 research, a picture of conserved properties arose from studies of mammalian forms of these monooxygenases. They included the protohaem prosthetic group, the cysteine residue that coordinates to the haem iron and the reduced CO difference spectrum. Alternatively, the most variable feature of P450s was the enzymatic activities, which led to the conclusion that there are a large number of these enzymes, most of which have yet to be discovered. More recently, studies of these enzymes in other eukaryotes and in prokaryotes have led to the discovery of unexpected P450 properties. Many are variations of the original properties, whereas others are difficult to explain because of their unique nature relative to the rest of the known members of the superfamily. These novel properties expand our appreciation of the broad view of P450 structure and function, and generate curiosity concerning the evolution of P450s. In some cases, structural properties, previously not found in P450s, can lead to enzymatic activities impacting the biological function of organisms containing these enzymes; whereas, in other cases, the biological reason for the variations are not easily understood. Herein, we present particularly interesting examples in detail rather than cataloguing them all. PMID:23297356

  7. Anchoring a plant cytochrome P450 via PsaM to the thylakoids in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002: evidence for light-driven biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Olsen, Carl Erik; Bialek, Wojciech; Jensen, Kenneth; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce an immense variety of specialized metabolites, many of which are of high value as their bioactive properties make them useful as for instance pharmaceuticals. The compounds are often produced at low levels in the plant, and due to their complex structures, chemical synthesis may not be feasible. Here, we take advantage of the reducing equivalents generated in photosynthesis in developing an approach for producing plant bioactive natural compounds in a photosynthetic microorganism by functionally coupling a biosynthetic enzyme to photosystem I. This enables driving of the enzymatic reactions with electrons extracted from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. As a proof of concept, we have genetically fused the soluble catalytic domain of the cytochrome P450 CYP79A1, originating from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of Sorghum bicolor, to a photosystem I subunit in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, thereby targeting it to the thylakoids. The engineered enzyme showed light-driven activity both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating the possibility to achieve light-driven biosynthesis of high-value plant specialized metabolites in cyanobacteria.

  8. Anchoring a Plant Cytochrome P450 via PsaM to the Thylakoids in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002: Evidence for Light-Driven Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Olsen, Carl Erik; Bialek, Wojciech; Jensen, Kenneth; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce an immense variety of specialized metabolites, many of which are of high value as their bioactive properties make them useful as for instance pharmaceuticals. The compounds are often produced at low levels in the plant, and due to their complex structures, chemical synthesis may not be feasible. Here, we take advantage of the reducing equivalents generated in photosynthesis in developing an approach for producing plant bioactive natural compounds in a photosynthetic microorganism by functionally coupling a biosynthetic enzyme to photosystem I. This enables driving of the enzymatic reactions with electrons extracted from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. As a proof of concept, we have genetically fused the soluble catalytic domain of the cytochrome P450 CYP79A1, originating from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes of Sorghum bicolor, to a photosystem I subunit in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, thereby targeting it to the thylakoids. The engineered enzyme showed light-driven activity both in vivo and in vitro, demonstrating the possibility to achieve light-driven biosynthesis of high-value plant specialized metabolites in cyanobacteria. PMID:25025215

  9. Immunohistochemical localization of cytochrome P450 aromatase in equine gonads.

    PubMed

    Almadhidi, J; Seralini, G E; Fresnel, J; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1995-06-01

    Estrogens are the major steroids produced by equine gonads. To identify the cells responsible for estrogen synthesis, an antiserum against purified equine testicular cytochrome P450 aromatase was produced in rabbits. The reactivity and specificity of the antiserum were assessed by ELISA, immunoblot analysis, and immunoneutralization studies. Immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that in the male gonad, cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) was localized in the interstitial tissue, whereas, under the experimental conditions used, the Sertoli and germ cells did not show any specific staining. In the ovary, the granulosa cells of small follicles exhibited faint immunofluorescent staining for P450arom and the granulosa cells of large, viable more follicles showed a high degree of immunoreactivity. In the corpus luteum, all the luteinized cells showed immunoreactivity. No immunoreactivity was detected in other cells of small and large viable follicles. Immunolocalization of P450arom in the equine testicular Leydig cells and in ovarian granulosa and luteinized cells indicates that these cells have the ability to metabolize androgens to estrogens and possibly to catechol estrogens.

  10. Cytochromes P450 in the bioactivation of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Costas; Lewis, David F V

    2004-01-01

    The initial view that the cytochrome P450 enzyme system functions simply in the deactivation of xenobiotics is anachronistic on the face of mounting evidence that this system can also transform many innocuous chemicals to toxic products. However, not all xenobiotic-metabolising cytochrome P450 subfamilies show the same propensity in the bioactivation of chemicals. For example, the CYP2C, 2B and 2D subfamilies play virtually no role in the bioactivation of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals, whereas the CYP1A, 1B and 2E subfamilies are responsible for the bioactivation of the majority of xenobiotics. Electronic and molecular structural features of organic chemicals appear to predispose them to either bioactivation by one cytochrome P450 enzyme or deactivation by another. Consequently, the fate of a chemical in the body is largely dependent on the cytochrome P450 profile at the time of exposure. Any factor that modulates the enzymes involved in the metabolism of a certain chemical will also influence its toxicity and carcinogenicity. For example, many chemical carcinogens bioactivated by CYP1, on repeated administration, selectively induce this family, thus exacerbating their carcinogenicity. CYP1 induction potency by chemicals appears to be determined by a combination of their molecular shape and electron activation. The function of cytochromes P450 in the bioactivation of chemicals is currently being exploited to design systems that can be used clinically to facilitate the metabolic conversion of prodrugs to their biologically-active metabolites in cells that poorly express them, such as tumour cells, in the so-called gene-directed prodrug therapy.

  11. Transcriptional Regulation of the Grape Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Gene CYP736B Expression in Response to Xylella fastidiosa Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are a group of versatile redox proteins that mediate the biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds which act as plant defense agents. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in defense response to...

  12. Selective Usage of Transcription Initiation and Polyadenylation Sites in Grape Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Gene CYP736B Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are versatile redox proteins that mediate biosynthesis of lignins, terpenes, alkaloids, and a variety of other secondary compounds as plant defense agents against a range of pathogens and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in the...

  13. Influence of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons on the induction, activity, and stabilization of cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Voorman, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the course of experiments evaluating the metabolism of polybrominated biphenyls by cytochrome P450 isozymes induced by 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), it was discovered that the inducer remained closely associated with cytochrome P450d. Subsequent purification of cytochromes from HBB treated rates revealed a 0.5:1 association of HBB to cytochrome P450d but virtually none with cytochrome P450c or cytochrome b5. Immunochemical quantitation of cytochrome P450d in the same microsomes yielded a ratio of P450d:HBB that approached unity. Measurement of cytochrome P450d estradiol 2-hydroxylase indicated non-competitive or mixed type inhibition caused by HBB at a concentration of 10-1000 nM. Inhibition was specific to cytochrome P450d since estradiol 2-hydroxylase catalyzed by cytochrome P450h was unaffected by HBB. The ability of HCB and isosafrole to stabilize cytochrome P450d, and thus indirectly influence regulation of the enzyme, was evaluated by treating rats with a dose of TCDD sufficient to produce maximum induction of cytochromes P450c and P450d via the Ah receptor, yet insufficient to bind to the enzyme. Subsequent treatment of these animals with HCB or isosafrole and a radiolabeled amino acid, revealed a significant increase in cytochrome P450d specific content relative to cytochrome P450c and significant retention of the radiolabel in P450d relative to rats treated only with TCDD.

  14. Production in vitro by the cytochrome P450 CYP94A1 of major C18 cutin monomers and potential messengers in plant-pathogen interactions: enantioselectivity studies.

    PubMed

    Pinot, F; Benveniste, I; Salaün, J P; Loreau, O; Noël, J P; Schreiber, L; Durst, F

    1999-08-15

    The major C(18) cutin monomers are 18-hydroxy-9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10,18-trihydroxystearic acids. These compounds are also known messengers in plant-pathogen interactions. We have previously shown that their common precursor 9,10-epoxystearic acid was formed by the epoxidation of oleic acid in Vicia sativa microsomes (Pinot, Salaün, Bosch, Lesot, Mioskowski and Durst (1992) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 184, 183-193). Here we determine the chirality of the epoxide produced as (9R,10S) and (9S,10R) in the ratio 90:10 respectively. We further show that microsomes from yeast expressing the cytochrome P450 CYP94A1 are capable of hydroxylating the methyl terminus of 9,10-epoxystearic and 9,10-dihydroxystearic acids in the presence of NADPH to form the corresponding 18-hydroxy derivatives. The reactions were not catalysed by microsomes from yeast transformed with a void plasmid or in absence of NADPH. After incubation of a synthetic racemic mixture of 9,10-epoxystearic acid with microsomes of yeast expressing CYP94A1, the chirality of the residual epoxide was shifted to 66:34 in favour of the (9S,10R) enantiomer. Both enantiomers were incubated separately and V(max)/K(m) values of 16 and 3.42 ml/min per nmol of P450 for (9R, 10S) and (9S,10R) respectively were determined, demonstrating that CYP94A1 is enantioselective for the (9R,10S) enantiomer, which is preferentially formed in V. sativa microsomes. Compared with the epoxide, the diol 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid was a much poorer substrate for the omega-hydroxylase, with a measured V(max)/K(m) of 0.33 ml/min per nmol of P450. Our results indicate that the activity of CYP94A1 is strongly influenced by the stereochemistry of the 9, 10-epoxide and the nature of substituents on carbons 9 and 10, with V(max)/K(m) values for epoxide>oleic acid>diol.

  15. Spectroscopic features of cytochrome P450 reaction intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Abhinav; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Preface Cytochromes P450 constitute a broad class of heme monooxygenase enzymes with more than 11,500 isozymes which have been identified in organisms from all biological kingdoms [1]. These enzymes are responsible for catalyzing dozens chemical oxidative transformations such as hydroxylation, epoxidation, N-demethylation, etc., with very broad range of substrates [2-3]. Historically these enzymes received their name from ‘pigment 450’ due to the unusual position of the Soret band in UV-Vis absorption spectra of the reduced CO-saturated state [4-5]. Despite detailed biochemical characterization of many isozymes, as well as later discoveries of other ‘P450-like heme enzymes’ such as nitric oxide synthase and chloroperoxidase, the phenomenological term ‘cytochrome P450’ is still commonly used as indicating an essential spectroscopic feature of the functionally active protein which is now known to be due to the presence of a thiolate ligand to the heme iron [6]. Heme proteins with an imidazole ligand such as myoglobin and hemoglobin as well as an inactive form of P450 are characterized by Soret maxima at 420 nm [7]. This historical perspective highlights the importance of spectroscopic methods for biochemical studies in general, and especially for heme enzymes, where the presence of the heme iron and porphyrin macrocycle provides rich variety of specific spectroscopic markers available for monitoring chemical transformations and transitions between active intermediates of catalytic cycle. PMID:21167809

  16. Precocious development of cytochrome P-450 in neonatal rat liver after glucocorticoid treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Leakey, J E; Fouts, J R

    1979-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of neonatal rats with glucocorticoid hormones causes precocious development of hepatic cytochrome P-450. Glucagon injection fails to stimulate this cytochrome P-450 development. Adult liver cytochrome P-450 is less responsive to glucocorticoid stimulation than is that of neonatal rat liver. Adrenalectomy of prematurely delivered neonatal animals prevents the early postnatal development of cytochrome P-450. Glucocorticoids failed to increase cytochrome P-450 concentrations in foetal rat liver. These findings imply that, although glucocorticoids are mandatory regulatory factors controlling cytochrome P-450 development, they are not themselves the 'trigger' initiating onset of that development. PMID:40549

  17. Fusion of Ferredoxin and Cytochrome P450 Enables Direct Light-Driven Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Mellor, Silas Busck; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Burow, Meike; Motawia, Mohammed Saddik; Jakubauskas, Dainius; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-07-15

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are key enzymes in the synthesis of bioactive natural products in plants. Efforts to harness these enzymes for in vitro and whole-cell production of natural products have been hampered by difficulties in expressing them heterologously in their active form, and their requirement for NADPH as a source of reducing power. We recently demonstrated targeting and insertion of plant P450s into the photosynthetic membrane and photosynthesis-driven, NADPH-independent P450 catalytic activity mediated by the electron carrier protein ferredoxin. Here, we report the fusion of ferredoxin with P450 CYP79A1 from the model plant Sorghum bicolor, which catalyzes the initial step in the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Fusion with ferredoxin allows CYP79A1 to obtain electrons for catalysis by interacting directly with photosystem I. Furthermore, electrons captured by the fused ferredoxin moiety are directed more effectively toward P450 catalytic activity, making the fusion better able to compete with endogenous electron sinks coupled to metabolic pathways. The P450-ferredoxin fusion enzyme obtains reducing power solely from its fused ferredoxin and outperforms unfused CYP79A1 in vivo. This demonstrates greatly enhanced electron transfer from photosystem I to CYP79A1 as a consequence of the fusion. The fusion strategy reported here therefore forms the basis for enhanced partitioning of photosynthetic reducing power toward P450-dependent biosynthesis of important natural products.

  18. Fusion of Ferredoxin and Cytochrome P450 Enables Direct Light-Driven Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are key enzymes in the synthesis of bioactive natural products in plants. Efforts to harness these enzymes for in vitro and whole-cell production of natural products have been hampered by difficulties in expressing them heterologously in their active form, and their requirement for NADPH as a source of reducing power. We recently demonstrated targeting and insertion of plant P450s into the photosynthetic membrane and photosynthesis-driven, NADPH-independent P450 catalytic activity mediated by the electron carrier protein ferredoxin. Here, we report the fusion of ferredoxin with P450 CYP79A1 from the model plant Sorghum bicolor, which catalyzes the initial step in the pathway leading to biosynthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. Fusion with ferredoxin allows CYP79A1 to obtain electrons for catalysis by interacting directly with photosystem I. Furthermore, electrons captured by the fused ferredoxin moiety are directed more effectively toward P450 catalytic activity, making the fusion better able to compete with endogenous electron sinks coupled to metabolic pathways. The P450-ferredoxin fusion enzyme obtains reducing power solely from its fused ferredoxin and outperforms unfused CYP79A1 in vivo. This demonstrates greatly enhanced electron transfer from photosystem I to CYP79A1 as a consequence of the fusion. The fusion strategy reported here therefore forms the basis for enhanced partitioning of photosynthetic reducing power toward P450-dependent biosynthesis of important natural products. PMID:27119279

  19. Correlation of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase Expression with the Expression of 10 Isoforms of Cytochrome P450 in Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Jia-Yu; Liu, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ping; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Cui, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Na; Tian, Xin; Gao, Jie; Wen, Qiang; Jia, Lin-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) provides electrons for all microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450s) and plays an indispensable role in drug metabolism catalyzed by this family of enzymes. We evaluated 100 human liver samples and found that POR protein content varied 12.8-fold, from 12.59 to 160.97 pmol/mg, with a median value of 67.99 pmol/mg; POR mRNA expression varied by 26.4-fold. POR activity was less variable with a median value of 56.05 nmol/min per milligram. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption clearly influenced POR activity. Liver samples with a 2286822 TT genotype had significantly higher POR mRNA expression than samples with CT genotype. Homozygous carriers of POR2286822C>T, 2286823G>A, and 3823884A>C had significantly lower POR protein levels compared with the corresponding heterozygous carriers. Liver samples from individuals homozygous at 286823G>A, 1135612A>G, and 10954732G>A generally had lower POR activity levels than those from heterozygous or wild-type samples, whereas the common variant POR*28 significantly increased POR activity. There was a strong association between POR and the expression of P450 isoforms at the mRNA and protein level, whereas the relationship at the activity level, as well as the effect of POR protein content on P450 activity, was less pronounced. POR transcription was strongly correlated with both hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha and pregnane X receptor mRNA levels. In conclusion, we have elucidated some potentially important correlations between POR single-nucleotide polymorphisms and POR expression in the Chinese population and have developed a database that correlates POR expression with the expression and activity of 10 P450s important in drug metabolism. PMID:27271371

  20. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  1. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  2. Versatile biocatalysis of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-07-18

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases, the nature's most versatile biological catalysts have unique ability to catalyse regio-, chemo-, and stereospecific oxidation of a wide range of substrates under mild reaction conditions, thereby addressing a significant challenge in chemocatalysis. Though CYP enzymes are ubiquitous in all biological kingdoms, the divergence of CYPs in fungal kingdom is manifold. The CYP enzymes play pivotal roles in various fungal metabolisms starting from housekeeping biochemical reactions, detoxification of chemicals, and adaptation to hostile surroundings. Considering the versatile catalytic potentials, fungal CYPs has gained wide range of attraction among researchers and various remarkable strategies have been accomplished to enhance their biocatalytic properties. Numerous fungal CYPs with multispecialty features have been identified and the number of characterized fungal CYPs is constantly increasing. Literature reveals ample reviews on mammalian, plant and bacterial CYPs, however, modest reports on fungal CYPs urges a comprehensive review highlighting their novel catalytic potentials and functional significances. In this review, we focus on the diversification and functional diversity of fungal CYPs and recapitulate their unique and versatile biocatalytic properties. As such, this review emphasizes the crucial issues of fungal CYP systems, and the factors influencing efficient biocatalysis.

  3. Epoxidation Activities of Human Cytochromes P450c17 and P450c21

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Some cytochrome P450 enzymes epoxidize unsaturated substrates, but this activity has not been described for the steroid hydroxylases. Physiologic steroid substrates, however, lack carbon–carbon double bonds in the parts of the pregnane molecules where steroidogenic hydroxylations occur. Limited data on the reactivity of steroidogenic P450s toward olefinic substrates exist, and the study of occult activities toward alternative substrates is a fundamental aspect of the growing field of combinatorial biosynthesis. We reasoned that human P450c17 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, CYP17A1), which 17- and 16α-hydroxylates progesterone, might catalyze the formation of the 16α,17-epoxide from 16,17-dehydroprogesterone (pregna-4,16-diene-3,20-dione). CYP17A1 catalyzed the novel 16α,17-epoxidation and the ordinarily minor 21-hydroxylation of 16,17-dehydroprogesterone in a 1:1 ratio. CYP17A1 mutation A105L, which has reduced progesterone 16α-hydroxylase activity, gave a 1:5 ratio of epoxide:21-hydroxylated products. In contrast, human P450c21 (steroid 21-hydroxylase, CYP21A2) converted 16,17-dehydroprogesterone to the 21-hydroxylated product and only a trace of epoxide. CYP21A2 mutation V359A, which has significant 16α-hydroxylase activity, likewise afforded the 21-hydroxylated product and slightly more epoxide. CYP17A1 wild-type and mutation A105L do not 21- or 16α-hydroxylate pregnenolone, but the enzymes 21-hydroxylated and 16α,17-epoxidized 16,17-dehydropregnenolone (pregna-5,16-diene-3β-ol-20-one) in 4:1 or 12:1 ratios, respectively. Catalase and superoxide dismutase did not prevent epoxide formation. The progesterone epoxide was not a time-dependent, irreversible CYP17A1 inhibitor. Our substrate modification studies have revealed occult epoxidase and 21-hydroxylase activities of CYP17A1, and the fraction of epoxide formed correlated with the 16α-hydroxylase activity of the enzymes. PMID:25386927

  4. RNAi construct of a cytochrome P450 gene CYP82D109 blocks an early step in the biosynthesis of hemigossypolone and gossypol in transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Tanya A; Liu, Jinggao; Puckhaber, Lorraine S; Bell, Alois A; Williams, Howard; Stipanovic, Robert D

    2015-07-01

    Naturally occurring terpenoid aldehydes from cotton, such as hemigossypol, gossypol, hemigossypolone, and the heliocides, are important components of disease and herbivory resistance in cotton. These terpenoids are predominantly found in the glands. Differential screening identified a cytochrome P450 cDNA clone (CYP82D109) from a Gossypium hirsutum cultivar that hybridized to mRNA from glanded cotton but not glandless cotton. Both the D genome cotton Gossypium raimondii and A genome cotton Gossypium arboreum possessed three additional paralogs of the gene. G. hirsutum was transformed with a RNAi construct specific to this gene family and eight transgenic plants were generated stemming from at least five independent transformation events. HPLC analysis showed that RNAi plants, when compared to wild-type Coker 312 (WT) plants, had a 90% reduction in hemigossypolone and heliocides levels, and a 70% reduction in gossypol levels in the terminal leaves, respectively. Analysis of volatile terpenes by GC-MS established presence of an additional terpene (MW: 218) from the RNAi leaf extracts. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analyses showed this compound was δ-cadinen-2-one. Double bond rearrangement of this compound gives 7-hydroxycalamenene, a lacinilene C pathway intermediate. δ-Cadinen-2-one could be derived from δ-cadinene via a yet to be identified intermediate, δ-cadinen-2-ol. The RNAi construct of CYP82D109 blocks the synthesis of desoxyhemigossypol and increases the induction of lacinilene C pathway, showing that these pathways are interconnected. Lacinilene C precursors are not constitutively expressed in cotton leaves, and blocking the gossypol pathway by the RNAi construct resulted in a greater induction of the lacinilene C pathway compounds when challenged by pathogens.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of the cytochrome P450 reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mak, Piotr J; Denisov, Ilia G

    2017-06-28

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are thiolate heme proteins that can, often under physiological conditions, catalyze many distinct oxidative transformations on a wide variety of molecules, including relatively simple alkanes or fatty acids, as well as more complex compounds such as steroids and exogenous pollutants. They perform such impressive chemistry utilizing a sophisticated catalytic cycle that involves a series of consecutive chemical transformations of heme prosthetic group. Each of these steps provides a unique spectral signature that reflects changes in oxidation or spin states, deformation of the porphyrin ring or alteration of dioxygen moieties. For a long time, the focus of cytochrome P450 research was to understand the underlying reaction mechanism of each enzymatic step, with the biggest challenge being identification and characterization of the powerful oxidizing intermediates. Spectroscopic methods, such as electronic absorption (UV-Vis), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), Mössbauer, X-ray absorption (XAS), and resonance Raman (rR), have been useful tools in providing multifaceted and detailed mechanistic insights into the biophysics and biochemistry of these fascinating enzymes. The combination of spectroscopic techniques with novel approaches, such as cryoreduction and Nanodisc technology, allowed for generation, trapping and characterizing long sought transient intermediates, a task that has been difficult to achieve using other methods. Results obtained from the UV-Vis, rR and EPR spectroscopies are the main focus of this review, while the remaining spectroscopic techniques are briefly summarized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity and biotechnology, edited by Erika Plettner, Gianfranco Gilardi, Luet Wong, Vlada Urlacher, Jared Goldstone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly reactive electrophilic oxidants in cytochrome P450 catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, Martin . E-mail: men@uic.edu; Chandrasena, R. Esala P.

    2005-12-09

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes effect a wide range of oxidations in nature including difficult hydroxylation reactions of unactivated C-H. Most of the high energy reactions of these catalysts appear to involve highly electrophilic active species. Attempts to detect the reactive transients in the enzymes have met with limited success, but evidence has accumulated that two distinct electrophilic oxidants are produced in the P450 enzymes. The consensus electrophilic oxidant termed 'iron-oxo' is usually thought to be an analogue of Compound I, an iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical cation species, but it is possible that a higher energy electronic isomer of Compound I is required to account for the facility of the C-H oxidation reactions. The second electrophilic oxidant of P450 is speculative; circumstantial evidence suggests that this species is iron-complexed hydrogen peroxide, but this oxidant might be a second spin state of iron-oxo. This overview discusses recent studies directed at detection of the electrophilic oxidants in P450 enzymes and the accumulated evidence for two distinct species.

  7. Marmoset pulmonary cytochrome P450 2F1 oxidizes biphenyl and 7-ethoxycoumarin and hepatic human P450 substrates.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Oshio, Toru; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-07-24

    1. A potentially useful animal model for preclinical studies is the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). In this study, using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from marmoset livers, we identified a novel cytochrome P450 (P450) 2F1 cDNA with an open reading frame of 1473 bp. 2. High sequence identities of 92-94% with primate P450 2 F amino acid sequences were indicated by deduced amino acid sequences of P450 2F1 cDNA. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that marmoset P450 2F1 is more congruent with primate P450 2 F forms than those of other species such as rodents. 3. Among five tissue types examined, abundant expression of marmoset P450 2F1 mRNA and P450 2F1 protein in lungs was shown. Cynomolgus monkey P450 2F1 mRNA was abundantly expressed in lungs as well as testes and ovaries in 10 tissue types. 4. Similar to those of humans and cynomolgus monkeys, marmoset P450 2F1 heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli membranes efficiently catalyzed 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation and biphenyl hydroxylation, however unlike human P450 2F1, marmoset P450 2F1 exhibited hydroxylation activity toward coumarin and chlorzoxazone. 5. These findings indicated that P450 2F1 enzyme expressed in marmoset lungs and also catalyzed metabolism of xenobiotics, suggesting the importance of P450 2 F-dependent drug metabolism in marmoset lungs.

  8. Integration and expression of a rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 gene in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, K; Noji, M; Ohmori, S; Imai, Y; Murakoshi, I

    1991-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of a broad range of substrates. We have made a chimeric construct, pSN002, containing the cDNA for rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 (IIC14) under the control of the TR2' promoter for mannopine synthase in the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid. Nicotiana tabacum was transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a cointegrated plasmid pSN002::pGV2260. The presence of mRNA and of the translated protein from the chimeric cytochrome P-450 gene in transgenic plants was confirmed by RNA blot hybridization and by Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. The transformants in which the foreign cytochrome P-450 protein is expressed show marked phenotypic changes, notably a tendency rapidly to senesce. We detected 2-propenylpyrrolidine, a degradative metabolite of nicotine alkaloids, in transgenic tobacco showing this pronounced phenotypic change. Such metabolism is likely to be due to the effect of senescence and not directly to the presence of the cytochrome P-450. Images PMID:1714583

  9. Cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids: the neglected pathway in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaipainen, Arja; Greene, Emily R.; Huang, Sui

    2010-01-01

    Endogenously produced lipid autacoids are locally acting small molecule mediators that play a central role in the regulation of inflammation and tissue homeostasis. A well-studied group of autacoids are the products of arachidonic acid metabolism, among which the prostaglandins and leukotrienes are the best known. They are generated by two pathways controlled by the enzyme systems cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, respectively. However, arachidonic acid is also substrate for a third enzymatic pathway, the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. This third eicosanoid pathway consists of two main branches: ω-hydroxylases convert arachidonic acid to hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and epoxygenases convert it to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). This third CYP pathway was originally studied in conjunction with inflammatory and cardiovascular disease. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites have recently stimulated great interest in cancer biology; but, unlike prostaglandins and leukotrienes the link between cytochome P450 metabolites and cancer has received little attention. In this review, the emerging role in cancer of cytochrome P450 metabolites, notably 20-HETE and EETs, are discussed. PMID:20941528

  10. Evolution of the cytochrome P450 superfamily: sequence alignments and pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D F; Watson, E; Lake, B G

    1998-06-01

    The evolution of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily is described, with particular reference to major events in the development of biological forms during geological time. It is noted that the currently accepted timescale for the elaboration of the P450 phylogenetic tree exhibits close parallels with the evolution of terrestrial biota. Indeed, the present human P450 complement of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes may have originated from coevolutionary 'warfare' between plants and animals during the Devonian period about 400 million years ago. A number of key correspondences between the evolution of P450 system and the course of biological development over time, point to a mechanistic molecular biology of evolution which is consistent with a steady increase in atmospheric oxygenation beginning over 2000 million years ago, whereas dietary changes during more recent geological time may provide one possible explanation for certain species differences in metabolism. Alignment between P450 protein sequences within the same family or subfamily, together with across-family comparisons, aid the rationalization of drug metabolism specificities for different P450 isoforms, and can assist in an understanding of genetic polymorphisms in P450-mediated oxidations at the molecular level. Moreover, the variation in P450 regulatory mechanisms and inducibilities between different mammalian species are likely to have important implications for current procedures of chemical safety evaluation, which rely on pure genetic strains of laboratory bred rodents for the testing of compounds destined for human exposure. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic engineering of light-driven cytochrome P450 dependent pathways into Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Artur; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Zulu, Nodumo Nokolunga; Mellor, Silas Busck; Luckner, Manja; Thøfner, Jens Frederik Bang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Mottawie, Mohammed Saddik; Burow, Meike; Pribil, Mathias; Feussner, Ivo; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides the energy input for the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites in plants and other photosynthetic organisms. Some secondary metabolites are high value compounds, and typically their biosynthesis requires the involvement of cytochromes P450s. In this proof of concept work, we demonstrate that the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is an eminent heterologous host for expression of metabolically engineered cytochrome P450-dependent pathways exemplified by the dhurrin pathway from Sorghum bicolor comprising two membrane bound cytochromes P450s (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1) and a soluble glycosyltransferase (UGT85B1). We show that it is possible to express multiple genes incorporated into a bacterial-like operon by using a self-replicating expression vector in cyanobacteria. We demonstrate that eukaryotic P450s that typically reside in the endoplasmic reticulum membranes can be inserted in the prokaryotic membranes without affecting thylakoid membrane integrity. Photosystem I and ferredoxin replaces the native P450 oxidoreductase enzyme as an efficient electron donor for the P450s both in vitro and in vivo. The engineered strains produced up to 66mg/L of p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and 5mg/L of dhurrin in lab-scale cultures after 3 days of cultivation and 3mg/L of dhurrin in V-shaped photobioreactors under greenhouse conditions after 9 days cultivation. All the metabolites were found to be excreted to the growth media facilitating product isolation.

  12. Characterization and expression of the cytochrome P450 gene family in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Liying; Tang, Weiqi; He, Weiyi; Ma, Xiaoli; Vasseur, Liette; Baxter, Simon W.; Yang, Guang; Huang, Shiguo; Song, Fengqin; You, Minsheng

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are present in almost all organisms and can play vital roles in hormone regulation, metabolism of xenobiotics and in biosynthesis or inactivation of endogenous compounds. In the present study, a genome-wide approach was used to identify and analyze the P450 gene family of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a destructive worldwide pest of cruciferous crops. We identified 85 putative cytochrome P450 genes from the P. xylostella genome, including 84 functional genes and 1 pseudogene. These genes were classified into 26 families and 52 subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed with three additional insect species shows extensive gene expansions of P. xylostella P450 genes from clans 3 and 4. Gene expression of cytochrome P450s was quantified across multiple developmental stages (egg, larva, pupa and adult) and tissues (head and midgut) using P. xylostella strains susceptible or resistant to insecticides chlorpyrifos and fiprinol. Expression of the lepidopteran specific CYP367s predominantly occurred in head tissue suggesting a role in either olfaction or detoxification. CYP340s with abundant transposable elements and relatively high expression in the midgut probably contribute to the detoxification of insecticides or plant toxins in P. xylostella. This study will facilitate future functional studies of the P. xylostella P450s in detoxification. PMID:25752830

  13. Role of cytochrome P450 in drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Zakia

    2008-10-18

    Drug-drug interactions have become an important issue in health care. It is now realized that many drug-drug interactions can be explained by alterations in the metabolic enzymes that are present in the liver and other extra-hepatic tissues. Many of the major pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs are due to hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes being affected by previous administration of other drugs. After coadministration, some drugs act as potent enzyme inducers, whereas others are inhibitors. However, reports of enzyme inhibition are very much more common. Understanding these mechanisms of enzyme inhibition or induction is extremely important in order to give appropriate multiple-drug therapies. In future, it may help to identify individuals at greatest risk of drug interactions and adverse events.

  14. Role of cytochrome P450 in drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Zakia

    2008-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions have become an important issue in health care. It is now realized that many drug-drug interactions can be explained by alterations in the metabolic enzymes that are present in the liver and other extra-hepatic tissues. Many of the major pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs are due to hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes being affected by previous administration of other drugs. After coadministration, some drugs act as potent enzyme inducers, whereas others are inhibitors. However, reports of enzyme inhibition are very much more common. Understanding these mechanisms of enzyme inhibition or induction is extremely important in order to give appropriate multiple-drug therapies. In future, it may help to identify individuals at greatest risk of drug interactions and adverse events. PMID:18928560

  15. Third international symposium: Cytochrome P450 biodiversity. Final report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Loper, J.C.

    1997-03-01

    The Symposium was held on October 8-12, 1995 at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole Massachusetts. Other international symposia promote cytochrome P450 research but have a primary focus on mammalian systems. This symposium is exclusively devoted to research in other organisms, and major topics reflect the distribution and dominance of non-mammalian species in the biosphere. The five sessions focused on basic mechanism, regulation, biodiversity, host-parasite interactions, and practical applications. 170 Scientists contributed 38 oral presentations and 91 posters, with a truly international composition of the symposium. Practical applications were a recurring feature, linking reports on mechanism and regulation to studies on the engineering of substrate specificity, microorganisms to degrade halogenated hydrocarbons and herbicides, and the production of in vitro P450 electrochemical bioreactors. At the time of the symposium there were 477 cytochrome P450 sequences in the database. Expansion of the known plant P450 genes was reported, with 20 new plant P450 families added in the last 3 years. Of these only 5 families have a physiological function associated with them. A growing number of identified invertebrate P450s was documented, where in insects, the forms identified are primarily involved in inducible xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification of toxic plant substances.

  16. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic engineering: current progress and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Renault, Hugues; Bassard, Jean-Etienne; Hamberger, Björn; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2014-06-01

    Cytochromes P450 catalyze a broad range of regiospecific, stereospecific and irreversible steps in the biosynthetic routes of plant natural metabolites with important applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, fragrance and flavour, or polymer industries. They are consequently essential drivers for the engineered bioproduction of such compounds. Two ground-breaking developments of commercial products driven by the engineering of P450s are the antimalarial drug precursor artemisinic acid and blue roses or carnations. Tedious optimizations were required to generate marketable products. Hurdles encountered in P450 engineering and their potential solutions are summarized here. Together with recent technical developments and novel approaches to metabolic engineering, the lessons from this pioneering work should considerably boost exploitation of the amazing P450 toolkit emerging from accelerated sequencing of plant genomes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. An extensive (co-)expression analysis tool for the cytochrome P450 superfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ehlting, Jürgen; Sauveplane, Vincent; Olry, Alexandre; Ginglinger, Jean-François; Provart, Nicholas J; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2008-01-01

    Background Sequencing of the first plant genomes has revealed that cytochromes P450 have evolved to become the largest family of enzymes in secondary metabolism. The proportion of P450 enzymes with characterized biochemical function(s) is however very small. If P450 diversification mirrors evolution of chemical diversity, this points to an unexpectedly poor understanding of plant metabolism. We assumed that extensive analysis of gene expression might guide towards the function of P450 enzymes, and highlight overlooked aspects of plant metabolism. Results We have created a comprehensive database, 'CYPedia', describing P450 gene expression in four data sets: organs and tissues, stress response, hormone response, and mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, based on public Affymetrix ATH1 microarray expression data. P450 expression was then combined with the expression of 4,130 re-annotated genes, predicted to act in plant metabolism, for co-expression analyses. Based on the annotation of co-expressed genes from diverse pathway annotation databases, co-expressed pathways were identified. Predictions were validated for most P450s with known functions. As examples, co-expression results for P450s related to plastidial functions/photosynthesis, and to phenylpropanoid, triterpenoid and jasmonate metabolism are highlighted here. Conclusion The large scale hypothesis generation tools presented here provide leads to new pathways, unexpected functions, and regulatory networks for many P450s in plant metabolism. These can now be exploited by the community to validate the proposed functions experimentally using reverse genetics, biochemistry, and metabolic profiling. PMID:18433503

  18. FTIR studies of the redox partner interaction in cytochrome P450: the Pdx-P450cam couple.

    PubMed

    Karyakin, Andrey; Motiejunas, Domantas; Wade, Rebecca C; Jung, Christiane

    2007-03-01

    Recently we have developed a new approach to study protein-protein interactions using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in combination with titration experiments and principal component analysis (FTIR-TPCA). In the present paper we review the FTIR-TPCA results obtained for the interaction between cytochrome P450 and the redox partner protein in two P450 systems, the Pseudomonas putida P450cam (CYP101) with putidaredoxin (P450cam-Pdx), and the Bacillus megaterium P450BM-3 (CYP102) heme domain with the FMN domain (P450BMP-FMND). Both P450 systems reveal similarities in the structural changes that occur upon redox partner complex formation. These involve an increase in beta-sheets and alpha-helix content, a decrease in the population of random coil/3(10)-helix structure, a redistribution of turn structures within the interacting proteins and changes in the protonation states or hydrogen-bonding of amino acid carboxylic side chains. We discuss in detail the P450cam-Pdx interaction in comparison with literature data and conclusions drawn from experiments obtained by other spectroscopic techniques. The results are also interpreted in the context of a 3D structural model of the Pdx-P450cam complex.

  19. Cumene hydroperoxide effected hydroperoxidation by cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Gurka, D P

    1985-04-01

    9-Methylfluorene was found to be oxygenated to 9-hydroperoxy-9-methylfluorene and 9-hydroxy-9-methylfluorene by cytochrome P-450 in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. Molecular oxygen is required and carbon monoxide is inhibitory. The reaction is inhibited by SKF-525A and metyrapone. Metyrapone and cumene hydroperoxide also retard the conversion of 9-hydroperoxy-9-methylfluorene to 9-hydroxy-9-methylfluorene. The reaction is different from hydroperoxide-supported oxygenation, since the cumene hydroperoxide appears to act as an effector of the enzyme rather than oxygen donor. It is suggested that substrates with stable radicals can be dioxygenated in this manner.

  20. Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity after surgical stress.

    PubMed

    Haas, Curtis E; Kaufman, David C; Jones, Carolyn E; Burstein, Aaron H; Reiss, William

    2003-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between the acute inflammatory response after surgical trauma and changes in hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 activity, compare changes in cytochrome P450 3A4 activity after procedures with varying degrees of surgical stress, and to explore the time course of any potential drug-cytokine interaction after surgery. Prospective, open-label study with each patient serving as his or her own control. University-affiliated, acute care, general hospital. A total of 16 patients scheduled for elective repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (n = 5), complete or partial colectomy (n = 6), or peripheral vascular surgery with graft (n = 5). Cytochrome P450 3A4 activity was estimated using the carbon-14 [14C]erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) before surgery and 24, 48, and 72 hrs after surgery. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and colectomy patients also had an ERMBT performed at discharge. Blood samples were obtained before surgery, immediately after surgery, and 6, 24, 32, 48, and 72 hrs after surgery for determination of plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Clinical markers of surgical stress that were collected included duration of surgery, estimated blood loss, and volume of fluids administered in the operating room. ERMBT results significantly declined in all three surgical groups, with the lowest value at the time of the 72-hr study in all three groups. There was a trend toward differences in ERMBT results among groups that did not reach statistical significance (p =.06). The nadir ERMBT result was significantly and negatively correlated with both peak interleukin-6 concentration (r(s) = -.541, p =.03) and log interleukin-6 area under the curve from 0 to 72 hrs (r(s) = -.597, p =.014). Subjects with a peak interleukin-6 of >100 pg/mL had a significantly lower nadir ERMBT compared with subjects with a peak interleukin-6 of <100 pg/mL (35.5% +/- 5.2% vs. 74.7% +/- 5.1%, p <.001). Acute inflammation after

  1. Regulation of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes by nuclear receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Honkakoski, P; Negishi, M

    2000-01-01

    Members of the nuclear-receptor superfamily mediate crucial physiological functions by regulating the synthesis of their target genes. Nuclear receptors are usually activated by ligand binding. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms often catalyse both formation and degradation of these ligands. CYPs also metabolize many exogenous compounds, some of which may act as activators of nuclear receptors and disruptors of endocrine and cellular homoeostasis. This review summarizes recent findings that indicate that major classes of CYP genes are selectively regulated by certain ligand-activated nuclear receptors, thus creating tightly controlled networks. PMID:10749660

  2. Cytochromes P450 CYP94C1 and CYP94B3 Catalyze Two Successive Oxidation Steps of Plant Hormone Jasmonoyl-isoleucine for Catabolic Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Thierry; Widemann, Emilie; Lugan, Raphaël; Miesch, Laurence; Ullmann, Pascaline; Désaubry, Laurent; Holder, Emilie; Grausem, Bernard; Kandel, Sylvie; Miesch, Michel; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Pinot, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The jasmonate hormonal pathway regulates important defensive and developmental processes in plants. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) has been identified as a specific ligand binding the COI1-JAZ co-receptor to relieve repression of jasmonate responses. Two JA-Ile derivatives, 12OH-JA-Ile and 12COOH-JA-Ile, accumulate in wounded Arabidopsis leaves in a COI1- and JAR1-dependent manner and reflect catabolic turnover of the hormone. Here we report the biochemical and genetic characterization of two wound-inducible cytochromes P450, CYP94C1 and CYP94B3, that are involved in JA-Ile oxidation. Both enzymes expressed in yeast catalyze two successive oxidation steps of JA-Ile with distinct characteristics. CYP94B3 performed efficiently the initial hydroxylation of JA-Ile to 12OH-JA-Ile, with little conversion to 12COOH-JA-Ile, whereas CYP94C1 catalyzed preferentially carboxy-derivative formation. Metabolic analysis of loss- and gain-of-function plant lines were consistent with in vitro enzymatic properties. cyp94b3 mutants were largely impaired in 12OH-JA-Ile levels upon wounding and to a lesser extent in 12COOH-JA-Ile levels. In contrast, cyp94c1 plants showed wild-type 12OH-JA-Ile accumulation but lost about 60% 12COOH-JA-Ile. cyp94b3cyp94c1 double mutants hyperaccumulated JA-Ile with near abolition of 12COOH-JA-Ile. Distinct JA-Ile oxidation patterns in different plant genotypes were correlated with specific JA-responsive transcript profiles, indicating that JA-Ile oxidation status affects signaling. Interestingly, exaggerated JA-Ile levels were associated with JAZ repressor hyperinduction but did not enhance durably defense gene induction, revealing a novel negative feedback signaling loop. Finally, interfering with CYP94 gene expression affected root growth sensitivity to exogenous jasmonic acid. These results identify CYP94B3/C1-mediated oxidation as a major catabolic route for turning over the JA-Ile hormone. PMID:22215670

  3. Cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone--an inhibitor of CYP enzymes--showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects.

  4. Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Caffeine in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Alexandra; Fraichard, Stephane; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Faure, Philippe; Artur, Yves; Ferveur, Jean-François; Heydel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine), an alkaloid produced by plants, has antioxidant and insecticide properties that can affect metabolism and cognition. In vertebrates, the metabolites derived from caffeine have been identified, and their functions have been characterized. However, the metabolites of caffeine in insects remain unknown. Thus, using radiolabelled caffeine, we have identified some of the primary caffeine metabolites produced in the body of Drosophila melanogaster males, including theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline. In contrast to mammals, theobromine was the predominant metabolite (paraxanthine in humans; theophylline in monkeys; 1, 3, 7-trimethyluric acid in rodents). A transcriptomic screen of Drosophila flies exposed to caffeine revealed the coordinated variation of a large set of genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins, including several cytochromes P450s (CYPs) that were highly overexpressed. Flies treated with metyrapone—an inhibitor of CYP enzymes—showed dramatically decreased caffeine metabolism, indicating that CYPs are involved in this process. Using interference RNA genetic silencing, we measured the metabolic and transcriptomic effect of three candidate CYPs. Silencing of CYP6d5 completely abolished theobromine synthesis, whereas CYP6a8 and CYP12d1 silencing induced different consequences on metabolism and gene expression. Therefore, we characterized several metabolic products and some enzymes potentially involved in the degradation of caffeine. In conclusion, this pioneer approach to caffeine metabolism in insects opens novel perspectives for the investigation of the physiological effects of caffeine metabolites. It also indicates that caffeine could be used as a biomarker to evaluate CYP phenotypes in Drosophila and other insects. PMID:25671424

  5. Human cytochromes P450 in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Nebert, Daniel W.; Wikvall, Kjell; Miller, Walter L.

    2013-01-01

    There are 18 mammalian cytochrome P450 (CYP) families, which encode 57 genes in the human genome. CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 families contain far more genes than the other 15 families; these three families are also the ones that are dramatically larger in rodent genomes. Most (if not all) genes in the CYP1, CYP2, CYP3 and CYP4 families encode enzymes involved in eicosanoid metabolism and are inducible by various environmental stimuli (i.e. diet, chemical inducers, drugs, pheromones, etc.), whereas the other 14 gene families often have only a single member, and are rarely if ever inducible or redundant. Although the CYP2 and CYP3 families can be regarded as largely redundant and promiscuous, mutations or other defects in one or more genes of the remaining 16 gene families are primarily the ones responsible for P450-specific diseases—confirming these genes are not superfluous or promiscuous but rather are more directly involved in critical life functions. P450-mediated diseases comprise those caused by: aberrant steroidogenesis; defects in fatty acid, cholesterol and bile acid pathways; vitamin D dysregulation and retinoid (as well as putative eicosanoid) dysregulation during fertilization, implantation, embryogenesis, foetogenesis and neonatal development. PMID:23297354

  6. Regulation of cytochrome P450 expression in Drosophila: Genomic insights

    PubMed Central

    Giraudo, Maeva; Unnithan, G. Chandran; Le Goff, Gaëlle; Feyereisen, René

    2009-01-01

    Genomic tools such as the availability of the Drosophila genome sequence, the relative ease of stable transformation, and DNA microarrays have made the fruit fly a powerful model in insecticide toxicology research. We have used transgenic promoter-GFP constructs to document the detailed pattern of induced Cyp6a2 gene expression in larval and adult Drosophila tissues. We also compared various insecticides and xenobiotics for their ability to induce this cytochrome P450 gene, and show that the pattern of Cyp6a2 inducibility is comparable to that of vertebrate CYP2B genes, and different from that of vertebrate CYP1A genes, suggesting a degree of evolutionary conservation for the “phenobarbital-type” induction mechanism. Our results are compared to the increasingly diverse reports on P450 induction that can be gleaned from whole genome or from “detox” microarray experiments in Drosophila. These suggest that only a third of the genomic repertoire of CYP genes is inducible by xenobiotics, and that there are distinct subsets of inducers / induced genes, suggesting multiple xenobiotic transduction mechanisms. A relationship between induction and resistance is not supported by expression data from the literature. The relative abundance of expression data now available is in contrast to the paucity of studies on functional expression of P450 enzymes, and this remains a challenge for our understanding of the toxicokinetic aspects of insecticide action. PMID:20582327

  7. Cytochrome P450, CYP93A1, as a defense marker in soybean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CYP93A1 is a cytochrome P450 that is involved in the synthesis of the phytoalexin glyceollin in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr). The gene encoding CYP93A1 has been used as a defense marker in soybean cell cultures, however, little is known regarding how this gene is expressed in the intact plant. To f...

  8. Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases for Fatty Acids and Xenobiotics in Marine Macroalgae1

    PubMed Central

    Pflugmacher, Stephan; Sandermann, Heinrich

    1998-01-01

    The metabolism of xenobiotics has mainly been investigated in higher plant species. We studied them in various marine macroalgae of the phyla Chlorophyta, Chromophyta, and Rhodophyta. Microsomes contained high oxidative activities for known cytochrome (Cyt) P450 substrates (fatty acids, cinnamic acid, 3- and 4-chlorobiphenyl, 2,3-dichlorobiphenyl, and isoproturon; up to 54 pkat/mg protein). The presence of Cyt P450 (approximately 50 pmol/mg protein) in microsomes of the three algal families was demonstrated by CO-difference absorption spectra. Intact algal tissue converted 3-chlorobiphenyl to the same monohydroxy-metabolite formed in vitro. This conversion was 5-fold stimulated upon addition of phenobarbital, and was abolished by the known P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole. It is concluded that marine macroalgae contain active species of Cyt P450 and could act as a metabolic sink for marine pollutants. PMID:9576781

  9. An evaluation of molecular models of the cytochrome P450 Streptomyces griseolus enzymes P450SU1 and P450SU2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braatz, Julie A.; Bass, Michael B.; Ornstein, Rick L.

    1994-10-01

    P450SU1 and P450SU2 are herbicide-inducible bacterial cytochrome P450 enzymes from Streptomyces griseolus. They have two of the highest sequence identities to camphor hydroxylase (P450cam from Pseudomonas putida), the cytochrome P450 with the first known crystal structure. We have built several models of these two proteins to investigate the variability in the structures that can occur from using different modeling protocols. We looked at variability due to alignment methods, backbone loop conformations and refinement methods. We have constructed two models for each protein using two alignment algorithms, and then an additional model using an identical alignment but different loop conformations for both buried and surface loops. The alignments used to build the models were created using the Needleman-Wunsch method, adapted for multiple sequences, and a manual method that utilized both a dotmatrix search matrix and the Needleman-Wunsch method. After constructing the initial models, several energy minimization methods were used to explore the variability in the final models caused by the choice of minimization techniques. Features of cytochrome P450cam and the cytochrome P450 superfamily, such as the ferredoxin binding site, the heme binding site and the substrate binding site were used to evaluate the validity of the models. Although the final structures were very similar between the models with different alignments, active-site residues were found to be dependent on the conformations of buried loops and early stages of energy minimization. We show which regions of the active site are the most dependent on the particular methods used, and which parts of the structures seem to be independent of the methods.

  10. Characterization of maize cytochrome P450 monooxygenases induced in response to safeners and bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Persans, M W; Wang, J; Schuler, M A

    2001-02-01

    Plants use a diverse array of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in their biosynthetic and detoxification pathways. To determine the extent to which various maize P450s are induced in response to chemical inducers, such as naphthalic anhydride (NA), triasulfuron (T), phenobarbital, and bacterial pathogens (Erwinia stuartii, Acidovorax avenae), we have analyzed the response patterns of seven P450 transcripts after treatment of seedlings with these inducers. Each of these P450 transcripts has distinct developmental, tissue-specific, and chemical cues regulating their expression even when they encode P450s within the same biosynthetic pathway. Most notably, the CYP71C1 and CYP71C3 transcripts, encoding P450s in the DIMBOA biosynthetic pathway, are induced to the same level in response to wounding and NA treatment of younger seedlings and differentially in response to NA/T treatment of younger seedlings and NA and NA/T treatment of older seedlings. NA and T induce expression of both CYP92A1 and CYP72A5 transcripts in older seedling shoots, whereas phenobarbital induces CYP92A1 expression in older seedling shoots and highly induces CYP72A5 expression in young and older seedling roots. Expressed sequence tag (EST) 6c06b11 transcripts, encoding an undefined P450 activity, are highly induced in seedling shoots infected with bacterial pathogens.

  11. Characterization of Maize Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenases Induced in Response to Safeners and Bacterial Pathogens1

    PubMed Central

    Persans, Michael W.; Wang, Jian; Schuler, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Plants use a diverse array of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in their biosynthetic and detoxification pathways. To determine the extent to which various maize P450s are induced in response to chemical inducers, such as naphthalic anhydride (NA), triasulfuron (T), phenobarbital, and bacterial pathogens (Erwinia stuartii, Acidovorax avenae), we have analyzed the response patterns of seven P450 transcripts after treatment of seedlings with these inducers. Each of these P450 transcripts has distinct developmental, tissue-specific, and chemical cues regulating their expression even when they encode P450s within the same biosynthetic pathway. Most notably, the CYP71C1 and CYP71C3 transcripts, encoding P450s in the DIMBOA biosynthetic pathway, are induced to the same level in response to wounding and NA treatment of younger seedlings and differentially in response to NA/T treatment of younger seedlings and NA and NA/T treatment of older seedlings. NA and T induce expression of both CYP92A1 and CYP72A5 transcripts in older seedling shoots, whereas phenobarbital induces CYP92A1 expression in older seedling shoots and highly induces CYP72A5 expression in young and older seedling roots. Expressed sequence tag (EST) 6c06b11 transcripts, encoding an undefined P450 activity, are highly induced in seedling shoots infected with bacterial pathogens. PMID:11161067

  12. Zonation of hepatic cytochrome P-450 expression and regulation.

    PubMed Central

    Oinonen, T; Lindros, K O

    1998-01-01

    The CYP genes encode enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily. Cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes are expressed mainly in the liver and are active in mono-oxygenation and hydroxylation of various xenobiotics, including drugs and alcohols, as well as that of endogenous compounds such as steroids, bile acids, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and biogenic amines. In the liver the CYP enzymes are constitutively expressed and commonly also induced by chemicals in a characteristic zonated pattern with high expression prevailing in the downstream perivenous region. In the present review we summarize recent studies, mainly based on rat liver, on the factors regulating this position-dependent expression and induction. Pituitary-dependent signals mediated by growth hormone and thyroid hormone seem to selectively down-regulate the upstream periportal expression of certain CYP forms. It is at present unknown to what extent other hormones that also affect total hepatic CYP activities, i.e. insulin, glucagon, glucocorticoids and gonadal hormones, act zone-specifically. The expression and induction of CYP enzymes in the perivenous region probably have important toxicological implications, since many CYP-activated chemicals cause cell injury primarily in this region of the liver. PMID:9405271

  13. Cytochrome P450 structure, function and clinical significance: A review.

    PubMed

    Palrasu, Manikandan; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-01-25

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions. CYP enzymes can be transcriptionally activated by various xenobiotics and endogenous substrates through receptor-dependent mechanisms. CYP enzyme inhibition is a principal mechanism for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Many chemotherapeutic drugs can cause drug interactions due to their ability to either inhibit or induce the CYP enzyme system. Predictions based on in silico analyses followed by validation have identified several microRNAs that regulate CYPs. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in CYP genes may be responsible for inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. Knowledge about the substrates, inducers, inhibitors of CYP isoforms, and the polymorphisms of CYP enzymes may be used as an aid by clinicians to determine therapeutic strategy, and treatment doses for drugs that are metabolized by CYP gene products. The present review is a comprehensive compilation of cytochrome P450 structure, function, pharmacogenetics, and pharmacoepigenetics and clinical significance.

  14. Identification and location of alpha-helices in mammalian cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R J; Murray, B P; Boobis, A R; Davies, D S

    1989-05-02

    A model of the alpha-helical structure of mammalian cytochromes P450 is proposed. The location and sequence of alpha-helices in mammalian cytochromes P450 were predicted from their homology with those of cytochrome P450cam, and these sequences were generally confirmed as helical in nature by using a secondary structure prediction method. These analyses were applied to 26 sequences in 6 gene families of cytochrome P450. Mammalian cytochromes P450 consist of approximately 100 amino acid residues more than cytochrome P450cam. This difference was accounted for by three major areas of insertion: (1) at the N-terminus, (2) between helices C and D and between helices D and E, and (3) between helices J and K. Insertion 1 has been suggested by others as a membrane anchoring sequence, but the apparent insertions at 2 and 3 are novel observations; it is suggested that they may be involved in the binding of cytochrome P450 reductase. Only the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 family appeared to show a major variation from this pattern, as insertion 2 was absent, replaced by an insertion between helices G and H and between helices H and I. This may reflect the difference in electron donor proteins that bind to members of this cytochrome P450 family. Other than these differences the model of mammalian cytochromes P450 proposed maintains the general structure of cytochrome P450cam as determined by its alpha-helical composition.

  15. The inhaled glucocorticoid fluticasone propionate efficiently inactivates cytochrome P450 3A5, a predominant lung P450 enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Murai, Takahiro; Reilly, Christopher R.; Ward, Robert M.; Yost, Garold S.

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is a vital part of the management of chronic asthma. GCs are metabolized by members of the cytochrome P450 3A family in both liver and lung, but the enzymes are differentially expressed. Selective inhibition of one or more P450 3A enzymes could substantially modify target and systemic concentrations of GCs. In this study, we have evaluated the mechanism-based inactivation of P450 3A4, 3A5 and 3A7 enzymes by GCs. Among the five major inhaled GCs approved for clinical use in the United States, fluticasone propionate (FLT) was the most potent mechanism-based inactivator of P450 3A5, the predominant P450 enzyme in the lung. FLT inactivated P450 3A5 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner with KI, kinact and partition ratio of 16 μM, 0.027 min-1 and 3, respectively. In contrast, FLT minimally inactivated P450 3A4 and did not inactivate 3A7, even with a concentration of 100 μM. The inactivation of P450 3A5 by FLT was irreversible because dialysis did not restore enzyme activity. In addition, the exogenous nucleophilic scavenger GSH did not attenuate inactivation. The prosthetic heme of P450 3A5 was not modified by FLT. The loss of P450 3A5 activity in lung cells could substantially decrease the metabolism of FLT, which would increase the effective FLT concentration at its target site, the respiratory epithelium. Also, inactivation of lung P450 3A5 could increase the absorption of inhaled FLT, which could lead to high systemic concentrations and adverse effects, such as life-threatening adrenal crises or cataracts that have been documented in children receiving high doses of inhaled GCs. PMID:20707410

  16. Characterization of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes (P450ome) from the carotenogenic yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    PubMed

    Córdova, Pamela; Gonzalez, Ana-María; Nelson, David R; Gutiérrez, María-Soledad; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor; Alcaíno, Jennifer

    2017-07-19

    The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are a large superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases involved in the oxidative metabolism of an enormous diversity of substrates. These enzymes require electrons for their activity, and the electrons are supplied by NAD(P)H through a P450 electron donor system, which is generally a cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous has evolved an exclusive P450-CPR system that specializes in the synthesis of astaxanthin, a carotenoid with commercial potential. For this reason, the aim of this work was to identify and characterize other potential P450 genes in the genome of this yeast using a bioinformatic approach. Thirteen potential P450-encoding genes were identified, and the analysis of their deduced proteins allowed them to be classified in ten different families: CYP51, CYP61, CYP5139 (with three members), CYP549A, CYP5491, CYP5492 (with two members), CYP5493, CYP53, CYP5494 and CYP5495. Structural analyses of the X. dendrorhous P450 proteins showed that all of them have a predicted transmembrane region at their N-terminus and have the conserved domains characteristic of the P450s, including the heme-binding region (FxxGxRxCxG); the PER domain, with the characteristic signature for fungi (PxRW); the ExxR motif in the K-helix region and the oxygen-binding domain (OBD) (AGxDTT); also, the characteristic secondary structure elements of all the P450 proteins were identified. The possible functions of these P450s include primary, secondary and xenobiotic metabolism reactions such as sterol biosynthesis, carotenoid synthesis and aromatic compound degradation. The carotenogenic yeast X. dendrorhous has thirteen P450-encoding genes having potential functions in primary, secondary and xenobiotic metabolism reactions, including some genes of great interest for fatty acid hydroxylation and aromatic compound degradation. These findings established a basis for future studies about the role of P450s in the

  17. Evaluating the Disposition of a Mixed Aldehyde Oxidase/Cytochrome P450 Substrate in Rats with Attenuated P450 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Rachel D.; Morrison, Ryan D.; Byers, Frank W.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2016-01-01

    Marketed drugs cleared by aldehyde oxidase (AO) are few, with no known clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions associated with AO inhibition, whereas cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition or induction mediates a number of clinical drug interactions. Little attention has been given to the consequences of coadministering a P450 inhibitor with a compound metabolized by both AO and P450. Upon discovering that VU0409106 (1) was metabolized by AO (to M1) and P450 enzymes (to M4–M6), we sought to evaluate the in vivo disposition of 1 and its metabolites in rats with attenuated P450 activity. Male rats were orally pretreated with the pan-P450 inactivator, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), before an i.p. dose of 1. Interestingly, the plasma area under the curve (AUC) of M1 was increased 15-fold in ABT-treated rats, indicating a metabolic shunt toward AO resulted from the drug interaction condition. The AUC of 1 also increased 7.8-fold. Accordingly, plasma clearance of 1 decreased from 53.5 to 15.3 ml/min per kilogram in ABT-pretreated rats receiving an i.v. dose of 1. Consistent with these data, M1 formation in hepatic S9 increased with NADPH-exclusion to eliminate P450 activity (50% over reactions containing NADPH). These studies reflect possible consequences of a drug interaction between P450 inhibitors and compounds cleared by both AO and P450 enzymes. Notably, increased exposure to an AO metabolite may hold clinical relevance for active metabolites or those mediating toxicity at elevated concentrations. The recent rise in clinical drug candidates metabolized by AO underscores the importance of these findings and the need for clinical studies to fully understand these risks. PMID:26936972

  18. Evaluating the Disposition of a Mixed Aldehyde Oxidase/Cytochrome P450 Substrate in Rats with Attenuated P450 Activity.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Rachel D; Morrison, Ryan D; Byers, Frank W; Lindsley, Craig W; Emmitte, Kyle A; Daniels, J Scott

    2016-08-01

    Marketed drugs cleared by aldehyde oxidase (AO) are few, with no known clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions associated with AO inhibition, whereas cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition or induction mediates a number of clinical drug interactions. Little attention has been given to the consequences of coadministering a P450 inhibitor with a compound metabolized by both AO and P450. Upon discovering that VU0409106 (1) was metabolized by AO (to M1) and P450 enzymes (to M4-M6), we sought to evaluate the in vivo disposition of 1 and its metabolites in rats with attenuated P450 activity. Male rats were orally pretreated with the pan-P450 inactivator, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), before an i.p. dose of 1. Interestingly, the plasma area under the curve (AUC) of M1 was increased 15-fold in ABT-treated rats, indicating a metabolic shunt toward AO resulted from the drug interaction condition. The AUC of 1 also increased 7.8-fold. Accordingly, plasma clearance of 1 decreased from 53.5 to 15.3 ml/min per kilogram in ABT-pretreated rats receiving an i.v. dose of 1. Consistent with these data, M1 formation in hepatic S9 increased with NADPH-exclusion to eliminate P450 activity (50% over reactions containing NADPH). These studies reflect possible consequences of a drug interaction between P450 inhibitors and compounds cleared by both AO and P450 enzymes. Notably, increased exposure to an AO metabolite may hold clinical relevance for active metabolites or those mediating toxicity at elevated concentrations. The recent rise in clinical drug candidates metabolized by AO underscores the importance of these findings and the need for clinical studies to fully understand these risks. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. [Cytochrome P-450 and the response to antimalarial drugs].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Valentina; Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between the genetic and phenotypic factors linked to the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system and the response to the antimalarial drugs chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, and proguanil, as well as to determine how certain biological and social factors of the host influence the behavior of this enzymatic complex. We performed a systematic review of the medical bibliographic databases PubMed, Excerpta Medica, LILACS, and SciELO by using the following Spanish and English descriptors: "CYP-450" and "citocromo P-450" in combination with "proguanil" (and with "mefloquina," "cloroquina," and "amodiaquina"), "farmacocinética de proguanil" (and the same using "mefloquina," "cloroquina," and "amodiaquina"), "resistencia a proguanil" (and the same using "mefloquina," "cloroquina," and "amodiaquina"), "metabolismo," "farmacogenética," "enfermedad," "inflamación," "infección," "enfermedad hepática," "malaria," "nutrición," and "desnutrición." The same terms were used in English. The search included only articles published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese on or before 30 June 2005 that dealt with only four antimalarial drugs: amodiaquine, chloroquine, mefloquine, and proguanil. Some genetic factors linked to human cytochrome P-450 (mainly its polymorphism), as well as other biological and social factors (the presence of disease itself, or of inflammation and infection, the use of antimalarials in their various combinations, and the patient's nutritional status) influence the behavior of this complex enzymatic system. It has only been in the last decade that the genetics of the cytochromes has been explored and that the mechanisms underlying some therapeutic interactions and aspects of drug metabolism have been uncovered, making it possible to characterize the biotransformation pathway of amodiaquine and chloroquine. Hopefully new research will help answer the questions that still remain, some of which pertain to the metabolism of other

  20. Direct inhibitions of the activities of steroidogenic cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase systems by anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, T; Ichikawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    The effects of anticonvulsants on the activities of cytochromes P-450(17alpha,lyase) (CYP17), P-450arom (CYP19), P-450C21 (CYP21), P-450SCC (CYP11A1), and P-450(11beta) (CYP11B1) mono-oxygenase systems were studied using rat testicular microsomes, human placental microsomes, bovine adrenocortical microsomes, bovine adrenocortical mitochondria and purified cytochrome P-450(11beta). Phenytoin, clonazepam and carbamazepine inhibited the steroidogenesis catalysed by these cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase systems and the Ki values for each anticonvulsant were determined. Neither hydantoin nor sodium valproate inhibited the activities of steroidogenic cytochromes P-450. When the activities of cytochromes P-450arom and P-450C21 were measured in the presence of anticonvulsants, the Ki values (0.15 mM) for phenytoin were close to the plasma concentration of phenytoin under therapeutic conditions. Phenytoin, clonazepam and carbamazepine directly inhibited the monooxygenase activities of cytochromes P-450, because they did not affect the activities of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, NADPH-adrenoferredoxin reductase and adrenoferredoxin.

  1. Spaceflight Effects on Cytochrome P450 Content in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Moskaleva, Natalia; Moysa, Alexander; Novikova, Svetlana; Tikhonova, Olga; Zgoda, Victor; Archakov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Hard conditions of long-term manned spaceflight can affect functions of many biological systems including a system of drug metabolism. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily plays a key role in the drug metabolism. In this study we examined the hepatic content of some P450 isoforms in mice exposed to 30 days of space flight and microgravity. The CYP content was established by the mass-spectrometric method of selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Significant changes in the CYP2C29, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 contents were detected in mice of the flight group compared to the ground control group. Within seven days after landing and corresponding recovery period changes in the content of CYP2C29 and CYP1A2 returned to the control level, while the CYP2E1 level remained elevated. The induction of enzyme observed in the mice in the conditions of the spaceflight could lead to an accelerated biotransformation and change in efficiency of pharmacological agents, metabolizing by corresponding CYP isoforms. Such possibility of an individual pharmacological response to medication during long-term spaceflights and early period of postflight adaptation should be taken into account in space medicine. PMID:26561010

  2. Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction

    PubMed Central

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C

    2015-01-01

    The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis. PMID:25681906

  3. Cholesterol Ester Oxidation by Mycobacterial Cytochrome P450*

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Daniel J.; Madrona, Yarrow; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria share a common cholesterol degradation pathway initiated by oxidation of the alkyl side chain by enzymes of cytochrome P450 (CYP) families 125 and 142. Structural and sequence comparisons of the two enzyme families revealed two insertions into the N-terminal region of the CYP125 family (residues 58–67 and 100–109 in the CYP125A1 sequence) that could potentially sterically block the oxidation of the longer cholesterol ester molecules. Catalytic assays revealed that only CYP142 enzymes are able to oxidize cholesteryl propionate, and although CYP125 enzymes could oxidize cholesteryl sulfate, they were much less efficient at doing so than the CYP142 enzymes. The crystal structure of CYP142A2 in complex with cholesteryl sulfate revealed a substrate tightly fit into a smaller active site than was previously observed for the complex of CYP125A1 with 4-cholesten-3-one. We propose that the larger CYP125 active site allows for multiple binding modes of cholesteryl sulfate, the majority of which trigger the P450 catalytic cycle, but in an uncoupled mode rather than one that oxidizes the sterol. In contrast, the more unhindered and compact CYP142 structure enables enzymes of this family to readily oxidize cholesteryl esters, thus providing an additional source of carbon for mycobacterial growth. PMID:25210044

  4. Interactions of phospholipase D and cytochrome P450 protein stability

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Fan, Yang-Yi; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2004-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested a relationship between cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A (CYP3A) conformation and the phospholipid composition of the associated membrane. In this study, we utilized a novel microsomal incubation system that mimics many of the characteristics of CYP3A degradation pathway that have been observed in vivo and in cultured cells to study the effects of phospholipid composition on protein stability. We found that addition of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D (PLD) stabilized CYP3A in this system, but that phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) was without effect. Addition of phosphatidic acid also stabilized CYP3A protein in the microsomes. The use of 1,10-phenanthroline (phenanthroline), an inhibitor of PLD activity, decreased CYP3A stability in incubated microsomes. Similarly, 6-h treatment of primary cultures of rat hepatocytes with phenanthroline resulted in nearly complete loss of CYP3A protein. Treatment of rats with nicardipine or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which have been shown to affect CYP3A stability, altered the phospholipid composition of hepatic microsomes. It did not appear, though, that the changes in phospholipid composition that resulted from these in vivo treatments accounted for the change in CYP3A stability observed in hepatic microsomes from these animals.

  5. Nanoscale electron transport measurements of immobilized cytochrome P450 proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostick, Christopher D.; Flora, Darcy R.; Gannett, Peter M.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Lederman, David

    2015-04-01

    Gold nanopillars, functionalized with an organic self-assembled monolayer, can be used to measure the electrical conductance properties of immobilized proteins without aggregation. Measurements of the conductance of nanopillars with cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) proteins using conducting probe atomic force microscopy demonstrate that a correlation exists between the energy barrier height between hopping sites and CYP2C9 metabolic activity. Measurements performed as a function of tip force indicate that, when subjected to a large force, the protein is more stable in the presence of a substrate. This agrees with the hypothesis that substrate entry into the active site helps to stabilize the enzyme. The relative distance between hopping sites also increases with increasing force, possibly because protein functional groups responsible for electron transport (ETp) depend on the structure of the protein. The inhibitor sulfaphenazole, in addition to the previously studied aniline, increased the barrier height for electron transfer and thereby makes CYP2C9 reduction more difficult and inhibits metabolism. This suggests that P450 Type II binders may decrease the ease of ETp processes in the enzyme, in addition to occupying the active site.

  6. Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C.

    2015-02-01

    The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.

  7. Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C

    2015-02-14

    The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin π-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.

  8. Systematic Identification and Evolutionary Analysis of Catalytically Versatile Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Families Enriched in Model Basidiomycete Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Shale, Karabo; Pagadala, Nataraj Sekhar; Tuszynski, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of basidiomycetes, a group of fungi capable of degrading/mineralizing plant material, revealed the presence of numerous cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their genomes, with some exceptions. Considering the large repertoire of P450s found in fungi, it is difficult to identify P450s that play an important role in fungal metabolism and the adaptation of fungi to diverse ecological niches. In this study, we followed Sir Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection to identify such P450s in model basidiomycete fungi showing a preference for different types of plant components degradation. Any P450 family comprising a large number of member P450s compared to other P450 families indicates its natural selection over other P450 families by its important role in fungal physiology. Genome-wide comparative P450 analysis in the basidiomycete species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete carnosa, Agaricus bisporus, Postia placenta, Ganoderma sp. and Serpula lacrymans, revealed enrichment of 11 P450 families (out of 68 P450 families), CYP63, CYP512, CYP5035, CYP5037, CYP5136, CYP5141, CYP5144, CYP5146, CYP5150, CYP5348 and CYP5359. Phylogenetic analysis of the P450 family showed species-specific alignment of P450s across the P450 families with the exception of P450s of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete carnosa, suggesting paralogous evolution of P450s in model basidiomycetes. P450 gene-structure analysis revealed high conservation in the size of exons and the location of introns. P450s with the same gene structure were found tandemly arranged in the genomes of selected fungi. This clearly suggests that extensive gene duplications, particularly tandem gene duplications, led to the enrichment of selective P450 families in basidiomycetes. Functional analysis and gene expression profiling data suggest that members of the P450 families are catalytically versatile and possibly involved in fungal colonization of plant material. To our

  9. Enzyme kinetics of oxidative metabolism: cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are the most important enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of hydrophobic drugs and other foreign compounds (xenobiotics). The versatility of these enzymes results in some unusual kinetic properties, stemming from the simultaneous interaction of multiple substrates with the CYP active site. Often, the CYPs display kinetics that deviate from standard hyperbolic saturation or inhibition kinetics. Non-Michaelis-Menten or "atypical" saturation kinetics include sigmoidal, biphasic, and substrate inhibition kinetics (see Chapter 3 ). Interactions between substrates include competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, mixed inhibition, partial inhibition, activation, and activation followed by inhibition (see Chapter 4 ). Models and equations that can result in these kinetic profiles will be presented and discussed.

  10. Personalized Cancer Therapy Considering Cytochrome P450 Variability.

    PubMed

    Preissner, Saskia; Simmaco, Maurizio; Gentile, Giovanna; Preissner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The individual variability of pharmacokinetics is underestimated and few systematic studies exist in this field. In most cases, this leads to unwanted side effects or toxicity. In polychemotherapy, prodrugs (like ifosfamide), which have to be activated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), play an important role. If patients are poor metabolizers for these drugs, the therapy will be ineffective. Furthermore, CYPs and transporters can be (over)expressed in target tissues, which is also not examined and considered in clinical routine. Here, we present a body map showing relevant enzymes in some organs and tissues. Finally, a typical case of a Caucasian chemotherapy patient with breast cancer is presented and discussed regarding a personalized cancer therapy considering the single nucleotide polymorphisms found via genotyping.

  11. Structures of Human Cytochrome P-450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Porubsky, Patrick R.; Meneely, Kathleen M.; Scott, Emily E.

    2008-01-01

    Human microsomal cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) monooxygenates >70 low molecular weight xenobiotic compounds, as well as much larger endogenous fatty acid signaling molecules such as arachidonic acid. In the process, CYP2E1 can generate toxic or carcinogenic compounds, as occurs with acetaminophen overdose, nitrosamines in cigarette smoke, and reactive oxygen species from uncoupled catalysis. Thus, the diverse roles that CYP2E1 has in normal physiology, toxicity, and drug metabolism are related to its ability to metabolize diverse classes of ligands, but the structural basis for this was previously unknown. Structures of human CYP2E1 have been solved to 2.2 Å for an indazole complex and 2.6 Å for a 4-methylpyrazole complex. Both inhibitors bind to the heme iron and hydrogen bond to Thr303 within the active site. Complementing its small molecular weight substrates, the hydrophobic CYP2E1 active site is the smallest yet observed for a human cytochrome P-450. The CYP2E1 active site also has two adjacent voids: one enclosed above the I helix and the other forming a channel to the protein surface. Minor repositioning of the Phe478 aromatic ring that separates the active site and access channel would allow the carboxylate of fatty acid substrates to interact with conserved 216QXXNN220 residues in the access channel while positioning the hydrocarbon terminus in the active site, consistent with experimentally observed ω-1 hydroxylation of saturated fatty acids. Thus, these structures provide insights into the ability of CYP2E1 to effectively bind and metabolize both small molecule substrates and fatty acids. PMID:18818195

  12. Cloning and expression of a member of a new cytochrome P-450 family: cytochrome P-450lin (CYP111) from Pseudomonas incognita.

    PubMed Central

    Ropp, J D; Gunsalus, I C; Sligar, S G

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450lin catalyzes the 8-methyl hydroxylation of linalool as the first committed step of its utilization by Pseudomonas incognita as the sole carbon source. By using a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy, a 2.1-kb DNA fragment containing the cytochrome P-450lin gene (linC) was isolated. An open reading frame of 406 amino acids has been identified as that of P-450lin on the basis of amino acid sequence data from peptides of the native protein. Heterologous expression of functional holoprotein is exhibited by Escherichia coli transformed with pUC18 containing the subcloned linC gene under constitutive transcriptional control of the lac promoter. The G+C content of linC was found to be 55% overall and 58% in the third codon position. An optimized amino acid sequence alignment of P-450lin with cytochrome P-450cam shows that the two enzymes have only 25% identity. P-450lin was found to exhibit the expected conservation in the axial cysteine heme ligand-containing peptide and the threonine region postulated to form an O2-binding pocket (T. L. Poulos, B. C. Finzel, and A. J. Howard, J. Mol. Biol. 195:687-700, 1987). The low amino acid sequence identity between P-450lin and all other P-450 sequences has shown that P-450lin is the first member of the CYP111 P-450 gene family. PMID:8376348

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis).

    PubMed

    Ma, Bi; Luo, Yiwei; Jia, Ling; Qi, Xiwu; Zeng, Qiwei; Xiang, Zhonghuai; He, Ningjia

    2014-09-01

    Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosynthesis of physiologically important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinformatics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Inactivation of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 but not P450 3A5 by OSI-930, a thiophene-containing anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsia-lien; Zhang, Haoming; Medower, Christine; Hollenberg, Paul F; Johnson, William W

    2011-02-01

    An investigational anticancer agent that contains a thiophene moiety, 3-[(quinolin-4-ylmethyl)-amino]-N-[4-trifluoromethox)phenyl] thiophene-2-carboxamide (OSI-930), was tested to investigate its ability to modulate the activities of several cytochrome P450 enzymes. Results showed that OSI-930 inactivated purified, recombinant cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 in the reconstituted system in a mechanism-based manner. The inactivation was dependent on cytochrome b(5) and required NADPH. Catalase did not protect against the inactivation. No inactivation was observed in studies with human 2B6, 2D6, or 3A5 either in the presence or in the absence of b(5). The inactivation of 3A4 by OSI-930 was time- and concentration-dependent. The inactivation of the 7-benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)coumarin catalytic activity of 3A4 was characterized by a K(I) of 24 μM and a k(inact) of 0.04 min(-1). This K(I) is significantly greater than the clinical OSI-930 C(max) of 1.7 μM at the maximum tolerated dose, indicating that clinical drug interactions of OSI-930 via this pathway are not likely. Spectral analysis of the inactivated protein indicated that the decrease in the reduced CO spectrum at 450 nm was comparable to the amount of inactivation, thereby suggesting that the inactivation was primarily due to modification of the heme. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with detection at 400 nm showed a loss of heme comparable to the activity loss, but a modified heme was not detected. This result suggests either that the heme must have been modified enough so as not to be observed in a HPLC chromatograph or, possibly, that it was destroyed. The partition ratio for the inactivation of P450 3A4 was approximately 23, suggesting that this P450 3A4-mediated pathway occurs with approximately 4% frequency during the metabolism of OSI-930. Modeling studies on the binding of OSI-930 to the active site of the P450 3A4 indicated that OSI-930 would be oriented properly in the active site

  15. Therapeutic doses of SkQ1 do not induce cytochromes P450 in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Myasoedova, K N; Silachev, D N

    2014-10-01

    The effect of SkQ1 (a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) on the level of cytochromes P450 in rat liver was studied. It was found that administration of therapeutic dose of SkQ1 with drinking water for 5 days (250 nmol/kg of body weight per day) did not alter the level of cytochromes P450. Under the same conditions, the standard dose of phenobarbital used for the induction of cytochromes P450 caused the 2.7-fold increase in the content of these cytochromes. We conclude that therapeutic doses of SkQ1 do not induce cytochromes P450 in rats.

  16. Mechanistic Scrutiny Identifies a Kinetic Role for Cytochrome b5 Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, P450 17A1)

    PubMed Central

    Simonov, Alexandr N.; Holien, Jessica K.; Yeung, Joyee Chun In; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Zheng, Jie; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Auchus, Richard J.; Conley, Alan J.; Bond, Alan M.; Parker, Michael W.; Rodgers, Raymond J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c17 (P450 17A1, CYP17A1) is a critical enzyme in the synthesis of androgens and is now a target enzyme for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cytochrome P450c17 can exhibit either one or two physiological enzymatic activities differentially regulated by cytochrome b5. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, comprehensive in silico, in vivo and in vitro analyses were undertaken. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis showed close interactions within living cells between cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. In silico modeling identified the sites of interaction and confirmed that E48 and E49 residues in cytochrome b5 are essential for activity. Quartz crystal microbalance studies identified specific protein-protein interactions in a lipid membrane. Voltammetric analysis revealed that the wild type cytochrome b5, but not a mutated, E48G/E49G cyt b5, altered the kinetics of electron transfer between the electrode and the P450c17. We conclude that cytochrome b5 can influence the electronic conductivity of cytochrome P450c17 via allosteric, protein-protein interactions. PMID:26587646

  17. Cytochrome p450nor, a novel class of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 involved in nitrate respiration in the fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Takaya, N; Suzuki, S; Kuwazaki, S; Shoun, H; Maruo, F; Yamaguchi, M; Takeo, K

    1999-12-15

    Fusarium oxysporum, an imperfect filamentous fungus performs nitrate respiration under limited oxygen. In the respiratory system, Cytochrome P450nor (P450nor) is thought to catalyze the last step; reduction of nitric oxide to nitrous oxide. We examined its intracellular localization using enzymatic, spectroscopic, and immunological analyses to show that P450nor is found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. Translational fusions between the putative mitochondrial targeting signal on the amino terminus of P450nor and Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase resulted in significant beta-galactosidase activity in the mitochondrial fraction of nitrate-respiring cells, suggesting that one of the isoforms of P450nor (P450norA) is in anaerobic mitochondrion of F. oxysporum and acts as nitric oxide reductase. Furthermore, these findings suggest the involvement of P450nor in nitrate respiration in mitochondria.

  18. Bacterial Cytochrome P450 System Catabolizing the Fusarium Toxin Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Michihiro; Sato, Ikuo; Ishizaka, Masumi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Yoshida, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a natural toxin of fungi that cause Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and other small-grain cereals. DON accumulates in infected grains and promotes the spread of the infection on wheat, posing serious problems to grain production. The elucidation of DON-catabolic genes and enzymes in DON-degrading microbes will provide new approaches to decrease DON contamination. Here, we report a cytochrome P450 system capable of catabolizing DON in Sphingomonas sp. strain KSM1, a DON-utilizing bacterium newly isolated from lake water. The P450 gene ddnA was cloned through an activity-based screening of a KSM1 genomic library. The genes of its redox partner candidates (flavin adenine dinucleotide [FAD]-dependent ferredoxin reductase and mitochondrial-type [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin) were not found adjacent to ddnA; the redox partner candidates were further cloned separately based on conserved motifs. The DON-catabolic activity was reconstituted in vitro in an electron transfer chain comprising the three enzymes and NADH, with a catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of 6.4 mM−1 s−1. The reaction product was identified as 16-hydroxy-deoxynivalenol. A bioassay using wheat seedlings revealed that the hydroxylation dramatically reduced the toxicity of DON to wheat. The enzyme system showed similar catalytic efficiencies toward nivalenol and 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, toxins that frequently cooccur with DON. These findings identify an enzyme system that catabolizes DON, leading to reduced phytotoxicity to wheat. PMID:23275503

  19. Constituents of Indonesian medicinal plant Averrhoa bilimbi and their cytochrome P450 3A4 and 2D6 inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Auw, Lidyawati; Subehan; Sukrasno; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    As constituents of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves we identified three new compounds (1-3) together with 12 known ones (4-15); their inhibitory activities on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and 2D6 (CYP2D6) were examined. Among the isolated compounds, the mixture of 1 and 2, and compounds 4 and 9 showed strong inhibition on CYP3A4, but mild or no inhibition on CYP2D6. These compounds revealed the characteristics of 1) time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, 2) requirement of NADPH for the inhibition, 3) no protection by nucleophiles, and 4) suppression of the inhibition by competitive inhibitor. Thus, they are suggested to be mechanism-based inactivators of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. The kinetic parameters for the inactivation (k(inact) and K(I)) were 0.19 min(-1) and 36.7 μM for the mixture of 1 and 2, 0.126 min(-1) and 10.5 μM for 4, and 0.29 min(-1) and 23.4 μM for 9.

  20. Applications of microbial cytochrome P450 enzymes in biotechnology and synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Girvan, Hazel M; Munro, Andrew W

    2016-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) are a superfamily of monooxygenase enzymes with enormous potential for synthetic biology applications. Across Nature, their substrate range is vast and exceeds that of other enzymes. The range of different chemical transformations performed by P450s is also substantial, and continues to expand through interrogation of the properties of novel P450s and by protein engineering studies. The ability of P450s to introduce oxygen atoms at specific positions on complex molecules makes these enzymes particularly valuable for applications in synthetic biology. This review focuses on the enzymatic properties and reaction mechanisms of P450 enzymes, and on recent studies that highlight their broad applications in the production of oxychemicals. For selected soluble bacterial P450s (notably the high-activity P450-cytochrome P450 reductase enzyme P450 BM3), variants with a multitude of diverse substrate selectivities have been generated both rationally and by random mutagenesis/directed evolution approaches. This highlights the robustness and malleability of the P450 fold, and the capacity of these biocatalysts to oxidise a wide range of chemical scaffolds. This article reviews recent research on the application of wild-type and engineered P450s in the production of important chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and drug metabolites, steroids and antibiotics. In addition, the properties of unusual members of the P450 superfamily that do not follow the canonical P450 catalytic pathway are described.

  1. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  2. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analysis of Three Pathogenesis-Related Cytochrome P450 Genes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoidoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-Lu; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Huang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant. PMID:25756378

  4. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of three pathogenesis-related cytochrome P450 genes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Tylenchida: Aphelenchoidoidea).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Lu; Wu, Xiao-Qin; Ye, Jian-Ren; Huang, Lin

    2015-03-06

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, causes huge economic losses in pine forests. The high expression of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus during infection in P. thunbergii indicated that these genes had a certain relationship with the pathogenic process of B. xylophilus. Thus, we attempted to identify the molecular characterization and functions of cytochrome P450 genes in B. xylophilus. In this study, full-length cDNA of three cytochrome P450 genes, BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3 were first cloned from B. xylophilus using 3' and 5' RACE PCR amplification. Sequence analysis showed that all of them contained a highly-conserved cytochrome P450 domain. The characteristics of the three putative proteins were analyzed with bioinformatic methods. RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the functions of BxCYP33C9, BxCYP33C4 and BxCYP33D3. The results revealed that these cytochrome P450 genes were likely to be associated with the vitality, dispersal ability, reproduction, pathogenicity and pesticide metabolism of B. xylophilus. This discovery confirmed the molecular characterization and functions of three cytochrome P450 genes from B. xylophilus and provided fundamental information in elucidating the molecular interaction mechanism between B. xylophilus and its host plant.

  5. Cytochrome P450 in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, King-Wah; Nakano, Toshiaki; Chen, Kuang-Den; Hsu, Li-Wen; Lai, Chia-Yun; Huang, Ching-Yin; Cheng, Yu-Fan; Goto, Shigeru; Chen, Chao-Long

    2015-05-15

    Cytochrome P450 metabolizes many drugs in the liver. Three genotypes of CYP2C19 with extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizing activity, respectively, have been identified in peripheral blood of transplant recipients and new liver grafts in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The expression of the final genotype in liver graft biopsies depends on the donor, whereas the expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells depends on the recipient. The metabolizing isoenzyme of the major anti-rejection agents passes through CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MDR1, which have also been identified to have similar biological characteristics as genotype of CYP2C19 in liver tissue. Recently, pyrosequencing has been used to investigate the expressions of different genotypes in liver grafts in LDLT. This review focuses on recent findings regarding the biological expressions of the CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and MRD1 genotypes in liver grafts before and after LDLT. The application of pyrosequencing may be beneficial in further research on liver transplantation. Laser capture microdissection of hepatocytes in liver grafts may be a direction for future research.

  6. High-throughput mass spectrometric cytochrome P450 inhibition screening.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kheng B; Ozbal, Can C; Kassel, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a high-throughput assay to support rapid evaluation of drug discovery compounds for possible drug-drug interaction (DDI). Each compound is evaluated for its DDI potential by incubating over a range of eight concentrations and against a panel of six cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. The method utilizes automated liquid handling for sample preparation, and online solid-phase extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/MS/MS) for sample analyses. The system is capable of generating two 96-well assay plates in 30 min, and completes the data acquisition and analysis of both plates in about 30 min. Many laboratories that perform the CYP inhibition screening automate only part of the processes leaving a throughput bottleneck within the workflow. The protocols described in this chapter are aimed to streamline the entire process from assay to data acquisition and processing by incorporating automation and utilizing high-precision instrument to maximize throughput and minimize bottleneck.

  7. Midkine Regulates BP through Cytochrome P450-Derived Eicosanoids.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuka; Sato, Waichi; Maruyama, Shoichi; Wilcox, Christopher S; Falck, John R; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kosugi, Tomoki; Kojima, Hiroshi; Maeda, Kayaho; Furuhashi, Kazuhiro; Ando, Masahiko; Imai, Enyu; Matsuo, Seiichi; Kadomatsu, Kenji

    2015-08-01

    The effects of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors have been attributed to cytochrome P450-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), but the regulation and role of EETs in endothelial dysfunction remain largely unexplored. Hypertension is a primary risk factor for renal dysfunction, which is frequently accompanied by various systemic diseases induced by endothelial dysfunction in the microcirculation. We previously reported that the endothelial growth factor midkine (MK) enhances hypertension in a model of CKD. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that MK regulates EET activity and thereby BP. MK gene-deleted mice were resistant to hypertension and developed less glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria after administration of a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor in the setting of uninephrectomy. The hypertension observed in uninephrectomized wild-type mice after NOS inhibition was ameliorated by anti-MK antibody. MK-deficient mice produced higher amounts of EETs, and EETs dominantly regulated BP in these mice. Furthermore, MK administration to MK-deficient mice recapitulated the BP control observed in wild-type mice. EETs also dominantly regulated renal blood flow, which may influence renal function, in MK-deficient mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the MK/EET pathway is physiologically engaged in BP control and could be a target for the treatment of hypertension complicated by endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Interaction of rocuronium with human liver cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Anzenbacherova, Eva; Spicakova, Alena; Jourova, Lenka; Ulrichova, Jitka; Adamus, Milan; Bachleda, Petr; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Rocuronium is a neuromuscular blocking agent acting as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine. Results of an inhibition of eight individual liver microsomal cytochromes P450 (CYP) are presented. As the patients are routinely premedicated with diazepam, possible interaction of diazepam with rocuronium has been also studied. Results indicated that rocuronium interacts with human liver microsomal CYPs by binding to the substrate site. Next, concentration dependent inhibition of liver microsomal CYP3A4 down to 42% (at rocuronium concentration 189 μM) was found. This effect has been confirmed with two CYP3A4 substrates, testosterone (formation of 6β-hydroxytestosterone) and diazepam (temazepam formation). CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were inhibited down to 75-80% (at the same rocuronium concentration). Activities of other microsomal CYPs have not been inhibited by rocuronium. To prove the possibility of rocuronium interaction with other drugs (diazepam), the effect of rocuronium on formation of main diazepam metabolites, temazepam (by CYP3A4) and desmethyldiazepam, (also known as nordiazepam; formed by CYP2C19) in primary culture of human hepatocytes has been examined. Rocuronium has caused inhibition of both reactions by 20 and 15%, respectively. The results open a possibility that interactions of rocuronium with drugs metabolized by CYP3A4 (and possibly also CYP2C19) may be observed. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Pharmacological Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. First principles calculation of the activity of cytochrome P450

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.; Boyes, R. N.

    1998-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes is of enormous interest in the biological sciences due to the wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds which it metabolises, including many drugs. We describe the use of first principles quantum mechanical modeling techniques, based on density functional theory, to determine the outcome of interactions between an enzyme and a number of compounds. Specifically, we calculate the spin state of an Fe3+ ion present in a haem moiety at the active site of these enzymes. The spin state of this ion indicates if the catalytic reaction will proceed. The computational results obtained compare favorably with experimental data. Only the principle components of the active site of the enzyme are included in the computational models, demonstrating that only a small fragment of the protein needs to be included in the models in order to accurately reproduce this aspect of the enzymes' function. These results open the way for further investigation of this superfamily of enzymes using the methods detailed in this paper.

  10. Cytochrome P450 ω-Hydroxylases in Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amanda L.; Edson, Katheryne Z.; Totah, Rheem A.; Rettie, Allan E.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-dependent ω-hydroxylation is a prototypic metabolic reaction of CYP4 family members that is important for the elimination and bioactivation of not only therapeutic drugs, but also endogenous compounds, principally fatty acids. Eicosanoids, derived from arachidonic acid, are key substrates in the latter category. Human CYP4 enzymes, mainly CYP4A11, CYP4F2, and CYP4F3B, hydroxylate arachidonic acid at the omega position to form 20-HETE, which has important effects in tumor progression and on angiogenesis and blood pressure regulation in the vasculature and kidney. CYP4F3A in myeloid tissue catalyzes the ω-hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 to 20-hydroxy leukotriene B4, an inactivation process that is critical for the regulation of the inflammatory response. Here, we review the enzymology, tissue distribution, and substrate selectivity of human CYP4 ω-hydroxylases and their roles as catalysts for the formation and termination of the biological effects of key eicosanoid metabolites in inflammation and cancer progression. PMID:26233909

  11. Identification of the main human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in safrole 1'-hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw; Chi, Chin-Wen; Ho, Li-Kang

    2004-08-01

    Safrole is a natural plant constituent, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. The carcinogenicity of safrole is mediated through 1'-hydroxysafrole formation, followed by sulfonation to an unstable sulfate that reacts to form DNA adducts. To identify the main cytochrome P450 (P450) involved in human hepatic safrole 1'-hydroxylation (SOH), we determined the SOH activities of human liver microsomes and Escherichia coli membranes expressing bicistronic human P450s. Human liver (n = 18) microsomal SOH activities were in the range of 3.5-16.9 nmol/min/mg protein with a mean value of 8.7 +/- 0.7 nmol/min/mg protein. In human liver (n = 3) microsomes, the mean K(m) and V(max) values of SOH were 5.7 +/- 1.2 mM and 0.14 +/- 0.03 micromol/min/nmol P450, respectively. The mean intrinsic clearance (V(max)/K(m)) was 25.3 +/- 2.3 microL/min/nmol P450. SOH was sensitive to the inhibition by a CYP2C9 inhibitor, sulfaphenazole, and CYP2E1 inhibitors, 4-methylpyrazole and diethyldithiocarbamate. The liver microsomal SOH activity showed significant correlations with tolbutamide hydroxylation (r = 0.569) and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation (r = 0.770) activities, which were the model reactions catalyzed by CYP2C9 and CYP2E1, respectively. Human CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 showed SOH activities at least 2-fold higher than the other P450s. CYP2E1 showed an intrinsic clearance 3-fold greater than CYP2C9. These results demonstrated that CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 were the main P450s involved in human hepatic SOH.

  12. Chemical proteomic probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities and drug interactions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2007-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450) superfamily metabolizes many endogenous signaling molecules and drugs. P450 enzymes are regulated by post-translational mechanisms in vivo, which hinders their functional characterization by conventional genomic or proteomic methods. Here, we describe a chemical proteomic strategy to profile P450 activities directly in living systems. Derivatization of a mechanism-based inhibitor with a “clickable” handle provided an activity-based probe that labels multiple P450s both in proteomic extracts and in vivo. This probe was used to record alterations in liver P450 activities triggered by chemical agents, including inducers of P450 expression and direct P450 inhibitors. The chemical proteomic strategy described herein thus offers a versatile method to monitor P450 activities and small molecule interactions in any biological system and, through doing so, should facilitate the functional characterization of this large and diverse enzyme class. PMID:17884636

  13. Silencing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced acaricide resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Zhang, Jiao; Shen, Guangmao; Xu, Zhifeng; Wei, Peng; Zhang, Yichao; Xu, Qiang; He, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are involved in metabolic resistance to insecticides and require NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) to transfer electrons when they catalyze oxidation reactions. The carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus is an important pest mite of crop and vegetable plants worldwide, and its resistance to acaricides has quickly developed. However, the role of CPR on the formation of acaricide-resistance in T. cinnabarinus is still unclear. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding CPR was cloned and characterized from T. cinnabarinus (designated TcCPR). TcCPR expression was detectable in all developmental stages of T. cinnabarinus, but it’s much lower in eggs. TcCPR was up-regulated and more inducible with fenpropathrin treatment in the fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain compared with the susceptible SS strain. Feeding of double-strand RNA was effective in silencing the transcription of TcCPR in T. cinnabarinus, which resulted in decreasing the activity of P450s and increasing the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in the FeR strain but not in the susceptible strain. The current results provide first evidence that the down-regulation of TcCPR contributed to an increase of the susceptibility to fenpropathrin in resistant mites. TcCPR could be considered as a novel target for the development of new pesticides. PMID:26493678

  14. Human Liver Cytochrome P450 3A4 Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YongQiang; Kim, Sung-Mi; Trnka, Michael J.; Liu, Yi; Burlingame, A. L.; Correia, Maria Almira

    2015-01-01

    CYP3A4 is an abundant and catalytically dominant human liver endoplasmic reticulum-anchored cytochrome P450 enzyme engaged in the biotransformation of endo- and xenobiotics, including >50% of clinically relevant drugs. Alterations of CYP3A4 protein turnover can influence clinically relevant drug metabolism and bioavailability and drug-drug interactions. This CYP3A4 turnover involves endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation via the ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent 26 S proteasomal system that relies on two highly complementary E2 Ub-conjugating-E3 Ub-ligase (UBC7-gp78 and UbcH5a-C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-Hsc70-Hsp40) complexes, as well as protein kinases (PK) A and C. We have documented that CYP3A4 Ser/Thr phosphorylation (Ser(P)/Thr(P)) by PKA and/or PKC accelerates/enhances its Lys ubiquitination by either of these E2-E3 systems. Intriguingly, CYP3A4 Ser(P)/Thr(P) and ubiquitinated Lys residues reside within the cytosol-accessible surface loop and/or conformationally assembled acidic Asp/Glu clusters, leading us to propose that such post-translational Ser/Thr protein phosphorylation primes CYP3A4 for ubiquitination. Herein, this possibility was examined through various complementary approaches, including site-directed mutagenesis, chemical cross-linking, peptide mapping, and LC-MS/MS analyses. Our findings reveal that such CYP3A4 Asp/Glu/Ser(P)/Thr(P) surface clusters are indeed important for its intermolecular electrostatic interactions with each of these E2-E3 subcomponents. By imparting additional negative charge to these Asp/Glu clusters, such Ser/Thr phosphorylation would generate P450 phosphodegrons for molecular recognition by the E2-E3 complexes, thereby controlling the timing of CYP3A4 ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Although the importance of phosphodegrons in the CHIP targeting of its substrates is known, to our knowledge this is the first example of phosphodegron involvement in gp78-substrate

  15. Effects of membrane mimetics on cytochrome P450-cytochrome b5 interactions characterized by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Huang, Rui; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-05-15

    Mammalian cytochrome P450 (P450) is a membrane-bound monooxygenase whose catalytic activities require two electrons to be sequentially delivered from its redox partners: cytochrome b5 (cytb5) and cytochrome P450 reductase, both of which are membrane proteins. Although P450 functional activities are known to be affected by lipids, experimental evidence to reveal the effect of membrane on P450-cytb5 interactions is still lacking. Here, we present evidence for the influence of phospholipid bilayers on complex formation between rabbit P450 2B4 (CYP2B4) and rabbit cytb5 at the atomic level, utilizing NMR techniques. General line broadening and modest chemical shift perturbations of cytb5 resonances characterize CYP2B4-cytb5 interactions on the intermediate time scale. More significant intensity attenuation and a more specific protein-protein binding interface are observed in bicelles as compared with lipid-free solution, highlighting the importance of the lipid bilayer in stabilizing stronger and more specific interactions between CYP2B4 and cytb5, which may lead to a more efficient electron transfer. Similar results observed for the interactions between CYP2B4 lacking the transmembrane domain (tr-CYP2B4) and cytb5 imply interactions between tr-CYP2B4 and the membrane surface, which might assist in CYP2B4-cytb5 complex formation by orienting tr-CYP2B4 for efficient contact with cytb5. Furthermore, the observation of weak and nonspecific interactions between CYP2B4 and cytb5 in micelles suggests that lipid bilayer structures and low curvature membrane surface are preferable for CYP2B4-cytb5 complex formation. Results presented in this study provide structural insights into the mechanism behind the important role that the lipid bilayer plays in the interactions between P450s and their redox partners. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Absence of cytochrome P450 2A5 enhances alcohol-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Liu, Xiyu; Ward, Stephen S; Xiong, Huabao; Cederbaum, Arthur I; Lu, Yongke

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol can induce cytochrome P450 2E1, an active generator of reactive oxygen species, and this cytochrome is considered a risk factor for oxidative liver injury. Recently, we found that in addition to P450 2E1 also cytochrome P450 2A5, another isoform of cytochrome P450, can be induced by ethanol, and that ethanol induction of cytochrome P450 2A5 is P450 2E1-dependent. To investigate the role of cytochrome P450 2A5 in alcohol-induced liver injury. Cytochrome P450 2A5-knockout mice and wild type mice were fed the Lieber-Decarli ethanol liquid diet to induce liver injury. Controls were fed the Lieber-Decarli control diet. After 4 weeks of feeding with Lieber-Decarli diet, ethanol-induced liver injury was enhanced in the knockout mice compared with wild type mice, as indicated by serum transaminases, hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis), and necroinflammation observed in liver sections with Haematoxylin & Eosin staining. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress was also higher in the knockout mice than the wild types. Ethanol feeding induced cytochrome P450 2A5 in wild type mice but not in the knockout mice, while induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 was comparable in the knockout and wild type mice. These results suggest that cytochrome P450 2A5 protects against ethanol-induced oxidative liver injury. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced cytochrome P450 1A and DNA binding in cultured trout hepatocytes – inhibition by plant polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Petra A.; Walle, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mainly induce lung cancer in humans, but induce liver cancer in fishes. The chemoprevention of cancers through inhibition of molecular events via phytochemicals is a potentially beneficial area of research, and has been carried out in human cell cultures in the past. Carcinogenesis initiation events are thought to occur in similar ways in fish and humans. Our study investigated the feasibility of using cultured rainbow trout CRL-2301 liver cells as a model for BaP-induced carcinogenesis and its prevention by dietary phytochemicals. Treatment with 1 μM BaP resulted in extensive time-dependent covalent binding to cellular DNA and marked cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A induction, for both about a 20-fold increase, which is similar to what has been observed in cultured human cells. A surprisingly high expression of epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity in these cells likely contributed substantially to the bioactivation of BaP. Two methoxylated flavones and the stilbene resveratrol were effective inhibitors of both the BaP-DNA binding and CYP 1A induction, in particular 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF), supporting a role for these dietary compounds as cancer chemopreventive agents. Unlike in human liver or bronchial cells, the main mechanism of inhibition of BaP-induced CYP 1A activity in trout liver cells appears to be direct competition at the protein level. Different cellular responses in any particular model used can be expected and the effect of cell context on the biological responses to xenobiotics, including carcinogens as well as polyphenols, must be considered. The trout CRL-2301 cells' sensitivity to BaP treatment is a clear advantage when contemplating a model system for studies of PAH-induced carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention. However, extrapolation to human organs should be done cautiously. PMID:17583686

  18. Cytochrome P450: the active oxidant and its spectrum.

    PubMed

    Rittle, Jonathan; Younker, Jarod M; Green, Michael T

    2010-04-19

    This Forum focuses on the nature of the elusive oxidizing intermediate in P450 catalysis. The identity of this species has reemerged as a topic of contentious debate. It was recently reported that laser flash photolysis (LFP) can be used to generate P450 compound I (P450-I) quantitatively. Kinetic analyses of the reaction of the LFP-generated intermediate with substrates have been suggested to indicate that compound I is not the active oxidant in P450 catalysis. We evaluate these claims via an analysis of the UV/visible spectrum of the LFP-generated intermediate. The techniques of singular value decomposition and target testing are used to obtain the spectrum of P450-I in a model-independent manner from stopped-flow data of the reaction of P450 with m-chloroperbenzoic acid. It is shown that the LFP-generated spectrum bears no similarity to the P450-I spectrum. One may conclude that the LFP-generated intermediate is not P450-I.

  19. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  20. KINETICS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES IN HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kinetics of Bromodichloromethane Metabolism by
    Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes in Human Liver Microsomes

    Guangyu Zhao and John W. Allis

    ABSTRACT
    The kinetic constants for the metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by three cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes have ...

  1. The active site of cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase: a model-building study.

    PubMed

    Ferenczy, G G; Morris, G M

    1989-12-01

    A model of the active site of cytochrome P-450 nifedipine oxidase is built on the basis of sequence homology with cytochrome P-450CAM. Substrates are docked into the binding pocket, and molecular mechanical energy minimization is performed to analyze the forces between the substrates and the enzyme.

  2. A three-dimensional model of aromatase cytochrome P450.

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Lorence, S.; Amarneh, B.; White, R. E.; Peterson, J. A.; Simpson, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    P450 hemeproteins comprise a large gene superfamily that catalyzes monooxygenase reactions in the presence of a redox partner. Because the mammalian members are, without exception, membrane-bound proteins, they have resisted structure-function analysis by means of X-ray crystallographic methods. Among P450-catalyzed reactions, the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the conversion of C19 steroids to estrogens is one of the most complex and least understood. Thus, to better understand the reaction mechanism, we have constructed a three-dimensional model of P450arom not only to examine the active site and those residues potentially involved in catalysis, but to study other important structural features such as substrate recognition and redox-partner binding, which require examination of the entire molecule (excepting the putative membrane-spanning region). This model of P450arom was built based on a "core structure" identified from the structures of the soluble, bacterial P450s (P450cam, P450terp, and P450BM-P) rather than by molecular replacement, after which the less conserved elements and loops were added in a rational fashion. Minimization and dynamic simulations were used to optimize the model and the reasonableness of the structure was evaluated. From this model we have postulated a membrane-associated hydrophobic region of aliphatic and aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition, a redox-partner binding region that may be unique compared to other P450s, as well as residues involved in active site orientation of substrates and an inhibitor of P450arom, namely vorozole. We also have proposed a scheme for the reaction mechanism in which a "threonine switch" determines whether oxygen insertion into the substrate molecule involves an oxygen radical or a peroxide intermediate. PMID:7549871

  3. Differentially regulated NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases in parsley

    PubMed Central

    Koopmann, Edda; Hahlbrock, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Two NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (CPRs) from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were cloned, and the complete proteins were expressed and functionally identified in yeast. The two enzymes, designated CPR1 and CPR2, are 80% identical in amino acid sequence with one another and about 75% identical with CPRs from several other plant species. The mRNA accumulation patterns for CPR1 and CPR2 in fungal elicitor-treated or UV-irradiated cultured parsley cells and in developing or infected parsley plants were compared with those for cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), one of the most abundant CPR-dependent P450 enzymes in plants. All treatments strongly induced the mRNAs for C4H and CPR1 but not for CPR2, suggesting distinct metabolic roles of CPR1 and CPR2 and a functional relationship between CPR1 and C4H. PMID:9405720

  4. Microsomal cytochrome P450 as a target for drug discovery and repurposing.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

    2017-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are ancient electron-transfer-chain system of remarkable biological importance. Microsomal P450 enzymes are the P450 attached to endoplasmic reticulum, which, in humans, are critical for body's defenses against xenobiotics by mediating their metabolism, and cell signaling by mediating arachidonic acid (AA) transformation to several potent bioactive molecules. Only recently, modulating P450-mediated AA metabolism has risen as a promising new drug target. This review presents the therapeutic potential of finding effective, selective and safe treatments targeting P450-mediated AA metabolism, and the several approaches that have been used to find these treatments; among which, our focus was on modulators of P450 activities. We detailed the efforts done to develop new molecular entities designed to modulate P450, and the more recent efforts tried to employ our previous knowledge on drug metabolism to repurpose old drugs with the capacity to alter P450-mediated drug metabolism to target AA metabolism. Because of the long recognition of P450 role in xenobiotic metabolism, several clinically approved agents were identified to alter P450 activity. Repurposing old drugs as P450 modulators can facilitate bringing treatments targeting P450-mediated AA metabolism to clinical trials. However, the capacity of the modulation of P450-derived AA metabolites of clinically approved drugs has to be systematically investigated and validated for their new use in humans.

  5. Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Reduce Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) Tolerance to Topramezone

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Matthew T.; Brosnan, James T.; Armel, Gregory R.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Best, Michael D.; Mueller, Thomas C.; Sorochan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is moderately tolerant to the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide topramezone. However, the contribution of plant metabolism of topramezone to this tolerance is unknown. Experiments were conducted to determine if known cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and malathion alone or in combination with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl influence creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone. Creeping bentgrass in hydroponic culture was treated with ABT (70 μM), malathion (70 μm and 1000 g ha-1), or cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha-1) prior to topramezone (8 g ha-1) application. Topramezone-induced injury to creeping bentgrass increased from 22% when applied alone to 79 and 41% when applied with malathion or ABT, respectively. Cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha-1) reduced topramezone injury to 1% and increased creeping bentgrass biomass and PSII quantum yield. Cloquintocet-mexyl mitigated the synergistic effects of ABT more than those of malathion. The effects of malathion on topramezone injury were supported by creeping bentgrass biomass responses. Responses to ABT and malathion suggest that creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone is influenced by cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolism. Future research should elucidate primary topramezone metabolites and determine the contribution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases to metabolite formation in safened and non-safened creeping bentgrass. PMID:26186714

  6. Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Reduce Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) Tolerance to Topramezone.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Matthew T; Brosnan, James T; Armel, Gregory R; Kopsell, Dean A; Best, Michael D; Mueller, Thomas C; Sorochan, John C

    2015-01-01

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is moderately tolerant to the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide topramezone. However, the contribution of plant metabolism of topramezone to this tolerance is unknown. Experiments were conducted to determine if known cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and malathion alone or in combination with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl influence creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone. Creeping bentgrass in hydroponic culture was treated with ABT (70 μM), malathion (70 μm and 1000 g ha(-1)), or cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha(-1)) prior to topramezone (8 g ha(-1)) application. Topramezone-induced injury to creeping bentgrass increased from 22% when applied alone to 79 and 41% when applied with malathion or ABT, respectively. Cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha(-1)) reduced topramezone injury to 1% and increased creeping bentgrass biomass and PSII quantum yield. Cloquintocet-mexyl mitigated the synergistic effects of ABT more than those of malathion. The effects of malathion on topramezone injury were supported by creeping bentgrass biomass responses. Responses to ABT and malathion suggest that creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone is influenced by cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolism. Future research should elucidate primary topramezone metabolites and determine the contribution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases to metabolite formation in safened and non-safened creeping bentgrass.

  7. The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases

    PubMed Central

    Gaucher, Eric A; Graddy, Logan G; Li, Tang; Simmen, Rosalia CM; Simmen, Frank A; Schreiber, David R; Liberles, David A; Janis, Christine M; Benner, Steven A

    2004-01-01

    Background Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is emerging as a broad strategy for generating hypotheses concerning function in a post-genomic world. This strategy expands systems biology to a planetary context, necessary for a notion of fitness to underlie (as it must) any discussion of function within a biomolecular system. Results Here, we report an example of such an expansion, where tools from planetary biology were used to analyze three genes from the pig Sus scrofa that encode cytochrome P450 aromatases–enzymes that convert androgens into estrogens. The evolutionary history of the vertebrate aromatase gene family was reconstructed. Transition redundant exchange silent substitution metrics were used to interpolate dates for the divergence of family members, the paleontological record was consulted to identify changes in physiology that correlated in time with the change in molecular behavior, and new aromatase sequences from peccary were obtained. Metrics that detect changing function in proteins were then applied, including KA/KS values and those that exploit structural biology. These identified specific amino acid replacements that were associated with changing substrate and product specificity during the time of presumed adaptive change. The combined analysis suggests that aromatase paralogs arose in pigs as a result of selection for Suoidea with larger litters than their ancestors, and permitted the Suoidea to survive the global climatic trauma that began in the Eocene. Conclusions This combination of bioinformatics analysis, molecular evolution, paleontology, cladistics, global climatology, structural biology, and organic chemistry serves as a paradigm in planetary biology. As the geological, paleontological, and genomic records improve, this approach should become widely useful to make

  8. Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 4A Suppress Angiogenic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Guo, Meng; Wygle, Dana; Edwards, Paul A.; Falck, John R.; Roman, Richard J.; Scicli, A. Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the 4A family (CYP4A) convert arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in blood vessels of several vascular beds. The present study examined the effects of inhibiting the formation of 20-HETE with N-hydroxy-N′-(4-butyl-2-methylphenol) formamidine (HET0016) on the mitogenic response of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and on growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the cornea of rats in vivo. HET0016 (10 μmol/L and 20 μg, respectively) abolished the mitogenic response to VEGF in HUVECs and the angiogenic response to VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in vivo by 80 to 90% (P < 0.001). Dibromododecenyl methylsulfonimide (DDMS), a structurally and mechanistically different inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, also abolished angiogenic responses when tested with VEGF. Additionally, administration of the stable 20-HETE agonist, 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z) 15(Z)-dienoic acid (WIT003) induced mitogenesis in HUVECs and angiogenesis in the rat cornea in vivo. We studied the ability of HET0016 to alter the angiogenic response in the rat cornea to human glioblastoma cancer cells (U251). When administered locally into the cornea, HET0016 (20 μg) reduced the angiogenic response to U251 cancer cells by 70%. These results suggest that a product of CYP4A product, possibly 20-HETE, plays a critical role in the regulation of angiogenesis and may provide a useful target for reduction of pathological angiogenesis. PMID:15681843

  9. Inhibitors of cytochrome P450 4A suppress angiogenic responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Guo, Meng; Wygle, Dana; Edwards, Paul A; Falck, John R; Roman, Richard J; Scicli, A Guillermo

    2005-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes of the 4A family (CYP4A) convert arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in blood vessels of several vascular beds. The present study examined the effects of inhibiting the formation of 20-HETE with N-hydroxy-N'-(4-butyl-2-methylphenol) formamidine (HET0016) on the mitogenic response of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and on growth factor-induced angiogenesis in the cornea of rats in vivo. HET0016 (10 micromol/L and 20 microg, respectively) abolished the mitogenic response to VEGF in HUVECs and the angiogenic response to VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, and epidermal growth factor in vivo by 80 to 90% (P < 0.001). Dibromododecenyl methylsulfonimide (DDMS), a structurally and mechanistically different inhibitor of 20-HETE synthesis, also abolished angiogenic responses when tested with VEGF. Additionally, administration of the stable 20-HETE agonist, 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z) 15(Z)-dienoic acid (WIT003) induced mitogenesis in HUVECs and angiogenesis in the rat cornea in vivo. We studied the ability of HET0016 to alter the angiogenic response in the rat cornea to human glioblastoma cancer cells (U251). When administered locally into the cornea, HET0016 (20 microg) reduced the angiogenic response to U251 cancer cells by 70%. These results suggest that a product of CYP4A product, possibly 20-HETE, plays a critical role in the regulation of angiogenesis and may provide a useful target for reduction of pathological angiogenesis.

  10. Herbal interactions involving cytochrome p450 enzymes: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Delgoda, Rupika; Westlake, Andrew C G

    2004-01-01

    The metabolism of a drug can be altered by another drug or foreign chemical, and such interactions can often be clinically significant. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, a superfamily of enzymes found mainly in the liver, are involved in the metabolism of a plethora of xenobiotics and have been shown to be involved in numerous interactions between drugs and food, herbs and other drugs. The observed induction and inhibition of CYP enzymes by natural products in the presence of a prescribed drug has (among other reasons) led to the general acceptance that natural therapies can have adverse effects, contrary to the popular beliefs in countries where there is an active practice of ethnomedicine. Herbal medicines such as St. John's wort, garlic, piperine, ginseng, and gingko, which are freely available over the counter, have given rise to serious clinical interactions when co-administered with prescription medicines. Such adversities have spurred various pre-clinical and in vitro investigations on a series of other herbal remedies, with their clinical relevance remaining to be established. Although the presence of numerous active ingredients in herbal medicines, foods and dietary supplements complicate experimentation, the observable interactions with CYP enzymes warrant systematic studies, so that metabolism-based interactions can be predicted and avoided more readily. This article highlights the involvement of CYP enzymes in metabolism-related drug-herb interactions and the importance of gaining a mechanism-based understanding to avoid potential adverse drug reactions, in addition to outlining other contributory factors, such as pharmacogenetics and recreational habits that may compound this important health issue.

  11. The cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, William S; Marko, Peter B; Nelson, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in animals fall into two categories: those that synthesize or metabolize endogenous molecules and those that interact with exogenous chemicals from the diet or the environment. The latter form a critical component of detoxification systems. Results Data mining and manual curation of the Daphnia pulex genome identified 75 functional CYP genes, and three CYP pseudogenes. These CYPs belong to 4 clans, 13 families, and 19 subfamilies. The CYP 2, 3, 4, and mitochondrial clans are the same four clans found in other sequenced protostome genomes. Comparison of the CYPs from D. pulex to the CYPs from insects, vertebrates and sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis) show that the CYP2 clan, and to a lesser degree, the CYP4 clan has expanded in Daphnia pulex, whereas the CYP3 clan has expanded in insects. However, the expansion of the Daphnia CYP2 clan is not as great as the expansion observed in deuterostomes and the nematode C. elegans. Mapping of CYP tandem repeat regions demonstrated the unusual expansion of the CYP370 family of the CYP2 clan. The CYP370s are similar to the CYP15s and CYP303s that occur as solo genes in insects, but the CYP370s constitute ~20% of all the CYP genes in Daphnia pulex. Lastly, our phylogenetic comparisons provide new insights into the potential origins of otherwise mysterious CYPs such as CYP46 and CYP19 (aromatase). Conclusion Overall, the cladoceran, D. pulex has a wide range of CYPs with the same clans as insects and nematodes, but with distinct changes in the size and composition of each clan. PMID:19383150

  12. Differential cytochrome P450 2D metabolism alters tafenoquine pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H; Potter, Brittney M J; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K; Sciotti, Richard J; Zottig, Victor E; Nanayakkara, N P Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Smith, Philip L; Paris, Robert M; Read, Lisa T; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S; Sousa, Jason C; Reichard, Gregory A; Smith, Bryan; Marcsisin, Sean R

    2015-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Differential Cytochrome P450 2D Metabolism Alters Tafenoquine Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Chau; Xie, Lisa H.; Potter, Brittney M. J.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Duan, Dehui; Nolan, Christina K.; Sciotti, Richard J.; Zottig, Victor E.; Nanayakkara, N. P. Dhammika; Tekwani, Babu L.; Walker, Larry A.; Smith, Philip L.; Paris, Robert M.; Read, Lisa T.; Li, Qigui; Pybus, Brandon S.; Sousa, Jason C.; Reichard, Gregory A.; Smith, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D metabolism is required for the liver-stage antimalarial efficacy of the 8-aminoquinoline molecule tafenoquine in mice. This could be problematic for Plasmodium vivax radical cure, as the human CYP 2D ortholog (2D6) is highly polymorphic. Diminished CYP 2D6 enzyme activity, as in the poor-metabolizer phenotype, could compromise radical curative efficacy in humans. Despite the importance of CYP 2D metabolism for tafenoquine liver-stage efficacy, the exact role that CYP 2D metabolism plays in the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of tafenoquine and other 8-aminoquinoline molecules has not been extensively studied. In this study, a series of tafenoquine pharmacokinetic experiments were conducted in mice with different CYP 2D metabolism statuses, including wild-type (WT) (reflecting extensive metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) and CYPmouse 2D knockout (KO) (reflecting poor metabolizers for CYP 2D6 substrates) mice. Plasma and liver pharmacokinetic profiles from a single 20-mg/kg of body weight dose of tafenoquine differed between the strains; however, the differences were less striking than previous results obtained for primaquine in the same model. Additionally, the presence of a 5,6-ortho-quinone tafenoquine metabolite was examined in both mouse strains. The 5,6-ortho-quinone species of tafenoquine was observed, and concentrations of the metabolite were highest in the WT extensive-metabolizer phenotype. Altogether, this study indicates that CYP 2D metabolism in mice affects tafenoquine pharmacokinetics and could have implications for human tafenoquine pharmacokinetics in polymorphic CYP 2D6 human populations. PMID:25870069

  14. Characterization of human cytochrome P450 induction by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled; Lämsä, Virpi; Reponen, Petri; Küblbeck, Jenni; Honkakoski, Paavo; Mattila, Sampo; Pelkonen, Olavi; Hakkola, Jukka

    2012-03-29

    Pesticides are a large group of structurally diverse toxic chemicals. The toxicity may be modified by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity. In the current study, we have investigated effects and mechanisms of 24 structurally varying pesticides on human CYP expression. Many pesticides were found to efficiently activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Out of the 24 compounds tested, 14 increased PXR- and 15 CAR-mediated luciferase activities at least 2-fold. While PXR was predominantly activated by pyrethroids, CAR was, in addition to pyrethroids, well activated by organophosphates and several carbamates. Induction of CYP mRNAs and catalytic activities was studied in the metabolically competent, human derived HepaRG cell line. CYP3A4 mRNA was induced most powerfully by pyrethroids; 50 μM cypermethrin increased CYP3A4 mRNA 35-fold. CYP2B6 was induced fairly equally by organophosphate, carbamate and pyrethroid compounds. Induction of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 by these compound classes paralleled their effects on PXR and CAR. The urea herbicide diuron and the triazine herbicide atrazine induced CYP2B6 mRNA more than 10-fold, but did not activate CAR indicating that some pesticides may induce CYP2B6 via CAR-independent mechanisms. CYP catalyzed activities were induced much less than the corresponding mRNAs. At least in some cases, this is probably due to significant inhibition of CYP enzymes by the studied pesticides. Compared with human CAR activation and CYP2B6 expression, pesticides had much less effect on mouse CAR and CYP2B10 mRNA. Altogether, pesticides were found to be powerful human CYP inducers acting through both PXR and CAR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monoclonal antibodies to ethanol-induced rat liver cytochrome P-450 that metabolizes aniline and nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Ko, I Y; Park, S S; Song, B J; Patten, C; Tan, Y Z; Hah, Y C; Yang, C S; Gelboin, H V

    1987-06-15

    Hybridomas were prepared from mouse myeloma cells and spleen cells derived from female BALB/c mice that had been immunized with a partially purified ethanol-induced rat liver cytochrome P-450 (P-450et). Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) produced by the hybridomas were screened for binding to P-450et with a radioimmunoassay. Thirty-one independent hybrid clones produced MAbs that had a high affinity for P-450et. Each clone produced MAbs of a single subclass of the mouse immunoglobulins IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, or IgA. Ten of the 31 MAbs also immunoprecipitated P-450et as determined by Ouchterlony double-immunodiffusion analyses. One of the MAbs was tested for cross-reactivity with other rabbit and rat liver cytochromes P-450 and was found not to cross-react with rat liver P-450 induced by either phenobarbital, beta-naphthoflavone, or rabbit liver P-450LM2 or P-450LM4. Nine of the MAbs were tested for cross-reactivity with rat liver clofibrate-induced P-450, rat liver pregnenolone-16-alpha-carbonitrile-induced P-450, and a human liver P-450. All the MAbs showed no cross-reactivity except for one MAb which cross-reacted with both pregnenolone-16-alpha-carbonitrile and human P-450 and three MAbs which cross-reacted with human P-450. Three antigen-precipitating MAbs and four nonprecipitating MAbs were tested for their effects on the aniline p-hydroxylase activity of liver microsomes of untreated rats and from rats treated with acetone, pyrazole, methylpyrazole, or imidazole. One of the seven MAbs tested, 1-91-3, inhibited enzyme activity of acetone-, pyrazole-, or methylpyrazole-induced microsomes by 54, 47, and 48%, respectively. This indicates that at least 50% of microsomal cytochrome P-450 aniline p-hydroxylase activity in the latter is a function of a P-450 enzyme that contained the epitope to which the MAb 1-91-3 is directed. With untreated and imidazole-induced microsomes, 32 and 21% inhibition of the enzyme activity was observed. In reconstituted systems containing

  16. tert-Butylphenylacetylene Is a Potent Mechanism-Based Inactivator of Cytochrome P450 2B4: Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Catalysis by Steric Hindrance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haoming; Lin, Hsia-lien; Walker, Vyvyca J.; Hamdane, Djemel

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated that 4-(tert-butyl)-phenylacetylene (tBPA) is a potent mechanism-based inactivator for cytochrome P450 2B4 (P450 2B4) in the reconstituted system. It inactivates P450 2B4 in a NADPH- and time-dependent manner with a KI of 0.44 μM and kinact of 0.12 min−1. The partition ratio was approximately zero, indicating that inactivation occurs without the reactive intermediate leaving the active site. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that tBPA forms a protein adduct with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Peptide mapping of the tBPA-modified protein provides evidence that tBPA is covalently bound to Thr302. This is consistent with results of molecular modeling that show the terminal carbon of the acetylenic group is only 3.65 Å away from Thr302. To characterize the effect of covalent modification of Thr302, tBPA-modified P450 2B4 was purified to homogeneity from the reconstituted system. The Soret band of tBPA-modified protein is red-shifted by 5 to 422 nm compared with unmodified protein. Benzphetamine binding to the modified P450 2B4 causes no spin shift, indicating that substrate binding and/or the heme environment has been altered by covalently bound tBPA. Cytochrome P450 reductase reduces the unmodified and tBPA-modified P450s at approximately the same rate. However, addition of benzphetamine stimulates the rate of reduction of unmodified P450 2B4 by ∼20-fold but only marginally stimulates reduction of the tBPA-modified protein. This large discrepancy in the stimulation of the first electron transfer by benzphetamine strongly suggests that the impairment of P450 catalysis is due to inhibition of benzphetamine binding to the tBPA-modified P450 2B4. PMID:19720728

  17. Conformational Adaptation of Human Cytochrome P450 2B6 and Rabbit Cytochrome P450 2B4 Revealed Upon Binding Multiple Amlodipine Molecules⊥

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish B.; Wilderman, P. Ross; Pascual, Jaime; Zhang, Qinghai; Stout, C. David; Halpert, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Structures of human cytochrome P450 2B6 and rabbit cytochrome P450 2B4 in complex with two molecules of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine have been determined by X-ray crystallography. The presence of two drug molecules suggests clear substrate access channels in each P450. According to a previously established nomenclature, amlodipine molecules were trapped in access pathway 2f in P450 2B6 and in pathway 2a or 2f in P450 2B4. These pathways overlap for part of the length and then diverge as they extend toward the protein surface. A previously described solvent channel was also found in each enzyme. The results indicate that key residues located on the surface and at the entrance of the substrate access channels in each of these P450s may play a crucial role in guiding substrate entry. In addition, the region of P450 2B6 and 2B4 involving helices B’, F, F’, G’ and part of helix G is substantially more open in the amlodipine complexes compared with the corresponding 4-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazole complexes. The increased active site volume observed results from the major retraction of helices F, F’ and B’ and the β4 sheet region located close to the binding cavity to accommodate amlodipine. These structures demonstrate novel insight into distinct conformational states not observed with previous P450 2B structures and provide clear evidence of the substrate access channels in two drug metabolizing P450s. In addition, the structures exhibit the versatility that can be exploited in silico studies with other P450 2B6 ligands as large as raloxifene and itraconazole. PMID:22909231

  18. The role of cytochrome b5 structural domains in interaction with cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, G V; Gilep, A A; Usanov, S A

    2014-05-01

    To understand the role of the structural elements of cytochrome b5 in its interaction with cytochrome P450 and the catalysis performed by this heme protein, we carried out comparative structural and functional analysis of the two major mammalian forms of membrane-bound cytochrome b5 - microsomal and mitochondrial, designed chimeric forms of the heme proteins in which the hydrophilic domain of one heme protein is replaced by the hydrophilic domain of another one, and investigated the effect of the highly purified native and chimeric heme proteins on the enzymatic activity of recombinant cytochromes P4503A4 and P45017A1 (CYP3A4 and CYP17A1). We show that the presence of a hydrophobic domain in the structure of cytochrome b5 is necessary for its effective interaction with its redox partners, while the nature of the hydrophobic domain has no significant effect on the ability of cytochrome b5 to stimulate the activity of cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions. Thus, the functional properties of cytochrome b5 are mainly determined by the structure of the heme-binding domain.

  19. Jasmonate and salicylate induce expression of herbivore cytochrome P450 genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2002-10-17

    Jasmonate and salicylate are plant-produced signals that activate plant defence genes after herbivory or pathogen attack. Amplification of these signals, evoked by either enemy attack or experimental manipulation, leads to an increase in the synthesis of toxic compounds (allelochemicals) and defence proteins in the plants. Although the jasmonate and salicylate signal cascades activate different sets of plant defence genes, or even act antagonistically, there is substantial communication between the pathways. Jasmonate and salicylate also contribute to protecting plants against herbivores by causing plants that experience insect damage to increase their production of volatile molecules that attract natural enemies of herbivorous insects. In response to plant defences, herbivores increase their production of enzymes that detoxify allelochemicals, including cytochrome P450s (refs 15, 16). But herbivores are potentially vulnerable to toxic allelochemicals in the duration between ingesting toxins and induction of detoxification systems. Here we show that the corn earworm Helicoverpa zea uses jasmonate and salicylate to activate four of its cytochrome P450 genes that are associated with detoxification either before or concomitantly with the biosynthesis of allelochemicals. This ability to 'eavesdrop' on plant defence signals protects H. zea against toxins produced by host plants.

  20. Construction of a 3D model of cytochrome P450 2B4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y T; Stiffelman, O B; Vakser, I A; Loew, G H; Bridges, A; Waskell, L

    1997-02-01

    A three-dimensional structural model of rabbit phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P450 2B4 (LM2) was constructed by homology modeling techniques previously developed for building and evaluating a 3D model of the cytochrome P450choP isozyme. Four templates with known crystal structures including cytochrome P450cam, terp, BM-3 and eryF were used in multiple sequence alignments and construction of the cytochrome P450 2B4 coordinates. The model was evaluated for its overall quality using available protein analysis programs and found to be satisfactory. The model structure was stable at room temperature during a 140 ps unconstrained full protein molecular dynamics simulation. A putative substrate access channel and binding site were identified. Two different substrates, benzphetamine and androstenedione, that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 2B4 with pronounced product specificity were docked into the putative binding site. Two orientations were found for each substrate that could lead to the observed preferred products. Using a geometric fit method three regions on the surface of the model cytochrome P450 structure were identified as possible sites for interaction with cytochrome b5, a redox partner of P450 2B4. Residues that may interact with the substrates and with cytochrome b5 have been identified and mutagenesis studies are currently in progress.

  1. Structure and Function of an NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase in an Open Conformation Capable of Reducing Cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdane, Djemel; Xia, Chuanwu; Im, Sang-Choul; Zhang, Haoming; Kim, Jung-Ja P.; Waskell, Lucy

    2010-01-20

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) catalyzes the transfer of electrons to all known microsomal cytochromes P450. A CYPOR variant, with a 4-amino acid deletion in the hinge connecting the FMN domain to the rest of the protein, has been crystallized in three remarkably extended conformations. The variant donates an electron to cytochrome P450 at the same rate as the wild-type, when provided with sufficient electrons. Nevertheless, it is defective in its ability to transfer electrons intramolecularly from FAD to FMN. The three extended CYPOR structures demonstrate that, by pivoting on the C terminus of the hinge, the FMN domain of the enzyme undergoes a structural rearrangement that separates it from FAD and exposes the FMN, allowing it to interact with its redox partners. A similar movement most likely occurs in the wild-type enzyme in the course of transferring electrons from FAD to its physiological partner, cytochrome P450. A model of the complex between an open conformation of CYPOR and cytochrome P450 is presented that satisfies mutagenesis constraints. Neither lengthening the linker nor mutating its sequence influenced the activity of CYPOR. It is likely that the analogous linker in other members of the diflavin family functions in a similar manner.

  2. Metabolic conditions determining the composition and catalytic activity of cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases in Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed Central

    Sanglard, D; Käppeli, O; Fiechter, A

    1984-01-01

    In the microsomal fraction of Candida tropicalis cells, two distinct monooxygenases were detected, depending on the growth conditions. The distinction of the two monooxygenases was evident from: (i) the absorption maxima in the reduced CO difference spectra of the terminal oxidases (cytochromes P-450 and P-448); (ii) the contents of the monooxygenase components (cytochromes P-450/P-448, NADPH-cytochrome c (P-450) reductase, and cytochrome b5) and (iii) the catalytic activity of the complete system (aliphatic hydroxylation and N-demethylation activity). The occurrence of the respective monooxygenases could be related to the carbon source (n-alkanes or glucose). Oxygen limitation led to a significant increase of cytochrome P-450/P-448 content, independent of the carbon source utilized by the cells. An improved method for the isolation of microsomes enabled us to demonstrate the presence of cytochrome P-448 in glucose-grown cells. PMID:6690424

  3. Differential induction of cytochrome P450-mediated triasulfuron metabolism by naphthalic anhydride and triasulfuron.

    PubMed Central

    Persans, M W; Schuler, M A

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play paramount roles in the detoxification of herbicides as well as in the synthesis of lignins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Biochemical analysis of triasulfuron metabolism in maize (Zea mays) seedlings has demonstrated that the P450(s) responsible for detoxification of this herbicide is induced by naphthalic anhydride (NA), a plant safener, and by triasulfuron, the herbicide itself. Induction studies conducted with seedlings of different ages suggest that two separate response pathways modulate this P-450 activity. Induction by NA is independent of the developmental age of the seedlings up to 6.5 d; induction by triasulfuron is tightly modulated with respect to developmental age in that triasulfuron metabolism can be induced by triasulfuron in young (2.5 d) but not older (6.5 d) seedlings. Induction by NA administered in combination with triasulfuron synergistically enhances triasulfuron metabolism in younger seedlings to levels substantially above that obtained with either herbicide or safener treatment alone. In older seedlings, NA plus triasulfuron treatment induces triasulfuron metabolism to only the level of NA treatment alone, indicating again that the induction cascade responding to triasulfuron is nonfunctional in later development. MnCl2 studies indicate that the triasulfuron insensitivity of older seedlings does not result from a general limitation in the inducibility of this P-450 detoxification system but rather from specific limitations in the triasulfuron-response pathway. PMID:8539299

  4. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  5. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  6. Transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing the two multifunctional sorghum cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP79A1 and CYP71E1, are cyanogenic and accumulate metabolites derived from intermediates in Dhurrin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bak, S; Olsen, C E; Halkier, B A; Møller, B L

    2000-08-01

    Novel cyanogenic plants have been generated by the simultaneous expression of the two multifunctional sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) and Arabidopsis under the regulation of the constitutive 35S promoter. CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 catalyze the conversion of the parent amino acid tyrosine to p-hydroxymandelonitrile, the aglycone of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin. CYP79A1 catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime and CYP71E1, the subsequent conversion to p-hydroxymandelonitrile. p-Hydroxymandelonitrile is labile and dissociates into p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide, the same products released from dhurrin upon cell disruption as a result of pest or herbivore attack. In transgenic plants expressing CYP79A1 as well as CYP71E1, the activity of CYP79A1 is higher than that of CYP71E1, resulting in the accumulation of several p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime-derived products in the addition to those derived from p-hydroxymandelonitrile. Transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing only CYP79A1 accumulate the same p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime-derived products as transgenic plants expressing both sorghum cytochrome P450 enzymes. In addition, the transgenic CYP79A1 Arabidopsis plants accumulate large amounts of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate. In transgenic Arabidopsis expressing CYP71E1, this enzyme and the enzymes of the pre-existing glucosinolate pathway compete for the p-hydroxyphenylacetaldoxime as substrate, resulting in the formation of small amounts of p-hydroxybenzylglucosinolate. Cyanogenic glucosides are phytoanticipins, and the present study demonstrates the feasibility of expressing cyanogenic compounds in new plant species by gene transfer technology to improve pest and disease resistance.

  7. Comparison of intrinsic dynamics of cytochrome p450 proteins using normal mode analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dorner, Mariah E; McMunn, Ryan D; Bartholow, Thomas G; Calhoon, Brecken E; Conlon, Michelle R; Dulli, Jessica M; Fehling, Samuel C; Fisher, Cody R; Hodgson, Shane W; Keenan, Shawn W; Kruger, Alyssa N; Mabin, Justin W; Mazula, Daniel L; Monte, Christopher A; Olthafer, Augustus; Sexton, Ashley E; Soderholm, Beatrice R; Strom, Alexander M; Hati, Sanchita

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are hemeproteins that catalyze the monooxygenation of a wide-range of structurally diverse substrates of endogenous and exogenous origin. These heme monooxygenases receive electrons from NADH/NADPH via electron transfer proteins. The cytochrome P450 enzymes, which constitute a diverse superfamily of more than 8,700 proteins, share a common tertiary fold but < 25% sequence identity. Based on their electron transfer protein partner, cytochrome P450 proteins are classified into six broad classes. Traditional methods of pro are based on the canonical paradigm that attributes proteins' function to their three-dimensional structure, which is determined by their primary structure that is the amino acid sequence. It is increasingly recognized that protein dynamics play an important role in molecular recognition and catalytic activity. As the mobility of a protein is an intrinsic property that is encrypted in its primary structure, we examined if different classes of cytochrome P450 enzymes display any unique patterns of intrinsic mobility. Normal mode analysis was performed to characterize the intrinsic dynamics of five classes of cytochrome P450 proteins. The present study revealed that cytochrome P450 enzymes share a strong dynamic similarity (root mean squared inner product > 55% and Bhattacharyya coefficient > 80%), despite the low sequence identity (< 25%) and sequence similarity (< 50%) across the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Noticeable differences in Cα atom fluctuations of structural elements responsible for substrate binding were noticed. These differences in residue fluctuations might be crucial for substrate selectivity in these enzymes. PMID:26130403

  8. [Heterologous expression of functionally active human cytochrome P-450s. Cytochrome P-450IIIA4 catalyzes the biotransformation of the anabolic steroid hormone methandrostenolone].

    PubMed

    Krynetskiĭ, E Iu; Kovaleva, I E; Luzikov, V N

    1994-02-01

    The expression of the cytochrome P450IIIA4 gene in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast using the shuttle vector pYeDP1-8/2 has been carried out. The microsomal fraction isolated from the transformed yeast cells was used for biotransformation of the anabolic steroid hormone-methandrostenolone (MA). The microsomal oxidation products were analyzed by HPLC and two-dimensional TLC. It was shown that microsomes of the yeasts expressing human cytochrome P450IIIA4 catalyze the MA conversion into its 6 beta-hydroxy derivative. An identical product is formed via a reaction catalyzed by human liver microsomes. The use of the heterological system of cytochrome P450IIIA4 expression has made it possible to establish its role in MA metabolism. The experimental system simulates the first phase of the drug biotransformation in liver cells.

  9. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity, Abundance, and Expression Throughout Human Development.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Natalie C; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N; Smith, Jordan N; Corley, Richard A; Wright, Aaron T

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are oxidative metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes varies considerably throughout human development; the deficit in our understanding of these dynamics limits our ability to predict environmental and pharmaceutical exposure effects. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 enzymes, we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. Modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s were used as chemical probes for isolating active P450 proteoforms in human hepatic microsomes with developmental stages ranging from early gestation to late adult. High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify probe-labeled P450s, allowing for a functional profile of P450 ontogeny. Total protein abundance profiles and P450 rRNA was also measured, and our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that these results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity, Abundance, and Expression Throughout Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s are oxidative metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes varies considerably throughout human development; the deficit in our understanding of these dynamics limits our ability to predict environmental and pharmaceutical exposure effects. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 enzymes, we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. Modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s were used as chemical probes for isolating active P450 proteoforms in human hepatic microsomes with developmental stages ranging from early gestation to late adult. High-resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify probe-labeled P450s, allowing for a functional profile of P450 ontogeny. Total protein abundance profiles and P450 rRNA was also measured, and our results reveal life-stage–dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that these results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics. PMID:27084891

  11. Inducible cytochrome P-450 from rat liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Raza, H.; Shayiq, F.M.; Avadhani, N.G.

    1987-05-01

    In the present study they have purified US -naphthoflavone (BNF, which induces isotypes similar to 3-MC) and PB induced mitochondrial isoforms. They have been able to purify two isoforms with molecular weights of 54 Kd and 52 Kd from BNF induced mitochondria. Only the 54 KD form, but not the 52 KD species reacts with the polyclonal antibody to microsomal P-450c, though, both show arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in an in vitro system reconstituted with adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin-reductase. Fingerprint analyses, N-terminal sequencing and use of monoclonal antibody probes show that the two mitochondrial isoforms are different from the microsomal P-450c. Further, the 54 Kd mitochondrial isoform is not detected in control mitochondria indicating that it is truly an induced form. Similarly, a PB induced mitochondrial form which exhibits physical, immunochemical and enzymatic properties different from the microsomal P-450b has also been purified.

  12. CYP703 Is an Ancient Cytochrome P450 in Land Plants Catalyzing in-Chain Hydroxylation of Lauric Acid to Provide Building Blocks for Sporopollenin Synthesis in Pollen[W

    PubMed Central

    Morant, Marc; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Schaller, Hubert; Pinot, Franck; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Bak, Søren

    2007-01-01

    CYP703 is a cytochrome P450 family specific to land plants. Typically, each plant species contains a single CYP703. Arabidopsis thaliana CYP703A2 is expressed in the anthers of developing flowers. Expression is initiated at the tetrad stage and restricted to microspores and to the tapetum cell layer. Arabidopsis CYP703A2 knockout lines showed impaired pollen development and a partial male-sterile phenotype. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy of pollen from the knockout plants showed impaired pollen wall development with absence of exine. The fluorescent layer around the pollen grains ascribed to the presence of phenylpropanoid units in sporopollenin was absent in the CYP703A2 knockout lines. Heterologous expression of CYP703A2 in yeast cells demonstrated that CYP703 catalyzes the conversion of medium-chain saturated fatty acids to the corresponding monohydroxylated fatty acids, with a preferential hydroxylation of lauric acid at the C-7 position. Incubation of recombinant CYP703 with methanol extracts from developing flowers confirmed that lauric acid and in-chain hydroxy lauric acids are the in planta substrate and product, respectively. These data demonstrate that in-chain hydroxy lauric acids are essential building blocks in sporopollenin synthesis and enable the formation of ester and ether linkages with phenylpropanoid units. This study identifies CYP703 as a P450 family specifically involved in pollen development. PMID:17496121

  13. Mechanisms that Regulate Production of Reactive Oxygen Species by Cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Zangar, Richard C.; Davydov, Dmitri R.; Verma, Seema

    2004-09-15

    Mammalian cytochromes P450 (P450) are a family of heme-thiolate enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of a variety of endogenous and exogenous lipophilic compounds. Poor coupling of the P450 catalytic cycle results in continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which affect signaling pathways and other cellular functions. P450 generation of ROS is tightly controlled by regulation of gene transcription, as well as by modulation of interactions between protein constituents of the monooxygenase that affects its activity, coupling and stability. Malfunction of these mechanisms may result in a burst of ROS production, which can cause lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. In turn, oxidative stress downregulates P450 levels by a variety of feedback mechanisms. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of these feedback mechanisms that serve to limit P450 production of ROS. Some of the more likely physiological and cellular effects of P450 generation of ROS are also discussed.

  14. Metabolism of sulphonated anthraquinones in rhubarb, maize and celery: the role of cytochromes P450 and peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Page, Valérie; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2009-11-01

    Sulphonated anthraquinones are precursors of many synthetic dyes and pigments, recalcitrant to biodegradation, and thus contaminating many industrial effluents and rivers. In the development of a phytotreatment to remove sulphonated aromatic compounds, rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum), a plant producing natural anthraquinones, as well as maize (Zea mays) and celery (Apium graveolens), plants not producing anthraquinones, were tested for their ability to metabolise these xenobiotics. Plants were cultivated under hydroponic conditions, with or without sulphonated anthraquinones, and were harvested at different times. Either microsomal or cytosolic fractions were prepared. The monooxygenase activity of cytochromes P450 towards several sulphonated anthraquinones was tested using a new method based on the fluorimetric detection of oxygen consumed during cytochromes P450-catalysed reactions. The activity of cytosolic peroxidases was measured by spectrophotometry, using guaiacol as a substrate. Results indicated that the activity of cytochromes P450 and peroxidases significantly increased in rhubarb plants cultivated in the presence of sulphonated anthraquinones. A higher activity of cytochromes P450 was also detected in maize and celery exposed to the pollutants. In these two plants, a peroxidase activity was also detected, but without a clear difference between the control plants and the plants exposed to the organic contaminants. This research demonstrated the existence in rhubarb, maize and celery of biochemical mechanisms involved in the metabolism and detoxification of sulphonated anthraquinones. Taken together, results confirmed that rhubarb might be the most appropriate plant for the phytotreatment of these organic pollutants.

  15. Evolution of substrate recognition sites (SRSs) in cytochromes P450 from Apiaceae exemplified by the CYP71AJ subfamily.

    PubMed

    Dueholm, Bjørn; Krieger, Célia; Drew, Damian; Olry, Alexandre; Kamo, Tsunashi; Taboureau, Olivier; Weitzel, Corinna; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2015-06-26

    Large proliferations of cytochrome P450 encoding genes resulting from gene duplications can be termed as 'blooms', providing genetic material for the genesis and evolution of biosynthetic pathways. Furanocoumarins are allelochemicals produced by many of the species in Apiaceaous plants belonging to the Apioideae subfamily of Apiaceae and have been described as being involved in the defence reaction against phytophageous insects. A bloom in the cytochromes P450 CYP71AJ subfamily has been identified, showing at least 2 clades and 6 subclades within the CYP71AJ subfamily. Two of the subclades were functionally assigned to the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins. Six substrate recognition sites (SRS1-6) important for the enzymatic conversion were investigated in the described cytochromes P450 and display significant variability within the CYP71AJ subfamily. Homology models underline a significant modification of the accession to the iron atom, which might explain the difference of the substrate specificity between the cytochromes P450 restricted to furanocoumarins as substrates and the orphan CYP71AJ. Two subclades functionally assigned to the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins and four other subclades were identified and shown to be part of two distinct clades within the CYP71AJ subfamily. The subclades show significant variability within their substrate recognition sites between the clades, suggesting different biochemical functions and providing insights into the evolution of cytochrome P450 'blooms' in response to environmental pressures.

  16. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2J2 mainly expressed in small intestines and livers effectively metabolizes human P450 2J2 probe substrates, astemizole and terfenadine.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Okamoto, Eriko; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    1. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a New World Monkey, has potential to be a useful animal model in preclinical studies. However, drug metabolizing properties have not been fully understood due to insufficient information on cytochrome P450 (P450), major drug metabolizing enzymes. 2. Marmoset P450 2J2 cDNA was isolated from marmoset livers. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high-sequence identity (91%) with cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes. A phylogenetic tree revealed that marmoset P450 2J2 was evolutionarily closer to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2J2 enzymes, than P450 2J forms in pigs, rabbits, rats or mice. 3. Marmoset P450 2J2 mRNA was abundantly expressed in the small intestine and liver, and to a lesser extent in the brain, lung and kidney. Immunoblot analysis also showed expression of marmoset P450 2J2 protein in the small intestine and liver. 4. Enzyme assays using marmoset P450 2J2 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli indicated that marmoset P450 2J2 effectively catalyzed astemizole O-demethylation and terfenadine t-butyl hydroxylation, similar to human and cynomolgus monkey P450 2J2 enzymes. 5. These results suggest the functional characteristics of P450 2J2 enzymes are similar among marmosets, cynomolgus monkeys and humans.

  17. Cytochrome P450IA mRNA expression in feral Hudson River tomcod

    SciTech Connect

    Kreamer, G.L.; Squibb, K.; Gioeli, D.; Garte, S.J.; Wirgin, I. )

    1991-06-01

    The authors sought to determine if levels of cytochrome P450IA gene expression are environmentally induced in feral populations of Hudson River tomcod, a cancer prone fish, and whether laboratory exposure of tomcod to artificially spiked and naturally contaminated Hudson sediments can elicit a significant response. Using Northern blot analysis, they found levels of P450IA mRNA in tomcod collected from two Hudson River sites higher than those in tomcod from a river in Maine. Depuration of environmentally induced Hudson tomcod P450IA mRNA was rapid, with an initial detectable decline in P450 gene expression by 8 hr and basal levels reached by 5 days. Intraperitoneal injection of {beta}-napthoflavone in depurated Hudson tomcod resulted in a 15-fold induction of P450 gene expression within 26 hr. Exposure of depurated Hudson tomcod to natural sediment spiked with two PAHs resulted in a 7-fold induction of P450 gene expression. Exposure of depurated tomcod to sediment from a contaminated Hudson site also resulted in a 7- to 15-fold induction of P450IA mRNA expression. Northern blot analysis revealed a second polymorphic cytochrome P450IA mRNA band in some tomcod which was also detected by Southern blot analysis. Induction of cytochrome P450IA mRNA in Atlantic tomcod may provide a sensitive biomarker of environmentally relevant concentrations of some pollutants in the Hudson and other northeastern tidal rivers.

  18. Interactions among cytochromes P450 in microsomal membranes: oligomerization of cytochromes P450 3A4, 3A5, and 2E1 and its functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Davydov, Dmitri R; Davydova, Nadezhda Y; Sineva, Elena V; Halpert, James R

    2015-02-06

    The body of evidence of physiologically relevant P450-P450 interactions in microsomal membranes continues to grow. Here we probe oligomerization of human CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2E1 in microsomal membranes. Using a technique based on luminescence resonance energy transfer, we demonstrate that all three proteins are subject to a concentration-dependent equilibrium between the monomeric and oligomeric states. We also observed the formation of mixed oligomers in CYP3A4/CYP3A5, CYP3A4/CYP2E1, and CYP3A5/CYP2E1 pairs and demonstrated that the association of either CYP3A4 or CYP3A5 with CYP2E1 causes activation of the latter enzyme. Earlier we hypothesized that the intersubunit interface in CYP3A4 oligomers is similar to that observed in the crystallographic dimers of some microsomal drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 (Davydov, D. R., Davydova, N. Y., Sineva, E. V., Kufareva, I., and Halpert, J. R. (2013) Pivotal role of P450-P450 interactions in CYP3A4 allostery: the case of α-naphthoflavone. Biochem. J. 453, 219-230). Here we report the results of intermolecular cross-linking of CYP3A4 oligomers with thiol-reactive bifunctional reagents as well as the luminescence resonance energy transfer measurements of interprobe distances in the oligomers of labeled CYP3A4 single-cysteine mutants. The results provide compelling support for the physiological relevance of the dimer-specific peripheral ligand-binding site observed in certain CYP3A4 structures. According to our interpretation, these results reveal an important general mechanism that regulates the activity and substrate specificity of the cytochrome P450 ensemble through interactions between multiple P450 species. As a result of P450-P450 cross-talk, the catalytic properties of the cytochrome P450 ensemble cannot be predicted by simple summation of the properties of the individual P450 species. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  20. ISOLATION OF A CYTOCHROME P-450 STRUCTURAL GENE FROM SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have transformed a Saccharomyces cerevisiae host with an S. cerevisiae genomic library contained in the shuttle vector YEp24 and screened the resultant transformants for resistance to ketoconazole (Kc), an inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 (P-450) enzyme lanosterol 14-demethyl...

  1. Cytochrome P450 1A2 Detoxicates Aristolochic Acid in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Einolf, Heidi J.; Dickman, Kathleen G.; Wang, Lai; Smith, Amanda; Grollman, Arthur P.

    2010-01-01

    Aristolochic acids (AAs) are plant-derived nephrotoxins and carcinogens responsible for chronic renal failure and associated urothelial cell cancers in several clinical syndromes known collectively as aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Mice provide a useful model for study of AAN because the renal histopathology of AA-treated mice is strikingly similar to that of humans. AA is also a potent carcinogen in mice with a tissue spectrum somewhat different from that in humans. The toxic dose of AA in mice is higher than that in humans; this difference in susceptibility has been postulated to reflect differing rates of detoxication between the species. Recent studies in mice have shown that the hepatic cytochrome P450 system detoxicates AA, and inducers of the arylhydrocarbon response protect mice from the nephrotoxic effects of AA. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of specific cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in AA metabolism in vivo. Of 18 human P450 enzymes we surveyed only two, CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, which were effective in demethylating 8-methoxy-6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AAI) to the nontoxic derivative 8-hydroxy-6-nitro-phenanthro-(3,4-d)-1,3-dioxolo-5-carboxylic acid (AAIa). Kinetic analysis revealed similar efficiencies of formation of AAIa by human and rat CYP1A2. We also report here that CYP1A2-deficient mice display increased sensitivity to the nephrotoxic effects of AAI. Furthermore, Cyp1a2 knockout mice accumulate AAI-derived DNA adducts in the kidney at a higher rate than control mice. Differences in bioavailability or hepatic metabolism of AAI, expression of CYP1A2, or efficiency of a competing nitroreduction pathway in vivo may explain the apparent differences between human and rodent sensitivity to AAI. PMID:20164109

  2. Genomewide annotation and comparative genomics of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in the polypore species Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma sp. and Phlebia brevispora.

    PubMed

    Syed, Khajamohiddin; Nelson, David R; Riley, Robert; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2013-01-01

    Genomewide annotation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in three white-rot species of the fungal order Polyporales, namely Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma sp. and Phlebia brevispora, revealed a large contingent of P450 genes (P450ome) in their genomes. A total of 199 P450 genes in B. adusta and 209 P450 genes each in Ganoderma sp. and P. brevispora were identified. These P450omes were classified into families and subfamilies as follows: B. adusta (39 families, 86 subfamilies), Ganoderma sp. (41 families, 105 subfamilies) and P. brevispora (42 families, 111 subfamilies). Of note, the B. adusta genome lacked the CYP505 family (P450foxy), a group of P450-CPR fusion proteins. The three polypore species revealed differential enrichment of individual P450 families in their genomes. The largest CYP families in the three genomes were CYP5144 (67 P450s), CYP5359 (46 P450s) and CYP5344 (43 P450s) in B. adusta, Ganoderma sp. and P. brevispora, respectively. Our analyses showed that tandem gene duplications led to expansions in certain P450 families. An estimated 33% (72 P450s), 28% (55 P450s) and 23% (49 P450s) of P450ome genes were duplicated in P. brevispora, B. adusta and Ganoderma sp., respectively. Family-wise comparative analysis revealed that 22 CYP families are common across the three Polypore species. Comparative P450ome analysis with Ganoderma lucidum revealed the presence of 143 orthologs and 56 paralogs in Ganoderma sp. Multiple P450s were found near the characteristic biosynthetic genes for secondary metabolites, namely polyketide synthase (PKS), non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), terpene cyclase and terpene synthase in the three genomes, suggesting a likely role of these P450s in secondary metabolism in these Polyporales. Overall, the three species had a richer P450 diversity both in terms of the P450 genes and P450 subfamilies as compared to the model white-rot and brown-rot polypore species Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Postia placenta.

  3. Defective Cytochrome P450-Catalysed Drug Metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Elena-Raluca; Al Eisa, Nada; Cluzeau, Celine V M; Wassif, Christopher A; Gray, James; Burkert, Kathryn R; Smith, David A; Morris, Lauren; Cologna, Stephanie M; Peer, Cody J; Sissung, Tristan M; Uscatu, Constantin-Daniel; Figg, William D; Pavan, William J; Vite, Charles H; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. NPC is characterised by storage of multiple lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, resulting in cellular and organ system dysfunction. The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the range of clinical presentations in NPC are not fully understood. While evaluating potential small molecule therapies in Npc1-/- mice, we observed a consistent pattern of toxicity associated with drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, suggesting a potential drug metabolism defect in NPC1 disease. Investigation of the P450 system in the context of NPC1 dysfunction revealed significant changes in the gene expression of many P450 associated genes across the full lifespan of Npc1-/- mice, decreased activity of cytochrome P450 reductase, and a global decrease of multiple cytochrome P450 catalysed dealkylation reactions. In vivo drug metabolism studies using a prototypic P450 metabolised drug, midazolam, confirmed dysfunction in drug clearance in the Npc1-/- mouse. Expression of the Phase II enzyme uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was also significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice. Interestingly, reduced activity within the P450 system was also observed in heterozygous Npc1+/- mice. The reduced activity of P450 enzymes may be the result of bile acid deficiency/imbalance in Npc1-/- mice, as bile acid treatment significantly rescued P450 enzyme activity in Npc1-/- mice and has the potential to be an adjunctive therapy for NPC disease patients. The dysfunction in the cytochrome P450 system were recapitulated in the NPC1 feline model. Additionally, we present the first evidence that there are alterations in the P450 system in NPC1 patients.

  4. Defective Cytochrome P450-Catalysed Drug Metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wassif, Christopher A.; Gray, James; Burkert, Kathryn R.; Smith, David A.; Morris, Lauren; Cologna, Stephanie M.; Peer, Cody J.; Sissung, Tristan M.; Uscatu, Constantin-Daniel; Figg, William D.; Pavan, William J.; Vite, Charles H.; Porter, Forbes D.; Platt, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. NPC is characterised by storage of multiple lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, resulting in cellular and organ system dysfunction. The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the range of clinical presentations in NPC are not fully understood. While evaluating potential small molecule therapies in Npc1-/- mice, we observed a consistent pattern of toxicity associated with drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, suggesting a potential drug metabolism defect in NPC1 disease. Investigation of the P450 system in the context of NPC1 dysfunction revealed significant changes in the gene expression of many P450 associated genes across the full lifespan of Npc1-/- mice, decreased activity of cytochrome P450 reductase, and a global decrease of multiple cytochrome P450 catalysed dealkylation reactions. In vivo drug metabolism studies using a prototypic P450 metabolised drug, midazolam, confirmed dysfunction in drug clearance in the Npc1-/- mouse. Expression of the Phase II enzyme uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was also significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice. Interestingly, reduced activity within the P450 system was also observed in heterozygous Npc1+/- mice. The reduced activity of P450 enzymes may be the result of bile acid deficiency/imbalance in Npc1-/- mice, as bile acid treatment significantly rescued P450 enzyme activity in Npc1-/- mice and has the potential to be an adjunctive therapy for NPC disease patients. The dysfunction in the cytochrome P450 system were recapitulated in the NPC1 feline model. Additionally, we present the first evidence that there are alterations in the P450 system in NPC1 patients. PMID:27019000

  5. Expression and purification of orphan cytochrome P450 4X1 and oxidation of anandamide

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Katarina; Dostalek, Miroslav; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4X1 is one of the so-called “orphan” P450s without assigned biological function. Codon-optimized P450 4X1 and a number of N-terminal modified sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli. Native P450 4X1 showed a characteristic P450 spectrum but low expression in E. coli DH5α cells (<100 nmol P450/L). The highest level of expression (300-450 nmol P450/L culture) was achieved with a bicistronic P450 4X1 construct (N-terminal MAKKTSSKGKL, change of E2A, amino acids 3-44 truncated). Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) has emerged as an important signaling molecule in the neurovascular cascade. Recombinant P450 4X1 protein, co-expressed with human NADPH-P450 reductase in E. coli, was found to convert the natural endocannabinoid anandamide to a single monooxygenated product, 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic (EET) ethanolamide. A stable anandamide analog (CD-25) was also converted to a monooxygenated product. Arachidonic acid was oxidized more slowly to 14,15- and 8,9-EETs but only in the presence of cytochrome b5. Other fatty acids were investigated as putative substrates but showed only little or minor oxidation. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated extrahepatic mRNA expression, including several human brain structures (cerebellum, amygdala, and basal ganglia), in addition to expression in human heart, liver, prostate, and breast. The highest mRNA expression levels were detected in amygdala and skin. The ability of P450 4X1 to generate anandamide derivatives and the mRNA distribution pattern suggest a potential role for P450 4X1 in anandamide signaling in the brain. PMID:18549450

  6. Valence tautomerism in synthetic models of cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pradip Kumar; Samanta, Subhra; McQuarters, Ashley B.; Lehnert, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    CytP450s have a cysteine-bound heme cofactor that, in its as-isolated resting (oxidized) form, can be conclusively described as a ferric thiolate species. Unlike the native enzyme, most synthetic thiolate-bound ferric porphyrins are unstable in air unless the axial thiolate ligand is sterically protected. Spectroscopic investigations on a series of synthetic mimics of cytP450 indicate that a thiolate-bound ferric porphyrin coexists in organic solutions at room temperature (RT) with a thiyl-radical bound ferrous porphyrin, i.e., its valence tautomer. The ferric thiolate state is favored by greater enthalpy and is air stable. The ferrous thiyl state is favored by entropy, populates at RT, and degrades in air. These ground states can be reversibly interchanged at RT by the addition or removal of water to the apolar medium. It is concluded that hydrogen bonding and local electrostatics protect the resting oxidized cytP450 active site from degradation in air by stabilizing the ferric thiolate ground state in contrast to its synthetic analogs. PMID:27302948

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Lipophilic Agents Following Preexposure: Non-Cytochrome P-450 Mediated Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-30

    FOLLOWING PREEXPOSUR G - AFOSR-87- 185 U’) NON -CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MECHAN’ICS PE - 61102F (NJ . AUTHOKS) PR - 2312 N TA - A5 Dr Lawrence R Curtis, Dr...Z39- I*. PHARMACOKINETICS OF LIPOPHILIC AGENTS FOLLOWING PREEXPOSURE: NON -CYTOCHROME P-450 MEDIATED MECHANISMS Air Force Grant No. 87-0185 Hillary M...amounts located in non -hepatic tissues. These studies showed that, despite the differences in PDR, the systems involved respond in a dose related manner

  8. Functional expression of a putative geraniol 8-hydroxylase by reconstitution of bacterially expressed plant CYP76F45 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase CPR I from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Promden, Worrawat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2015-10-01

    While attempting to isolate the enzyme geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase, which is involved in plaunotol biosynthesis in Croton stellatopilosus (Cs), the cDNAs for a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase(designated as CYP76F45) and an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from the leaf. The CYP76F45 and CsCPR I genes have open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 507- and 711-amino acid proteins with predicted relative molecular weights of 56.7 and 79.0 kDa,respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that both CYP76F45 (63–73%) and CsCPR I (79–83%) share relatively high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species.Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that CYP76F45 belongs to the CYP76 family and that CsCPR I belongs to Class I of dicotyledonous CPRs, with both being closely related to Ricinus communis genes. Functional characterization of both enzymes, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli as recombinant proteins,showed that only simultaneous incubation of the membrane bound proteins with the substrate geraniol (GOH) and the coenzyme NADPH could form 8-hydroxygeraniol. The enzyme mixture could also utilize acyclic sesquiterpene farnesol (FOH) with a comparable substrate preference ratio (GOH:FOH) of 54:46. The levelsof the CYP76F45 and CsCPR I transcripts in the shoots, leaves and twigs of C. stellatopilosus were correlated with the levels of a major monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, identified tentatively as 19-Evallesamine,that accumulated in these plant parts. These results suggested that CYP76F45 and CPR I function as the enzyme geraniol-8-hydroxylase (G8H), which is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid in C. stellatopilosus [corrected].

  9. Marmoset cytochrome P450 2D8 in livers and small intestines metabolizes typical human P450 2D6 substrates, metoprolol, bufuralol and dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Hagihira, Yuya; Murayama, Norie; Shimizu, Makiko; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    1. Although the New World non-human primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), is a potentially useful animal model, comprehensive understanding of drug metabolizing enzymes is insufficient. 2. A cDNA encoding a novel cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D8 was identified in marmosets. The amino acid sequence deduced from P450 2D8 cDNA showed a high sequence identity (83-86%) with other primate P450 2Ds. Phylogenetic analysis showed that marmoset P450 2D8 was closely clustered with human P450 2D6, unlike P450 2Ds of miniature pig, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, mouse or rat. 3. Marmoset P450 2D8 mRNA was predominantly expressed in the liver and small intestine among the tissues types analyzed, whereas marmoset P450 2D6 mRNA was expressed predominantly in the liver where P450 2D protein was detected by immunoblotting. 4. By metabolic assays using marmoset P450 2D8 protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, although P450 2D8 exhibits lower catalytic efficiency compared to marmoset and human P450 2D6 enzymes, P450 2D8 mediated O-demethylations of metoprolol and dextromethorphan and bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. 5. These results suggest that marmoset P450 2D8 (also expressed in the extrahepatic tissues) has potential roles in drug metabolism in a similar manner to those of human and marmoset P450 2D6.

  10. Cytochromes P450 Catalyze the Reduction of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Amunom, Immaculate; Dieter, Laura J.; Tamasi, Viola; Cai, Jan; Conklin, Daniel J.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Martin, Martha V.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Prough, Russell A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g. 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O2, and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ≅ P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 & rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions, but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and α-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in liver. PMID:21766881

  11. Cytochromes P450 catalyze the reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Amunom, Immaculate; Dieter, Laura J; Tamasi, Viola; Cai, Jian; Conklin, Daniel J; Srivastava, Sanjay; Martin, Martha V; Guengerich, F Peter; Prough, Russell A

    2011-08-15

    The metabolism of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, e.g., 4-hydroxynonenal, involves oxidation to carboxylic acids, reduction to alcohols, and glutathionylation to eventually form mercapturide conjugates. Recently, we demonstrated that P450s can oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids, a reaction previously thought to involve aldehyde dehydrogenase. When recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4 was incubated with 4-hydroxynonenal, O(2), and NADPH, several products were produced, including 1,4-dihydroxynonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), and an unknown metabolite. Several P450s catalyzed the reduction reaction in the order (human) P450 2B6 ≅ P450 3A4 > P450 1A2 > P450 2J2 > (mouse) P450 2c29. Other P450s did not catalyze the reduction reaction (human P450 2E1 and rabbit P450 2B4). Metabolism by isolated rat hepatocytes showed that HNA formation was inhibited by cyanamide, while DHN formation was not affected. Troleandomycin increased HNA production 1.6-fold while inhibiting DHN formation, suggesting that P450 3A11 is a major enzyme involved in rat hepatic clearance of 4-HNE. A fluorescent assay was developed using 9-anthracenealdehyde to measure both reactions. Feeding mice a diet containing t-butylated hydroxyanisole increased the level of both activities with hepatic microsomal fractions but not proportionally. Miconazole (0.5 mM) was a potent inhibitor of these microsomal reduction reactions, while phenytoin and α-naphthoflavone (both at 0.5 mM) were partial inhibitors, suggesting the role of multiple P450 enzymes. The oxidative metabolism of these aldehydes was inhibited >90% in an Ar or CO atmosphere, while the reductive reactions were not greatly affected. These results suggest that P450s are significant catalysts of the reduction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in the liver.

  12. Forster Distances of Ligand-Heme Pairs in Cytochrome P450 3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fern, Joel; Guengerich, F. Peter; Marsch, Glenn A.

    2003-04-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 is a protein in the human intestine and liver which oxidizes over half of drugs in use today. Cytochrome P450 3A4 has proven resistant to structure determination by NMR or x-ray crystallography. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) studies of P450 3A4 can be used to compute distances between fluorophores in the protein, providing information on the structure of the protein. For a ligand to be suitably used as a probe its fluorescence must not be completely quenched by the heme cofactor in P450 3A4. By using quantum yields, fluorescence, and the absorption spectra of six P450 ligands, the following Forster distances between each ligand and the P450 heme moiety were obtained: pyrene 4.6 nm, aflatoxin B2 5.7 nm, alpha-naphthoflavone 3.7 nm, indinavir 2.6 nm, quinidine 3.5 nm, and terfenadine 2.8 nm. Having these distances should yield a better low-resolution cytochrome P450 3A4 structure. Using the Forster distances, FRET experiments on inter-ligand placement in P450 3A4 will be undertaken soon.

  13. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W. . Patuxent Wildlife Research Center); Woodin, B.R.; Stegeman, J.J. )

    1993-09-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital. Compared to controls, 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p[prime]-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP1B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens.

  14. Identification of a novel cytochrome P-450 gene from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed Central

    Kullman, S W; Matsumura, F

    1997-01-01

    A gene fragment belonging to the cytochrome P-450 superfamily has been cloned and identified from stationary cultures of the filamentous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. A set of degenerate primers homologous to highly conserved regions of known cytochrome P-450 sequences were used for initial RT-PCRs. Individual PCR products were cloned, sequenced, and identified as those belonging to the cytochrome P-450 superfamily based on amino acid sequence homologies and the presence of the highly conserved heme binding region. The nucleotide sequence of a single cDNA clone indicated the presence of an open reading frame encoding a partial cytochrome P-450 protein of 208 amino acids. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequence of the partial protein to other known cytochrome P-450 sequences indicate that it is the first member of a new family of cytochrome P-450s, designated CYP63-1A. Northern blot analysis suggests that CYP63-1A is expressed under both nitrogen-rich and nitrogen-deficient culture conditions and thus not under the same regulatory constraints as the well-studied lignin and manganese peroxidases. Western blot analyses using antibodies raised to the heme binding region of CYP63-1A indicate that the protein has a molecular mass of approximately 44,000 Da. PMID:9212420

  15. Exploiting the versatility of human cytochrome P450 enzymes: the promise of blue roses from biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gillam, E M; Guengerich, F P

    2001-12-01

    The cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes involved in drug metabolism are among the most versatile biological catalysts known. A small number of discrete forms of human P450 are capable of catalyzing the monooxygenation of a practically unlimited variety of xenobiotic substrates, with each enzyme showing a more or less wide and overlapping substrate range. This versatility makes P450s ideally suited as starting materials for engineering designer catalysts for industrial applications. In the course of heterologous expression of P450s in bacteria, we observed the unexpected formation of blue pigments. Although this was initially assumed to be an artifact, subsequent work led to the discovery of a new function of P450s in intermediary metabolism and toxicology, new screens for protein engineering, and potential applications in the dye and horticulture industries.

  16. Induction of Cytochrome P450 Activity by the Interaction of Chlorantraniliprole and Sinigrin in the Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, X G; Gao, X W; Liang, P; Shi, X Y; Song, D L

    2016-04-01

    The joint toxicity of chlorantraniliprole, a novel insecticide that acts on ryanodine receptors, and sinigrin, a natural plant defense compound from brassicaceous vegetables, to the larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was determined in this paper. Additionally, the joint effects of the two compounds on cytochrome P450 enzyme activity and on the expression levels of mRNA of three P450 genes (including CYP9A9, CYP6B, and CYP4G37) and an NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase gene (HQ852049) were investigated. The toxicity of the mixture of chlorantraniliprole and sinigrin to fourth-instar S. exigua larvae was 1.60-fold higher than the toxicity of the chlorantraniliprole-only treatment after 24 h. Induced by chlorantraniliprole and sinigrin, the specific activity of the P450 O-deethylase was affected in a time-, dose-, and organ-specific manner in fifth-instar S. exigua larvae. The effects were more pronounced in the midgut than in the fat body. The specific activity of the P450 O-deethylase in almost all treatments increased at 12, 24, and 36 h posttreatment compared with that in the control. Based on real-time PCR analyses, the expression levels of the P450 genes CYP9A9, CYP6B, and CYP4G37 and the NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase gene HQ852049 in fifth-instar S. exigua larvae were induced by chlorantraniliprole and sinigrin, and the trends were similar to the specific activity of the P450 O-deethylase. Therefore, the CYP9A9, CYP6B, and HQ852049 in the tested genes were the most inducible genes that were expressed when the S. exigua larvae were exposed to chlorantraniliprole and sinigrin. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Bioconversion of the antihistaminc drug loratadine by tobacco cell suspension cultures expressing human cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Warzecha, Heribert; Ferme, Daniela; Peer, Markus; Frank, Andreas; Unger, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    In this study we have expanded the metabolic potential of plant cell suspension cultures by introducing active human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 3A4 into tobacco cells. Exogenously supplied loratadine was metabolized in a 3A4-specific manner, showing the capacity of this system for the generation of metabolites.

  18. Involvement of Cytochrome P450 in Pentachlorophenol Transformation in a White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Daliang; Wang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cytochrome P450 and P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation in a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in this study. The carbon monoxide difference spectra indicated induction of P450 (103±13 pmol P450 per mg protein in the microsomal fraction) by pentachlorophenol. The pentachlorophenol oxidation by the microsomal P450 was NADPH-dependent at a rate of 19.0±1.2 pmol min−1 (mg protein)−1, which led to formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone and was significantly inhibited by piperonyl butoxide (a P450 inhibitor). Tetrachlorohydroquinone was also found in the cultures, while the extracellular ligninases which were reported to be involved in tetrachlorohydroquinone formation were undetectable. The formation of tetrachlorohydroquinone was not detectable in the cultures added with either piperonyl butoxide or cycloheximide (an inhibitor of de novo protein synthesis). These results revealed the pentachlorophenol oxidation by induced P450 in the fungus, and it should be the first time that P450-mediated pentachlorophenol oxidation was demonstrated in a microorganism. Furthermore, the addition of the P450 inhibitor to the cultures led to obvious increase of pentachlorophenol, suggesting that the relationship between P450 and pentachlorophenol methylation is worthy of further research. PMID:23029295

  19. Hepatic cytochrome P450 activity, abundance, and expression throughout human development

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Smith, Jordan N.; Corley, Richard A.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are Phase I metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes can vary considerably throughout human development, especially when comparing fetal development to neonates, children, and adults. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 expression and activity we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. To quantify the functional activity of individual P450s we employ activity-based protein profiling, which uses modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s as chemical probes, in tandem with proteomic analyses to quantify activity. Our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. The results were used to distribute P450s into three general classes based upon developmental stage of expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that our ontogeny results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics.

  20. Gravity Persistent Signal 1 (GPS1) reveals novel cytochrome P450s involved in gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Withers, John C; Shipp, Matthew J; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Sukumar, Poornima; Schuler, Mary A; Muday, Gloria K; Wyatt, Sarah E

    2013-01-01

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that affects growth and development of plants. In response to changes in gravity, directional growth occurs along the major axes and lateral branches of both shoots and roots. The gravity persistent signal (gps) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana were previously identified as having an altered response to gravity when reoriented relative to the gravity vector in the cold, with the gps1 mutant exhibiting a complete loss of tropic response under these conditions. Thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL) PCR was used to identify the gene defective in gps1. Gene expression data, molecular modeling and computational substrate dockings, quantitative RT-PCR analyses, reporter gene fusions, and physiological analyses of knockout mutants were used to characterize the genes identified. Cloning of the gene defective in gps1 and genetic complementation revealed that GPS1 encodes CYP705A22, a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450). CYP705A5, a closely related family member, was identified as expressed specifically in roots in response to gravistimulation, and a mutation affecting its expression resulted in a delayed gravity response, increased flavonol levels, and decreased basipetal auxin transport. Molecular modeling coupled with in silico substrate docking and diphenylboric acid 2-aminoethyl ester (DBPA) staining indicated that these P450s are involved in biosynthesis of flavonoids potentially involved in auxin transport. The characterization of two novel P450s (CYP705A22 and CYP705A5) and their role in the gravity response has offered new insights into the regulation of the genetic and physiological controls of plant gravitropism.

  1. Selective expression and induction of cytochrome P450PB and P450MC during the development of hereditary hepatitis and hepatoma of LEC rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Suzuki, K; Ookawara, T; Kurosawa, T; Taniguchi, N

    1989-11-01

    The Long-Evans rat with a cinnamon-like coat color (LEC rat) is a mutant strain displaying hereditary hepatitis with severe jaundice. The age related difference in microsomal dealkylation of pentoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin was examined. The enzyme activity levels of pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase in LEC rats were decreased to 25% of the levels in control [Long-Evans rats with an agouti coat color (LEA rats)]. In contrast, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase exhibited a much less marked difference between the strains. In parallel with these strain differences in enzyme activities, a decrease in phenobarbital (PB) inducible P450 isozymes, mainly P450b and P450e, was observed by Western blot analysis. The level of P450PB in LEC rats was more markedly depressed than in the LEA strain. On the other hand, microsomes from uninduced LEC rat liver had more 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) inducible P450MC, mainly P450c and P450d, than microsomes from LEA rat liver and these isozymes in the LEC were markedly induced by 3-methylcholanthrene treatment. The great difference in cytochrome P450PB content of the liver microsomes between LEC and LEA rats and the maintained constitutive levels of hepatic cytochrome P450MC in the LEC rats suggest a possible role of these cytochrome isozymes in the onset of spontaneous hepatitis and hepatoma.

  2. Molecular Recognition in Mitochondrial Cytochromes P450 That Catalyze the Terminal Steps of Corticosteroid Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hwei-Ming; Auchus, Richard J

    2017-05-02

    The mitochondrial cytochromes P450 11B1 and P450 11B2 are responsible for the final stages of cortisol and aldosterone synthesis, respectively. Dysregulation of both enzymes has been implicated in secondary forms of hypertension. Molecular recognition of the cytochromes P450 with their corresponding redox partner is a key step in the catalytic cycle, yet the precise nature of the interaction of P450 11B1 or P450 11B2 with their proximal partner, adrenodoxin (Adx), is still unknown. Here, we obtained P450 11B1·Adx2 and P450 11B2·Adx2 complexes using the zero-length cross-linker ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide, which formed best under low-ionic strength conditions. R-to-K mutations were introduced into the P450s at residues predicted to form salt bridges with Adx and allow cross-linking with the carbodiimide reagent. Mass spectrometric analysis of the chymotrypsin-digested ternary complexes identified seven cross-linked peptide pairs. Consistent with the electrostatic interaction of K370 in P450 11B1-WT and K366 in P450 11B2-R366K with D79 of Adx, Adx mutation L80K abolished complex formation. Using these sites of interaction as constraints, protein docking calculations based on the crystal structures of the two proteins yielded a structural model of the P450 11B1·Adx2 complex. The appositional surfaces include R/K366, K370, and K357 of P450 11B1, which interact with D79, D76, and D113 (second molecule) of Adx, respectively. Similar to P450 11B1, P450 11B2 also forms a complex with the Adx dimer via three lysine residues. We describe similarities and differences in our models of the P450 11B1·Adx2 and P450 11B2·Adx2 complexes with the structure of the P450 11A1-Adx fusion protein.

  3. Interaction of fluoroethane chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes with microsomal cytochrome P450. Stimulation of P450 activity and chlorodifluoroethene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Olson, M J; Baker, M T

    1993-07-06

    The abilities of halothane and the fluoroethane chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes, FC-123, FC-133a, FC-124, FC-134a and FC-125, to stimulate cytochrome P450 activities and 2-chloro-1,1-difluoroethene (CDE) defluorination in hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rabbits were compared. At 1% (v/v) each, halothane and FC-123 similarly increased the consumption of NADPH and O2 by 300 and 100%, respectively, over that in microsomes without substrate. FC-133a and FC-124 were less effective, increasing NADPH and O2 consumption by 150-200 and 70%. FC-134a and FC-125 were the least effective, increasing NADPH and O2 consumption by only 70 and 50%, respectively. No metabolism of any fluoroethane could be detected under the incubation conditions used. Halothane and FC-123 were most effective in stimulating CDE metabolism with increases of CDE defluorination ranging from 1.5- to 2-fold. FC-133a and FC-124 enhanced CDE oxidation 89 and 74%, respectively, and FC-134a and FC-125 had no effect. While CDE metabolism was enhanced in the presence of the fluoroethanes, no additional NADPH or O2 was consumed when halothane or FC-124 was incubated with CDE compared with incubations containing only halothane or FC-124. Log-log plots of NADPH consumption and CDE metabolism with the olive oil/gas partition coefficients of each fluoroethane showed linear relationships. These data demonstrate that the activity of the fluoroethanes in stimulating P450 activity and CDE metabolism is a function of their lipid solubility, and fluoroethane-enhanced CDE metabolism is related to the ability of these compounds to increase uncoupled P450 activity.

  4. Functional characterization and tissue expression of marmoset cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Tomioka, Etsuko; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have attracted increasing attention as a useful small non-human primate model in preclinical research. However, studies on marmoset cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E enzyme have scarcely been conducted. In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding P450 2E1 enzyme was isolated from marmoset livers by reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Marmoset P450 2E1 amino acid sequences were highly identical (>88%) to those of cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2E1 enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship among marmoset, cynomolgus monkey, and human P450 2E1 enzymes. The tissue expression pattern analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that marmoset P450 2E1 mRNA and proteins were predominantly expressed in livers. Marmoset P450 2E1 enzyme heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol, chlorzoxazone, and theophylline, similar to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2E1 enzymes. By kinetic analyses, those P450 2E1 enzymes catalyzed p-nitrophenol hydroxylation with similar affinities and relatively high intrinsic clearance efficiencies. These results indicated that tissue distribution and enzyme-substrate specificity of marmoset P450 2E1 were similar to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2E1 enzymes, suggesting that marmosets are a suitable primate model for P450 2E1-dependent drug and xenobiotic metabolism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Systematic genetic and genomic analysis of cytochrome P450 enzyme activities in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xia; Zhang, Bin; Molony, Cliona; Chudin, Eugene; Hao, Ke; Zhu, Jun; Gaedigk, Andrea; Suver, Christine; Zhong, Hua; Leeder, J. Steven; Guengerich, F. Peter; Strom, Stephen C.; Schuetz, Erin; Rushmore, Thomas H.; Ulrich, Roger G.; Slatter, J. Greg; Schadt, Eric E.; Kasarskis, Andrew; Lum, Pek Yee

    2010-01-01

    Liver cytochrome P450s (P450s) play critical roles in drug metabolism, toxicology, and metabolic processes. Despite rapid progress in the understanding of these enzymes, a systematic investigation of the full spectrum of functionality of individual P450s, the interrelationship or networks connecting them, and the genetic control of each gene/enzyme is lacking. To this end, we genotyped, expression-profiled, and measured P450 activities of 466 human liver samples and applied a systems biology approach via the integration of genetics, gene expression, and enzyme activity measurements. We found that most P450s were positively correlated among themselves and were highly correlated with known regulators as well as thousands of other genes enriched for pathways relevant to the metabolism of drugs, fatty acids, amino acids, and steroids. Genome-wide association analyses between genetic polymorphisms and P450 expression or enzyme activities revealed sets of SNPs associated with P450 traits, and suggested the existence of both cis-regulation of P450 expression (especially for CYP2D6) and more complex trans-regulation of P450 activity. Several novel SNPs associated with CYP2D6 expression and enzyme activity were validated in an independent human cohort. By constructing a weighted coexpression network and a Bayesian regulatory network, we defined the human liver transcriptional network structure, uncovered subnetworks representative of the P450 regulatory system, and identified novel candidate regulatory genes, namely, EHHADH, SLC10A1, and AKR1D1. The P450 subnetworks were then validated using gene signatures responsive to ligands of known P450 regulators in mouse and rat. This systematic survey provides a comprehensive view of the functionality, genetic control, and interactions of P450s. PMID:20538623

  6. Distinct organization of methylcholanthrene- and phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 genes in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sogawa, K; Gotoh, O; Kawajiri, K; Fujii-Kuriyama, Y

    1984-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450c gene was determined by sequence analysis of cloned genomic DNA and the sequence, consisting of 524 amino acids, of the protein was deduced therefrom. The gene for the cytochrome was approximately 6.0 kilobases long and was split into seven exons. Comparison of the gene with that of the phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450e showed that the gene structures for the two types of cytochrome P-450 differ greatly; the location, number, and size of intervening sequences are very dissimilar. However, the sequence homology between the two types of cytochrome suggests that the two genes have evolved from a common ancestor. Images PMID:6089174

  7. A predicted three-dimensional structure of human cytochrome P450: implications for substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Zvelebil, M J; Wolf, C R; Sternberg, M J

    1991-02-01

    A three-dimensional structure for human cytochrome P450IA1 was predicted based on the crystal coordinates of cytochrome P450cam from Pseudomonas putida. As there was only 15% residue identity between the two enzymes, additional information was used to establish an accurate sequence alignment that is a prerequisite for model building. Twelve representative eukaryotic sequences were aligned and a net prediction of secondary structure was matched against the known alpha-helices and beta-sheets of P450cam. The cam secondary structure provided a fixed main-chain framework onto which loops of appropriate length from the human P450IA1 structure were added. The model-built structure of the human cytochrome conformed to the requirements for the segregation of polar and nonpolar residues between the core and the surface. The first 44 residues of human cytochrome P450 could not be built into the model and sequence analysis suggested that residues 1-26 formed a single membrane-spanning segment. Examination of the sequences of cytochrome P450s from distinct gene families suggested specific residues that could account for the differences in substrate specificity. A major substrate for P450IA1, 3-methyl-cholanthrene, was fitted into the proposed active site and this planar aromatic molecule could be accommodated into the available cavity. Residues that are likely to interact with the haem were identified. The sequence similarity between 59 eukaryotic enzymes was represented as a dendrogram that in general clustered according to gene family. Until a crystallographic structure is available, this model-building study identifies potential residues in cytochrome P450s important in the function of these enzymes and these residues are candidates for site-directed mutagenesis.

  8. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. PMID:12231778

  9. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. )

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases.

  11. Effect of health foods on cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takamitsu; Sato, Yu; Kumagai, Takeshi; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Health foods have been widely sold and consumed in Japan. There has been an increase in reports of adverse effects in association with the expanding health food market. While health food-drug interactions are a particular concern from the viewpoint of safe and effective use of health foods, information regarding such interactions is limited owing to the lack of established methods to assess the effects of health food products on drug metabolism. We therefore developed cells that mimicked the activities of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, which strongly contribute to drug metabolism in human hepatocytes, and established a system to assess the inhibitory activity of health foods toward P450-mediated metabolism. We simultaneously infected HepG2 cells with five P450-expressing adenoviruses (Ad-CYP1A2, Ad-CYP2C9, Ad-CYP2C19, Ad-CYP2D6, and Ad-CYP3A4) to mimic the activity levels of these P450s in human hepatocytes, and named them Ad-P450 cells. The activity levels of P450s in Ad-P450 cells and human hepatocytes were calculated via simultaneous liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis utilizing a P450 substrate cocktail. We established Ad-P450 cells mimicking the activity levels of CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. We determined the Km values of P450 substrates and IC50 values of P450 inhibitors in Ad-P450 cells. These values were approximately equivalent to those obtained in previous studies. We investigated the inhibitory effects of 172 health foods that were recently in circulation in Japan on P450-mediated metabolism using Ad-P450 cells. Of the 172 health foods, five products (two products having dietary effects, one turmeric-based product, one collagen-based product, and one propolis-containing product) simultaneously inhibited the five P450s by more than 50%. Another 29 products were also confirmed to inhibit one or more P450s. We established a comprehensive assessment system to

  12. Inhibition of rabbit nasal and hepatic cytochrome P-450-dependent hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) N-demethylase by methylenedioxyphenyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Dahl, A R; Brezinski, D A

    1985-03-01

    Eighteen methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) compounds, including some commonly inhaled by people, were tested for the ability to inhibit rabbit nasal microsomal cytochrome P-450-dependent hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) N-demethylase. For comparison, liver microsomes were also used. Nasal cytochrome P-450 from rabbits metabolized MDP compounds to form cytochrome P-450-metabolite (P-450-MI) complexes as indicated by difference spectra in the Soret region. Several of the MDP compounds were potent inhibitors of nasal P-450-dependent N-demethylase. If inhibition of nasal P-450 also occurs in vivo after inhibiting MDP compounds are inhaled, the metabolism of concurrently or subsequently inhaled compounds may be altered.

  13. The diverse chemistry of cytochrome P450 17A1 (P450c17, CYP17A1)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Auchus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The steroid hydroxylation and carbon-carbon bond cleavage activities of cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) are responsible for the production of glucocorticoids and androgens, respectively. The inhibition of androgen synthesis is an important strategy to treat androgen-dependent prostate cancer. We discuss the different enzymatic activities towards the various substrates of CYP17A1, demonstrating its promiscuity. Additionally, a novel interhelical interaction is proposed between the F-G loop and the B′-helix to explain the 16α-hydroxylase activity of human CYP17A1 with progesterone as the substrate. The techniques used by biochemists to study this important enzyme are also summarized. PMID:25482340

  14. Cytochrome P450 2U1, a very peculiar member of the human P450s family.

    PubMed

    Dhers, L; Ducassou, L; Boucher, J-L; Mansuy, D

    2017-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 2U1 (CYP2U1) exhibits several distinctive characteristics among the 57 human CYPs, such as its presence in almost all living organisms with a highly conserved sequence, its particular gene organization with only five exons, its major location in thymus and brain, and its protein sequence involving an unusually long N-terminal region containing 8 proline residues and an insert of about 20 amino acids containing 5 arginine residues after the transmembrane helix. Few substrates, including fatty acids, N-arachidonoylserotonin (AS), and some drugs, have been reported so far. However, its biological roles remain largely unknown, even though CYP2U1 mutations have been involved in some pathological situations, such as complicated forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. These data together with its ability to hydroxylate some fatty acids and AS suggest its possible role in lipid metabolism.

  15. Cumene hydroperoxide supported demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline by cytochrome P-450 from adrenal cortex mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Akhrem, A A; Khatyleva SYu; Shkumatov, V M; Chashchin, V L; Kiselev, P A

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of highly purified cytochrome P-450 from bovine adrenal cortex mitochondria (cytochrome P-450scc) with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), aniline, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been investigated. The formation of complexes between cytochrome P-450scc and the above listed compounds could be demonstrated. The reaction of oxidative demethylation of DMA by cumene hydroperoxide involving cytochrome P-450scc has been carried out at 37 degrees C; the mechanism of this process is discussed. Incubation of cytochrome P-450scc with negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinosite (PI) exerts an inhibiting effect on the reaction of oxidative demethylation. The interaction of cytochrome P-450scc with CHP is accompanied by hemoprotein destruction in a complex biphasic way. The process of oxidative demethylation of DMA in the system of cytochrome P-450scc-CHP has been concluded to have a predominantly radical character.

  16. Brain mitochondrial cytochromes P450: xenobiotic metabolism, presence of multiple forms and their selective inducibility.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, S V; Boyd, M R; Ravindranath, V

    1995-06-20

    The capability of rat brain mitochondria to metabolize a variety of xenobiotics was examined. The presence of cytochrome P450 (P450) and associated monooxygenase activities were estimated in isolated rat brain mitochondria and compared with the corresponding activities in microsomes. Total P450 content in brain mitochondria from naive rats was twice that of the corresponding microsomal level. The ability of brain mitochondria to metabolize the potent carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine was more than twofold that of the corresponding microsomal activity, while the 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity was significantly lower in mitochondria. Immunoblot experiments using antisera to purified rat liver microsomal P450s, namely P450 (2B1/2B2), P4501A1, and P4502E1, and purified phenobarbital-inducible rat brain P450, revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands in isolated brain mitochondria. These various antibodies to P450 inhibited the brain mitochondrial monooxygenase activities to significant, though varying extent. The addition of antiserum to microsomal NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase did not affect the mitochondrial P450 associated monooxygenase activities, although it completely inhibited the corresponding microsomal activities. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in twofold induction of total P450 content and the monooxygenase activities known to be mediated by P4502E1, such as N-nitrosodimethylamine-N-demethylase and p-nitrophenol hydroxylase in brain mitochondria. Pretreatment of animals with phenobarbital resulted in the induction of aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in brain mitochondria. The study demonstrates the presence of multiple forms of P450 in the rat brain mitochondria, their inducibility, and their capability to metabolize xenobiotics.

  17. Genomic and bioinformatic analysis of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Suwanchaichinda, C; Brattsten, L B

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  18. Genomic and Bioinformatic Analysis of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Suwanchaichinda, C.; Brattsten, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) enzyme system is a major mechanism of xenobiotic biotransformation. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is required for transfer of electrons from NADPH to P450. One CPR gene was identified in the genome of the malaria-transmitting mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). The gene encodes a polypeptide containing highly conserved flavin mononucleotide-, flavin adenine dinucleotide-, and NADPH-binding domains, a unique characteristic of the reductase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. stephensi and other known mosquito CPRs belong to a monophyletic group distinctly separated from other insects in the same order, Diptera. Amino acid residues of CPRs involved in binding of P450 and cytochrome c are conserved between A. stephensi and the Norway rat Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout (Rodentia: Muridae). However, gene structure particularly within the coding region is evidently different between the two organisms. Such difference might arise during the evolution process as also seen in the difference of P450 families and isoforms found in these organisms. CPR in the mosquito A. stephensi is expected to be active and serve as an essential component of the P450 system. PMID:25368081

  19. Cofactor-free light-driven whole-cell cytochrome P450 catalysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Hyun; Lee, Sahng Ha; Cha, Gun Su; Choi, Da Som; Nam, Dong Heon; Lee, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jung-Kul; Yun, Chul-Ho; Jeong, Ki Jun; Park, Chan Beum

    2015-01-12

    Cytochromes P450 can catalyze various regioselective and stereospecific oxidation reactions of non-functionalized hydrocarbons. Here, we have designed a novel light-driven platform for cofactor-free, whole-cell P450 photo-biocatalysis using eosin Y (EY) as a photosensitizer. EY can easily enter into the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli and bind specifically to the heme domain of P450. The catalytic turnover of P450 was mediated through the direct transfer of photoinduced electrons from the photosensitized EY to the P450 heme domain under visible light illumination. The photoactivation of the P450 catalytic cycle in the absence of cofactors and redox partners is successfully conducted using many bacterial P450s (variants of P450 BM3) and human P450s (CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4) for the bioconversion of different substrates, including marketed drugs (simvastatin, lovastatin, and omeprazole) and a steroid (17β-estradiol), to demonstrate the general applicability of the light-driven, cofactor-free system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. An artificial electron donor supported catalytic cycle of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450{sub cam}

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Swati . E-mail: swati@scripps.edu; Murugan, Rajamanickam; Mitra, Samaresh

    2005-09-23

    Putidaredoxin (PdX), the physiological effector of cytochrome P450{sub cam} (P450{sub cam}), serves to gate electron transfer into oxy-P450{sub cam} during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. Redox-linked structural changes in PdX are necessary for the effective P450{sub cam} turnover reaction. PdX is believed to be difficult to be replaced by an artificial electron donor in the reaction pathway of P450{sub cam}. We demonstrate that the catalytic cycle of wild-type P450{sub cam} can be supported in the presence of an artificial reductant, potassium ferrocyanide. Upon rapid mixing of ferrocyanide ion with P450{sub cam}, we observed an intermediate with spectral features characteristic of compound I. The rate constant for the formation of compound I in the presence of ferrocyanide supported reaction cycle was found to be comparable to the ones observed for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} supported compound I formation in wild-type P450{sub cam}, but was much lower than those observed for classical peroxidases. The results presented in this paper form the first kinetic analysis of this intermediate for an artificial electron-driven P450{sub cam} catalytic pathway in solution.

  1. Collaborative contribution of six cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes to fenpropathrin resistance in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Zhang, J; Shen, G; Xu, Z; Xu, Q; He, L

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), as an important family of detoxification enzymes, participate in the metabolism of agrochemicals in almost all agricultural pests and play important roles in the development of insecticide resistance. Two P450 genes (CYP389B1 and CYP392A26) were identified and their expression patterns were investigated in our previous study. In this study, four more P450 gene sequences (CYP391A1, CYP384A1, CYP392D11 and CYP392A28) from the Clan 2, Clan 3 and Clan 4 families were identified and characterized. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that these four P450 genes were highly expressed in a fenpropathrin-resistant (FeR) strain of Tetranychus cinnabarinus. In addition, their expressions were much more sensitive to fenpropathrin induction in the FeR strain than the susceptible strain. Gene-silencing experiments via double-stranded RNA feeding were carried out. The results showed that mRNA levels of these six P450 genes were reduced in the FeR strain and the activities of P450s were decreased. Consequently mite susceptibilities to fenpropathrin were increased. Interestingly, silencing all six P450 genes simultaneously had an even greater effect on resistance than silencing them individually. This study increases our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of insecticide detoxification, suggesting that the overexpression of these six P450 genes might play important roles in fenpropathrin resistance in T. cinnabarinus collaboratively. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. A Fluorescence Spectroscopic Study of Cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsch, Glenn; Guengerich, F. P.; Inks, Joshua

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4. Spectra of P450s were acquired in the presence and absence of acrylamide quencher. In both P450s, quenching revealed three distinguishable species of amino acid fluorescence, with maxima at 297, 323, and 345 nm. The 345 nm tryptophan fluorescence was quenched by low levels of acrylamide; the 297 nm tyrosine fluorescence was resistant to quenching. The 323 nm fluorescence was observed at intermediate concentrations of quencher. Stern-Volmer plots of P450 quenching were non-linear, but were well-fitted to a superposition of linear plots for each fluorophore species. The effect of P450 1A2 binding on pyrene fluorescence was also examined. Upon binding to P450 1A2, the intensity of the 383 nm pyrene vibronic band was decreased relative to the intensities of the 372 and 393 nm bands. Fluorescence quenching of pyrene and other ligands upon binding to P450s will be used to evaluate distances between ligands and the P450 heme moiety by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Fluorescence quantum yields of ligands, overlap integrals, and Förster distances of many ligand-heme donor-acceptor pairs were calculated. Steady-state spectra and time-resolved data of bound ligand will be used to calculate substrate-heme distances in the P450 enzymes.

  3. The beet R locus encodes a new cytochrome P450 required for red betalain production.

    PubMed

    Hatlestad, Gregory J; Sunnadeniya, Rasika M; Akhavan, Neda A; Gonzalez, Antonio; Goldman, Irwin L; McGrath, J Mitchell; Lloyd, Alan M

    2012-06-03

    Anthocyanins are red and violet pigments that color flowers, fruits and epidermal tissues in virtually all flowering plants. A single order, Caryophyllales, contains families in which an unrelated family of pigments, the betalains, color tissues normally pigmented by anthocyanins. Here we show that CYP76AD1 encoding a novel cytochrome P450 is required to produce the red betacyanin pigments in beets. Gene silencing of CYP76AD1 results in loss of red pigment and production of only yellow betaxanthin pigment. Yellow betalain mutants are complemented by transgenic expression of CYP76AD1, and an insertion in CYP76AD1 maps to the R locus that is responsible for yellow versus red pigmentation. Finally, expression of CYP76AD1 in yeast verifies its position in the betalain biosynthetic pathway. Thus, this cytochrome P450 performs the biosynthetic step that provides the cyclo-DOPA moiety of all red betacyanins. This discovery will contribute to our ability to engineer this simple, nutritionally valuable pathway into heterologous species.

  4. Cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and heritability of fitness traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    de Jong, M A; Wong, S C; Lehtonen, R; Hanski, I

    2014-04-01

    Fitness-related life history traits often show substantial heritable genetic variation in natural populations, but knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits is limited. In the Glanville fritillary butterfly, we measured the heritability of key life history traits in a large outdoor population cage during 2 years and generations and combined this experiment with an association study of a set of candidate genes. The genes were selected on the basis of previous genomic and transcriptomic studies and have been linked to the physiology and life history of this or other arthropod species. Heritability was high and significant for two traits, post-diapause larval development time (h(2) = 0.37) and lifetime egg (and larval) production (h(2) = 0.62); the latter is closely related to lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We discovered a strong association between genetic polymorphism in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP337 and lifetime egg production, which accounted for 14% of the additive variance in egg production. This gene belongs to a group of cytochrome P450 genes that have a well-documented role in host plant adaptations in Lepidoptera and other insects and is likely to play an important role in the ecology and microevolution of the Glanville fritillary. This study provides a prime example of a gene associated with heritable fitness variation, measured under semi-natural ecological conditions.

  5. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu-g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than five-fold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black-crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross-reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p, p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

  6. Biomonitoring environmental contamination with pipping black-crowned night heron embryos: Induction of cytochrome P450

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    1993-01-01

    Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins were measured in pipping black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos collected from a reference site (next to the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). In a laboratory study, artificially incubated night heron embryos from the reference site were treated with 3-methylcholanthrene (200 mu g administered into the air cell 2 d before pipping) or phenobarbital (2 mg daily for 2 d before pipping). Compared to controls (untreated + vehicle-treated embryos), 3-methylcholanthrene induced a greater than fivefold increase in activities of several monooxygenases (arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase, AHH; benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, BROD; ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, EROD; pentoxyresorufin-O- dealkylase, PROD) and a greater than 100-fold increase in the concentration of immunodetected cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A). Phenobarbital treatment resulted in only a slight increase in BROD activity but induced proteins recognized by antibodies to cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) by 2,000-fold. In a field study, activities of AHH, BROD, EROD, and ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylase (ECOD) were up to 85-fold higher in pipping black- crowned night herons collected from Cat Island compared to other sites. Hepatic CYP1A and CYP2B cross- reactive proteins were detected in significantly more individuals from Cat Island than from the reference site. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p'-DDE were detected in embryos from Cat Island. Cytochrome P450- associated monooxygenase activities and cytochrome P450 proteins (AHH, BROD, EROD, ECOD, CYP1A, CYP2B) were significantly associated with total PCB burdens (r = 0.50-0.72). These data indicate that cytochrome P450 may be a useful biomarker of exposure to some PCB mixtures in black-crowned night heron embryos.

  7. Comparison of intrinsic dynamics of cytochrome p450 proteins using normal mode analysis.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Mariah E; McMunn, Ryan D; Bartholow, Thomas G; Calhoon, Brecken E; Conlon, Michelle R; Dulli, Jessica M; Fehling, Samuel C; Fisher, Cody R; Hodgson, Shane W; Keenan, Shawn W; Kruger, Alyssa N; Mabin, Justin W; Mazula, Daniel L; Monte, Christopher A; Olthafer, Augustus; Sexton, Ashley E; Soderholm, Beatrice R; Strom, Alexander M; Hati, Sanchita

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are hemeproteins that catalyze the monooxygenation of a wide-range of structurally diverse substrates of endogenous and exogenous origin. These heme monooxygenases receive electrons from NADH/NADPH via electron transfer proteins. The cytochrome P450 enzymes, which constitute a diverse superfamily of more than 8,700 proteins, share a common tertiary fold but < 25% sequence identity. Based on their electron transfer protein partner, cytochrome P450 proteins are classified into six broad classes. Traditional methods of pro are based on the canonical paradigm that attributes proteins' function to their three-dimensional structure, which is determined by their primary structure that is the amino acid sequence. It is increasingly recognized that protein dynamics play an important role in molecular recognition and catalytic activity. As the mobility of a protein is an intrinsic property that is encrypted in its primary structure, we examined if different classes of cytochrome P450 enzymes display any unique patterns of intrinsic mobility. Normal mode analysis was performed to characterize the intrinsic dynamics of five classes of cytochrome P450 proteins. The present study revealed that cytochrome P450 enzymes share a strong dynamic similarity (root mean squared inner product > 55% and Bhattacharyya coefficient > 80%), despite the low sequence identity (< 25%) and sequence similarity (< 50%) across the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Noticeable differences in Cα atom fluctuations of structural elements responsible for substrate binding were noticed. These differences in residue fluctuations might be crucial for substrate selectivity in these enzymes. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  8. Marked inhibition of hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irizar, A; Ioannides, C

    1998-04-03

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the expression of major xenobiotic-metabolising cytochrome P450 proteins, and of other enzyme systems, in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues of rabbits rendered atherosclerotic by the dietary administration of 1% cholesterol diets for 8 weeks. Individual cytochrome P450 proteins were monitored using diagnostic substrates and immunologically in Western blot analysis. The activity of all hepatic isoforms studied was depressed in the atherosclerotic animals; when, however, apoprotein levels were determined immunologically, no major differences were evident between the control and the atherosclerotic rabbits. In vitro studies indicated that neither cholesterol nor palm oil inhibited cytochrome P450 activity. The effects of cholesterol treatment leading to atherosclerosis on kidney, heart and lung cytochrome P450 activities were isoform- and tissue-specific; no change was evident in the heart activities, but in the lung and kidney cytochrome P450 activities were clearly modulated by the treatment with cholesterol. Apoprotein levels did not always parallel the changes in activities. Western blot analysis of aortic cytochromes P450 revealed that administration of cholesterol-rich diets enhanced CYP2B and CYP3A apoprotein levels. Cholesterol feeding to rabbits gave rise to a marked decrease in hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity but did not influence glutathione reductase or total glutathione levels. The same treatment had no effect on catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. It is concluded that treatment of rabbits with cholesterol-rich diets leading to atherosclerosis gives rise to profound changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 proteins in the liver and other tissues; possible mechanisms are discussed.

  9. The rabbit pulmonary cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolic pathway: characterization and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, D C; Plitman, J D; Kobayashi, J; Miller, R F; Snapper, J R; Falck, J R; Szarek, J L; Philpot, R M; Capdevila, J H

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 metabolizes arachidonic acid to several unique and biologically active compounds in rabbit liver and kidney. Microsomal fractions prepared from rabbit lung homogenates metabolized arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 pathways, yielding cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products, vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, mid-chain cis-trans conjugated dienols, and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Inhibition studies using polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified CYP2B4 demonstrated 100% inhibition of arachidonic acid epoxide formation. Purified CYP2B4, reconstituted in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5, metabolized arachidonic acid, producing primarily EETs. EETs were detected in lung homogenate using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, providing evidence for the in vivo pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of these lung EETs demonstrated a preference for the 14(R),15(S)-, 11(S),12(R)-, and 8(S),9(R)-EET enantiomers. Both EETs and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At micromolar concentrations, methylated 5,6-EET and 8,9-EET significantly relaxed histamine-contracted guinea pig hilar bronchi in vitro. In contrast, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid caused contraction to near maximal tension. We conclude that CYP2B4, an abundant rabbit lung cytochrome P450 enzyme, is the primary constitutive pulmonary arachidonic acid epoxygenase and that these locally produced, biologically active eicosanoids may be involved in maintaining homeostasis within the lung. Images PMID:7738183

  10. Modes of Heme-Binding and Substrate Access for Cytochrome P450 CYP74A Revealed by Crystal Structures of Allene Oxide Synthase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cytochrome P450s exist ubiquitously in all organisms and are involved in many biological processes. Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is a P450 enzyme that plays a key role in the biosynthesis of oxylipin jasmonates which are involved in signal and defense reactions in higher plants. The crystal structure...

  11. Cytochrome P450IA1 induction and localization in endothelium of vertebrate (teleost) heart.

    PubMed

    Stegeman, J J; Miller, M R; Hinton, D E

    1989-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high levels of cytochrome P450 can occur in cardiac microsomes of vertebrates [Mol. Pharmacol. 21:517-526, (1982)]. Here we identify the dominant cardiac P450 in the marine fish scup as P450E, a teleost representative of P450IA1, and we describe its restricted cellular localization in the heart. Treatment of scup with beta-naphthoflavone produced an unusually strong (10-fold) induction of spectrally measured P450 in cardiac microsomes, with specific content reaching levels (0.5 nmol/mg) similar to those induced in scup liver. Microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities, catalytic functions of scup P450E, were induced in parallel with P450 content. Similar induction was seen in both atrium and ventricle. Immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibody 1-12-3, specific to scup P450E and other vertebrate P450IA1 proteins, showed that this hydrocarbon-inducible P450 is the dominant and possibly sole P450 form in heart microsomes of experimentally induced animals. Immunohistochemical analysis of scup heart sections (2-4-microns) with monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 revealed that P450E was detectable only in endothelial cells of the endocardium and of the coronary vasculature. A similar endothelial cell localization of the monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 epitope was observed in heart of rainbow trout, induced with beta-naphthoflavone, indicating a general nature for the endothelial localization of induced cardiac P450. Morphometric analysis showed that endothelium could constitute 8-9% of the volume of teleost heart, from which we calculate that P450IA1 could account for as much as 25% of the endothelial cell microsomal protein. Heart microsomes of untreated animals from contaminated environments also contained high levels of P450E, indicating that induction like that caused by beta-naphthoflavone could occur with chemicals in the environment. Strongly induced P450E (P450IA1) in endothelium could play a critical

  12. HPLC Determination of Caffeine and Paraxanthine in Urine: An Assay for Cytochrome P450 1A2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furge, Laura Lowe; Fletke, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of heme-containing proteins located throughout the body with roles in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Among exogenous compounds, clinically relevant pharmaceutical agents are nearly all metabolized by P450 enzymes. However, the activity of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes varies among…

  13. HPLC Determination of Caffeine and Paraxanthine in Urine: An Assay for Cytochrome P450 1A2 Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furge, Laura Lowe; Fletke, Kyle J.

    2007-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are a family of heme-containing proteins located throughout the body with roles in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Among exogenous compounds, clinically relevant pharmaceutical agents are nearly all metabolized by P450 enzymes. However, the activity of the different cytochrome P450 enzymes varies among…

  14. Diversity in mechanisms of substrate oxidation by cytochrome P450 2D6. Lack of an allosteric role of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in catalytic regioselectivity.

    PubMed

    Hanna, I H; Krauser, J A; Cai, H; Kim, M S; Guengerich, F P

    2001-10-26

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 2D6 was first identified as the polymorphic human debrisoquine hydroxylase and subsequently shown to catalyze the oxidation of a variety of drugs containing a basic nitrogen. Differences in the regioselectivity of oxidation products formed in systems containing NADPH-P450 reductase/NADPH and the model oxidant cumene hydroperoxide have been proposed by others to be due to an allosteric influence of the reductase on P450 2D6 (Modi, S., Gilham, D. E., Sutcliffe, M. J., Lian, L.-Y., Primrose, W. U., Wolf, C. R., and Roberts, G. C. K. (1997) Biochemistry 36, 4461-4470). We examined the differences in the formation of oxidation products of N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine, metoprolol, and bufuralol between reductase-, cumene hydroperoxide-, and iodosylbenzene-supported systems. Catalytic regioselectivity was not influenced by the presence of the reductase in any of the systems supported by model oxidants, ruling out allosteric influences. The presence of the reductase had little effect on the affinity of P450 2D6 for any of these three substrates. The addition of the reaction remnants of the model oxidants (cumyl alcohol and iodobenzene) to the reductase-supported system did not affect reaction patterns, arguing against steric influences of these products on catalytic regioselectivity. Label from H(2)18O was quantitatively incorporated into 1'-hydroxybufuralol in the iodosylbenzene- but not in the reductase- or cumene hydroperoxide-supported reactions. We conclude that the P450 systems utilizing NADPH-P450 reductase, cumene hydroperoxide, and iodosylbenzene use similar but distinct chemical mechanisms. These differences are the basis for the variable product distributions, not an allosteric influence of the reductase.

  15. Evaluation of cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} reactivity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Eduardo; Hayen, Heiko; Niemeyer, Christof M.; E-mail: christof.niemeyer@uni-dortmund.de

    2007-03-30

    The oxidation of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} using three different electron acceptors is reported. Three PAH were found to be substrates for the oxidation by P450{sub BS{beta}}, namely anthracene, 9-methyl-anthracene and azulene. The respective oxidation products were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In addition, 10 drug-like compounds were investigated for their effects on the catalytic activity of P450{sub BS{beta}} by carrying out inhibition studies. The stability of P450{sub BS{beta}} against hydrogen peroxide, cumene, and ter-butyl hydroperoxide was determined. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the P450{sub BS{beta}} enzyme represents a powerful catalyst in terms of the catalytic activity and operational stability.

  16. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspera, Ruediger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A.

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduced aldehydes to alcohols efficiently (k{sub cat} {approx} 25 min{sup -1}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reduction is a direct hydride transfer from R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P450 domain variants enhance reduction through potential allosteric/redox interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reaction will have implications for metabolism of xenobiotics. -- Abstract: Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k{sub cat} of {approx}25 min{sup -1} was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP{sup 2}H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP{sup 2}H but not D{sub 2}O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics.

  17. Involvement of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activity in the selectivity and safening action of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl.

    PubMed

    Yun, M S; Shim, I S; Usui, K

    2001-03-01

    To investigate the selectivity and safening action of the sulfonylurea herbicide pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (PSE), pyrazosulfuron-ethyl O-demethylase (PSEOD) activity involving oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P-450 was studied in rice (Oryza sativa L cv Nipponbare) and Cyperus serotinus Rottb. Cytochrome P-450-dependent activity was demonstrated by the use of the inducers 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and ethanol, the herbicides PSE, bensulfuron-methyl, dimepiperate and dymron, or the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Growth inhibition in C serotinus seedlings was more severe than that in rice seedlings. O-Dealkylation activities of PSE were induced differently in rice and in C serotinus, with distinctly higher activity in rice seedlings. The induced PSEOD activities were slightly inhibited by PBO in rice seedlings, whereas they were strongly inhibited in C serotinus seedlings. Dimepiperate and dymron were effective safeners of rice against PSE treatment. Treatments with herbicide alone resulted in less induction of PSEOD activity compared with combined treatments of the herbicide and safener. PSEOD activity in rice seedlings induced with herbicide alone was strongly inhibited by PBO, whereas it was weakly inhibited in rice seedlings induced with combinations of PSE and two safeners. These results suggest that O-demethylation by cytochrome P-450 enzymes may be involved in the metabolism of PSE and may contribute to its selectivity and safening action. Furthermore, these results suggest the existence of a multiple form of cytochrome P-450 in plants.

  18. Development of GC-MS based cytochrome P450 assay for the investigation of multi-herb interaction.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-A; Lee, Hyunbeom; Kim, Donghak; Jung, Byung Hwa

    2017-02-15

    As drug interactions with cytochrome P450 enzymes become increasingly important in the field of drug discovery, a high-throughput screening method for analysing the effects of a drug is needed. We have developed a simple and rapid simultaneous analytical method using a cocktail approach for measuring the activities of seven cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4). Human liver microsomes were used as a source for the seven cytochrome P450 enzymes, and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for analysing their activities. Kinetic studies and inhibition assays of CYP enzymes were performed using known substrates and inhibitors for validating and comparing the reaction rates and time-dependent activities between methods using each substrate versus a method using a cocktail solution. The optimized cocktail method was successfully applied to evaluate the effects of the decoction of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on cytochrome P450 enzymes. Our cocktail method provides a simultaneous high-throughput activity assay using GC-MS for the first time. This method is applicable for analysing the drug interactions of various plant-derived mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into the rat hepatic haemoproteins tryptophan pyrrolase and cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, J.F.; Gollan, J.L.; Settle, W.; Farrell, G.C.; Correia, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    After its administration to intact rats, haemoglobin haem was incorporated into hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase as shown by the marked increase in functional constitution of this enzyme. Incorporation of haemoglobin haem into cytochrome P-450 was demonstrated in intact rats and in the isolated rat liver perfused with haemoglogin-free medium. In both systems, haemoglobin haem restored cytochrome P-450 content and its dependent mixed-function-oxidase activity after substrate-induced destruction of the cytochrome P-450 haem moiety. Further confirmation that heamoglobin haem could be incorporated prosthetically into cytochrome P-450 was achieved by administration of (tritium) haemoglobin to rats and subsequent isolation and characterization of radiolabelled substrate-alkylated products of cytochrome P-450 haem. Findings indicate that, although hepatic uptake of parenteral haemoglobin is slower than that of haem, it appears to serve as an effective haem donor to the intrahepatic free haem pool. Thus parenteral haemoglobin may warrant consideration as a therapeutic alternative to haem in the acute hepatic porphyrias.

  20. NADPH–Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase: Roles in Physiology, Pharmacology, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xinxin; Wolf, C. Roland; Porter, Todd D.; Pandey, Amit V.; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Gu, Jun; Finn, Robert D.; Ronseaux, Sebastien; McLaughlin, Lesley A.; Henderson, Colin J.; Zou, Ling; Flück, Christa E.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics and held at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, California, on April 25, 2012. The symposium speakers summarized and critically evaluated our current understanding of the physiologic, pharmacological, and toxicological roles of NADPH–cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), a flavoprotein involved in electron transfer to microsomal cytochromes P450 (P450), cytochrome b5, squalene mono-oxygenase, and heme oxygenase. Considerable insight has been derived from the development and characterization of mouse models with conditional Por deletion in particular tissues or partial suppression of POR expression in all tissues. Additional mouse models with global or conditional hepatic deletion of cytochrome b5 are helping to clarify the P450 isoform- and substrate-specific influences of cytochrome b5 on P450 electron transfer and catalytic function. This symposium also considered studies using siRNA to suppress POR expression in a hepatoma cell–culture model to explore the basis of the hepatic lipidosis phenotype observed in mice with conditional deletion of Por in liver. The symposium concluded with a strong translational perspective, relating the basic science of human POR structure and function to the impacts of POR genetic variation on human drug and steroid metabolism. PMID:23086197

  1. Natural variation in the expression of cytochrome P-450 and dimethylnitrosamine demethylase in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, L.C.; Simms, S.I.; Nix, C.E.

    1984-09-28

    Electrophoresis of Drosophila microsomes resolves two major heme-containing protein bands with apparent molecular weights of 59,290 (band a) and 55,750 (band b). The hemoproteins in these two bands can account for most of the cytochrome P-450 in the organism. Band a is present in all strains examined: band b is not. Dimethylnitrosamine demethylase, a P-450 enzyme, is a component of band b. 22 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  2. Toxaphene detoxification and acclimation in Daphnia magna: do cytochrome P-450 enzymes play a role?

    PubMed

    Kashian, Donna R

    2004-01-01

    Toxaphene is a persistent environmental contaminant that has been shown to alter male production in Daphnia magna and to induce P-450 activity in mammals. Cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism may lead to xenobiotic detoxification resulting in acclimation. To determine if D. magna acclimate to toxaphene via P-450 pathways, chronic and acute toxicity tests were conducted with D. magna exposed to toxaphene in the presence and absence of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Toxaphene exposure increased male production in acute but not chronic assays, indicating that D. magna may acclimate to chronic toxaphene exposure. Upon co-administration of toxaphene and PBO in chronic tests, D. magna exhibited a decline in growth rate, fecundity and survival. The observed toxaphene acclimation in chronic tests, along with its increased toxicity in the presence of a P-450 suppressor, suggests that P-450 enzymes may contribute to detoxification and subsequent acclimation of D. magna to chronic toxaphene exposure. Additional chronic toxicity tests indicated that toxaphene acclimation occurs between 7 and 12 days following initial exposure, at which time sex determination is no longer affected. Thus, sublethal toxaphene toxicity effects such as reproductive impairments may be detectable with acute but not chronic tests, potentially due to the upregulation of P-450 isozymes.

  3. High-throughput fluorescence assay of cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian; Sohl, Christal D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (P450s) are the principal enzymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. In this protocol, we describe a fluorescence-based, high-throughput assay for measuring the activity of P450 3A4, one of the key enzymes involved in drug metabolism. The assay involves the oxidative debenzylation of a substituted coumarin, yielding an increase in fluorescence on reaction. The entire procedure can be accomplished in 1 h or less. PMID:19661996

  4. Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiawang; Sridhar, Jayalakshmi; Foroozesh, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    With the widespread use of O-alkoxyresorufin dealkylation assays since the 1990’s, thousands of inhibitors of cytochrome P450 family 1 enzymes (P450s 1A1, 1A2, and 1B1) have been identified and studied. Generally, planar polycyclic molecules such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, stilbenoids, and flavonoids are considered to potentially be effective inhibitors of these enzymes. However, the details of structure-activity relationships and selectivity of these inhibitors are still ambiguous. In this review, we thoroughly discuss the selectivity of many representative P450 family 1 inhibitors reported in the past 20 years through a meta-analysis. PMID:24287985

  5. Expression of a mammalian PCB-metabolizing cytochrome P-450 in Nicotiana tabacum

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, V.D.; Galbraith, D.W.; Halpert, J.R.; Bourque, D.P. )

    1991-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are resistant to metabolism in most animal species. The dog possesses the unique ability to metabolize and eliminate certain PCB congeners, as a result of the activity of the cytochrome P-450 isozyme PBD-2. An expressible cDNA coding for PBD-2 has been introduced into the genome of tobacco plants. PBD-2 cDNA and a screenable marker gene coding for neomycin phosphotransferase were introduced into tobacco leaf disks using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector system. Southern and Western blot analyses have confirmed chromosomal integration of the cDNA and expression of the PBD-2 polypeptide. Differential centrifugation and Western blot analyses have shown the PBD-2 protein to be associated with a membrane fraction in transgenic tobacco leaf homogenates. The authors goal is to develop transgenic plants in which the PBD-2 protein metabolizes PCBs, thus providing a novel method for bioremediation of PCB-contaminated soils.

  6. Cytochrome P450BM-3 reduces aldehydes to alcohols through a direct hydride transfer.

    PubMed

    Kaspera, Rüdiger; Sahele, Tariku; Lakatos, Kyle; Totah, Rheem A

    2012-02-17

    Cytochrome P450BM-3 catalyzed the reduction of lipophilic aldehydes to alcohols efficiently. A k(cat) of ∼25 min(-1) was obtained for the reduction of methoxy benzaldehyde with wild type P450BM-3 protein which was higher than in the isolated reductase domain (BMR) alone and increased in specific P450-domain variants. The reduction was caused by a direct hydride transfer from preferentially R-NADP(2)H to the carbonyl moiety of the substrate. Weak substrate-P450-binding of the aldehyde, turnover with the reductase domain alone, a deuterium incorporation in the product from NADP(2)H but not D(2)O, and no inhibition by imidazole suggests the reductase domain of P450BM-3 as the potential catalytic site. However, increased aldehyde reduction by P450 domain variants (P450BM-3 F87A T268A) may involve allosteric or redox mechanistic interactions between heme and reductase domains. This is a novel reduction of aldehydes by P450BM-3 involving a direct hydride transfer and could have implications for the metabolism of endogenous substrates or xenobiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytochrome P450 of wood-rotting basidiomycetes and biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Wood-rotting basidiomycetes possess superior metabolic functions to degrade woody biomass, and these activities are indispensable for the carbon cycle of the biosphere. As well as basic studies of the biochemistry of basidiomycetes, many researchers have been focusing on utilizing basidiomycetes and/or their enzymes in the biotechnology sector; therefore, the unique activities of their extracellular and intracellular enzymes have been widely demonstrated. A rich history of applied study has established that basidiomycetes are capable of metabolizing a series of endogeneous and exogeneous compounds using cytochrome P450s (P450s). Recently, whole genome sequence analyses have revealed large-scale divergences in basidiomycetous P450s. The tremendous variation in P450s implies that basidiomycetes have vigorously diversified monooxygenase functions to acquire metabolic adaptations such as lignin degradation, secondary metabolite production, and xenobiotics detoxification. However, fungal P450s discovered from genome projects are often categorized into novel families and subfamilies, making it difficult to predict catalytic functions by sequence comparison. Experimental screening therefore remains essential to elucidate the catalytic potential of individual P450s, even in this postgenomic era. This paper archives the known metabolic capabilities of basidiomycetes, focusing on their P450s, outlines the molecular diversity of basidiomycetous P450s, and introduces new functions revealed by functionomic studies using a recently developed, rapid, functional screening system.

  8. Cytochrome P450 7A1 Cholesterol 7α-Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Shinkyo, Raku; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 7A1 is well known as the cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, the first enzyme involved in bile acid synthesis from cholesterol. The human enzyme has been reported to have the highest catalytic activity of any mammalian P450. Analyses of individual steps of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylation reaction revealed several characteristics of this reaction: (i) two-step binding of cholesterol to ferric P450, with an apparent Kd of 0.51 μm, (ii) a rapid reduction rate in the presence of cholesterol (∼10 s−1 for the fast phase), (iii) rapid formation of a ferrous P450-cholesterol-O2 complex (29 s−1), (iv) the lack of a non-competitive kinetic deuterium isotope effect, (v) the lack of a kinetic burst, and (vi) the lack of a deuterium isotope effect when the reaction was initiated with the ferrous P450-cholesterol complex. A minimum kinetic model was developed and is consistent with all of the observed phenomena and the rates of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylation and H2O and H2O2 formation. The results indicate that the first electron transfer step, although rapid, becomes rate-limiting in the overall P450 7A1 reaction. This is a different phenomenon compared with other P450s that have much lower rates of catalysis, attributed to the much more efficient substrate oxidation steps in this reaction. PMID:21147774

  9. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1.

    PubMed

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-04-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health.

  10. Pyrethroid activity-based probes for profiling cytochrome P450 activities associated with insecticide interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O’Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David W.; Finn, Robert D.; Henderson, Colin J.; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J. I.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity-based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid-metabolizing and nonmetabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes, to measure labeling specificity, plus cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using PyABPs, we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. These included P450s as well as related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-glucuronosyltransferases, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid-metabolizing enzymes, or “pyrethrome.” Considering the central role P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid in the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450–insecticide interactions and aiding the development of unique tools for disease control. PMID:24248381

  11. Cancer Activation and Polymorphisms of Human Cytochrome P450 1B1

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Young-Jin; Kim, Donghak

    2016-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s, CYPs) are major oxidative catalysts that metabolize various xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. Many carcinogens induce cancer only after metabolic activation and P450 enzymes play an important role in this phenomenon. P450 1B1 mediates bioactivation of many procarcinogenic chemicals and carcinogenic estrogen. It catalyzes the oxidation reaction of polycyclic aromatic carbons, heterocyclic and aromatic amines, and the 4-hydroxylation reaction of 17β-estradiol. Enhanced expression of P450 1B1 promotes cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. There are at least 25 polymorphic variants of P450 1B1 and some of these have been reported to be associated with eye diseases. In addition, P450 1B1 polymorphisms can greatly affect the metabolic activation of many procarcinogenic compounds. It is necessary to understand the relationship between metabolic activation of such substances and P450 1B1 polymorphisms in order to develop rational strategies for the prevention of its toxic effect on human health. PMID:27123158

  12. Identification of two new cytochrome P450 genes and RNA interference to evaluate their roles in detoxification of commonly used insecticides in Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yanqiong; Zhang, Jianzhen; Yu, Rongrong; Zhu, Kun Yan; Guo, Yaping; Ma, Enbo

    2012-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (cytochrome P450s), found in virtually all living organisms, play an important role in the metabolism of xenobiotics such as drugs, pesticides, and plant toxins. We have previously evaluated the responses of the oriental migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) to the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and revealed that increased cytochrome P450 enzyme activity was due to increased transcription of multiple cytochrome P450 genes. In this study, we identified for the first time two new cytochrome P450 genes, which belong to two novel cytochrome P450 gene families. CYP409A1 belongs to CYP409 family whereas CYP408B1 belongs to CYP408 family. Our molecular analysis indicated that CYP409A1 was mainly expressed in fatbodies, midgut, gastric caecum, foregut and Malpighian tubules of the third- and fourth-instar nymphs, whereas CYP408B1 was mainly expressed in foregut, hindgut and muscle of the insects at all developmental stages examined. The expression of these two cytochrome P450 genes were differentially affected by three representative insecticides, including carbaryl (carbamate), malathion (organophosphate) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid). The exposure of the locust to carbaryl, malathion and deltamethrin resulted in reduced, moderately increased and significantly increased transcript levels, respectively, of the two cytochrome P450 genes. Our further analysis of their detoxification roles by using RNA interference followed by deltamethrin bioassay showed increased nymph mortalities by 21.1% and 16.7%, respectively, after CYP409A1 and CYP408B1 were silenced. These results strongly support our notion that these two new cytochrome P450 genes play an important role in deltamethrin detoxification in the locust.

  13. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  14. A specialist herbivore pest adaptation to xenobiotics through up-regulation of multiple Cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fang; Moural, Timothy W.; Nelson, David R.; Palli, Subba R.

    2016-01-01

    The adaptation of herbivorous insects to their host plants is hypothesized to be intimately associated with their ubiquitous development of resistance to synthetic pesticides. However, not much is known about the mechanisms underlying the relationship between detoxification of plant toxins and synthetic pesticides. To address this knowledge gap, we used specialist pest Colorado potato beetle (CPB) and its host plant, potato, as a model system. Next-generation sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) was performed to reveal the CPB transcriptome. Differential expression patterns of cytochrome P450 complement (CYPome) were analyzed between the susceptible (S) and imidacloprid resistant (R) beetles. We also evaluated the global transcriptome repertoire of CPB CYPome in response to the challenge by potato leaf allelochemicals and imidacloprid. The results showed that more than half (51.2%) of the CBP cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) that are up-regulated in the R strain are also induced by both host plant toxins and pesticide in a tissue-specific manner. These data suggest that xenobiotic adaptation in this specialist herbivore is through up-regulation of multiple P450s that are potentially involved in detoxifying both pesticide and plant allelochemicals. PMID:26861263

  15. Human hepatic cytochrome P450-specific metabolism of the organophosphorus pesticides methyl parathion and diazinon.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Corie A; Tian, Yuan; Knaak, James B; Kostyniak, Paul J; Olson, James R

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (K(m) and V(max)) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (K(m) = 1.25 μM; V(max) = 9.78 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 1.03 μM; V(max) = 4.67 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP1A2 (K(m) = 1.96 μM; V(max) = 5.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (K(m) = 3.05 μM; V(max) = 2.35 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), CYP2C19 (K(m) = 7.74 μM; V(max) = 4.14 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), and CYP2B6 (K(m) = 14.83 μM; V(max) = 5.44 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (K(m) = 16.8 μM; V(max) = 1.38 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)) and 3A4 (K(m) = 104 μM; V(max) = 5.15 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (K(m) = 5.04 μM; V(max) = 5.58 nmol · min(-1) · nmol P450(-1)). The OP- and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure.

  16. Human Hepatic Cytochrome P450-Specific Metabolism of the Organophosphorus Pesticides Methyl Parathion and Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Knaak, James B.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are a public health concern due to their worldwide use and documented human exposures. Phosphorothioate OPs are metabolized by cytochrome P450s (P450s) through either a dearylation reaction to form an inactive metabolite, or through a desulfuration reaction to form an active oxon metabolite, which is a potent cholinesterase inhibitor. This study investigated the rate of desulfuration (activation) and dearylation (detoxification) of methyl parathion and diazinon in human liver microsomes. In addition, recombinant human P450s were used to determine the P450-specific kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) for each compound for future use in refining human physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models of OP exposure. The primary enzymes involved in bioactivation of methyl parathion were CYP2B6 (Km = 1.25 μM; Vmax = 9.78 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), CYP2C19 (Km = 1.03 μM; Vmax = 4.67 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), and CYP1A2 (Km = 1.96 μM; Vmax = 5.14 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), and the bioactivation of diazinon was mediated primarily by CYP1A1 (Km = 3.05 μM; Vmax = 2.35 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), CYP2C19 (Km = 7.74 μM; Vmax = 4.14 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), and CYP2B6 (Km = 14.83 μM; Vmax = 5.44 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1). P450-mediated detoxification of methyl parathion only occurred to a limited extent with CYP1A2 (Km = 16.8 μM; Vmax = 1.38 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1) and 3A4 (Km = 104 μM; Vmax = 5.15 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1), whereas the major enzyme involved in diazinon detoxification was CYP2C19 (Km = 5.04 μM; Vmax = 5.58 nmol · min−1 · nmol P450−1). The OP- and P450-specific kinetic values will be helpful for future use in refining human PBPK/PD models of OP exposure. PMID:21969518

  17. A molecular model for the interaction between vorozole and other non-steroidal inhibitors and human cytochrome P450 19 (P450 aromatase).

    PubMed

    Koymans, L M; Moereels, H; Vanden Bossche, H

    1995-06-01

    In a previous study (Vanden Bossche et al., Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 30 (1994) 43) the interaction between (+)-S-vorozole and the I-helix of cytochrome P450 19 (P450 aromatase) has been reported. In the present study we extended the "I-helix model" by incorporating the C-terminus of P450 aromatase. The crystal structures of P450 101 (P450 cam), 102 (P450 BM-3) and 108 (P450 terp) reveal that the C-terminus is structurally conserved and forms part of their respective substrate binding pocket. Furthermore, the present study is extended to the interaction between P450 aromatase and its natural substrate androstenedione and the non-steroidal inhibitors (-)-R-vorozole, (-)-S-fadrozole, R-liarozole and (-)-R-aminoglutethimide. It is found that (+)-S-vorozole, (-)-S-fadrozole and R-liarozole bind in a comparable way to P450 aromatase and interact with both the I-helix (Glu302 and Asp309) and C-terminus (Ser478 and His480). The weak activity of (-)-R-aminoglutethimide might be attributed to a lack of interaction with the C-terminus.

  18. Updates on cytochrome P450-mediated cardiovascular drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Judy W M; Frishman, William H; Aronow, Wilbert S

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P (CYP) 450 is a superfamily of hemoproteins that play an important role in the metabolism of steroid hormones, fatty acids, and many medications. Many agents used for management of cardiovascular diseases are substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of CYP450 enzymes.When two agents that are substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of CYP450 are administered together, drug interactions with significant clinical consequences may occur. This review discusses CYP450-mediated cardiovascular drug interactions as well as noncardiovascular drug interactions that produced significant cardiovascular side effects. The principles in predicting drug interactions are also discussed.

  19. Analysis of mammalian cytochrome P450 structure and function by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Domanski, T L; Halpert, J R

    2001-06-01

    Over the past decade, site-directed mutagenesis has become an essential tool in the study of mammalian cytochrome P450 structure-function relationships. Residues affecting substrate specificity, cooperativity, membrane localization, and interactions with redox partners have been identified using a combination of amino-acid sequence alignments, homology modeling, chimeragenesis, and site-directed mutagenesis. As homology modeling and substrate docking technology continue to improve, the ability to predict more precise functions for specific residues will also advance, making it possible to utilize site-directed mutagenesis to test these predictions. Future studies will employ site-directed mutagenesis to learn more about cytochrome P450 substrate access channels, to define the role of residues that do not lie within substrate recognition sites, to engineer additional soluble forms of microsomal cytochromes P450 for x-ray crystallography, and to engineer more efficient enzymes for drug activation and/or bioremediation.

  20. Cytochrome P450 Initiates Degradation of cis-Dichloroethene by Polaromonas sp. Strain JS666

    PubMed Central

    Nishino, Shirley F.; Shin, Kwanghee A.; Gossett, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Polaromonas sp. strain JS666 grows on cis-1,2-dichoroethene (cDCE) as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic conditions, but the degradation mechanism and the enzymes involved are unknown. In this study, we established the complete pathway for cDCE degradation through heterologous gene expression, inhibition studies, enzyme assays, and analysis of intermediates. Several lines of evidence indicate that a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzes the initial step of cDCE degradation. Both the transient accumulation of dichloroacetaldehyde in cDCE-degrading cultures and dichloroacetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts of JS666 support a pathway for degradation of cDCE through dichloroacetaldehyde. The mechanism minimizes the formation of cDCE epoxide. The molecular phylogeny of the cytochrome P450 gene and the organization of neighboring genes suggest that the cDCE degradation pathway recently evolved in a progenitor capable of degrading 1,2-dichloroethane either by the recruitment of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene from an alkane catabolic pathway or by selection for variants of the P450 in a preexisting 1,2-dichloroethane catabolic pathway. The results presented here add yet another role to the broad array of productive reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:23354711

  1. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation.

  2. The catalytic function of cytochrome P450 is entwined with its membrane-bound nature.

    PubMed

    Barnaba, Carlo; Gentry, Katherine; Sumangala, Nirupama; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450, a family of monooxygenase enzymes, is organized as a catalytic metabolon, which requires enzymatic partners as well as environmental factors that tune its complex dynamic. P450 and its reducing counterparts-cytochrome P450-reductase and cytochrome b 5 -are membrane-bound proteins located in the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to dynamically associate to form functional complexes. Increasing experimental evidence signifies the role(s) played by both protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions in P450 catalytic function and efficiency. However, the biophysical challenges posed by their membrane-bound nature have severely limited high-resolution understanding of the molecular interfaces of these interactions. In this article, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on cytochrome P450, highlighting the environmental factors that are entwined with its metabolic function. Recent advances in structural biophysics are also discussed, setting up the bases for a new paradigm in the study of this important class of membrane-bound enzymes.

  3. Cytochrome P-450 complex formation in rat liver by the antibiotic tiamulin.

    PubMed Central

    Witkamp, R F; Nijmeijer, S M; van Miert, A S

    1996-01-01

    Tiamulin is a semisynthetic diterpene antibiotic frequently used in farm animals. The drug has been shown to produce clinically important--often lethal--interactions with other compounds. It has been suggested that this is caused by a selective inhibition of oxidative drug metabolism via the formation of a cytochrome P-450 metabolic intermediate complex. In the present study, rats were treated orally for 6 days with tiamulin at two different doses: 40 and 226 mg/kg of body weight. For comparison, another group received 300 mg of triacetyloleandomycin (TAO) per kg, which is equivalent to the 226-mg/kg tiamulin group. Subsequently, microsomal P-450 contents, P-450 enzyme activities, metabolic intermediate complex spectra, and P-450 apoprotein concentrations were assessed. In addition, effects on individual microsomal P-450 activities were studied in control microsomes at different tiamulin and substrate concentrations. In the rats treated with tiamulin, a dose-dependent complex formation as evidenced by its absorption spectrum and an increase in cytochrome P-4503A1/2 contents as assessed by Western blotting (immunoblotting) were found. The effects were comparable to those of TAO. Tiamulin induced microsomal P-450 content, testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate, erythromycin N-demethylation rate, and the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. Other activities were not affected or decreased. When tiamulin was added to microsomes of control rats, the testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation rate and the erythromycin N-demethylation were strongly inhibited. It is concluded that tiamulin is a potent and selective inducer-inhibitor of cytochrome P-450. Though not belonging to the macrolides, the compound produces an effect on P-450 similar to those of TAO and related compounds. PMID:8787878

  4. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio . E-mail: n-shimamoto@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole and 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as {alpha}-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS: IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW P450 FAMILY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The P450alk gene, which is inducible by the assimilation of alkane in Candida tropicalis, was sequenced and characterized. Structural features described in promoter and terminator regions of Saccharomyces yeast genes are present in the P450alk gene and some particular structures ...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ALKANE-INDUCIBLE CYTOCHROME P450 (P450ALK) GENE FROM THE YEAST CANDIDA TROPICALIS: IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW P450 FAMILY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The P450alk gene, which is inducible by the assimilation of alkane in Candida tropicalis, was sequenced and characterized. Structural features described in promoter and terminator regions of Saccharomyces yeast genes are present in the P450alk gene and some particular structures ...

  7. Metabolism of sesamin by cytochrome P450 in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Kaori; Ikushiro, Shinichi; Kamakura, Masaki; Ohta, Miho; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2010-12-01

    Metabolism of sesamin by cytochrome P450 (P450) was examined using yeast expression system and human liver microsomes. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing each of human P450 isoforms (CYP1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were cultivated with sesamin, and monocatechol metabolite was observed in most of P450s. Kinetic analysis using the microsomal fractions of the recombinant S. cerevisiae cells revealed that CYP2C19 had the largest k(cat)/K(m) value. Based on the kinetic data and average contents of the P450 isoforms in the human liver, the putative contribution of P450s for sesamin metabolism was large in the order of CYP2C9, 1A2, 2C19, and 2D6. A good correlation was observed between sesamin catecholization activity and CYP2C9-specific activity in in vitro studies using 10 individual human liver microsomes, strongly suggesting that CYP2C9 is the most important P450 isoform for sesamin catecholization in human liver. Inhibition studies using each anti-P450 isoform-specific antibody confirmed that CYP2C9 was the most important, and the secondary most important P450 was CYP1A2. We also examined the inhibitory effect of sesamin for P450 isoform-specific activities and found a mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C9 by sesamin. In contrast, no mechanism-based inhibition by sesamin was observed in CYP1A2-specific activity. Our findings strongly suggest that further studies are needed to reveal the interaction between sesamin and therapeutic drugs mainly metabolized by CYP2C9.

  8. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 activity in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, M C E; Melvin, W T; Murray, G I

    2004-08-31

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney and has a poor prognosis due to its late presentation and resistance to current anticancer drugs. One mechanism of drug resistance, which is potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention, is based on studies in our laboratory. CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme overexpressed in a variety of malignant tumours. Our studies are now elucidating a functional role for CYP1B1 in drug resistance. Cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R) is required for optimal metabolic activity of CYP1B1. Both CYP1B1 and P450R can catalyse the biotransformation of anticancer drugs at the site of the tumour. In this investigation, we determined the expression of CYP1B1 and P450R in samples of normal kidney and RCC (11 paired normal and tumour and a further 15 tumour samples). The O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin to resorufin was used to measure CYP1B1 activity in RCC. Cytochrome P450 reductase activity was determined by following the reduction of cytochrome c at 550 nm. The key finding of this study was the presence of active CYP1B1 in 70% of RCC. Coincubation with the CYP1B1 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (10 nM) inhibited this activity. No corresponding CYP1B1 activity was detected in any of the normal tissue examined (n=11). Measurable levels of active P450R were determined in all normal (n=11) and tumour samples (n=26). The presence of detectable CYP1B1, which is capable of metabolising anticancer drugs in tumour cells, highlights a novel target for therapeutic intervention.

  9. Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Marinello, A.J.; Bansal, S.K.; Paul, B.; Koser, P.L.; Love, J.; Struck, R.F.; Gurtoo, H.L.

    1984-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism and metabolic activation of (chloroethyl-3H)cyclophosphamide (( chloroethyl-3H)CP) and (4-14C)cyclophosphamide (( 4-14C)CP) were investigated in vitro in the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats. In addition, hepatic microsomal binding and the hepatic microsome-mediated metabolism of (14C)acrolein, a metabolite of (4-14C)CP, were also investigated. The metabolism of (chloroethyl-3H)CP and (4-14C)CP to polar metabolites was found to depend on the presence of NADPH and showed concentration dependence with respect to cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Km and Vmax values were essentially similar. The patterns of inhibition by microsomal mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, anti-cytochrome P-450 antibody, and heat denaturation of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially similar, with subtle differences between (4-14C)CP and (chloroethyl-3H)CP metabolism. The in vitro metabolic activation of CP in the reconstituted system demonstrated predominant binding of (chloroethyl-3H)CP to nucleic acids and almost exclusive binding of (4-14C)CP to proteins. Gel electrophoresis-fluorography of the proteins in the reconstituted system treated with (4-14C)CP demonstrated localization of the 14C label in the cytochrome P-450 region. To examine this association further, hepatic microsomes were modified with (14C)acrolein in the presence and the absence of NADPH. The results confirmed covalent association between (14C)acrolein and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomes and also demonstrated further metabolism of (14C)acrolein, apparently to an epoxide, which is capable of binding covalently to proteins. The results of these investigations not only confirm the significance of primary metabolism but also emphasize the potential role of the secondary metabolism of cyclophosphamide in some of its toxic manifestations.

  10. Bioinformatic insight into the unity and diversity of cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Lisitsa, A; Archakov, A; Lewi, P; Janssen, P

    2003-11-01

    For the past few decades, cytochromes P450 (CYPs) have been the subject of extensive research, owing to the ability of these enzymes to serve as drug targets as well as to their active participation in drug metabolism. Other varieties and functions of CYPs have been discovered and this superfamily currently comprises over 2000 different protein species. In the present study, the protein sequences of CYPs were submitted to computer analysis for elucidation of the structural basis of their pronounced functional diversity. The basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) was used to demonstrate that CYP protein sequences share a certain general similarity; at the same time, it was shown that the CYP superfamily may be split into a number of groups of intimately related proteins. These groups, the families, were revealed by means of cluster analysis, which demonstrated a strong hierarchy among the animal, bacterial and fungal P450s, and the lack of such a hierarchy for plant enzymes. Multiple alignment and consensus sequence analysis were the approaches taken to find out which structural peculiarities of P450s are responsible for the deviations from the random picture. Proteins within each family were aligned and collapsed to the corresponding consensus sequences, the alignment of which produced the consensus for the whole superfamily. The latter consensus yielded a number of unity motifs (most of which being related to the heme-fixing assembly), while the cross-family comparison of consensus sequences enabled the retrieval of some diversity motifs. Three consensus sequences (for the CYP51 and CYP2 families and for the superfamily) were compared, to line up the unity and diversity motifs with the appropriate X-ray data.

  11. Strong induction of cytochrome P450 1A/3A, but not P450 2B, in cultured hepatocytes from common marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys by typical human P450 inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takako; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-11-14

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) are used as non-human primate models in preclinical studies for drug development. The assessment of P450 induction in hepatocytes from marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys was performed using typical P450 inducers. Induction of cytochrome P450 1-4 family enzymes was analyzed in two lots of cultured hepatocytes from common marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys after 24-h treatment with typical human P450 inducing agents by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Marmoset P450 3A4 mRNA and P450 2C8/2C19 mRNA in hepatocytes were strongly (>10-fold) and weakly (>2) induced by rifampicin, respectively. Marmoset 1A1 and 1A2 mRNA were induced strongly (>200-fold) by β-naphthoflavone and omeprazole. Marmoset P450 2B6 mRNA was induced (~5-fold) by a constitutive androstane receptor agonist, but not by phenobarbital. Cynomolgus monkey P450 3A4 mRNA and P450 1A1 mRNA in cultured hepatocytes were also induced by rifampicin and omeprazole, respectively, but P450 2B6 mRNA was not induced by phenobarbital. These results indicated that P450 1A/3A induction by typical human P450 inducers in hepatocytes from marmosets and/or cynomolgus monkeys were similar to those of humans, except for P450 2B induction by phenobarbital in humans, suggesting that marmosets and cynomolgus monkeys might be suitable models for evaluating the drug interactions in preclinical studies.

  12. Engineering of daidzein 3’-hydroxylase P450 enzyme into catalytically self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, 3’-daidzein hydroxylase, CYP105D7 (3’-DH), responsible for daidzein hydroxylation at the 3’-position, was recently reported. CYP105D7 (3’-DH) is a class I type of CYP that requires electrons provided through electron transfer proteins such as ferredoxin and ferredoxin reductase. Presently, we constructed an artificial CYP in order to develop a reaction host for the production of a hydroxylated product. Fusion-mediated construction with the reductase domain from self-sufficient CYP102D1 was done to increase electron transfer efficiency and coupling with the oxidative process. An artificial self-sufficient daidzein hydroxylase (3’-ASDH) displayed distinct spectral properties of both flavoprotein and CYP. The fusion enzyme catalyzed hydroxylation of daidzein more efficiently, with a kcat/Km value of 16.8 μM-1 min-1, which was about 24-fold higher than that of the 3’-DH-camA/B reconstituted enzyme. Finally, a recombinant Streptomyces avermitilis host for the expression of 3’-ASDH and production of the hydroxylated product was developed. The conversion that was attained (34.6%) was 5.2-fold higher than that of the wild-type. PMID:22697884

  13. An update on the role of intestinal cytochrome P450 enzymes in drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fang; Ding, Xinxin; Zhang, Qing-Yu

    2016-09-01

    Oral administration is the most commonly used route for drug treatment. Intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism can eliminate a large proportion of some orally administered drugs before they reach systemic circulation, while leaving the passage of other drugs unimpeded. A better understanding of the ability of intestinal P450 enzymes to metabolize various clinical drugs in both humans and preclinical animal species, including the identification of the CYP enzymes expressed, their regulation, and the relative importance of intestinal metabolism compared to hepatic metabolism, is important for improving bioavailability of current drugs and new drugs in development. Here, we briefly review the expression of drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes in the small intestine of humans and several preclinical animal species, and provide an update of the various factors or events that regulate intestinal P450 expression, including a cross talk between the liver and the intestine. We further compare various clinical and preclinical approaches for assessing the impact of intestinal drug metabolism on bioavailability, and discuss the utility of the intestinal epithelium-specific NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase-null (IECN) mouse as a useful model for studying in vivo roles of intestinal P450 in the disposition of orally administered drugs.

  14. Electrocatalytically driven omega-hydroxylation of fatty acids using cytochrome P450 4A1.

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, K M; Shet, M S; Fisher, C W; Estabrook, R W

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic enzymatic function of a cytochrome P450, as it catalyzes the oxygen-dependent metabolism of many organic chemicals, requires the delivery of two electrons to the hemeprotein. In general these electrons are transferred from NADPH to the P450 via an FMN- and FAD-containing flavoprotein (NADPH-P450 reductase). The present paper shows that NADPH can be replaced by an electrochemically generated reductant [cobalt(II) sepulchrate trichloride] for the electrocatalytically driven omega-hydroxylation of lauric acid. Results are presented illustrating the use of purified recombinant proteins containing P450 4A1, such as the fusion protein (rFP450 [mRat4A1/mRatOR]L1) or a system reconstituted with purified P450 4A1 plus purified NADPH-P450 reductase. Rates of formation of 12-hydroxydodecanoic acid by the electrochemical method are comparable to those obtained using NADPH as electron donor. These results suggest the practicality of developing electrocatalytically dependent bioreactors containing different P450s as catalysts for the large-scale synthesis of stereo- and regio-selective hydroxylation products of many chemicals. PMID:7644480

  15. Function and membrane topology of wild-type and mutated cytochrome P-450c21.

    PubMed Central

    Hu, M C; Hsu, L C; Hsu, N C; Chung, B C

    1996-01-01

    We have studied membrane topology of cytochrome P-450c21 (P450c21) using the approaches of mutagenesis and protease digestion. P450c21 is located at the cytoplasm with an N-terminal hydrophobic domain integrated into microsomal membranes. When this hydrophobic domain was replaced by a secretory signal peptide, P450c21 was translocated into the lumen and lost enzymic activity. No other topogenic sequence was detected in the bulk of the P450c21 peptide. A mutant protein with Pro-30 replaced by Leu (L30) corresponding to the mutation found in the diseased state was created. L30 protein lost 90% of enzymic activity, while a double mutant (L30R32) with an additional Leu-32 to Arg mutation had slightly higher residual enzymic activity. Apart from lower activity, L30 was also present in the cell at a lower level than wild-type P450c21. This lower level is probably due to increased degradation, as L30 is synthesized at a normal rate. Both L30 and L30R32 proteins, however, were integrated into membranes normally. Therefore the Pro-30 --> Leu mutation did not affect membrane integration, but affected the abundance and enzymic activity of P450c21. PMID:8645225

  16. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  17. Cytochrome P450 107U1 is required for sporulation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhenghua; Cheng, Qian; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Lei, Li; Lamb, David C.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor has a complex life cycle involving the formation of hair-like aerial mycelia on the colony surface, which differentiate into chains of spores. Genes required for the initiation of aerial mycelium formation have been termed ‘bld’ (bald), describing the smooth, undifferentiated colonies of mutant strains. We report the identification of a new bld gene designated as sco3099 and biochemical analysis of its encoded enzyme, cytochrome P450 (P450, or CYP) 107U1. Deletion of sco3099 resulted in a mutant defective in aerial hyphae sporulation and sensitive to heat shock, indicating that P450 107U1 plays a key role in growth and development of S. coelicolor. This is the first P450 reported to participate in a sporulation process in Streptomycetes. The substrate and catalytic properties of P450 107U1 were further investigated in mass spectrometry-based metabolomic studies. Glycocholic acid (from the medium) was identified as a substrate of P450 107U1 and was oxidized to glyco-7-oxo-deoxycholic acid. Although this reaction is apparently not relevant to the observed sporulation deficiency, it suggests that P450 107U1 might exert its physiological function by oxidizing other steroid-like molecules. PMID:23357279

  18. Climbazole is a new potent inducer of rat hepatic cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Suzuki, M; Ohshiro, N; Sunagawa, T; Sasaki, T; Tokuyama, S; Yamamoto, T; Yoshida, T

    2001-08-01

    We examined the effect of climbazole on the induction of rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450), and compared the induction potency with other N-substituted azole drugs such as clorimazole. We found that climbazole is found to be a potent inducer of rat hepatic microsomal P450 as clorimazole. Induced level of P450 by climbazole was almost similar in extent to clorimazole when compared with other imidazole drugs in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Parallel to the increase in P450, climbazole increased aminopyrine and erythromycin N-demethylase, ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and androstenedione 16 beta- and 15 alpha/6 beta hydroxylase activities; however, clorimazole did not induce aminopyrine N-demethylase activity irrespective of its marked increase in P450 content. Immunoblot analyses revealed that climbazole induced CYP2B1, 3A2 and 4A1. The present findings indicate that climbazole is a new potent inducer of hepatic microsomal P450 and drug-metabolizing enzymes like clorimazole, but it may have some differential mechanism(s) for these enzymes' induction in rat liver.

  19. Male specific expression of a cytochrome P450 (Cyp312a1) in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Shinji; Tomita, Takashi

    2003-01-24

    Using cDNA array techniques, the transcriptional levels of Drosophila cytochrome P450 (P450) genes were compared between male and female flies. Of the 86 P450s, 15 isoforms were picked up and the levels of transcription were confirmed by the real time quantitative RT-PCR. Cyp315a1 and Cyp302a1, which had been reported as P450s involved in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis, were included in the 15 isoforms and expression of these P450s was 8.6- and 7.9-fold higher in females than in males, respectively. In addition, we confirmed that expression of Cyp312a1 was 82-fold higher in adult males than females. This gene expression was observed mostly in the abdomen and its transcription level gradually increased from pupal stage and peaked in the 5-day-old adult. Furthermore, the male specific expression of Cyp312a1 was universally observed in three Drosophila strains originated from the USA (Oregon R), China (Canton S), and Japan (HKJ), suggesting possible involvement of this P450 in significant endogenous catalytic reaction(s). This is the first report of a P450 enzyme being predominantly expressed in male Drosophila.

  20. Immobilization of a Bacterial Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase System on a Solid Support.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheau Yuaan; Hirakawa, Hidehiko; Suzuki, Risa; Haga, Tomoaki; Iwata, Fumiya; Nagamune, Teruyuki

    2016-11-21

    Bacterial cytochrome P450s (P450s), which catalyze regio- and stereoselective oxidations of hydrocarbons with high turnover rates, are attractive biocatalysts for fine chemical production. Enzyme immobilization is needed for cost-effective industrial manufacturing. However, immobilization of P450s is difficult because electron-transfer proteins are involved in catalysis and anchoring these can prevent them from functioning as shuttle molecules for carrying electrons. We studied a heterotrimeric protein-mediated co-immobilization of a bacterial P450, and its electron-transfer protein and reductase. Fusion with subunits of a heterotrimeric Sulfolobus solfataricus proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) enabled immobilization of the three proteins on a solid support. The co-immobilized enzymes catalyzed monooxygenation because the electron-transfer protein fused to PCNA via a single peptide linker retained its electron-transport function.

  1. Cytochromes P450 and species differences in xenobiotic metabolism and activation of carcinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D F; Ioannides, C; Parke, D V

    1998-01-01

    The importance of cytochrome P450 isoforms to species differences in the metabolism of foreign compounds and activation of procarcinogens has been identified. The possible range of P450 isozymes in significant variations in toxicity exhibited by experimental rodent species may have a relevance to chemical risk assessment, especially as human P450s are likely to show changes in the way they metabolize xenobiotics. Consequently, in the safety evaluation of chemicals, we should be cautious in extrapolating results from experimental animal models to humans. This paper focuses on examples in which species differences in P450s lead to significant alterations in carcinogenic response, and includes a discussion of the current procedures for toxicity screening, with an emphasis on short-term tests. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9755138

  2. Recollection of the early years of the research on cytochrome P450

    PubMed Central

    OMURA, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    Since the publication of the first paper on “cytochrome P450” in 1962, the biochemical research on this novel hemoprotein expanded rapidly in the 1960s and the 1970s as its principal roles in various important metabolic processes including steroid hormone biosynthesis in the steroidogenic organs and drug metabolism in the liver were elucidated. Establishment of the purification procedures of microsomal and mitochondrial P450s in the middle of the 1970s together with the introduction of molecular biological techniques accelerated the remarkable expansion of the research on P450 in the following years. This review paper summarizes the important developments in the research on P450 in the early years, for about two decades from the beginning, together with my personal recollections. PMID:22156409

  3. Approaches to Deorphanization of Human and Microbial Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F. Peter; Tang, Zhongmei; Cheng, Qian; Salamanca-Pinzón, S. Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    One of the general problems in biology today is that we are characterizing genomic sequences much faster than identifying the functions of the gene products, and the same problem exists with cytochromes P450 (P450). One-fourth of the human P450s are not well-characterized and therefore considered “orphans.” A number of approaches to deorphanization are discussed generally. Several liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches have been applied to some of the human and Streptomyces coelicolor P450s. One current limitation is that too many fatty acid oxidations have been identified and we are probably missing more relevant substrates, possibly due to limits of sensitivity. PMID:20493973

  4. Alternative Sampling Strategies for Cytochrome P450 Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2016-02-01

    Interindividual variability in the expression and function of drug metabolizing cytochrome P (CYP) 450 enzymes, determined by a combination of genetic, non-genetic and environmental parameters, is a major source of variable drug response. Phenotyping by administration of a selective enzyme substrate, followed by the determination of a specific phenotyping metric, is an appropriate approach to assess the in vivo activity of CYP450 enzymes as it takes into account all influencing factors. A phenotyping protocol should be as simple and convenient as possible. Typically, phenotyping metrics are determined in traditional matrices, such as blood, plasma or urine. Several sampling strategies have been proposed as an alternative for these traditional sampling techniques. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of available methods using dried blood spots (DBS), hair, oral fluid, exhaled breath and sweat for in vivo CYP450 phenotyping. We discuss the relation between phenotyping metrics measured in these samples and those in conventional matrices, along with the advantages and limitations of the alternative sampling techniques. Reliable phenotyping procedures for several clinically relevant CYP450 enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6, are currently available for oral fluid, breath or DBS, while additional studies are needed for other CYP450 isoforms, such as CYP3A4. The role of hair analysis for this purpose remains to be established. Being non- or minimally invasive, these sampling strategies provide convenient and patient-friendly alternatives for classical phenotyping procedures, which may contribute to the implementation of CYP450 phenotyping in clinical practice.

  5. Aromatic Hydroxylation of Salicylic Acid and Aspirin by Human Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A.; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids—salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid—and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1. PMID:25840124

  6. Aromatic hydroxylation of salicylic acid and aspirin by human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Bojić, Mirza; Sedgeman, Carl A; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter

    2015-06-20

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is a well-known and widely-used analgesic. It is rapidly deacetylated to salicylic acid, which forms two hippuric acids-salicyluric acid and gentisuric acid-and two glucuronides. The oxidation of aspirin and salicylic acid has been reported with human liver microsomes, but data on individual cytochromes P450 involved in oxidation is lacking. In this study we monitored oxidation of these compounds by human liver microsomes and cytochrome P450 (P450) using UPLC with fluorescence detection. Microsomal oxidation of salicylic acid was much faster than aspirin. The two oxidation products were 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid, documented by its UV and mass spectrum) and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Formation of neither product was inhibited by desferrioxamine, suggesting a lack of contribution of oxygen radicals under these conditions. Although more liphophilic, aspirin was oxidized less efficiently, primarily to the 2,5-dihydroxy product. Recombinant human P450s 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4 all catalyzed the 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid. Inhibitor studies with human liver microsomes indicated that all six of the previously mentioned P450s could contribute to both the 5- and 3-hydroxylation of salicylic acid and that P450s 2A6 and 2B6 have contributions to 5-hydroxylation. Inhibitor studies indicated that the major human P450 involved in both 3- and 5-hydroxylation of salicylic acid is P450 2E1.

  7. Kinetic analysis of lauric acid hydroxylation by human cytochrome P450 4A11.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghak; Cha, Gun-Su; Nagy, Leslie D; Yun, Chul-Ho; Guengerich, F Peter

    2014-10-07

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4A11 is the only functionally active subfamily 4A P450 in humans. P450 4A11 catalyzes mainly ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids in liver and kidney; this process is not a major degradative pathway, but at least one product, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, has important signaling properties. We studied catalysis by P450 4A11 and the issue of rate-limiting steps using lauric acid ω-hydroxylation, a prototypic substrate for this enzyme. Some individual reaction steps were studied using pre-steady-state kinetic approaches. Substrate and product binding and release were much faster than overall rates of catalysis. Reduction of ferric P450 4A11 (to ferrous) was rapid and not rate-limiting. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments yielded low but reproducible values (1.2-2) for 12-hydroxylation with 12-(2)H-substituted lauric acid. However, considerable "metabolic switching" to 11-hydroxylation was observed with [12-(2)H3]lauric acid. Analysis of switching results [Jones, J. P., et al. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 108, 7074-7078] and the use of tritium KIE analysis with [12-(3)H]lauric acid [Northrop, D. B. (1987) Methods Enzymol. 87, 607-625] both indicated a high intrinsic KIE (>10). Cytochrome b5 (b5) stimulated steady-state lauric acid ω-hydroxylation ∼2-fold; the apoprotein was ineffective, indicating that electron transfer is involved in the b5 enhancement. The rate of b5 reoxidation was increased in the presence of ferrous P450 mixed with O2. Collectively, the results indicate that both the transfer of an electron to the ferrous·O2 complex and C-H bond-breaking limit the rate of P450 4A11 ω-oxidation.

  8. Kinetic Analysis of Lauric Acid Hydroxylation by Human Cytochrome P450 4A11

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 4A11 is the only functionally active subfamily 4A P450 in humans. P450 4A11 catalyzes mainly ω-hydroxylation of fatty acids in liver and kidney; this process is not a major degradative pathway, but at least one product, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, has important signaling properties. We studied catalysis by P450 4A11 and the issue of rate-limiting steps using lauric acid ω-hydroxylation, a prototypic substrate for this enzyme. Some individual reaction steps were studied using pre-steady-state kinetic approaches. Substrate and product binding and release were much faster than overall rates of catalysis. Reduction of ferric P450 4A11 (to ferrous) was rapid and not rate-limiting. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments yielded low but reproducible values (1.2–2) for 12-hydroxylation with 12-2H-substituted lauric acid. However, considerable “metabolic switching” to 11-hydroxylation was observed with [12-2H3]lauric acid. Analysis of switching results [Jones, J. P., et al. (1986) J. Am. Chem. Soc.108, 7074–7078] and the use of tritium KIE analysis with [12-3H]lauric acid [Northrop, D. B. (1987) Methods Enzymol.87, 607–625] both indicated a high intrinsic KIE (>10). Cytochrome b5 (b5) stimulated steady-state lauric acid ω-hydroxylation ∼2-fold; the apoprotein was ineffective, indicating that electron transfer is involved in the b5 enhancement. The rate of b5 reoxidation was increased in the presence of ferrous P450 mixed with O2. Collectively, the results indicate that both the transfer of an electron to the ferrous·O2 complex and C–H bond-breaking limit the rate of P450 4A11 ω-oxidation. PMID:25203493

  9. Transcriptional regulation of the grape cytochrome P450 monooxygenase gene CYP736B expression in response to Xylella fastidiosa infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) mediate synthesis and metabolism of many physiologically important primary and secondary compounds that are related to plant defense against a range of pathogenic microbes and insects. To determine if cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in defense response to Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) infection, we investigated expression and regulatory mechanisms of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP736B gene in both disease resistant and susceptible grapevines. Results Cloning of genomic DNA and cDNA revealed that the CYP736B gene was composed of two exons and one intron with GT as a donor site and AG as an acceptor site. CYP736B transcript was up-regulated in PD-resistant plants and down-regulated in PD-susceptible plants 6 weeks after Xf inoculation. However, CYP736B expression was very low in stem tissues at all evaluated time points. 5'RACE and 3'RACE sequence analyses revealed that there were three candidate transcription start sites (TSS) in the upstream region and three candidate polyadenylation (PolyA) sites in the downstream region of CYP736B. Usage frequencies of each transcription initiation site and each polyadenylation site varied depending on plant genotype, developmental stage, tissue, and treatment. These results demonstrate that expression of CYP736B is regulated developmentally and in response to Xf infection at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Multiple transcription start and polyadenylation sites contribute to regulation of CYP736B expression. Conclusions This report provides evidence that the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP736B gene is involved in defense response at a specific stage of Xf infection in grapevines; multiple transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites exist for CYP736B in grapevine; and coordinative and selective use of transcription initiation and polyadenylation sites play an important role in regulation of CYP736B expression during growth

  10. Effects of dietary quercetin on performance and cytochrome P450 expression of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Yuan, Y; Li, M; Qiu, X

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera as a highly polyphagous insect has caused severe crop losses. Until now, interactions between this pest and quercetin are poorly understood at the biochemical and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of quercetin on performance of cotton bollworm and on cytochrome P450 (P450) expression. Deleterious effects of quercetin on the performance of the cotton bollworm, including growth, survival, pupation and adult emergence were observed after oral administration of 3 and 10 mg g(-1) quercetin to larvae since the third instar, whereas no significant toxic effect was found at 0.1 mg g(-1) quercetin treatment. Piperonyl butoxide treatment enhanced the toxicity of quercetin. In vitro metabolism studies showed that quercetin was rapidly transformed by gut enzymes of fifth instar larvae of the cotton bollworm. qRT-PCR results revealed that the effect of quercetin on P450 expression was tissue- and dose-specific. Quercetin regulated P450 expression in a mild manner, and it could serve as P450 inducer (CYP337B1, CYP6B6) or repressor (CYP337B1, CYP6B7, CYP6B27, CYP9A14, CYP6AE11, and CYP4M7). These findings are important for advancing our understanding of the biochemical and molecular response of insects to plant toxins and have implications for a smart pest control.

  11. cDNA and derived amino acid sequence of ethanol-inducible rabbit liver cytochrome P-450 isozyme 3a (P-450ALC).

    PubMed Central

    Khani, S C; Zaphiropoulos, P G; Fujita, V S; Porter, T D; Koop, D R; Coon, M J

    1987-01-01

    Administration of ethanol to rabbits is known to induce a unique liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, termed isozyme 3a or P-450ALC, which is responsible for the increased oxidation of ethanol and other alcohols and the activation of toxic or carcinogenic compounds such as acetaminophen and N-nitrosodimethylamine. To further characterize this cytochrome P-450 we have identified cDNA clones to isozyme 3a by immunoscreening, DNA hybridization, and hybridization-selection. The cDNA sequence determined from two overlapping clones contains an open reading frame of 1416 nucleotides, and the first 25 amino acids of this reading frame correspond to residues 21-45 of cytochrome P-450 3a. The complete polypeptide, including residues 1 to 20, contains 492 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 56,820. Cytochrome P-450 3a is approximately 55% identical in sequence to P-450 isozymes 1 and 3b and 48% identical to isozyme 2. Hybridization of clone p3a-2 to electrophoretically fractionated rabbit liver poly(A)+ RNA revealed multiple bands, but, with a probe derived from the 3' nontranslated portion of this cDNA, only a 1.9-kilobase band was observed. Treatment of rabbits with imidazole, which increases the content of isozyme 3a, resulted in a transient increase in form 3a mRNA, but this was judged to be insufficient to account for the known 4.5-fold increase in form 3a protein. Genomic DNA analysis indicated that the cytochrome P-450 3a gene does not belong to a large subfamily. Images PMID:3027695

  12. Isolation and characterization of a constitutive form of rabbit liver microsomal cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E F

    1980-01-10

    A heretofore unrecognized form of cytochrome P-450 was purified from rabbit liver microsomes with an average yield and purity similar to that of other highly purified forms of cytochrome P-450. Several properties of this cytochrome are contrasted with those of form 2, the major phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450, form 4, the major 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-inducible cytochrome, and form 6, a cytochrome that is selectively induced in liver microsomes by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin during the perinatal period. Thes four forms can be distinguished by virtue of their molecular weights as determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, by their respective peptide fingerprints, and by the monospecificity of their antisera. Since the enumerated properties are thought to reflect the primary structure of the cytochromes and since the observed differences are extensive, we suggest that these four forms are not derived from a common protein precursor.

  13. Functional characterization of a soluble NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Etzerodt, Thomas; Wetterhorn, Karl; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Rayment, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Fusarium head blight is a devastating disease in wheat caused by some fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus mainly F. graminearum, due to accumulation of toxic trichothecenes. Most of the trichothecene biosynthetic pathway has been mapped, although some proteins of the pathway remain uncharacterized, including an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. We subcloned a F. graminearum cytochrome P450 reductase that might be involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis. It was expressed heterologously in E. coli as N-terminal truncated form with an octahistidine tag for purification. The construct yielded a soluble apoprotein and its incubation with flavins yielded the corresponding monomeric holoprotein. It was characterized for activity in the pH range 5.5-9.5, using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or cytochrome c as substrates. Binding of the small molecule MTT was weaker than for cytochrome c, however, the rate of MTT reduction was faster. Contrary to other studies of cytochrome reductase proteins, MTT reduction proceeded in a cooperative manner in our studies. Optimum kinetic activity was found at pH 7.5-8.5 for bothMTT and cytochrome c. This is the first paper presenting characterization of a cytochrome P450 reductase from F. graminearum which most likely is involved in mycotoxin biosynthesis or some primary metabolic pathway such as sterol biosynthesis in F. graminearum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Engineering Macaca fascicularis cytochrome P450 2C20 to reduce animal testing for new drugs.

    PubMed

    Rua, Francesco; Sadeghi, Sheila J; Castrignanò, Silvia; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2012-12-01

    In order to develop in vitro methods as an alternative to P450 animal testing in the drug discovery process, two main requisites are necessary: 1) gathering of data on animal homologues of the human P450 enzymes, currently very limited, and 2) bypassing the requirement for both the P450 reductase and the expensive cofactor NADPH. In this work, P450 2C20 from Macaca fascicularis, homologue of the human P450 2C8 has been taken as a model system to develop such an alternative in vitro method by two different approaches. In the first approach called "molecular Lego", a soluble self-sufficient chimera was generated by fusing the P450 2C20 domain with the reductase domain of cytochrome P450 BM3 from Bacillus megaterium (P450 2C20/BMR). In the second approach, the need for the redox partner and also NADPH were both obviated by the direct immobilization of the P450 2C20 on glassy carbon and gold electrodes. Both systems were then compared to those obtained from the reconstituted P450 2C20 monooxygenase in presence of the human P450 reductase and NADPH using paclitaxel and amodiaquine, two typical drug substrates of the human P450 2C8. The K(M) values calculated for the 2C20 and 2C20/BMR in solution and for 2C20 immobilized on electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were 1.9 ± 0.2, 5.9 ± 2.3, 3.0 ± 0.5 μM for paclitaxel and 1.2 ± 0.2, 1.6±0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.2 μM for amodiaquine, respectively. The data obtained not only show that the engineering of M. fascicularis did not affect its catalytic properties but also are consistent with K(M) values measured for the microsomal human P450 2C8 and therefore show the feasibility of developing alternative in vitro animal tests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cytochrome P450scc system opens an alternate pathway of vitamin D3 metabolism.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Zjawiony, Jordan; Wortsman, Jacobo; Li, Wei; Szczesniewski, Andre; Tuckey, Robert C

    2005-08-01

    We show that cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in either a reconstituted system or in isolated adrenal mitochondria can metabolize vitamin D3. The major products of the reaction with reconstituted enzyme were 20-hydroxycholecalciferol and 20,22-dihydroxycholecalciferol, with yields of 16 and 4%, respectively, of the original vitamin D3 substrate. Trihydroxycholecalciferol was a minor product, likely arising from further metabolism of dihydroxycholecalciferol. Based on NMR analysis and known properties of P450scc we propose that hydroxylation of vitamin D3 by P450scc occurs sequentially and stereospecifically with initial formation of 20(S)-hydroxyvitamin D3. P450scc did not metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, indicating that modification of C25 protected it against P450scc action. Adrenal mitochondria also metabolized vitamin D3 yielding 10 hydroxyderivatives, with UV spectra typical of vitamin D triene chromophores. Aminogluthimide inhibition showed that the three major metabolites, but not the others, resulted from P450scc action. It therefore appears that non-P450scc enzymes present in the adrenal cortex to some extent contribute to metabolism of vitamin D3. We conclude that purified P450scc in a reconstituted system or P450scc in adrenal mitochondria can add one hydroxyl group to vitamin D3 with subsequent hydroxylation being observed for reconstituted enzyme but not for adrenal mitochondria. Additional vitamin D3 metabolites arise from the action of other enzymes in adrenal mitochondria. These findings appear to define novel metabolic pathways involving vitamin D3 that remain to be characterized.

  16. The cytochrome P450scc system opens an alternate pathway of vitamin D3 metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Zjawiony, Jordan; Wortsman, Jacobo; Li, Wei; Szczesniewski, Andre; Tuckey, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    We show that cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1) in either a reconstituted system or in isolated adrenal mitochondria can metabolize vitamin D3. The major products of the reaction with reconstituted enzyme were 20-hydroxycholecalciferol and 20,22-dihydroxycholecalciferol, with yields of 16 and 4%, respectively, of the original vitamin D3 substrate. Trihydroxycholecalciferol was a minor product, likely arising from further metabolism of dihydroxycholecalciferol. Based on NMR analysis and known properties of P450scc we propose that hydroxylation of vitamin D3 by P450scc occurs sequentially and stereospecifically with initial formation of 20(S)-hydroxyvitamin D3. P450scc did not metabolize 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, indicating that modification of C25 protected it against P450scc action. Adrenal mitochondria also metabolized vitamin D3 yielding 10 hydroxyderivatives, with UV spectra typical of vitamin D triene chromophores. Aminogluthimide inhibition showed that the three major metabolites, but not the others, resulted from P450scc action. It therefore appears that non-P450scc enzymes present in the adrenal cortex to some extent contribute to metabolism of vitamin D3. We conclude that purified P450scc in a reconstituted system or P450scc in adrenal mitochondria can add one hydroxyl group to vitamin D3 with subsequent hydroxylation being observed for reconstituted enzyme but not for adrenal mitochondria. Additional vitamin D3 metabolites arise from the action of other enzymes in adrenal mitochondria. These findings appear to define novel metabolic pathways involving vitamin D3 that remain to be characterized. PMID:16098191

  17. Metabolic Intermediate Complex Formation of Human Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Lapatinib

    PubMed Central

    Takakusa, Hideo; Wahlin, Michelle D.; Zhao, Chunsheng; Hanson, Kelsey L.; New, Lee Sun; Chan, Eric Chun Yong

    2011-01-01

    Lapatinib, an oral breast cancer drug, has recently been reported to be a mechanism-based inactivator of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4 and also an idiosyncratic hepatotoxicant. It was suggested that formation of a reactive quinoneimine metabolite was involved in mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) and/or hepatotoxicity. We investigated the mechanism of MBI of P450 3A4 by lapatinib. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of P450 3A4 after incubation with lapatinib did not show any peak corresponding to irreversible modifications. The enzymatic activity inactivated by lapatinib was completely restored by the addition of potassium ferricyanide. These results indicate that the mechanism of MBI by lapatinib is quasi-irreversible and mediated via metabolic intermediate complex (MI complex) formation. This finding was verified by the increase in a signature Soret absorbance at approximately 455 nm. Two amine oxidation products of the metabolism of lapatinib by P450 3A4 were characterized: N-hydroxy lapatinib (M3) and the oxime form of N-dealkylated lapatinib (M2), suggesting that a nitroso or another related intermediate generated from M3 is involved in MI complex formation. In contrast, P450 3A5 was much less susceptible to MBI by lapatinib via MI complex formation than P450 3A4. In addition, P450 3A5 had a significantly lower ability than 3A4 to generate M3, consistent with N-hydroxylation as the initial step in the pathway to MI complex formation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the primary mechanism for MBI of P450 3A4 by lapatinib is not irreversible modification by the quinoneimine metabolite, but quasi-irreversible MI complex formation mediated via oxidation of the secondary amine group of lapatinib. PMID:21363997

  18. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  19. Progesterone hydroxylation by cytochromes P450 2C and 3A enzymes in marmoset liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kazuyuki; Uehara, Shotaro; Uno, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-08-17

    1. Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are potentially useful nonhuman primate models for preclinical drug metabolism studies. However, the roles of marmoset cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms in the oxidation of endobiotic progesterone have not been fully investigated. In this study, the roles of marmoset P450 isoforms in progesterone hydroxylation were extensively determined. 2. The activities of liver microsomes from individual marmosets with respect to progesterone 21/17α- and 16α/6β-hydroxylation were significantly correlated with those for flurbiprofen 4-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, respectively, as similar correlations have been found in humans. Anti-P450 2 C and 3 A antibodies suppressed progesterone 21/17α- and 16α/6β-hydroxylation, respectively, in marmoset liver microsomes. 3. Recombinant marmoset P450 2C58 and 2C19 catalyzed progesterone to form 21-hydroxyprogesterone and 16α-hydroxyprogesterone, respectively, as major products with high maximum velocity/Km values of 0.53 and 0.089 mL/min/nmol, respectively. Recombinant marmoset P450 3A4/90 oxidized progesterone to form 6β-hydroxyprogesterone as a major product with homotropic cooperativity (>1 of Hill coefficients). 4. These results indicate that the overall activities and roles of liver microsomal P450 enzymes in marmoset livers are similar to those in humans, especially for progesterone 21/17α- and 16α/6β-hydroxylation by marmoset P450 2 C and 3 A enzymes, respectively, suggesting important roles for these P450 enzymes in the metabolism of endobiotics in marmosets.

  20. mRNA Distribution and Heterologous Expression of Orphan Cytochrome P450 20A1

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Katarina; Wu, Zhong-Liu; Bartleson, Cheryl J.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) 20A1 is one of the so-called “orphan” P450s without assigned biological function. mRNA expression was detected in human liver and extrahepatic expression was noted in several human brain regions, including substantia nigra, hippocampus, and amygdala, using conventional polymerase chain reaction and RNA dot blot analysis. Adult human liver contained 3-fold higher overall mRNA levels than whole brain, although specific regions (i.e., hippocampus and substantia nigra) exhibited higher mRNA expression levels than liver. Orthologous full-length and truncated transcripts of P450 20A1 were transcribed and sequenced from rat liver, heart, and brain. In rat, the concentrations of full-length transcripts were 3–4 fold higher in brain and heart than liver. In situ hybridization of rat whole brain sections showed a similar mRNA expression pattern as observed for human P450 20A1, indicating expression in substantia nigra, hippocampus, and amygdala. A number of N-terminal modifications of the codon-optimized human P450 20A1 sequence were prepared and expressed in Escherichia coli, and two of the truncated derivatives showed characteristic P450 spectra (200–280 nmol P450/l). Although the recombinant enzyme system oxidized NADPH, no catalytic activity was observed with the heterologously expressed protein when a number of potential steroids and biogenic amines were surveyed as potential substrates. The function of P450 20A1 remains unknown; however, the sites of mRNA expression in human brain and the conservation among species may suggest possible neurophysiological function. PMID:18541694

  1. Orphans in the Human Cytochrome P450 Superfamily: Approaches to Discovering Functions and Relevance in Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Qian

    2011-01-01

    As a result of technical advances in recombinant DNA technology and nucleotide sequencing, entire genome sequences have become available in the past decade and offer potential in understanding diseases. However, a central problem in the biochemical sciences is that the functions of only a fraction of the genes/proteins are known, and this is also an issue in pharmacology. This review is focused on issues related to the functions of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. P450 functions can be categorized in several groups: 1) Some P450s have critical roles in the metabolism of endogenous substrates (e.g., sterols and fat-soluble vitamins). 2) Some P450s are not generally critical to normal physiology but function in relatively nonselective protection from the many xenobiotic chemicals to which mammals (including humans) are exposed in their diets [as well as more anthropomorphic chemicals (e.g., drugs, pesticides)]. 3) Some P450s have not been extensively studied and are termed “orphans” here. With regard to elucidation of any physiological functions of the orphan P450s, the major subject of this review, it is clear that simple trial-and-error approaches with individual substrate candidates will not be very productive in addressing questions about function. A series of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/informatics approaches are discussed, along with some successes with both human and bacterial P450s. Current information on what are still considered “orphan” P450s is presented. The potential for application of some of these approaches to other enzyme systems is also discussed. PMID:21737533

  2. Placental expression and molecular characterization of aromatase cytochrome P450 in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Conley, A J; Corbin, C J; Browne, P; Mapes, S M; Place, N J; Hughes, A L; Glickman, S E

    2007-07-01

    At birth, the external genitalia of female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are the most masculinized of any known mammal, but are still sexually differentiated. Placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) is an important route of androgen metabolism protecting human female fetuses from virilization in utero. Therefore, placental P450arom expression was examined in spotted hyenas to determine levels during genital differentiation, and to compare molecular characteristics between the hyena and human placental enzymes. Hyena placental P450arom activity was determined at gestational days (GD) 31, 35, 45, 65 and 95 (term, 110), and the relative sensitivity of hyena and human placental enzyme to inhibition by the specific inhibitor, Letrozole, was also examined. Expression of hyena P450arom in placenta was localized by immuno-histochemistry, and a full-length cDNA was cloned for phylogenetic analysis. Aromatase activity increased from GD31 to a peak at 45 and 65, apparently decreasing later in gestation. This activity was more sensitive to inhibition by Letrozole than was human placental aromatase activity. Expression of P450arom was localized to syncytiotrophoblast and giant cells of mid-gestation placentas. The coding sequence of hyena P450arom was 94% and 86% identical to the canine and human enzymes respectively, as reflected by phylogenetic analyses. These data demonstrate for the first time that hyena placental aromatase activity is comparable to that of human placentas when genital differentiation is in progress. This suggests that even in female spotted hyenas clitoral differentiation is likely protected from virilization by placental androgen metabolism. Decreased placental aromatase activity in late gestation may be equally important in allowing androgen to program behaviors at birth. Although hyena P450arom is closely related to the canine enzyme, both placental anatomy and P450arom expression differ. Other hyaenids and carnivores must be investigated to

  3. A Cytochrome P450-Independent Mechanism of Acetaminophen-Induced Injury in Cultured Mouse Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Kazuhisa; Albee, Ryan; Letzig, Lynda G; Lehner, Andreas F; Scott, Michael A; Buchweitz, John P; James, Laura P; Ganey, Patricia E; Roth, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    Mouse hepatic parenchymal cells (HPCs) have become the most frequently used in vitro model to study mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity. It is universally accepted that APAP hepatocellular injury requires bioactivation by cytochromes P450 (P450s), but this remains unproven in primary mouse HPCs in vitro, especially over the wide range of concentrations that have been employed in published reports. The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that APAP-induced hepatocellular death in vitro depends solely on P450s. We evaluated APAP cytotoxicity and APAP-protein adducts (a biomarker of metabolic bioactivation by P450) using primary mouse HPCs in the presence and absence of a broad-spectrum inhibitor of P450s, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT). 1-ABT abolished formation of APAP-protein adducts at all concentrations of APAP (0-14 mM), but eliminated cytotoxicity only at small concentrations (≦5 mM), indicating the presence of a P450-independent mechanism at larger APAP concentrations. P450-independent cell death was delayed in onset relative to toxicity observed at smaller concentrations. p-Aminophenol was detected in primary mouse HPCs exposed to large concentrations of APAP, and a deacetylase inhibitor [bis (4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP)] significantly reduced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, APAP hepatocellular injury in vitro occurs by at least two mechanisms, a P450-dependent mechanism that operates at concentrations of APAP ≦ 5 mM and a P450-independent mechanism that predominates at larger concentrations and is slower in onset. p-Aminophenol most likely contributes to the latter mechanism. These findings should be considered in interpreting results from APAP cytotoxicity studies in vitro and in selecting APAP concentrations for use in such studies.

  4. Adrenodoxin supports reactions catalyzed by microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Pechurskaya, Tatiana A. . E-mail: usanov@iboch.bas-net.by

    2007-02-16

    The interaction of adrenodoxin (Adx) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) with human microsomal steroidogenic cytochrome P450s was studied. It is found that Adx, mitochondrial electron transfer protein, is able to support reactions catalyzed by human microsomal P450s: full length CYP17, truncated CYP17, and truncated CYP21. CPR, but not Adx, supports activity of truncated CYP19. Truncated and the full length CYP17s show distinct preference for electron donor proteins. Truncated CYP17 has higher activity with Adx compared to CPR. The alteration in preference to electron donor does not change product profile for truncated enzymes. The electrostatic contacts play a major role in the interaction of truncated CYP17 with either CPR or Adx. Similarly electrostatic contacts are predominant in the interaction of full length CYP17 with Adx. We speculate that Adx might serve as an alternative electron donor for CYP17 at the conditions of CPR deficiency in human.

  5. Transgenic rice plants expressing human p450 genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Sakiko; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ohkawa, Yasunobu

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remove xenobiotic compounds from the environment. Plants have the inherent ability to detoxify xenobiotic pollutants, but they are generally poor at degrading them. The introduction of genes involved in xenobiotic degradation is aimed at enhancing plants' potential further. Rice (Oryza sativa) is a good candidate for this purpose and has been transformed with genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CYP1A1, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19. The transgenic plants were more tolerant to various herbicides than nontransgenic Nipponbare rice plants, owing to enhanced metabolism by the introduced P450 enzymes. Transgenic plants were able to remove atrazine and metolachlor from soil. Field testing and risk assessment are very important for developing transgenic plants for phytoremediation. Transgenic rice plants should become useful as herbicide-tolerant crops and for phytoremediation of xenobiotic pollutants in future.

  6. [Activity of cytochromes P-450p and P-450h in liver microsomes and blood corticosteroid levels in experimental animals under the action of physical factors].

    PubMed

    Zolotareva, T A; Gorchakova, G A; Konovalenko, V L; Konovalenko, L N; Grishanova, A Iu; Guliaeva, L F; Liakhovich, V V

    1992-05-01

    In experiments on male Wistar rats it has been found that physical factors applied in medicine (laser radiation of low intensity with wave length 0.89 microns, microwaves of centimeter range of 2450 MHz, and ultrasound of low intensity 880 KHz) changed catalytic activity of liver microsomal and rostenedione 16 alpha- and 6 beta-hydroxylating cytochromes P-450h and P-450p and blood corticosteroids level. Activities of these two steroid-metabolizing cytochromes decreased under ultrasonic skin application on liver region and increased under microwave and laser action. Contents of physiologically inactive form of corticosterone were not changed by the physical factors action while level of active hormone was increased under ultrasonic and microwave action. These findings suggest association of the activity of liver steroid-metabolizing cytochromes P-450 and level of physiologically active form of corticosterone in blood under physical factors skin application on liver region.

  7. Gravity persistent signal 1 reveals a novel cytochrome P450 involved in gravitropic signal transduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Sarah

    Understanding gene expression that occurs during gravitopism is important for studying the processes that link the perception of gravity to the growth response. Arabidopsis plants with a mutation in the GRAVITY PERSISTENT SIGNAL (GPS)1 locus show a "no response" phenotype during gravistimulation experiments. Basepital auxin transport in gps1 mutant was unaffected by the mutation, but auxin was not laterally redistributed after gravistimulation. GPS1 encodes CYP705A22, a cytochrome P450 protein (P450) of unknown function. The wild type CYP705A22 gene was transformed into the gps1 mutant background and successfully rescued the mutant phenotype. Data mining of microarray data collected from gravistimulated root tips of Arabidopsis indicated that although CYP705A22 was not expressed in roots, a family member CYP705A5 was up-regulated within 3 minutes after gravistimulation. Expression profiling of CYP705A5, using real-time quantitative PCR, showed that CYP705A5 was up-regulated nearly five fold within minutes of gravity stimulation. And reporter gene fusions that link the CYP705A5 gene to the green fluorescent protein showed that CYP705A5 was expressed in the root zones of elongation and maturation. Computer modeling of the catalytic domain of CYP705A22 and CYP705A5 and in silico substrate docking simulations generated a list of 130 compounds that are potential substrates of the P450s. Many of the compounds are phenylpropanoid derivatives. Heterologous expression of CYP705A5 in baculovirus and Type 1 binding studies indicate the substrate of the P450 may be quercitin or myricetin. A mutation affecting CYP705A5 expression resulted in a delayed gravity response in roots. The mutant phenotype could be chemically complemented, and DPBA staining in the CYP705A5 mutant indicated a 1.5 fold accumulation of quercetin in mutant roots as compared to WT. These data, taken together, may indicate that we have identified a flavonoid pathway that regulates auxin distribution and thus

  8. Arabidopsis cytochrome P450s that catalyze the first step of tryptophan-dependent indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Anna K.; Vij, Rekha; Celenza, John L.

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous secondary metabolites that are used as developmental signals or as defense against pathogens. Tryptophan (Trp)-derived secondary metabolites include camalexin, indole glucosinolates, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, the steps in their synthesis from Trp or its precursors remain unclear. We have identified two Arabidopsis cytochrome P450s (CYP79B2 and CYP79B3) that can convert Trp to indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx), a precursor to IAA and indole glucosinolates. PMID:10681464

  9. Evaluation of Nitrosamide Formation in the Cytochrome P450-Mediated Metabolism of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Erik S; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Hecht, Stephen S

    2016-12-19

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) are carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines believed to play a vital role in the initiation of tobacco-related cancers. For their carcinogenicities to be exhibited, both NNN and NNK must be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450s, specifically P450 2A6 and P450 2A13, respectively. Prior research has focused on α-hydroxylation, which leads to the formation of several DNA adducts that have been identified and quantified in vivo. However, some studies indicate that P450s can retain substrates within their active sites and perform processive oxidation. For nitrosamines, this would oxidize the highly unstable α-hydroxynitrosamines to potentially more stable nitrosamides, which could also alkylate DNA. Thus, we hypothesized that both NNN and NNK are processively oxidized in vitro to nitrosamides by P450 2A6 and P450 2A13, respectively. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized the NNN- and NNK-derived nitrosamides, determined their half-lives at pH 7.4 and 37 °C, and monitored for nitrosamide formation in an in vitro P450 system with product analysis by LC/NSI(+)-HRMS/MS. Half-lives of the nitrosamides were determined by HPLC-UV and ranged from 7-35 min, which is more than 40 times longer than the corresponding α-hydroxynitrosamines. Incubation of NNN in the P450 2A6 system resulted in the formation of the nitrosamide N'-nitrosonorcotinine (NNC) at low levels. Similarly, the nitrosamide 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1,4-butanedione (CH2-oxo-NNK) was detected in low amounts in the incubation of NNK with the P450 2A13 system. The other possible NNK-derived nitrosamide, 4-(nitrosoformamido)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (CH3-oxo-NNK), was not observed in the P450 2A13 reactions. CH2-oxo-NNK readily formed O(6)meGua in reactions with dGuo and calf thymus DNA. These results demonstrate that NNC and CH2-oxo-NNK are novel metabolites of NNN and NNK, respectively. Though low

  10. Functional analysis of human cytochrome P450 21A2 variants involved in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunxue; Pallan, Pradeep S.; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Li; Yoshimoto, Francis K.; Waterman, Michael R.; Egli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OH-progesterone) to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 CYP21A2 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of WT human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH-progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH-progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions. Twelve P450 21A2 variants associated with either salt-wasting or nonclassical forms of CAH were expressed, purified, and analyzed. The catalytic activities of these 12 variants ranged from 0.00009% to 30% of WT P450 21A2 and the extent of heme incorporation from 10% to 95% of the WT. Substrate dissociation constants (Ks) for four variants were 37–13,000-fold higher than for WT P450 21A2. Cytochrome b5, which augments several P450 activities, inhibited P450 21A2 activity. Similar to the WT enzyme, high noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic deuterium isotope effects (≥ 5.5) were observed for all six P450 21A2 variants examined for 21-hydroxylation of 21-d3-progesterone, indicating that C–H bond breaking is a rate-limiting step over a 104-fold range of catalytic efficiency. Using UV-visible and CD spectroscopy, we found that P450 21A2 thermal stability assessed in bacterial cells and with purified enzymes differed among salt-wasting- and nonclassical-associated variants, but these differences did not correlate with catalytic activity. Our in-depth investigation of CAH-associated P450 21A2 variants reveals critical insight into the effects of disease-causing mutations on this important enzyme. PMID:28539365

  11. Functional analysis of human cytochrome P450 21A2 variants involved in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxue; Pallan, Pradeep S; Zhang, Wei; Lei, Li; Yoshimoto, Francis K; Waterman, Michael R; Egli, Martin; Guengerich, F Peter

    2017-06-30

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 21A2 is the major steroid 21-hydroxylase, converting progesterone to 11-deoxycorticosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-OH-progesterone) to 11-deoxycortisol. More than 100 CYP21A2 variants give rise to congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We previously reported a structure of WT human P450 21A2 with bound progesterone and now present a structure bound to the other substrate (17α-OH-progesterone). We found that the 17α-OH-progesterone- and progesterone-bound complex structures are highly similar, with only some minor differences in surface loop regions. Twelve P450 21A2 variants associated with either salt-wasting or nonclassical forms of CAH were expressed, purified, and analyzed. The catalytic activities of these 12 variants ranged from 0.00009% to 30% of WT P450 21A2 and the extent of heme incorporation from 10% to 95% of the WT. Substrate dissociation constants (Ks) for four variants were 37-13,000-fold higher than for WT P450 21A2. Cytochrome b5, which augments several P450 activities, inhibited P450 21A2 activity. Similar to the WT enzyme, high noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic deuterium isotope effects (≥ 5.5) were observed for all six P450 21A2 variants examined for 21-hydroxylation of 21-d3-progesterone, indicating that C-H bond breaking is a rate-limiting step over a 10(4)-fold range of catalytic efficiency. Using UV-visible and CD spectroscopy, we found that P450 21A2 thermal stability assessed in bacterial cells and with purified enzymes differed among salt-wasting- and nonclassical-associated variants, but these differences did not correlate with catalytic activity. Our in-depth investigation of CAH-associated P450 21A2 variants reveals critical insight into the effects of disease-causing mutations on this important enzyme. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY RECOMBINANT RAT AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450S

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We report quantitative estimates of the parameters for metabolism of bromodichloromethane (BDCM) by recombinant preparations of hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYPs) from rat and human. BDCM is a drinking water disinfectant byproduct that has been implicated in liver, kidn...

  13. Key Elements of the Chemistry of Cytochrome P-450: The Oxygen Rebound Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, John T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the structure and function of the liver protein cytochrome P-450, an important catalyst for a variety of detoxification reactions. Diagnostic substracts for this heme-containing monooxygenase, synthetic modes of the active site, and oxidations with synthetic metalloporphyrins are the major topic areas considered. (JN)

  14. Metabolism of melatonin by cytochrome P-450s in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Semak, Igor; Korik, Elena; Antonova, Maria; Wortsman, Jacobo; Slominski, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we provide direct evidence for the involvement of rat microsomal cytochrome P450s in melatonin O-demethylation and hydroxylation at two different positions: 2 and 6, as well as generation of N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine (AFMK) and two unknown products. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial cytochrome P450s also converts melatonin into AFMK, N-acetylserotonin (NAS), 2-hydroxymelatonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin and the same two unknown products. Eadie-Hofstee plots for 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation reactions were curvilinear for all tested fractions, suggestive of involvement of at least two components, one with a high affinity and low capacity, and another with a low affinity and high capacity. Mitochondrial cytochrome P450s exhibited higher affinity (suggesting lower Km value) and higher Vmax for melatonin 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation for both high-affinity and low-affinity components as compared to microsomal enzymes. The intrinsic clearance for melatonin hydroxylation by high- and low-affinity components displayed the highest values in all tested fractions, indicating that both mitochondrial and microsomal cytochrome P-450s metabolize melatonin principally by 6-hydroxylation, with O-demethylation representing a minor metabolic pathway. PMID:18717775

  15. Metabolism of melatonin by cytochrome P450s in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes.

    PubMed

    Semak, Igor; Korik, Elena; Antonova, Maria; Wortsman, Jacobo; Slominski, Andrzej

    2008-11-01

    In the present study we provide direct evidence for the involvement of rat microsomal cytochrome P450s in melatonin O-demethylation and hydroxylation at two different positions: 2 and 6, as well as generation of N(1)-acetyl-N(2)-formyl-5-methoxy-kynuramine (AFMK) and two unknown products. Moreover, we found that mitochondrial cytochrome P450s also converts melatonin into AFMK, N-acetylserotonin, 2-hydroxymelatonin, 6-hydroxymelatonin and the same two unknown products. Eadie-Hofstee plots for 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation reactions were curvilinear for all tested fractions, suggestive of involvement of at least two components, one with a high affinity and low capacity, and another with a low affinity and high capacity. Mitochondrial cytochrome P450s exhibited higher affinity (suggesting lower K(m) value) and higher V(max) for melatonin 6-hydroxylation and O-demethylation for both high-affinity and low-affinity components as compared with microsomal enzymes. The intrinsic clearance for melatonin hydroxylation by high- and low-affinity components displayed the highest values in all tested fractions, indicating that both mitochondrial and microsomal cytochrome P450s metabolize melatonin principally by 6-hydroxylation, with O-demethylation representing a minor metabolic pathway.

  16. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. An open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. This ORF includes a charact...

  17. EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2. T M Ross1, B P Anderson1, G Zhao2, R A Pegram1 and J W Allis1. 1U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Sponsor: H Barton

    Bromodichlorometh...

  18. FLUCONAZOLE-INDUCED HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RATS AND MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of the triazole antifungal agent fluconazole on the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes and the activities of Cyp enzymes in male Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice. Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (AROD) methods w...

  19. PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF THE CYTOCHROME P450 LANOSTEROL 14A-DEMETHYLASE GENE FROM CANDIDA TROPICALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the gene and flanking DNA for the cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis ATCC750. An open reading frame (ORF) of 528 codons encoding a 60.9-kD protein is identified. This ORF includes a charact...

  20. Aryl Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Diclofop by a Wheat Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, Alfred; Durst, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Etoile de Choisy) microsomes catalyzed the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of the herbicide diclofop to three hydroxy-diclofop isomers. Hydroxylation was predominant at carbon 4, with migration of chlorine to carbon 5 (67%) and carbon 3 (25%). The 2,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy isomer was identified as a minor reaction product (8%). Substrate-specificity studies showed that the activity was not inhibited or was weakly inhibited by a range of xenobiotic or physiological cytochrome P-450 substrates, with the exception of lauric acid. Wheat microsomes also catalyze the metabolism of the herbicides chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and of the model substrate ethoxycoumarin, as well as the hydroxylation of the endogenous substrates cinnamic and lauric acids. Treatments of wheat seedlings with phenobarbital or the safener naphthalic acid anhydride enhanced the cytochrome P-450 content of the microsomes and all related activities except that of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, which was reduced. The stimulation patterns of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase were similar, in contrast with the other activities tested. Lauric acid inhibited competitively (Ki = 9 μm) the oxidation of diclofop and reciprocally. The similarity of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase was further investigated by alternative substrate kinetics, autocatalytic inactivation, and computer-aided molecular modelisation studies, and the results suggest that both reactions are catalyzed by the same cytochrome P-450 isozyme. PMID:16653070

  1. Cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Brett L; Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Estes, Anne M; Das, Kanak; Farjana, Nasreen; Fang, Xiao R; Gonzalez, Frank J; Malik, Kafait U

    2010-10-01

    Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, and angiotensin II is one of the major components of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of hypertension. However, the precise mechanisms for the development of hypertension are unknown. Our recent study showing that angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell growth depends on cytochrome P450 1B1 led us to investigate its contribution to hypertension caused by this peptide. Angiotensin II was infused via miniosmotic pump into rats (150 ng/kg per minute) or mice (1000 μg/kg per day) for 13 days resulting in increased blood pressure, increased cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, increased vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents, increased vascular reactive oxygen species production, and endothelial dysfunction in both species. The increase in blood pressure and associated pathophysiological changes were minimized by the cytochrome P450 1B1 inhibitor 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene in both species and was markedly reduced in Cyp1b1(-/-) mice. These data suggest that cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes. Moreover, 2,3',4,5'-tetramethoxystilbene, which prevents both cytochrome P450 1B1-dependent and -independent components of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and inhibits associated pathophysiological changes could be clinically useful in the treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

  2. CYTOCHROME P450 1B1 CONTRIBUTES TO ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ASSOCIATED PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Brett L.; Sahan-Firat, Seyhan; Estes, Anne M.; Das, Kanak; Farjana, Nasreen; Fang, Xiao R.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Malik, Kafait U.

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases, and angiotensin II is one of the major components of the mechanisms that contribute to the development of hypertension. However, the precise mechanisms for the development of hypertension are unknown. Our recent study that angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell growth is dependent on cytochrome P450 1B1 led us to investigate its contribution to hypertension caused by this peptide. Angiotensin II was infused via miniosmotic pump into rats (150 ng/kg/min) or mice (1000 μg/kg/day) for 13 days resulting in increased blood pressure, increased cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, increased vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents, increased reactive oxygen species production, and endothelial dysfunction in both species. The increase in blood pressure and associated pathophysiological changes were minimized by the cytochrome P450 1B1 inhibitor, 2,3′,4,5′-tetramethoxystilbene in both species and was markedly reduced in Cyp1b1-/- mice. These data suggest that cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and associated pathophysiological changes. Moreover, 2,3′,4,5′-tetramethoxystilbene which prevents both cytochrome P450 1B1-dependent and independent components of angiotensin II-induced hypertension and inhibits associated pathophysiological changes could be clinically useful in the treatment of hypertension and associated cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. PMID:20805442

  3. Expression and enzymatic activity of recombinant cytochrome P450 17 alpha-hydroxylase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, H J; Arlotto, M P; Waterman, M R

    1991-01-01

    When the cDNA encoding bovine microsomal 17 alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P45017 alpha) containing modifications within the first seven codons which favor expression in Escherichia coli is placed in a highly regulated tac promoter expression plasmid, as much as 16 mg of spectrally detectable P45017 alpha per liter of culture can be synthesized and integrated into E. coli membranes. The known enzymatic activities of bovine P45017 alpha can be reconstituted by addition of purified rat liver NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase to isolated E. coli membrane fractions containing the recombinant P45017 alpha enzyme. Surprisingly, it is found that E. coli contain an electron-transport system that can substitute for the mammalian microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in supporting both the 17 alpha-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities of P45017 alpha. Thus, not only can E. coli express this eukaryotic membrane protein at relatively high levels, but as evidenced by metabolism of steroids added directly to the cells, the enzyme is catalytically active in vivo. These studies establish E. coli as an efficacious heterologous expression system for structure-function analysis of the cytochrome P450 system. Images PMID:1829523

  4. PROPICONAZOLE-INDUCED CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RAT AND MOUSE LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are N-substituted azole antifungal agents used as both pesticides and drugs. Some of these compounds are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and some can induce thyroid tumors in rats. Many of these compounds are able to induce and/or inhibit mammalian hepatic cytochrome P450s t...

  5. EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2

    EPA Science Inventory

    EVIDENCE FOR BROMODICHLOROMETHANE METABOLISM BY CYTOCHROME P-450 1A2. T M Ross1, B P Anderson1, G Zhao2, R A Pegram1 and J W Allis1. 1U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC; 2University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.
    Sponsor: H Barton

    Bromodichlorometh...

  6. Key Elements of the Chemistry of Cytochrome P-450: The Oxygen Rebound Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, John T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the structure and function of the liver protein cytochrome P-450, an important catalyst for a variety of detoxification reactions. Diagnostic substracts for this heme-containing monooxygenase, synthetic modes of the active site, and oxidations with synthetic metalloporphyrins are the major topic areas considered. (JN)