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Sample records for plant defense pathways1

  1. RNA-Seq Links the Transcription Factors AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 to Cell Wall Remodeling and Plant Defense Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bequette, Carlton J.; Fu, Zheng Qing; Loraine, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 (AIL6) are two related transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that have partially overlapping roles in several aspects of flower development, including floral organ initiation, identity specification, growth, and patterning. To better understand the biological processes regulated by these two transcription factors, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) on ant ail6 double mutants. We identified thousands of genes that are differentially expressed in the double mutant compared with the wild type. Analyses of these genes suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate floral organ initiation and growth through modifications to the cell wall polysaccharide pectin. We found reduced levels of demethylesterified homogalacturonan and altered patterns of auxin accumulation in early stages of ant ail6 flower development. The RNA-Seq experiment also revealed cross-regulation of AIL gene expression at the transcriptional level. The presence of a number of overrepresented Gene Ontology terms related to plant defense in the set of genes differentially expressed in ant ail6 suggest that ANT and AIL6 also regulate plant defense pathways. Furthermore, we found that ant ail6 plants have elevated levels of two defense hormones: salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and show increased resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These results suggest that ANT and AIL6 regulate biological pathways that are critical for both development and defense. PMID:27208279

  2. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  3. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  4. Chemical defense lowers plant competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Ballhorn, Daniel J; Godschalx, Adrienne L; Smart, Savannah M; Kautz, Stefanie; Schädler, Martin

    2014-11-01

    Both plant competition and plant defense affect biodiversity and food web dynamics and are central themes in ecology research. The evolutionary pressures determining plant allocation toward defense or competition are not well understood. According to the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDB), the relative importance of herbivory and competition have led to the evolution of plant allocation patterns, with herbivore pressure leading to increased differentiated tissues (defensive traits), and competition pressure leading to resource investment towards cellular division and elongation (growth-related traits). Here, we tested the GDB hypothesis by assessing the competitive response of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants with quantitatively different levels of cyanogenesis-a constitutive direct, nitrogen-based defense against herbivores. We used high (HC) and low cyanogenic (LC) genotypes in different competition treatments (intra-genotypic, inter-genotypic, interspecific), and in the presence or absence of insect herbivores (Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis) to quantify vegetative and generative plant parameters (above and belowground biomass as well as seed production). Highly defended HC-plants had significantly lower aboveground biomass and seed production than LC-plants when grown in the absence of herbivores implying significant intrinsic costs of plant cyanogenesis. However, the reduced performance of HC- compared to LC-plants was mitigated in the presence of herbivores. The two plant genotypes exhibited fundamentally different responses to various stresses (competition, herbivory). Our study supports the GDB hypothesis by demonstrating that competition and herbivory affect different plant genotypes differentially and contributes to understanding the causes of variation in defense within a single plant species.

  5. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification.

    PubMed

    Weber, Marjorie G; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2014-11-18

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity.

  6. Defense mutualisms enhance plant diversification

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Marjorie G.; Agrawal, Anurag A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to form mutualistic relationships with animal defenders has long been suspected to influence their evolutionary success, both by decreasing extinction risk and by increasing opportunity for speciation through an expanded realized niche. Nonetheless, the hypothesis that defense mutualisms consistently enhance plant diversification across lineages has not been well tested due to a lack of phenotypic and phylogenetic information. Using a global analysis, we show that the >100 vascular plant families in which species have evolved extrafloral nectaries (EFNs), sugar-secreting organs that recruit arthropod mutualists, have twofold higher diversification rates than families that lack species with EFNs. Zooming in on six distantly related plant clades, trait-dependent diversification models confirmed the tendency for lineages with EFNs to display increased rates of diversification. These results were consistent across methodological approaches. Inference using reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to model the placement and number of rate shifts revealed that high net diversification rates in EFN clades were driven by an increased number of positive rate shifts following EFN evolution compared with sister clades, suggesting that EFNs may be indirect facilitators of diversification. Our replicated analysis indicates that defense mutualisms put lineages on a path toward increased diversification rates within and between clades, and is concordant with the hypothesis that mutualistic interactions with animals can have an impact on deep macroevolutionary patterns and enhance plant diversity. PMID:25349406

  7. Priming of antiherbivore defensive responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwon; Felton, Gary W

    2013-06-01

    Defense priming is defined as increased readiness of defense induction. A growing body of literature indicates that plants (or intact parts of a plant) are primed in anticipation of impending environmental stresses, both biotic and abiotic, and upon the following stimulus, induce defenses more quickly and strongly. For instance, some plants previously exposed to herbivore-inducible plant volatiles (HIPVs) from neighboring plants under herbivore attack show faster or stronger defense activation and enhanced insect resistance when challenged with secondary insect feeding. Research on priming of antiherbivore defense has been limited to the HIPV-mediated mechanism until recently, but significant advances were made in the past three years, including non-HIPV-mediated defense priming, epigenetic modifications as the molecular mechanism of priming, and others. It is timely to consider the advances in research on defense priming in the plant-insect interactions.

  8. Analyzing plant defenses in nature

    PubMed Central

    Kautz, Stefanie; Heil, Martin; Hegeman, Adrian D

    2009-01-01

    A broad range of chemical plant defenses against herbivores has been studied extensively under laboratory conditions. In many of these cases there is still little understanding of their relevance in nature. In natural systems, functional analyses of plant traits are often complicated by an extreme variability, which affects the interaction with higher trophic levels. Successful analyses require consideration of the numerous sources of variation that potentially affect the plant trait of interest. In our recent study on wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) in South Mexico, we applied an integrative approach combining analyses for quantitative correlations of cyanogenic potential (HCNp; the maximum amount of cyanide that can be released from a given tissue) and herbivory in the field with subsequent feeding trials under controlled conditions. This approach allowed us to causally explain the consequences of quantitative variation of HCNp on herbivore-plant interactions in nature and highlights the importance of combining data obtained in natural systems with analyses under controlled conditions. PMID:19820300

  9. High CO2 Primes Plant Biotic Stress Defences through Redox-Linked Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Industrial activities have caused tropospheric CO2 concentrations to increase over the last two centuries, a trend that is predicted to continue for at least the next several decades. Here, we report that growth of plants in a CO2-enriched environment activates responses that are central to defense against pathogenic attack. Salicylic acid accumulation was triggered by high-growth CO2 in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and other plants such as bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). A detailed analysis in Arabidopsis revealed that elevated CO2 primes multiple defense pathways, leading to increased resistance to bacterial and fungal challenge. Analysis of gene-specific mutants provided no evidence that activation of plant defense pathways by high CO2 was caused by stomatal closure. Rather, the activation is partly linked to metabolic effects involving redox signaling. In support of this, genetic modification of redox components (glutathione contents and NADPH-generating enzymes) prevents full priming of the salicylic acid pathway and associated resistance by high CO2. The data point to a particularly influential role for the nonphosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a cytosolic enzyme whose role in plants remains unclear. Our observations add new information on relationships between high CO2 and oxidative signaling and provide novel insight into plant stress responses in conditions of increased CO2. PMID:27578552

  10. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-10-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.

  11. Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; Ahmad, Tariq; Buhroo, Abdul Ahad; Hussain, Barkat; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production. PMID:22895106

  12. Plant defense genes are regulated by ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, J.R.; Davis, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    One of the earliest detectable events during plant-pathogen interaction is a rapid increase in ethylene biosynthesis. This gaseous plant stress hormone may be a signal for plants to activate defense mechanisms against invading pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The effect of ethylene on four plant genes involved in three separate plant defense response pathways was examined; these included (i and ii) genes that encode L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.2.1.12), enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, (iii) the gene encoding chalcone synthase, an enzyme of the flavonoid glycoside pathway, and (iv) the genes encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein, a major protein component(s) of plant cell walls. Blot hybridization analysis of mRNA from ethylene-treated carrot roots reveals marked increases in the levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA, 4-coumarate CoA ligase mRNA, chalcone synthase mRNA, and certain hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein transcripts. The effect of ethylene on hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNA accumulation was different from that of wounding. Ethylene induces two hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs (1.8 and 4.0 kilobases), whereas wounding of carrot root leads to accumulation of an additional hydroxyproline-rich mRNA (1.5 kilobases). These results indicate that at least two distinct signals, ethylene and a wound signal, can affect the expression of plant defense-response genes.

  13. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jack C.; Appel, Heidi M.; Ferrieri, Abigail P.; Arnold, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Plants are organisms composed of modules connected by xylem and phloem transport streams. Attack by both insects and pathogens elicits sometimes rapid defense responses in the attacked module. We have also known for some time that proteins are often reallocated away from pathogen-infected tissues, while the same infection sites may draw carbohydrates to them. This has been interpreted as a tug of war in which the plant withdraws critical resources to block microbial growth while the microbes attempt to acquire more resources. Sink-source regulated transport among modules of critical resources, particularly carbon and nitrogen, is also altered in response to attack. Insects and jasmonate can increase local sink strength, drawing carbohydrates that support defense production. Shortly after attack, carbohydrates may also be drawn to the root. The rate and direction of movement of photosynthate or signals in phloem in response to attack is subject to constraints that include branching, degree of connection among tissues, distance between sources and sinks, proximity, strength, and number of competing sinks, and phloem loading/unloading regulators. Movement of materials (e.g., amino acids, signals) to or from attack sites in xylem is less well understood but is partly driven by transpiration. The root is an influential sink and may regulate sink-source interactions and transport above and below ground as well as between the plant and the rhizosphere and nearby, connected plants. Research on resource translocation in response to pathogens or herbivores has focused on biochemical mechanisms; whole-plant research is needed to determine which, if any, of these plant behaviors actually influence plant fitness. PMID:23986767

  14. Defensive weapons and defense signals in plants: some metabolites serve both roles.

    PubMed

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    The defense of plants against herbivores and pathogens involves the participation of an enormous range of different metabolites, some of which act directly as defensive weapons against enemies (toxins or deterrents) and some of which act as components of the complex internal signaling network that insures that defense is timed to enemy attack. Recent work reveals a surprising trend: The same compounds may act as both weapons and signals of defense. For example, two groups of well-studied defensive weapons, glucosinolates and benzoxazinoids, trigger the accumulation of the protective polysaccharide callose as a barrier against aphids and pathogens. In the other direction, several hormones acting in defense signaling (and their precursors and products) exhibit activity as weapons against pathogens. Knowing which compounds are defensive weapons, which are defensive signals and which are both is vital for understanding the functioning of plant defense systems.

  15. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  16. Landscape Variation in Plant Defense Syndromes across a Tropical Rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.; Field, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Plant defenses against herbivores shape tropical rainforest biodiversity, yet community- and landscape-scale patterns of plant defense and the phylogenetic and environmental factors that may shape them are poorly known. We measured foliar defense, growth, and longevity traits for 345 canopy trees across 84 species in a tropical rainforest and examined whether patterns of trait co-variation indicated the existence of plant defense syndromes. Using a DNA-barcode phylogeny and remote sensing and land-use data, we investigated how phylogeny and topo-edaphic properties influenced the distribution of syndromes. We found evidence for three distinct defense syndromes, characterized by rapid growth, growth compensated by defense, or limited palatability/low nutrition. Phylogenetic signal was generally lower for defense traits than traits related to growth or longevity. Individual defense syndromes were organized at different taxonomic levels and responded to different spatial-environmental gradients. The results suggest that a diverse set of tropical canopy trees converge on a limited number of strategies to secure resources and mitigate fitness losses due to herbivory, with patterns of distribution mediated by evolutionary histories and local habitat associations. Plant defense syndromes are multidimensional plant strategies, and thus are a useful means of discerning ecologically-relevant variation in highly diverse tropical rainforest communities. Scaling this approach to the landscape level, if plant defense syndromes can be distinguished in remotely-sensed data, they may yield new insights into the role of plant defense in structuring diverse tropical rainforest communities.

  17. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-09-24

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant-insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host.

  18. Herbivore exploits orally secreted bacteria to suppress plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Scully, Erin D.; Peiffer, Michelle; Tooker, John F.; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Induced plant defenses in response to herbivore attack are modulated by cross-talk between jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways. Oral secretions from some insect herbivores contain effectors that overcome these antiherbivore defenses. Herbivores possess diverse microbes in their digestive systems and these microbial symbionts can modify plant–insect interactions; however, the specific role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae exploit bacteria in their oral secretions to suppress antiherbivore defenses in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We found that antibiotic-untreated larvae decreased production of JA and JA-responsive antiherbivore defenses, but increased SA accumulation and SA-responsive gene expression. Beetles benefit from down-regulating plant defenses by exhibiting enhanced larval growth. In SA-deficient plants, suppression was not observed, indicating that suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA-signaling pathway. Applying bacteria isolated from larval oral secretions to wounded plants confirmed that three microbial symbionts belonging to the genera Stenotrophomonas, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacter are responsible for defense suppression. Additionally, reinoculation of these bacteria to antibiotic-treated larvae restored their ability to suppress defenses. Flagellin isolated from Pseudomonas sp. was associated with defense suppression. Our findings show that the herbivore exploits symbiotic bacteria as a decoy to deceive plants into incorrectly perceiving the threat as microbial. By interfering with the normal perception of herbivory, beetles can evade antiherbivore defenses of its host. PMID:24019469

  19. JAV1 controls jasmonate-regulated plant defense.

    PubMed

    Hu, Po; Zhou, Wu; Cheng, Zhiwei; Fan, Meng; Wang, Lei; Xie, Daoxin

    2013-05-23

    Plants evolve effective mechanisms to protect themselves from environmental stresses and employ jasmonates as vital defense signals to defend against insect attack and pathogen infection. Jasmonates are also recognized as an essential growth regulator by which diverse developmental processes are mediated. Despite substantial research, there are no key signaling components reported yet to control jasmonate-regulated plant defense independent of developmental responses. We identify JAV1, a key gene in the jasmonate pathway, which functions as a negative regulator to control plant defense but does not play a detectable role in plant development. Our results suggest that when encountering insect attack and pathogen infection, plants accumulate jasmonates that trigger JAV1 degradation via the 26S proteasome to activate defensive gene expression and elevate resistances against both insects and pathogens. These findings have provided insight into the molecular mechanism by which plants integrate jasmonate signals to protect themselves from insect attack and pathogen infection.

  20. Optimal defense schedule of annual plants against seasonal herbivores.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Yamauchi, Atsushi

    2010-05-01

    Herbivores often have huge impacts on plant performance. In order to reduce damage from herbivory, plants evolve antiherbivore defenses, the mechanisms of which have been studied from a theoretical viewpoint. In the theoretical studies, the models of defense schedules have assumed a uniform intensity of herbivory or a constant rate of encounter of herbivores throughout the season. However, some herbivores apparently appear for only a limited period instead of the whole growing season of the plant. In our study, we analyzed the optimal schedule of defense allocation of the plant under the herbivory that occurs within a limited period with a certain probability. We assumed an annual plant that consists of vegetative and defensive parts and whose growing season is divided into two phases at the time of herbivore emergence. In the phase after the emergence time, the status of a plant can be either with or without herbivore stochastically. The plant is considered to maximize the average vegetative size at the end of the growing season. We found that under the fixed emergence time, inducible defense is favored when the plant growth rate and herbivory intensity are high. Extending this result, we also analyzed the coevolution of plant defense and herbivore emergence time by using invasibility analysis. In the system considered, an equilibrium steady state tends to be absent in herbivore strategy. This suggests polymorphism of herbivore emergence time.

  1. Mycorrhiza-induced resistance and priming of plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sabine C; Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Lopez-Raez, Juan A; Pozo, Maria J

    2012-06-01

    Symbioses between plants and beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to promote plant growth and help plants to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Profound physiological changes take place in the host plant upon root colonization by AMF affecting the interactions with a wide range of organisms below- and above-ground. Protective effects of the symbiosis against pathogens, pests, and parasitic plants have been described for many plant species, including agriculturally important crop varieties. Besides mechanisms such as improved plant nutrition and competition, experimental evidence supports a major role of plant defenses in the observed protection. During mycorrhiza establishment, modulation of plant defense responses occurs thus achieving a functional symbiosis. As a consequence of this modulation, a mild, but effective activation of the plant immune responses seems to occur, not only locally but also systemically. This activation leads to a primed state of the plant that allows a more efficient activation of defense mechanisms in response to attack by potential enemies. Here, we give an overview of the impact on interactions between mycorrhizal plants and pathogens, herbivores, and parasitic plants, and we summarize the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms. We focus on the priming of jasmonate-regulated plant defense mechanisms that play a central role in the induction of resistance by arbuscular mycorrhizas.

  2. Plant defense activators: applications and prospects in cereal crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review addresses the current understanding of the plant immune response and the molecular mechanisms responsible for systemic acquired resistance as well as the phenomenon of "priming" in plant defense. A detailed discussion of the role of salicylic acid in activating the plant transcription c...

  3. Phylogenetic escalation and decline of plant defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark

    2008-07-22

    As the basal resource in most food webs, plants have evolved myriad strategies to battle consumption by herbivores. Over the past 50 years, plant defense theories have been formulated to explain the remarkable variation in abundance, distribution, and diversity of secondary chemistry and other defensive traits. For example, classic theories of enemy-driven evolutionary dynamics have hypothesized that defensive traits escalate through the diversification process. Despite the fact that macroevolutionary patterns are an explicit part of defense theories, phylogenetic analyses have not been previously attempted to disentangle specific predictions concerning (i) investment in resistance traits, (ii) recovery after damage, and (iii) plant growth rate. We constructed a molecular phylogeny of 38 species of milkweed and tested four major predictions of defense theory using maximum-likelihood methods. We did not find support for the growth-rate hypothesis. Our key finding was a pattern of phyletic decline in the three most potent resistance traits (cardenolides, latex, and trichomes) and an escalation of regrowth ability. Our neontological approach complements more common paleontological approaches to discover directional trends in the evolution of life and points to the importance of natural enemies in the macroevolution of species. The finding of macroevolutionary escalating regowth ability and declining resistance provides a window into the ongoing coevolutionary dynamics between plants and herbivores and suggests a revision of classic plant defense theory. Where plants are primarily consumed by specialist herbivores, regrowth (or tolerance) may be favored over resistance traits during the diversification process.

  4. How herbivores coopt plant defenses: natural selection, specialization, and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Petschenka, Georg; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2016-04-01

    We review progress in understanding sequestration by herbivorous insects, the use of plant chemical defenses for their own defense. We incorporate sequestration into the framework of plant-insect coevolution by integrating three hierarchical issues: (1) the relationship between dietary specialization and sequestration of plant defenses, (2) the physiological mechanisms involved in sequestration, and (3) how sequestration evolves via interactions between trophic levels. Sequestration is often associated with specialization, but even specialized sequestration is not an evolutionary dead-end. Despite considerable progress in understanding physiological mechanisms, detailed knowledge of how plant toxins cross the insect gut epithelium is still largely lacking. Sequestration is likely a major vehicle for coevolutionary escalation in speciose plant-insect-predator interactions, suggesting that a strictly bitrophic view is untenable. PMID:27436642

  5. Exploring plant defense theory in tall goldenrod, Solidago altissima.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jeremy J; Kessler, André; Woebbe, Eric; Cipollini, Don; Stireman, John O

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary reasons for patterns of chemical defense in plants is an ongoing theoretical and empirical challenge. The goal is to develop a model that can reliably predict how defenses are distributed within the plant over space and time. This is difficult given that evolutionary, ecological, and physiological processes and tradeoffs can operate over different spatial and temporal scales. We evaluated the major predictions of two leading defense theories, the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) and optimal defense theory (ODT). To achieve this, enemies, fitness components, terpenoids, and protease inhibitors were measured in Solidago altissima and used to construct conventional univariate and structural equation models (SEMs). Leaf-tissue value indices extracted from an SEM revealed a strong correlation between tissue value and terpenoid defense that supports ODT. A tradeoff between serine protease inhibition and growth as well as an indirect tradeoff between growth and terpenoids manifested through galling insects supported the GDBH. Interestingly, there was a strong direct effect of terpenoids on rhizome mass, suggesting service to both storage and defense. The results support established theories but unknown genotypic traits explained much of the variation in defense, confirming the need to integrate emerging theories such as pollination constraints, defense syndromes, tolerance, mutualisms, and facilitation. PMID:24611577

  6. The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Coluccia, Fania; Torres, Martha; L’Haridon, Floriane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics, and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses. PMID:24982666

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Defense-in-Depth Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Edward G. Wallace; Karl N. Fleming; Edward M. Burns

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to (1) document the definition of defense-in-depth and the pproach that will be used to assure that its principles are satisfied for the NGNP project and (2) identify the specific questions proposed for preapplication discussions with the NRC. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to assure the safety of the public. The philosophy is also intended to deliver a design that is tolerant to uncertainties in knowledge of plant behavior, component reliability or operator performance that might compromise safety. This paper includes a review of the regulatory foundation for defense-in-depth, a definition of defense-in-depth that is appropriate for advanced reactor designs based on High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology, and an explanation of how this safety philosophy is achieved in the NGNP.

  8. Analysis of temperature modulation of plant defense against biotrophic microbes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Bao, Zhilong; Zhu, Ying; Hua, Jian

    2009-05-01

    Plant-pathogen interactions are known to be affected by environmental factors including temperature; however, the temperature effects have not been systematically studied in plant disease resistance. Here, we characterized the effects of a moderate increase in temperature on resistance to bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and two viral elicitors in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana. Both the basal and the resistance (R) gene-mediated defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae are found to be inhibited by a moderately high temperature, and hypersensitive responses induced by R genes against two viruses are also reduced by an increase of temperature. These indicate that temperature modulation of defense responses to biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens might be a general phenomenon. We further investigated the roles of two small signaling molecules, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, as well as two defense regulators, EDS1 and PAD4, in this temperature modulation. These components, though modulated by temperature or involved in temperature regulation or both, are not themselves determinants of temperature sensitivity in the defense responses analyzed. The inhibition of plant defense response by a moderately high temperature may thus be mediated by other defense signaling components or a combination of multiple factors.

  9. Regulation of primary plant metabolism during plant-pathogen interactions and its contribution to plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Clemencia M.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Tzin, Vered; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to microorganisms in the environment and, as a result, have evolved intricate mechanisms to recognize and defend themselves against potential pathogens. One of these responses is the downregulation of photosynthesis and other processes associated with primary metabolism that are essential for plant growth. It has been suggested that the energy saved by downregulation of primary metabolism is diverted and used for defense responses. However, several studies have shown that upregulation of primary metabolism also occurs during plant-pathogen interactions. We propose that upregulation of primary metabolism modulates signal transduction cascades that lead to plant defense responses. In support of this thought, we here compile evidence from the literature to show that upon exposure to pathogens or elicitors, plants induce several genes associated with primary metabolic pathways, such as those involved in the synthesis or degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. In addition, genetic studies have confirmed the involvement of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. This review provides a new perspective highlighting the relevance of primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against pathogens with the hope to stimulate further research in this area. PMID:24575102

  10. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  11. Mechanical defenses of plant extrafloral nectaries against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Gish, Moshe; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2016-01-01

    Extrafloral nectaries play an important role in plant defense against herbivores by providing nectar rewards that attract ants and other carnivorous insects. However, extrafloral nectaries can themselves be targets of herbivory, in addition to being exploited by nectar-robbing insects that do not provide defensive services. We recently found that the extrafloral nectaries of Vicia faba plants, as well as immediately adjacent tissues, exhibit high concentrations of chemical toxins, apparently as a defense against herbivory. Here we report that the nectary tissues of this plant also exhibit high levels of structural stiffness compared to surrounding tissues, likely due to cell wall lignification and the concentration of calcium oxalate crystals in nectary tissues, which may provide an additional deterrent to herbivore feeding on nectary tissues. PMID:27489584

  12. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants.

    PubMed

    Espinas, Nino A; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary "arms race" between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  13. Epigenetic Control of Defense Signaling and Priming in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Espinas, Nino A.; Saze, Hidetoshi; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or effectors leads to defense activation at the pathogen challenged sites. This is followed by systemic defense activation at distant non-challenged sites, termed systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These inducible defenses are accompanied by extensive transcriptional reprogramming of defense-related genes. SAR is associated with priming, in which a subset of these genes is kept at a poised state to facilitate subsequent transcriptional regulation. Transgenerational inheritance of defense-related priming in plants indicates the stability of such primed states. Recent studies have revealed the importance and dynamic engagement of epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications that are closely linked to chromatin reconfiguration, in plant adaptation to different biotic stresses. Herein we review current knowledge regarding the biological significance and underlying mechanisms of epigenetic control for immune responses in plants. We also argue for the importance of host transposable elements as critical regulators of interactions in the evolutionary “arms race” between plants and pathogens. PMID:27563304

  14. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution. PMID:26940904

  15. Plant defense associations in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littler, Mark M.; Taylor, Phillip R.; Littler, Diane S.

    1986-10-01

    In contrast to terrestrial systems, few positive plant-plant associations have been recorded in tropical reef environments. This study, conducted at Carrie Bow Cay, Belize during 28 March 10 April 1984, provides the first documentation of herbivore escapes for natural combinations of palatable and unpalatable marine plants. For example, there was a highly significant association of several macrophyte taxa ( Laurencia poitei, Dictyota spp., Amphiroa fragilissima, Cladophoropsis macromeres, Galaxaura cylindrica, rhodophycean turf) within a 2.0-cm radius of the herbivore-resistant brown alga Stypopodium zonale. Almost twice as many taxa occurred within 10 cm of S. zonale as within 10 cm of an equal number of random Stypopodium-free points, and there were no algal species negatively associated with S. zonale. The association of A. tribulus, L. poitei, Digenia simplex, rhodophycean turf, and Jania adherens with S. zonale provided them a fourfold greater survivorship per 48 h in the presence of grazing activity by fishes (mainly Acanthuridae and Scaridae). Reduced herbivory by fishes on macroalgae associated with S. zonale was not solely a consequence of its structural aspect. Losses of the palatable alga Acanthophora spicifera were significantly greater for thalli spatially remote (30 and 60 cm) from either a real or simulated Stypopodium; however, losses of A. spicifera adjacent to actual Stypopodium plants were significantly less than the losses next to models. The inter-relationships studied here, where an abundant and well-defended plant provides a significant refuge habitat for at least five relatively edible macroalgae, clearly facilitates the survival of certain taxa in the reef system and concomitantly enhances the within habitat diversity. Our findings also suggest an interaction counter to the process of competitive exclusion, since the single predominant plant has a positive rather than negative net effect on the abundances of other species that utilize the

  16. Herbivores can select for mixed defensive strategies in plants.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Diego; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Resistance and tolerance are the most important defense mechanisms against herbivores. Initial theoretical studies considered both mechanisms functionally redundant, but more recent empirical studies suggest that these mechanisms may complement each other, favoring the presence of mixed defense patterns. However, the expectation of redundancy between tolerance and resistance remains unsupported. In this study, we tested this assumption following an ecological genetics field experiment in which the presence/absence of two herbivores (Lema daturaphila and Epitrix parvula) of Datura stramonium were manipulated. In each of three treatments, genotypic selection analyses were performed and selection patterns compared. Our results indicated that selection on resistance and tolerance was significantly different between the two folivores. Tolerance and resistance are not redundant defense strategies in D. stramonium but instead functioned as complementary defenses against both beetle species, favoring the evolution of a mixed defense strategy. Although each herbivore was selected for different defense strategies, the observed average tolerance and resistance were closer to the adaptive peak predicted against E. parvula and both beetles together. In our experimental population, natural selection imposed by herbivores can favor the evolution of mixed defense strategies in plants, accounting for the presence of intermediate levels of tolerance and resistance. PMID:23171270

  17. Gall insects can avoid and alter indirect plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; Rohr, Jason R; Abrahamson, Warren G; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-01-01

    Parasitic species can dramatically alter host traits. Some of these parasite-induced changes can be considered adaptive manipulations that benefit the parasites. Gall-inducing insects are parasites well known for their ability to alter host-plant morphology and physiology, including the distribution of plant defensive compounds. Here it was investigated whether gall-inducing species alter indirect plant defenses, involving the release of volatile compounds that are attractive to foraging natural enemies. Using field and factorial laboratory experiments, volatile production by goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants was examined in response to attack by two gall-inducing species, the tephritid fly Eurosta solidaginis and the gelechiid moth Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, as well as the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius, and the generalist caterpillar Heliothis virescens. Heliothis virescens elicited strong indirect defensive responses from S. altissima, but the gall-inducing species and spittlebugs did not. More significantly, infestation by E. solidaginis appeared to suppress volatile responses to subsequent attack by the generalist caterpillar. The extensive control that E. solidaginis apparently exerts over host-plant defense responses may reduce the predation risk for the gall inducer and the subsequent herbivore, and could influence community-level dynamics, including the distribution of herbivorous insect species associated with S. altissima parasitized by E. solidaginis.

  18. Macroevolution of plant defenses against herbivores in the evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marc T J; Ives, Anthony R; Ahern, Jeffrey; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

    2014-07-01

    Plant species vary greatly in defenses against herbivores, but existing theory has struggled to explain this variation. Here, we test how phylogenetic relatedness, tradeoffs, trait syndromes, and sexual reproduction affect the macroevolution of defense. To examine the macroevolution of defenses, we studied 26 Oenothera (Onagraceae) species, combining chemistry, comparative phylogenetics and experimental assays of resistance against generalist and specialist herbivores. We detected dozens of phenolic metabolites within leaves, including ellagitannins (ETs), flavonoids, and caffeic acid derivatives (CAs). The concentration and composition of phenolics exhibited low to moderate phylogenetic signal. There were clear negative correlations between multiple traits, supporting the prediction of allocation tradeoffs. There were also positively covarying suites of traits, but these suites did not strongly predict resistance to herbivores and thus did not act as defensive syndromes. By contrast, specific metabolites did correlate with the performance of generalist and specialist herbivores. Finally, that repeated losses of sex in Oenothera was associated with the evolution of increased flavonoid diversity and altered phenolic composition. These results show that secondary chemistry has evolved rapidly during the diversification of Oenothera. This evolution has been marked by allocation tradeoffs between traits, some of which are related to herbivore performance. The repeated loss of sex appears also to have constrained the evolution of plant secondary chemistry, which may help to explain variation in defense among plants. PMID:24634986

  19. Conserved nematode signalling molecules elicit plant defenses and pathogen resistance

    PubMed Central

    Manosalva, Patricia; Manohar, Murli; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Chen, Shiyan; Koch, Aline; Kaplan, Fatma; Choe, Andrea; Micikas, Robert J.; Wang, Xiaohong; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Sternberg, Paul W.; Williamson, Valerie M.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-defense responses are triggered by perception of conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), for example, flagellin or peptidoglycan. However, it remained unknown whether plants can detect conserved molecular patterns derived from plant-parasitic animals, including nematodes. Here we show that several genera of plant-parasitic nematodes produce small molecules called ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones. Picomolar to micromolar concentrations of ascr#18, the major ascaroside in plant-parasitic nematodes, induce hallmark defense responses including the expression of genes associated with MAMP-triggered immunity, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, as well as salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-mediated defense signalling pathways. Ascr#18 perception increases resistance in Arabidopsis, tomato, potato and barley to viral, bacterial, oomycete, fungal and nematode infections. These results indicate that plants recognize ascarosides as a conserved molecular signature of nematodes. Using small-molecule signals such as ascarosides to activate plant immune responses has potential utility to improve economic and environmental sustainability of agriculture. PMID:26203561

  20. Is crypsis a common defensive strategy in plants?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Color is a common feature of animal defense. Herbivorous insects are often colored in shades of green similar to their preferred food plants, making them difficult for predators to locate. Other insects advertise their presence with bright colors after they sequester enough toxins from their food plants to make them unpalatable. Some insects even switch between cryptic and aposomatic coloration during development.1 Although common in animals, quantitative evidence for color-based defense in plants is rare. After all, the primary function of plant leaves is to absorb light for photosynthesis, rather than reflect light in ways that alter their appearance to herbivores. However, recent research is beginning to challenge the notion that color-based defence is restricted to animals. PMID:20592801

  1. Plant Lectins: Wheat Defense Strategy Against Hessian Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants produce a variety of defense proteins, including lectins in response to attack by phytophagous insects. Ultrastructural studies reveal that binding to insect gut structures and resistance to proteolytic degradation by insect digestive enzymes are the two main prerequisites for the lectins to...

  2. Plants versus Fungi and Oomycetes: Pathogenesis, Defense and Counter-Defense in the Proteomics Era

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; El-Bebany, Ahmed F.; Yao, Zhen; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismailx; Daayf, Fouad

    2012-01-01

    Plant-fungi and plant-oomycete interactions have been studied at the proteomic level for many decades. However, it is only in the last few years, with the development of new approaches, combined with bioinformatics data mining tools, gel staining, and analytical instruments, such as 2D-PAGE/nanoflow-LC-MS/MS, that proteomic approaches thrived. They allow screening and analysis, at the sub-cellular level, of peptides and proteins resulting from plants, pathogens, and their interactions. They also highlight post-translational modifications to proteins, e.g., glycosylation, phosphorylation or cleavage. However, many challenges are encountered during in planta studies aimed at stressing details of host defenses and fungal and oomycete pathogenicity determinants during interactions. Dissecting the mechanisms of such host-pathogen systems, including pathogen counter-defenses, will ensure a step ahead towards understanding current outcomes of interactions from a co-evolutionary point of view, and eventually move a step forward in building more durable strategies for management of diseases caused by fungi and oomycetes. Unraveling intricacies of more complex proteomic interactions that involve additional microbes, i.e., PGPRs and symbiotic fungi, which strengthen plant defenses will generate valuable information on how pathosystems actually function in nature, and thereby provide clues to solving disease problems that engender major losses in crops every year. PMID:22837691

  3. Coevolution can explain defensive secondary metabolite diversity in plants.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Fenton, Andy; Jones, Meriel G; Ruxton, Graeme D; Brockhurst, Michael A

    2015-12-01

    Many plant species produce defensive compounds that are often highly diverse within and between populations. The genetic and cellular mechanisms by which metabolite diversity is produced are increasingly understood, but the evolutionary explanations for persistent diversification in plant secondary metabolites have received less attention. Here we consider the role of plant-herbivore coevolution in the maintenance and characteristics of diversity in plant secondary metabolites. We present a simple model in which plants can evolve to invest in a range of defensive toxins, and herbivores can evolve resistance to these toxins. We allow either single-species evolution or reciprocal coevolution. Our model shows that coevolution maintains toxin diversity within populations. Furthermore, there is a fundamental coevolutionary asymmetry between plants and their herbivores, because herbivores must resist all plant toxins, whereas plants need to challenge and nullify only one resistance trait. As a consequence, average plant fitness increases and insect fitness decreases as number of toxins increases. When costs apply, the model showed both arms race escalation and strong coevolutionary fluctuation in toxin concentrations across time. We discuss the results in the context of other evolutionary explanations for secondary metabolite diversification.

  4. Jasmonate-dependent plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Jun; Kugimiya, Soichi; Narusaka, Mari; Seo, Shigemi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Shinya; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2009-01-01

    Background The western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis [Pergande]) is one of the most important insect herbivores of cultivated plants. However, no pesticide provides complete control of this species, and insecticide resistance has emerged around the world. We previously reported the important role of jasmonate (JA) in the plant's immediate response to thrips feeding by using an Arabidopsis leaf disc system. In this study, as the first step toward practical use of JA in thrips control, we analyzed the effect of JA-regulated Arabidopsis defense at the whole plant level on thrips behavior and life cycle at the population level over an extended period. We also studied the effectiveness of JA-regulated plant defense on thrips damage in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). Results Thrips oviposited more on Arabidopsis JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants than on WT plants, and the population density of the following thrips generation increased on coi1-1 mutants. Moreover, thrips preferred coi1-1 mutants more than WT plants. Application of JA to WT plants before thrips attack decreased the thrips population. To analyze these important functions of JA in a brassica crop plant, we analyzed the expression of marker genes for JA response in B. rapa. Thrips feeding induced expression of these marker genes and significantly increased the JA content in B. rapa. Application of JA to B. rapa enhanced plant resistance to thrips, restricted oviposition, and reduced the population density of the following generation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the JA-regulated plant defense restricts thrips performance and preference, and plays an important role in the resistance of Arabidopsis and B. rapa to thrips damage. PMID:19635132

  5. Combinatorially selected defense peptides protect plant roots from pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiwei David; Laskey, James G.; Huang, Shaoxing; Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Morris, Roy O.; Schmidt, Francis J.; English, James T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural productivity and sustainability are continually challenged by emerging and indigenous pathogens. Currently, many pathogens can be combated only with biocides or environmentally dangerous fumigants. Here, we report a rapid and pathogen-specific strategy to reduce infection by organisms that target plant roots. Combinatorially selected defense peptides, previously shown to effect premature encystment of Phytophthora capsici zoospores, were fused to maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase as a display scaffold. When expressed in tomato roots, the peptide-scaffold constructs were secreted and accumulated to sufficient concentrations in the rhizosphere to induce zoospore encystment and thereby deter taxis to the root surface. Pathogen infection was significantly inhibited in roots expressing bioactive peptides fused to the maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase scaffold. This peptide-delivery technology is broadly applicable for rapid development of plant defense attributes against plant pathogens. PMID:17030803

  6. Natural enemies drive geographic variation in plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Züst, Tobias; Heichinger, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Harrington, Richard; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2012-10-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack by natural enemies, and these defenses vary widely across populations. However, whether communities of natural enemies are a sufficiently potent force to maintain polymorphisms in defensive traits is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the genetic resources of Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with 39 years of field data on aphid abundance, to (i) demonstrate that geographic patterns in a polymorphic defense locus (GS-ELONG) are strongly correlated with changes in the relative abundance of two specialist aphids; and (ii) demonstrate differential selection by the two aphids on GS-ELONG, using a multigeneration selection experiment. We thereby show a causal link between variation in abundance of the two specialist aphids and the geographic pattern at GS-ELONG, which highlights the potency of natural enemies as selective forces.

  7. Colorado potato beetle manipulates plant defenses in local and systemic leaves.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore microbial associates can affect diverse interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Some insect symbionts enable herbivores to expand host plant range or to facilitate host plant use by modifying plant physiology. However, little attention has been paid to the role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses. We have recently shown that Colorado potato beetle secrete the symbiotic bacteria to suppress plant defenses. The bacteria in oral secretions from the beetle hijack defense signaling pathways of host plants and the suppression of induced plant defenses benefits the beetle's performance. While the defense suppression by the beetle-associated bacteria has been investigated in local damaged leaves, little is known about the effects of the symbiotic bacteria on the manipulation of plant defenses in systemic undamaged leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the symbiotic bacteria suppress plant defenses in both local and systemic tissues when plants are attacked by antibiotic-untreated larvae. PMID:24390091

  8. Colorado potato beetle manipulates plant defenses in local and systemic leaves.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seung Ho; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore microbial associates can affect diverse interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Some insect symbionts enable herbivores to expand host plant range or to facilitate host plant use by modifying plant physiology. However, little attention has been paid to the role of herbivore-associated microbes in manipulating plant defenses. We have recently shown that Colorado potato beetle secrete the symbiotic bacteria to suppress plant defenses. The bacteria in oral secretions from the beetle hijack defense signaling pathways of host plants and the suppression of induced plant defenses benefits the beetle's performance. While the defense suppression by the beetle-associated bacteria has been investigated in local damaged leaves, little is known about the effects of the symbiotic bacteria on the manipulation of plant defenses in systemic undamaged leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the symbiotic bacteria suppress plant defenses in both local and systemic tissues when plants are attacked by antibiotic-untreated larvae.

  9. Lectin domains at the frontiers of plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lannoo, Nausicaä; Van Damme, Els J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are under constant attack from pathogens and herbivorous insects. To protect and defend themselves, plants evolved a multi-layered surveillance system, known as the innate immune system. Plants sense their encounters upon perception of conserved microbial structures and damage-associated patterns using cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Plant lectins and proteins with one or more lectin domains represent a major part of these receptors. The whole group of plant lectins comprises an elaborate collection of proteins capable of recognizing and interacting with specific carbohydrate structures, either originating from the invading organisms or from damaged plant cell wall structures. Due to the vast diversity in protein structures, carbohydrate recognition domains and glycan binding specificities, plant lectins constitute a very diverse protein superfamily. In the last decade, new types of nucleocytoplasmic plant lectins have been identified and characterized, in particular lectins expressed inside the nucleus and the cytoplasm of plant cells often as part of a specific plant response upon exposure to different stress factors or changing environmental conditions. In this review, we provide an overview on plant lectin motifs used in the constant battle against pathogens and predators during plant defenses. PMID:25165467

  10. Evolution of plant growth and defense in a continental introduction.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Hastings, Amy P; Bradburd, Gideon S; Woods, Ellen C; Züst, Tobias; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Bukovinszky, Tibor

    2015-07-01

    Substantial research has addressed adaptation of nonnative biota to novel environments, yet surprisingly little work has integrated population genetic structure and the mechanisms underlying phenotypic differentiation in ecologically important traits. We report on studies of the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca, which was introduced from North America to Europe over the past 400 years and which lacks most of its specialized herbivores in the introduced range. Using 10 populations from each continent grown in a common environment, we identified several growth and defense traits that have diverged, despite low neutral genetic differentiation between continents. We next developed a Bayesian modeling approach to account for relationships between molecular and phenotypic differences, confirming that continental trait differentiation was greater than expected from neutral genetic differentiation. We found evidence that growth-related traits adaptively diverged within and between continents. Inducible defenses triggered by monarch butterfly herbivory were substantially reduced in European populations, and this reduction in inducibility was concordant with altered phytohormonal dynamics, reduced plant growth, and a trade-off with constitutive investment. Freedom from the community of native and specialized herbivores may have favored constitutive over induced defense. Our replicated analysis of plant growth and defense, including phenotypically plastic traits, suggests adaptive evolution following a continental introduction. PMID:26098351

  11. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  12. Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  13. The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed. PMID:20150969

  14. The strawberry plant defense mechanism: a molecular review.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2011-11-01

    Strawberry, a small fruit crop of great importance throughout the world, has been considered a model plant system for Rosaceae, and is susceptible to a large variety of phytopathogenic organisms. Most components and mechanisms of the strawberry defense network remain poorly understood. However, from current knowledge, it seems clear that the ability of a strawberry plant to respond efficiently to pathogens relies first on the physiological status of injured tissue (pre-formed mechanisms of defense) and secondly on the general ability to recognize and identify the invaders by surface plant receptors, followed by a broad range of induced mechanisms, which include cell wall reinforcement, production of reactive oxygen species, phytoalexin generation and pathogenesis-related protein accumulation. Dissection of these physiological responses at a molecular level will provide valuable information to improve future breeding strategies for new strawberry varieties and to engineer strawberry plants for durable and broad-spectrum disease resistance. In turn, this will lead to a reduction in use of chemicals and in environmental risks. Advances in the understanding of the molecular interplay between plant (mainly those considered model systems) and various classes of microbial pathogens have been made in the last two decades. However, major progress in the genetics and molecular biology of strawberry is still needed to uncover fully the way in which this elaborate plant innate immune system works. These fundamental insights will provide a conceptual framework for rational human intervention through new strawberry research approaches. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview and discuss recent advances in molecular research on strawberry defense mechanisms against pathogens.

  15. Remote sensing of future competitors: Impacts on plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre, Miriam M.; Mazza, Carlos A.; Biondini, Mariela; Baldwin, Ian T.; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2006-01-01

    Far-red radiation (FR) reflected by green tissues is a key signal that plants use to detect the proximity of future competitors. Perception of increased levels of FR elicits a suite of responses collectively known as the shade-avoidance syndrome, which includes increased stem elongation, production of erect leaves, and reduced lateral branching. These responses improve the access to light for plants that occur in crowded populations. Responses to the proximity of competitors are known to affect the susceptibility to disease and predation in several organisms, including social animals. However, the impacts of warning signals of competition on the expression of defenses have not been explicitly investigated in plants. In the experiments reported here, we show that reflected FR induced a dramatic down-regulation of chemical defenses in wild tobacco (Nicotiana longiflora). FR altered the expression of several defense-related genes, inhibited the accumulation of herbivore-induced phenolic compounds, and augmented the performance of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta. Complementary studies with tomato suggested that the effects of FR on defenses are mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome B. The central implication of these results is that shade-intolerant species such as wild tobacco and tomato activate functional changes that affect their ability to cope with herbivore attack in response to phytochrome signals of future competition, even in the absence of real competition for resources. These findings suggest that competition overshadowed herbivory during the evolution of this group of species and add a new axis to the definition of the shade-avoidance syndrome. PMID:16632610

  16. Plant chemical defense against herbivores and pathogens: generalized defense or trade-offs?

    PubMed

    Biere, Arjen; Marak, Hamida B; van Damme, Jos M M

    2004-08-01

    Plants are often attacked by multiple enemies, including pathogens and herbivores. While many plant secondary metabolites show specific effects toward either pathogens or herbivores, some can affect the performance of both these groups of natural enemies and are considered to be "generalized defense compounds". We tested whether aucubin and catalpol, two iridoid glycosides present in ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), confer in vivo resistance to both the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the biotrophic fungal pathogen Diaporthe adunca using plants from P. lanceolata lines that had been selected for high- and low-leaf iridoid glycoside concentrations for four generations. The lines differed approximately three-fold in the levels of these compounds. Plants from the high-selection line showed enhanced resistance to both S. exigua and D. adunca, as evidenced by a smaller lesion size and a lower fungal growth rate and spore production, and a lower larval growth rate and herbivory under both choice and no-choice conditions. Gravimetric analysis revealed that the iridoid glycosides acted as feeding deterrents to S. exigua, thereby reducing its food intake rate, rather than having post-ingestive toxic effects as predicted from in vitro effects of hydrolysis products. We suggest that the bitter taste of iridoid glycosides deters feeding by S. exigua, whereas the hydrolysis products formed after tissue damage following fungal infection mediate pathogen resistance. We conclude that iridoid glycosides in P. lanceolata can serve as broad-spectrum defenses and that selection for pathogen resistance could potentially result in increased resistance to generalist insect herbivores and vice versa, resulting in diffuse rather than pairwise coevolution. PMID:15146326

  17. Plant induced defenses depend more on plant age than previous history of damage: implications for plant-herbivore interactions.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Carolina; Bowers, M Deane

    2011-09-01

    Herbivore-induced plant responses can significantly change as a function of plant developmental stage and previous history of damage. Yet, empirical tests that assess the combined role of multiple damage events and age-dependent constraints on the ability of plants to induce defenses within and among tissues are scarce. This question is of particular interest for annual and/or short-lived perennial plant species, whose responses to single or multiple damage events over a growing season are likely to interact with ontogenetic constraints in affecting a plant's ability to respond to herbivory. Using Plantago lanceolata and one of its specialist herbivores, Junonia coenia, we examined the effect of plant ontogeny (juvenile vs. mature developmental stages) and history of damage (single and multiple damage events early and/or late in the season) on plant responses to leaf damage. Plant responses to herbivory were assessed as induced chemical defenses (iridoid glycosides) and compensatory regrowth, in both above- and below-ground tissues. We found that constitutive concentration of iridoid glycosides markedly increased as plants matured, but plant ability to induce chemical defenses was limited to juvenile, but not mature, plant stages. In addition, induced defenses observed 7 d following herbivory in juvenile plants disappeared 5 wk after the first herbivory event, and mature plants that varied considerably in the frequency and intensity of damage received over 5 wk, did not differ significantly in their levels of chemical defenses. Also, only small changes in compensatory regrowth were detected. Finally, we did not observe changes in below-ground tissues' defenses or biomass a week following 50% removal of leaf tissues at either age class or history of damage. Together, these results suggest that in P. lanceolata and perhaps other systems, ontogenetic trajectories in plant growth and defenses leading to strong age-dependent induced responses may prevail over

  18. Chemical defenses promote persistence of the aquatic plant Micranthemum umbrosum.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Collins, Dwight O; Kubanek, Julia; Sullards, M Cameron; Bostwick, David; Hay, Mark E

    2006-04-01

    Five of the most common macrophytes from an aquaculture facility with high densities of the herbivorous Asian grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) were commonly unpalatable to three generalist consumers-grass carp and the native North American crayfishes Procambarus spiculifer and P. acutus. The rooted vascular plant Micranthemum umbrosum comprised 89% of the total aboveground plant biomass and was unpalatable to all three consumers as fresh tissues, as homogenized pellets, and as crude extracts. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract from M. umbrosum led to four previously known compounds that each deterred feeding by at least one consumer: 3,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene (1) and three lignoids: beta-apopicropodophyllin (2); (-)-(3S,4R,6S)-3-(3',4'-methylenedioxy-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-4-(3'',4''-dimethoxybenzyl)butyrolactone (3); and (-)-hibalactone (4). None of the remaining four macrophytes produced a chemically deterrent extract. A 16-mo manipulative experiment showed that the aboveground biomass of M. umbrosum was unchanged when consumers were absent, but the biomass of Ludwigia repens, a plant that grass carp preferentially consumed over M. umbrosum, increased over 300-fold. Thus, selective feeding by grass carp effectively eliminates most palatable plants from this community and promotes the persistence of the chemically defended M. umbrosum, suggesting that plant defenses play critical yet understudied roles in the structure of freshwater plant communities.

  19. Ecological consequences of evolution in plant defenses in a metacommunity.

    PubMed

    Loeuille, N; Leibold, M A

    2008-08-01

    Dispersal can affect the assembly of local communities in a metacommunity as well as evolution of local populations in a metapopulation. These two processes may also affect each other in ways that have not yet been well studied and that may have novel effects on community structure. Here, we illustrate the interaction of these two processes on community structure with a model of adaptive evolutionary dynamics of plant defenses in a metacommunity food web involving multiple patches along a productivity gradient. We find an enhanced suite of adaptive plant types in our metacommunity model than is predicted in the absence of dispersal. We also find that this, and the movement of nutrients among patches via dispersal, alters patterns of food web architecture, trophic structure and diversity along the productivity gradient. Overall, our model illustrates that evolutionary and metacommunity dynamics may influence communities in complex interactive ways that may not be predicted by models that ignore either of these types of processes.

  20. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection.

  1. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection. PMID:27524994

  2. Plant Defense against Herbivorous Pests: Exploiting Resistance and Tolerance Traits for Sustainable Crop Protection

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Carolyn; Brennan, Rex M.; Graham, Julie; Karley, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between plants and insect herbivores are important determinants of plant productivity in managed and natural vegetation. In response to attack, plants have evolved a range of defenses to reduce the threat of injury and loss of productivity. Crop losses from damage caused by arthropod pests can exceed 15% annually. Crop domestication and selection for improved yield and quality can alter the defensive capability of the crop, increasing reliance on artificial crop protection. Sustainable agriculture, however, depends on reduced chemical inputs. There is an urgent need, therefore, to identify plant defensive traits for crop improvement. Plant defense can be divided into resistance and tolerance strategies. Plant traits that confer herbivore resistance typically prevent or reduce herbivore damage through expression of traits that deter pests from settling, attaching to surfaces, feeding and reproducing, or that reduce palatability. Plant tolerance of herbivory involves expression of traits that limit the negative impact of herbivore damage on productivity and yield. Identifying the defensive traits expressed by plants to deter herbivores or limit herbivore damage, and understanding the underlying defense mechanisms, is crucial for crop scientists to exploit plant defensive traits in crop breeding. In this review, we assess the traits and mechanisms underpinning herbivore resistance and tolerance, and conclude that physical defense traits, plant vigor and herbivore-induced plant volatiles show considerable utility in pest control, along with mixed species crops. We highlight emerging approaches for accelerating the identification of plant defensive traits and facilitating their deployment to improve the future sustainability of crop protection. PMID:27524994

  3. Chewing sandpaper: grit, plant apparency, and plant defense in sand-entrapping plants.

    PubMed

    LoPresti, Eric F; Karban, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Sand entrapment on plant surfaces, termed psammophory or sand armor, is a phylogenetically and geographically widespread trait. The functional significance of this phenomenon has been poorly investigated. Sand and soil are nonnutritive and difficult for herbivores to process, as well as visually identical to the background. We experimentally investigated whether this sand coating physically protected the plant from herbivores or increased crypsis (e.g., decreased apparency to herbivores). We tested the former hypothesis by removing entrapped sand from stems, petioles, and leaves of the sand verbena Abronia latifolia and by supplementing natural sand levels in the honeyscented pincushion plant Navarretia mellita. Consistent with a physical defensive function, leaves with sand present or supplemented suffered less chewing herbivory than those with sand removed or left as is. To test a possible crypsis effect, we coated some sand verbena stems with green sand, matching the stem color, as well as others with brown sand to match the background color. Both suffered less chewing herbivory than controls with no sand and herbivory did not significantly differ between the colors, suggesting crypsis was not the driving resistance mechanism. Strong tests of plant apparency are rare; this experimental approach may be possible in other systems and represents one of few manipulative tests of this long-standing hypothesis. PMID:27220199

  4. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates anti-herbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In the ...

  5. Plant elicitor peptides are conserved signals regulating direct and indirect anti-herbivore defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect-induced defenses occur in nearly all plants and are regulated by conserved signaling pathways. As the first described plant peptide signal, systemin regulates anti-herbivore defenses in the Solanaceae, but in other plant families peptides with analogous activity have remained elusive. In th...

  6. Plant defenses against parasitic plants show similarities to those induced by herbivores and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2010-08-01

    Herbivores and pathogens come quickly to mind when one thinks of the biotic challenges faced by plants. Important but less appreciated enemies are parasitic plants, which can have important consequences for the fitness and survival of their hosts. Our knowledge of plant perception, signaling, and response to herbivores and pathogens has expanded rapidly in recent years, but information is generally lacking for parasitic species. In a recent paper we reported that some of the same defense responses induced by herbivores and pathogens--notably increases in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR)--also occur in tomato plants upon attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (field dodder). Parasitism induced a distinct pattern of JA and SA accumulation, and growth trials using genetically-altered tomato hosts suggested that both JA and SA govern effective defenses against the parasite, though the extent of the response varied with host plant age. Here we discuss similarities between the induced responses we observed in response to Cuscuta parasitism to those previously described for herbivores and pathogens and present new data showing that trichomes should be added to the list of plant defenses that act against multiple enemies and across Kingdoms.

  7. Plant defense pathways subverted by Agrobacterium for genetic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Kozlovsky, Stanislav V; Yasmin, Farzana; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    The soil phytopathogen Agrobacterium has the unique ability to introduce single-stranded transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the host cell in a process known as horizontal gene transfer. Following its entry into the host cell cytoplasm, the T-DNA associates with the bacterial virulence (Vir) E2 protein, also exported from Agrobacterium, creating the T-DNA nucleoprotein complex (T-complex), which is then translocated into the nucleus where the DNA is integrated into the host chromatin. VirE2 protects the T-DNA from the host DNase activities, packages it into a helical filament and interacts with the host proteins, one of which, VIP1, facilitates nuclear import of the T-complex and its subsequent targeting to the host chromatin. Although the VirE2 and VIP1 protein components of the T-complex are vital for its intracellular transport, they must be removed to expose the T-DNA for integration. Our recent work demonstrated that this task is aided by an host defense-related F-box protein VBF that is induced by Agrobacterium infection and that recognizes and binds VIP1. VBF destabilizes VirE2 and VIP1 in yeast and plant cells, presumably via SCF-mediated proteasomal degradation. VBF expression in and export from the Agrobacterium cell lead to increased tumorigenesis. Here, we discuss these findings in the context of the “arms race” between Agrobacterium infectivity and plant defense. PMID:20890133

  8. Interconnection between actin cytoskeleton and plant defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Janda, Martin; Matoušková, Jindřiška; Burketová, Lenka; Valentová, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is the fundamental structural component of eukaryotic cells. It has a role in numerous elementary cellular processes such as reproduction, development and also in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Remarkably, the role of actin cytoskeleton in plant response to pathogens is getting to be under magnifying glass. Based on microscopic studies, most of the data showed, that actin plays an important role in formation of physiological barrier in the site of infection. Actin dynamics is involved in the transport of antimicrobial compounds and cell wall fortifying components (e.g. callose) to the site of infection. Also the role in PTI (pathogen triggered immunity) and ETI (effector triggered immunity) was recently indicated. On the other hand much less is known about the transcriptome reprogramming upon changes in actin dynamics. Our recently published results showed that drugs inhibiting actin polymerization (latrunculin B, cytochalasin E) cause the induction of genes which are involved in salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway. In this addendum we would like to highlight in more details current state of knowledge concerning the involvement of actin dynamics in plant defense signaling.

  9. Spatial and phylogenetic variation in plant defense in a tropical moist forest canopy community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, K. M.; Asner, G. P.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    Plants employ physical and chemical defenses to mitigate damage caused by herbivory. Spatial patterns of plant defense may provide insight into the role of plant-herbivore interactions in the assembly of plant communities. Within plant communities, the spatial overdispersion of anti-herbivore defenses by individuals may reflect a strategy to avoid host shifts from herbivore assemblages of neighboring plants. However, variation in plant defense may also result from trade-offs between foliar investment into defense and growth, mediated by variations in abiotic nutrient availability, or constrained by phylogeny. We measured four defensive traits (leaf toughness, total phenols, condensed tannins, and hydrolysable tannins) and three growth traits (LMA, C:N, total protein) of outer canopy foliage for 345 canopy trees representing 78 species, 65 genera, and 34 families in a moist tropical rainforest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The outer canopy provides an important, but rarely evaluated, cross-sectional image of the tropical forest ecosystem, and observations at this scale may provide an important link between field and remote sensing based studies. We used existing data on edaphic and geological properties to investigate the relationships of abiotic nutrient variation on variation in defense. Using regression and nested random-effects variance modeling, we found strong phylogenetic association with defensive traits at the family and species level, and little evidence for a trade-off between defensive traits. Greater understanding of phylogenetic structure in trait variation may yield improved characterizations of tropical biodiversity, from functional traits to risk assessments.

  10. Plant Virus Differentially Alters the Plant's Defense Response to Its Closely Related Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Liu, Yang; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Gao, Xiwu; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Background The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is one of the most widely distributed agricultural pests. In recent years, B. tabaci Q has invaded China, and Q has displaced B in many areas now. In a number of regions of the world, invasion by B and/or Q has been followed by outbreaks of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Our previous study showed TYLCV directly and indirectly modified the feeding behavior of B. tabaci in favor of Q rather than B. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we quantified the salicylic acid (SA) titers and relative gene expression of SA in tomato leaves that were infested with viruliferous or non-viruliferous B and Q. We also measured the impacts of exogenous SA on the performance of B and Q, including the effects on ovary development. SA titer was always higher in leaves that were infested with viruliferous B than with viruliferous Q, whereas the SA titer did not differ between leaves infested with non-viruliferous B and Q. The relative gene expression of SA signaling was increased by feeding of viruliferous B but was not increased by feeding of viruliferous Q. The life history traits of B and Q were adversely affected on SA-treated plants. On SA-treated plants, both B and Q had lower fecundity, shorter longevity, longer developmental time and lower survival rate than on untreated plants. Compared with whiteflies feeding on control plants, those feeding on SA-treated plants had fewer oocytes and slower ovary development. On SA-treated plants, viruliferous B had fewer oocytes than viruliferous Q. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that TYLCV tends to induce SA-regulated plant defense against B but SA-regulated plant defense against Q was reduced. In other words, Q may have a mutualistic relationship with TYLCV that results in the reduction of the plant's defense response. PMID:24391779

  11. A whole-plant perspective reveals unexpected impacts of above- and belowground herbivores on plant growth and defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tradeoffs between plant growth and defense are central to theoretical frameworks used to study the ecology and evolution of plant defense against herbivores. However, these frameworks, as well as the experiments designed to test them, rarely include the remarkable diversity of belowground herbivores...

  12. Emerging Roles of Agrobacterial Plant-Transforming Oncogenes in Plant Defense Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgakov, Victor P.; Inyushkina, Yuliya V.; Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Y.; Koren, Olga G.; Shkryl, Yuri N.; Zhuravlev, Yuri N.

    2009-01-01

    For recent years, engineering plant metabolic pathways by using rol genes looks promising in several aspects. New directions of rol-gene studies are highlighted in this work underlying the unique regulatory properties of the genes. It is known that following agrobacterial infection, the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolA, rolB and rolC genes are transferred to plant genome, causing tumor formation and hairy root disease. In this report, we show mat these oncogenes are also involved in regulation of plant defense reactions, including the production of secondary metabolites. Situations occur where the rol genes perform their own critical function to regulate secondary metabolism by bypassing upstream plant control mechanisms and directing defense reactions via a "short cut." The rolC gene expressed in transformed plant cells is efficient in establishing an enhanced resistance of host cells to salt and temperature stresses. The emerging complexity of the rol-gene triggered effects and the involvement of signals generated by these genes in basic processes of cell biology such as calcium and ROS signaling indicate that the plant oncogenes, like some animal protooncogenes, use sophisticated strategies to affect cell growth and differentiation. The data raise the intriguing possibility that some components of plant and animal oncogene signaling pathways share common features.

  13. Consequences of variation in plant defense for biodiversity at higher trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Poelman, Erik H; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-10-01

    Antagonistic interactions between insect herbivores and plants impose selection on plants to defend themselves against these attackers. Although selection on plant defense traits has typically been studied for pairwise plant-attacker interactions, other community members of plant-based food webs are unavoidably affected by these traits as well. A plant trait might, for example, affect parasitoids and predators feeding on the herbivore. Consequently, defensive plant traits structure the diversity and composition of the complex community associated with the plant, and communities as a whole also feed back to selection on plant traits. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of how plant defense traits structure insect communities and discuss how molecular mechanisms might drive community-wide effects.

  14. Plant Dependence on Rhizobia for Nitrogen Influences Induced Plant Defenses and Herbivore Performance

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jennifer M.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic rhizobia induce many changes in legumes that could affect aboveground interactions with herbivores. We explored how changing the intensity of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, as modulated by soil nitrogen (N) levels, influenced the interaction between soybean (Glycine max) and herbivores of different feeding guilds. When we employed a range of fertilizer applications to manipulate soil N, plants primarily dependent on rhizobia for N exhibited increased root nodulation and higher levels of foliar ureides than plants given N fertilizer; yet all treatments maintained similar total N levels. Soybean podworm (Helicoverpa zea) larvae grew best on plants with the highest levels of rhizobia but, somewhat surprisingly, preferred to feed on high-N-fertilized plants when given a choice. Induction of the defense signaling compound jasmonic acid (JA) by H. zea feeding damage was highest in plants primarily dependent on rhizobia. Differences in rhizobial dependency on soybean did not appear to affect interactions with the phloem-feeding soybean aphid (Aphis glycines). Overall, our results suggest that rhizobia association can affect plant nutritional quality and the induction of defense signaling pathways and that these effects may influence herbivore feeding preferences and performance—though such effects may vary considerably for different classes of herbivores. PMID:24451132

  15. Pythium infection activates conserved plant defense responses in mosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The moss Physcomitrella patens (P. patens) is a useful model to study abiotic stress responses since it is highly tolerant to drought, salt and osmotic stress. However, little is known about the defense mechanisms activated in this moss after pathogen assault. Here the induction of defense responses...

  16. Trade-offs in antiherbivore defenses in Piper cenocladum: ant mutualists versus plant secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dyer, L A; Dodson, C D; Beihoffer, J; Letourneau, D K

    2001-03-01

    Ant-plant mutualisms may provide indirect evidence for costs of antiherbivore defenses when plants demonstrate trade-offs between allocating resources and energy into ant attractants versus chemical defenses. We tested the hypothesis that ecological trade-offs in defenses are present in Piper cenocladum. This plant possesses two distinct defenses: food bodies that attract predatory ants that destroy herbivore eggs and amides that deter herbivores. Previous studies have demonstrated that the food bodies in P. cenocladum are an effective defense because the ants deter herbivory by specialist herbivores. Amides in other Piper species have been shown to have toxic qualities, but we tested the additional hypothesis that these amides have an actual defensive function in P. cenocladum. To test for ecological trade-offs between the two putative defenses, fragments of P. cenocladum were examined for the presence of amides both when the plant was producing food bodies and when it was not producing food bodies. Plants with active ant colonies had redundant defenses, producing food bodies and high levels of amides at the same time, but we detected a trade-off in that they had significantly lower levels of amides than did plants with no ants. To test for the defensive value of P. cenocladum amides, we used an ant bioassay and we examined herbivory results from previous experiments with plants that had variable levels of amides. These tests demonstrated that amides are deterrent to omnivorous ants, leaf cutting ants, and orthopterans. In contrast, the resident Pheidole bicornis ants are effective at deterring herbivory by specialist herbivores that oviposit eggs on the plant but not at deterring herbivory by nonresident omnivores. We concluded that although both amides and food body production appear to be costly, redundancy in defenses is necessary to avoid damage by a complex suit of herbivores.

  17. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-03-20

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses.

  18. The mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses plant defense responses by manipulating JA-SA crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng-Jun; Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Wei, Jia-Ning; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Induced plant defenses against herbivores are modulated by jasmonic acid-, salicylic acid-, and ethylene-signaling pathways. Although there is evidence that some pathogens suppress plant defenses by interfering with the crosstalk between different signaling pathways, such evidence is scarce for herbivores. Here, we demonstrate that the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis suppresses the induced defenses in tomato. We found that exogenous JA, but not SA, significantly decreased mealybug feeding time and reduced nymphal performance. In addition, constitutive activation of JA signaling in 35s::prosys plants reduced mealybug survival. These data indicate that the JA signaling pathway plays a key role in mediating the defense responses against P. solenopsis. We also found that mealybug feeding decreased JA production and JA-dependent defense gene expression, but increased SA accumulation and SA-dependent gene expression. In SA-deficient plants, mealybug feeding did not suppress but activated JA accumulation, indicating that the suppression of JA-regulated defenses depends on the SA signaling pathway. Mealybugs benefit from suppression of JA-regulated defenses by exhibiting enhanced nymphal performance. These findings confirm that P. solenopsis manipulates plants for its own benefits by modulating the JA-SA crosstalk and thereby suppressing induced defenses. PMID:25790868

  19. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes.

  20. Organ-specific regulation of growth-defense tradeoffs by plants.

    PubMed

    Smakowska, Elwira; Kong, Jixiang; Busch, Wolfgang; Belkhadir, Youssef

    2016-02-01

    Plants grow while also defending themselves against phylogenetically unrelated pathogens. Because defense and growth are both costly programs, a plant's success in colonizing resource-scarce environments requires tradeoffs between the two. Here, we summarize efforts aimed at understanding how plants use iterative tradeoffs to modulate differential organ growth when defenses are elicited. First, we focus on shoots to illustrate how light, in conjunction with the growth hormone gibberellin (GA) and the defense hormone jasmonic acid (JA), act to finely regulate defense and growth programs in this organ. Second, we expand on the regulation of growth-defense trade-offs in the root, a less well-studied topic despite the critical role of this organ in acquiring resources in an environment deeply entrenched with disparate populations of microbes. PMID:26802804

  1. Induced defenses in herbivores and plants differentially modulate a trophic cascade.

    PubMed

    Van der Stap, Irene; Vos, Matthijs; Verschoor, Antonie M; Helmsing, Nico R; Mooij, Wolf M

    2007-10-01

    Inducible defenses are dynamic traits that modulate the strength of both plant-herbivore and herbivore-carnivore interactions. Surprisingly few studies have considered the relative contributions of induced plant and herbivore defenses to the overall balance of bottom-up and top-down control. Here we compare trophic cascade strengths using replicated two-level and three-level plankton communities in which we systematically varied the presence or absence of induced defenses at the plant and/or herbivore levels. Our results show that a trophic cascade, i.e., significantly higher plant biomass in three-level than in two-level food chains, occurred whenever herbivores were undefended against carnivores. Trophic cascades did not occur when herbivores exhibited an induced defense. This pattern was obtained irrespective of the presence or absence of induced defenses at the plant level. We thus found that herbivore defenses, not plant defenses, had an overriding effect on cascade strength. We discuss these results in relation to variation in cascade strengths in natural communities.

  2. Multitasking antimicrobial peptides, plant development, and host defense against biotic/abiotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses due to pathogens are a major threat to global food security. Plants employ a multilayer defense system against pathogens including use of physical barriers (cell wall), induction of hypersensitive defense response (HR), resistance (R) proteins, and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AM...

  3. Deficiencies in Jasmonate-Mediated Plant Defense Reveal Quantitative Variation in Botrytis cinerea Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather C.; Walley, Justin W.; Corwin, Jason; Chan, Eva K.-F.; Dehesh, Katayoon; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the described central role of jasmonate signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens, the existence of intraspecific variation in pathogen capacity to activate or evade plant jasmonate-mediated defenses is rarely considered. Experimental infection of jasmonate-deficient and jasmonate-insensitive Arabidopsis thaliana with diverse isolates of the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea revealed pathogen variation for virulence inhibition by jasmonate-mediated plant defenses and induction of plant defense metabolites. Comparison of the transcriptional effects of infection by two distinct B. cinerea isolates showed only minor differences in transcriptional responses of wild-type plants, but notable isolate-specific transcript differences in jasmonate-insensitive plants. These transcriptional differences suggest B. cinerea activation of plant defenses that require plant jasmonate signaling for activity in response to only one of the two B. cinerea isolates tested. Thus, similar infection phenotypes observed in wild-type plants result from different signaling interactions with the plant that are likely integrated by jasmonate signaling. PMID:20419157

  4. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  5. Growth–Defense Tradeoffs in Plants: A Balancing Act to Optimize Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L.; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Growth–defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth–defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth–defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth–defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands. PMID:24777989

  6. Growth-defense tradeoffs in plants: a balancing act to optimize fitness.

    PubMed

    Huot, Bethany; Yao, Jian; Montgomery, Beronda L; He, Sheng Yang

    2014-08-01

    Growth-defense tradeoffs are thought to occur in plants due to resource restrictions, which demand prioritization towards either growth or defense, depending on external and internal factors. These tradeoffs have profound implications in agriculture and natural ecosystems, as both processes are vital for plant survival, reproduction, and, ultimately, plant fitness. While many of the molecular mechanisms underlying growth and defense tradeoffs remain to be elucidated, hormone crosstalk has emerged as a major player in regulating tradeoffs needed to achieve a balance. In this review, we cover recent advances in understanding growth-defense tradeoffs in plants as well as what is known regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Specifically, we address evidence supporting the growth-defense tradeoff concept, as well as known interactions between defense signaling and growth signaling. Understanding the molecular basis of these tradeoffs in plants should provide a foundation for the development of breeding strategies that optimize the growth-defense balance to maximize crop yield to meet rising global food and biofuel demands.

  7. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... facilitate research associated with National Defense projects through issuance of permits for movement of plant pests for such research, upon receiving assurance satisfactory to him that adequate...

  8. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... facilitate research associated with National Defense projects through issuance of permits for movement of plant pests for such research, upon receiving assurance satisfactory to him that adequate...

  9. NBS-LRR-Encoding genes in sorghum and their role in plant defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR) proteins are encoded by a large class of plant genes and many of them play an important role in plant defense against pest attack. Identification and characterization of the whole set of NBS-LRR genes in a plant genome will provide insights int...

  10. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1

    PubMed Central

    Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

  11. Root exudates: the hidden part of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Baetz, Ulrike; Martinoia, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    The significance of root exudates as belowground defense substances has long been underestimated, presumably due to being buried out of sight. Nevertheless, this chapter of root biology has been progressively addressed within the past decade through the characterization of novel constitutively secreted and inducible phytochemicals that directly repel, inhibit, or kill pathogenic microorganisms in the rhizosphere. In addition, the complex transport machinery involved in their export has been considerably unraveled. It has become evident that the profile of defense root exudates is not only diverse in its composition, but also strikingly dynamic. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of the nature and regulation of root-secreted defense compounds and the role of transport proteins in modulating their release.

  12. Plant storage proteins with antimicrobial activity: novel insights into plant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cândido, Elizabete de Souza; Pinto, Michelle Flaviane Soares; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Lima, Thais Bergamin; Silva, Osmar Nascimento; Pogue, Robert; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Franco, Octávio Luiz

    2011-10-01

    Storage proteins perform essential roles in plant survival, acting as molecular reserves important for plant growth and maintenance, as well as being involved in defense mechanisms by virtue of their properties as insecticidal and antimicrobial proteins. These proteins accumulate in storage vacuoles inside plant cells, and, in response to determined signals, they may be used by the different plant tissues in response to pathogen attack. To shed some light on these remarkable proteins with dual functions, storage proteins found in germinative tissues, such as seeds and kernels, and in vegetative tissues, such as tubercles and leaves, are extensively discussed here, along with the related mechanisms of protein expression. Among these proteins, we focus on 2S albumins, Kunitz proteinase inhibitors, plant lectins, glycine-rich proteins, vicilins, patatins, tarins, and ocatins. Finally, the potential use of these molecules in development of drugs to combat human and plant pathogens, contributing to the development of new biotechnology-based medications and products for agribusiness, is also presented.

  13. Host plant invests in growth rather than chemical defense when attacked by a specialist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Arab, Alberto; Trigo, José Roberto

    2011-05-01

    Plant defensive compounds may be a cost rather than a benefit when plants are attacked by specialist insects that may overcome chemical barriers by strategies such as sequestering plant compounds. Plants may respond to specialist herbivores by compensatory growth rather than chemical defense. To explore the use of defensive chemistry vs. compensatory growth we studied Brugmansia suaveolens (Solanaceae) and the specialist larvae of the ithomiine butterfly Placidina euryanassa, which sequester defensive tropane alkaloids (TAs) from this host plant. We investigated whether the concentration of TAs in B. suaveolens was changed by P. euryanassa damage, and whether plants invest in growth, when damaged by the specialist. Larvae feeding during 24 hr significantly decreased TAs in damaged plants, but they returned to control levels after 15 days without damage. Damaged and undamaged plants did not differ significantly in leaf area after 15 days, indicating compensatory growth. Our results suggest that B. suaveolens responds to herbivory by the specialist P. euryanassa by investing in growth rather than chemical defense.

  14. Biogeography of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana): latitudinal patterns in chemical defense and plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Brown, Sarah C; Bothwell, Helen M; Bryant, John P

    2016-02-01

    The latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis (LHDH) predicts that plants near the equator will be more heavily defended against herbivores than are plants at higher latitudes. Although this idea is widely found in the literature, recent studies have called this biogeographic pattern into question. We sought to evaluate the LHDH in a high-latitude terrestrial ecosystem where fire and mammalian herbivores may contribute to selection for higher levels of defensive chemistry. To address this objective, we collected seeds of Alaska paper birch (Betula neoalaskana) from nine locations along two north-south transects between 55 degrees N and 62 degrees N latitudes in western, interior Canada. The birch seeds were planted in pots in a common garden in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. From the resulting seedlings, we determined levels of chemical defense by assessing the density of resin glands, which have been shown to be negatively correlated with browsing. To assess plant architectural traits such as height, mean individual leaf area, and root-to-shoot ratio, we harvested a subset of the birch seedlings. Further, we used these traits to examine growth-defense trade-offs. Contrary to the LHDH, we found a positive correlation between chemical defense and latitude. Investigating relationships with fire, we found a strong positive correlation between resin gland density and percentage of area annually burned (PAAB) around each collection location and also between PAAB and latitude. Additionally, birch seedlings originating from higher latitudes were shorter, smaller-leaved, and rootier than their lower-latitude counterparts. Growth-defense trade-offs were observed in negative correlations between resin gland density and height and leaf size. Seedlings with higher resin gland densities also allocated less biomass to shoots and more to roots. These results further call into question the LHDH and provide specific information about latitudinal trends in plant defense at high, northern

  15. Disarming the jasmonate-dependent plant defense makes nonhost Arabidopsis plants accessible to the American serpentine leafminer.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hiroshi; Tateishi, Ken; Seo, Shigemi; Kugimiya, Soichi; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Sawada, Yuji; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Yara, Kaori; Shimoda, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Masatomo

    2013-11-01

    Here, we analyzed the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the American serpentine leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii), an important and intractable herbivore of many cultivated plants. We examined the role of the immunity-related plant hormone jasmonate (JA) in the plant response and resistance to leafminer feeding to determine whether JA affects host suitability for leafminers. The expression of marker genes for the JA-dependent plant defense was induced by leafminer feeding on Arabidopsis wild-type plants. Analyses of JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants suggested the importance of JA in the plant response to leafminer feeding. The JA content of wild-type plants significantly increased after leafminer feeding. Moreover, coi1-1 mutants showed lower feeding resistance against leafminer attack than did wild-type plants. The number of feeding scars caused by inoculated adult leafminers in JA-insensitive coi1-1 mutants was higher than that in wild-type plants. In addition, adults of the following generation appeared only from coi1-1 mutants and not from wild-type plants, suggesting that the loss of the JA-dependent plant defense converted nonhost plants to accessible host plants. Interestingly, the glucosinolate-myrosinase defense system may play at most a minor role in this conversion, indicating that this major antiherbivore defense of Brassica species plants probably does not have a major function in plant resistance to leafminer. Application of JA to wild-type plants before leafminer feeding enhanced feeding resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium). Our results indicate that JA plays an important role in the plant response and resistance to leafminers and, in so doing, affects host plant suitability for leafminers.

  16. Herbivore Diet Breadth and Host Plant Defense Mediate the Tri-Trophic Effects of Plant Toxins on Multiple Coccinellid Predators

    PubMed Central

    Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2016-01-01

    Host plant defenses are known to cascade up food chains to influence herbivores and their natural enemies, but how herbivore and predator traits and identity mediate such tri-trophic dynamics is largely unknown. We assessed the influence of plant defense on aphid and coccinellid performance in laboratory trials with low- vs. high-glucosinolate varieties of Brassica napus, a dietary specialist (Brevicoryne brassicae) and generalist (Myzus persicae) aphid, and five species of aphidophagous coccinellids. The performance of the specialist and generalist aphids was similar and unaffected by variation in plant defense. Aphid glucosinolate concentration and resistance to predators differed by aphid species and host plant defense, and these effects acted independently. With respect to aphid species, the dietary generalist aphid (vs. specialist) had 14% lower glucosinolate concentration and coccinellid predators ate three-fold more aphids. With respect to host plant variety, the high-glucosinolate plants (vs. low) increased aphid glucosinolate concentration by 21%, but had relatively weak effects on predation by coccinellids and these effects varied among coccinellid species. In turn, coccinellid performance was influenced by the interactive effects of plant defense and aphid species, as the cascading, indirect effect of plant defense was greater when feeding upon the specialist than generalist aphid. When feeding upon specialist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by 78% and accelerated development by 14%. In contrast, when feeding upon generalist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by only 11% and had no detectable effect on development time. These interactive effects of plant defense and aphid diet breadth on predator performance also varied among coccinellid species; the indirect negative effects of plant defenses on predator performance was consistent among the five predators when

  17. Herbivore Diet Breadth and Host Plant Defense Mediate the Tri-Trophic Effects of Plant Toxins on Multiple Coccinellid Predators.

    PubMed

    Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Host plant defenses are known to cascade up food chains to influence herbivores and their natural enemies, but how herbivore and predator traits and identity mediate such tri-trophic dynamics is largely unknown. We assessed the influence of plant defense on aphid and coccinellid performance in laboratory trials with low- vs. high-glucosinolate varieties of Brassica napus, a dietary specialist (Brevicoryne brassicae) and generalist (Myzus persicae) aphid, and five species of aphidophagous coccinellids. The performance of the specialist and generalist aphids was similar and unaffected by variation in plant defense. Aphid glucosinolate concentration and resistance to predators differed by aphid species and host plant defense, and these effects acted independently. With respect to aphid species, the dietary generalist aphid (vs. specialist) had 14% lower glucosinolate concentration and coccinellid predators ate three-fold more aphids. With respect to host plant variety, the high-glucosinolate plants (vs. low) increased aphid glucosinolate concentration by 21%, but had relatively weak effects on predation by coccinellids and these effects varied among coccinellid species. In turn, coccinellid performance was influenced by the interactive effects of plant defense and aphid species, as the cascading, indirect effect of plant defense was greater when feeding upon the specialist than generalist aphid. When feeding upon specialist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by 78% and accelerated development by 14%. In contrast, when feeding upon generalist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by only 11% and had no detectable effect on development time. These interactive effects of plant defense and aphid diet breadth on predator performance also varied among coccinellid species; the indirect negative effects of plant defenses on predator performance was consistent among the five predators when

  18. Herbivore Diet Breadth and Host Plant Defense Mediate the Tri-Trophic Effects of Plant Toxins on Multiple Coccinellid Predators.

    PubMed

    Katsanis, Angelos; Rasmann, Sergio; Mooney, Kailen A

    2016-01-01

    Host plant defenses are known to cascade up food chains to influence herbivores and their natural enemies, but how herbivore and predator traits and identity mediate such tri-trophic dynamics is largely unknown. We assessed the influence of plant defense on aphid and coccinellid performance in laboratory trials with low- vs. high-glucosinolate varieties of Brassica napus, a dietary specialist (Brevicoryne brassicae) and generalist (Myzus persicae) aphid, and five species of aphidophagous coccinellids. The performance of the specialist and generalist aphids was similar and unaffected by variation in plant defense. Aphid glucosinolate concentration and resistance to predators differed by aphid species and host plant defense, and these effects acted independently. With respect to aphid species, the dietary generalist aphid (vs. specialist) had 14% lower glucosinolate concentration and coccinellid predators ate three-fold more aphids. With respect to host plant variety, the high-glucosinolate plants (vs. low) increased aphid glucosinolate concentration by 21%, but had relatively weak effects on predation by coccinellids and these effects varied among coccinellid species. In turn, coccinellid performance was influenced by the interactive effects of plant defense and aphid species, as the cascading, indirect effect of plant defense was greater when feeding upon the specialist than generalist aphid. When feeding upon specialist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by 78% and accelerated development by 14%. In contrast, when feeding upon generalist aphids, low- (vs. high-) glucosinolate plants increased coccinellid mass gain by only 11% and had no detectable effect on development time. These interactive effects of plant defense and aphid diet breadth on predator performance also varied among coccinellid species; the indirect negative effects of plant defenses on predator performance was consistent among the five predators when

  19. Resource allocation to defense and growth are driven by different responses to generalist and specialist herbivory in an invasive plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants often have novel biotic interactions in their introduced ranges. These interactions, including less frequent herbivore attacks, may convey a competitive advantage over native plants. However, herbivores vary in their responses to different plant defenses and plants vary their defense...

  20. Proteinase inhibitor gene families: strategies for transformation to improve plant defenses against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A

    1989-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves can reduce predation by insects. Plants can now be transformed with proteinase inhibitor genes with strong promoters to express the inhibitor proteins in relatively high levels at specific times. Inhibitors having variable specificities against digestive proteinases of insects and pathogens can now be assessed for their possible role(s) in natural plant defense and for their potential usefulness in protecting crop plants against herbivores.

  1. Multitasking antimicrobial peptides in plant development and host defense against biotic/abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravinder K; Mattoo, Autar K

    2014-11-01

    Crop losses due to pathogens are a major threat to global food security. Plants employ a multilayer defense against a pathogen including the use of physical barriers (cell wall), induction of hypersensitive defense response (HR), resistance (R) proteins, and synthesis of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Unlike a complex R gene-mediated immunity, AMPs directly target diverse microbial pathogens. Many a times, R-mediated immunity breaks down and plant defense is compromised. Although R-gene dependent pathogen resistance has been well studied, comparatively little is known about the interactions of AMPs with host defense and physiology. AMPs are ubiquitous, low molecular weight peptides that display broad spectrum resistance against bacteria, fungi and viruses. In plants, AMPs are mainly classified into cyclotides, defensins, thionins, lipid transfer proteins, snakins, and hevein-like vicilin-like and knottins. Genetic distance lineages suggest their conservation with minimal effect of speciation events during evolution. AMPs provide durable resistance in plants through a combination of membrane lysis and cellular toxicity of the pathogen. Plant hormones - gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonates, and salicylic acid, are among the physiological regulators that regulate the expression of AMPs. Transgenically produced AMP-plants have become a means showing that AMPs are able to mitigate host defense responses while providing durable resistance against pathogens.

  2. Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by “classical” breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses. PMID:23734160

  3. Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification.

    PubMed

    Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by "classical" breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses. PMID:23734160

  4. Plant allocation of carbon to defense as a function of herbivory, light and nutrient availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ju, Shu; Liu, Rongsong; Bryant, John P.; Gourley, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    We use modeling to determine the optimal relative plant carbon allocations between foliage, fine roots, anti-herbivore defense, and reproduction to maximize reproductive output. The model treats these plant components and the herbivore compartment as variables. Herbivory is assumed to be purely folivory. Key external factors include nutrient availability, degree of shading, and intensity of herbivory. Three alternative functional responses are used for herbivory, two of which are variations on donor-dependent herbivore (models 1a and 1b) and one of which is a Lotka–Volterra type of interaction (model 2). All three were modified to include the negative effect of chemical defenses on the herbivore. Analysis showed that, for all three models, two stable equilibria could occur, which differs from most common functional responses when no plant defense component is included. Optimal strategies of carbon allocation were defined as the maximum biomass of reproductive propagules produced per unit time, and found to vary with changes in external factors. Increased intensity of herbivory always led to an increase in the fractional allocation of carbon to defense. Decreases in available limiting nutrient generally led to increasing importance of defense. Decreases in available light had little effect on defense but led to increased allocation to foliage. Decreases in limiting nutrient and available light led to decreases in allocation to reproduction in models 1a and 1b but not model 2. Increases in allocation to plant defense were usually accompanied by shifts in carbon allocation away from fine roots, possibly because higher plant defense reduced the loss of nutrients to herbivory.

  5. An Overview of Proteomics Tools for Understanding Plant Defense Against Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Vranych, Cecilia V; Piazza, Ainelén; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases are responsible for important losses in crops and cause serious impacts in agricultural production. In the last years, proteomics has been used to examine plant defense responses against pathogens. Such studies may be pioneer in the generation of crops with enhanced resistance. In this review, we focus on proteomics advances in the understanding of host and non-host resistance against pathogens.

  6. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  7. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Ariane F.; Vasconcelos, Érico A. R.; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F.

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term “plant defensin,” after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins. PMID:24765086

  8. Antifungal defensins and their role in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Ariane F; Vasconcelos, Erico A R; Pelegrini, Patrícia Barbosa; Grossi de Sa, Maria F

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 90s lots of cationic plant, cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMP) have been studied. However, Broekaert et al. (1995) only coined the term "plant defensin," after comparison of a new class of plant antifungal peptides with known insect defensins. From there, many plant defensins have been reported and studies on this class of peptides encompass its activity toward microorganisms and molecular features of the mechanism of action against bacteria and fungi. Plant defensins also have been tested as biotechnological tools to improve crop production through fungi resistance generation in organisms genetically modified (OGM). Its low effective concentration towards fungi, ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and its safety to mammals and birds makes them a better choice, in place of chemicals, to control fungi infection on crop fields. Herein, is a review of the history of plant defensins since their discovery at the beginning of 90s, following the advances on its structure conformation and mechanism of action towards microorganisms is reported. This review also points out some important topics, including: (i) the most studied plant defensins and their fungal targets; (ii) the molecular features of plant defensins and their relation with antifungal activity; (iii) the possibility of using plant defensin(s) genes to generate fungi resistant GM crops and biofungicides; and (iv) a brief discussion about the absence of products in the market containing plant antifungal defensins.

  9. Ants provide nutritional and defensive benefits to the carnivorous plant Sarracenia minor.

    PubMed

    Moon, Daniel C; Rossi, Anthony M; Depaz, Jacqueline; McKelvey, Lindsey; Elias, Sheryl; Wheeler, Emily; Moon, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Ants can have important, but sometimes unexpected, effects on the plants they associate with. For carnivorous plants, associating with ants may provide defensive benefits in addition to nutritional ones. We examined the effects of increased ant visitation and exclusion of insect prey from pitchers of the hooded pitcher plant Sarracenia minor, which has been hypothesized to be an ant specialist. Visitation by ants was increased by placing PVC pipes in the ground immediately adjacent to 16 of 32 pitcher plants, which created nesting/refuge sites. Insects were excluded from all pitchers of 16 of the plants by occluding the pitchers with cotton. Treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 factorial design in order to isolate the hypothesized defensive benefits from nutritional ones. We recorded visitation by ants, the mean number of ants captured, foliar nitrogen content, plant growth and size, and levels of herbivory by the pitcher plant mining moth Exyra semicrocea. Changes in ant visitation and prey capture significantly affected nitrogen content, plant height, and the number of pitchers per plant. Increased ant visitation independent of prey capture reduced herbivory and pitcher mortality, and increased the number of pitchers per plant. Results from this study show that the hooded pitcher plant derives a double benefit from attracting potential prey that are also capable of providing defense against herbivory.

  10. Herbivore Oral Secreted Bacteria Trigger Distinct Defense Responses in Preferred and Non-Preferred Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Chung, Seung Ho; Peiffer, Michelle; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2016-06-01

    Insect symbiotic bacteria affect host physiology and mediate plant-insect interactions, yet there are few clear examples of symbiotic bacteria regulating defense responses in different host plants. We hypothesized that plants would induce distinct defense responses to herbivore- associated bacteria. We evaluated whether preferred hosts (horsenettle) or non-preferred hosts (tomato) respond similarly to oral secretions (OS) from the false potato beetle (FPB, Leptinotarsa juncta), and whether the induced defense triggered by OS was due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria in OS. Both horsenettle and tomato damaged by antibiotic (AB) treated larvae showed higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity than those damaged by non-AB treated larvae. In addition, application of OS from AB treated larvae induced higher PPO activity compared with OS from non-AB treated larvae or water treatment. False potato beetles harbor bacteria that may provide abundant cues that can be recognized by plants and thus mediate corresponding defense responses. Among all tested bacterial isolates, the genera Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were found to suppress PPO activity in tomato, while only Pantoea sp. among these four isolates was observed to suppress PPO activity in horsenettle. The distinct PPO suppression caused by symbiotic bacteria in different plants was similar to the pattern of induced defense-related gene expression. Pantoea inoculated FPB suppressed JA-responsive genes and triggered a SA-responsive gene in both tomato and horsenettle. However, Enterobacter inoculated FPB eliminated JA-regulated gene expression and elevated SA-regulated gene expression in tomato, but did not show evident effects on the expression levels of horsenettle defense-related genes. These results indicate that suppression of plant defenses by the bacteria found in the oral secretions of herbivores may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously indicated.

  11. Herbivore Oral Secreted Bacteria Trigger Distinct Defense Responses in Preferred and Non-Preferred Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Chung, Seung Ho; Peiffer, Michelle; Rosa, Cristina; Hoover, Kelli; Zeng, Rensen; Felton, Gary W

    2016-06-01

    Insect symbiotic bacteria affect host physiology and mediate plant-insect interactions, yet there are few clear examples of symbiotic bacteria regulating defense responses in different host plants. We hypothesized that plants would induce distinct defense responses to herbivore- associated bacteria. We evaluated whether preferred hosts (horsenettle) or non-preferred hosts (tomato) respond similarly to oral secretions (OS) from the false potato beetle (FPB, Leptinotarsa juncta), and whether the induced defense triggered by OS was due to the presence of symbiotic bacteria in OS. Both horsenettle and tomato damaged by antibiotic (AB) treated larvae showed higher polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity than those damaged by non-AB treated larvae. In addition, application of OS from AB treated larvae induced higher PPO activity compared with OS from non-AB treated larvae or water treatment. False potato beetles harbor bacteria that may provide abundant cues that can be recognized by plants and thus mediate corresponding defense responses. Among all tested bacterial isolates, the genera Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were found to suppress PPO activity in tomato, while only Pantoea sp. among these four isolates was observed to suppress PPO activity in horsenettle. The distinct PPO suppression caused by symbiotic bacteria in different plants was similar to the pattern of induced defense-related gene expression. Pantoea inoculated FPB suppressed JA-responsive genes and triggered a SA-responsive gene in both tomato and horsenettle. However, Enterobacter inoculated FPB eliminated JA-regulated gene expression and elevated SA-regulated gene expression in tomato, but did not show evident effects on the expression levels of horsenettle defense-related genes. These results indicate that suppression of plant defenses by the bacteria found in the oral secretions of herbivores may be a more widespread phenomenon than previously indicated. PMID:27294415

  12. Gall insects and indirect plant defenses: A case of active manipulation?

    PubMed

    Tooker, John F; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-07-01

    Many plants can defend themselves against insect herbivory by attracting natural enemies that kill feeding herbivores and limit the damage they inflict. Such "indirect defenses" can be induced by insects feeding on different plant tissues and using a variety of feeding styles. However, we have recently shown that gall-inducing insect species can avoid the indirect defenses of their host plant species and even alter volatile emissions following subsequent herbivory. One of the species we studied, Eurosta solidaginis, induces galls on goldenrod (Solidago altissima) and appears to exert a unique influence over the indirect defenses of its host plant that is not readily explained by levels of defense-related phytohormones, gall formation or resource depletion. Our evidence suggests that this gall-insect species may be able to manipulate its host plant species to avoid and/or modify its defensive responses. The results also provide insight into gall induction because the gall-insect species that we screened did not increase levels of jasmonic acid, which, in addition to triggering volatile emissions, is a powerful growth regulator that could prevent the cell growth and division that leads to gall formation.

  13. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of plant defenses in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant defense responses have been studied through a limited number of models that may have constrained our view of plant-pathogen interactions. Discovery of new defense mechanisms should be favored by broadening the range of pathogens under study. With this aim, Arabidopsis defense response to the ‘...

  14. Stage-Related Defense Response Induction in Tomato Plants by Nesidiocoris tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Naselli, Mario; Urbaneja, Alberto; Siscaro, Gaetano; Jaques, Josep A.; Zappalà, Lucia; Flors, Víctor; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of direct predation by zoophytophagous biological control agents (BCAs), such as the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis, are well-known. However, the benefits of zoophytophagous BCAs’ relation with host plants, via induction of plant defensive responses, have not been investigated until recently. To date, only the females of certain zoophytophagous BCAs have been demonstrated to induce defensive plant responses in tomato plants. The aim of this work was to determine whether nymphs, adult females, and adult males of N. tenuis are able to induce defense responses in tomato plants. Compared to undamaged tomato plants (i.e., not exposed to the mirid), plants on which young or mature nymphs, or adult males or females of N. tenuis fed and developed were less attractive to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but were more attractive to the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Female-exposed plants were more repellent to B. tabaci and more attractive to E. formosa than were male-exposed plants. When comparing young- and mature-nymph-exposed plants, the same level of repellence was obtained for B. tabaci, but mature-nymph-exposed plants were more attractive to E. formosa. The repellent effect is attributed to the signaling pathway of abscisic acid, which is upregulated in N. tenuis-exposed plants, whereas the parasitoid attraction was attributed to the activation of the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that all motile stages of N. tenuis can trigger defensive responses in tomato plants, although these responses may be slightly different depending on the stage considered. PMID:27472328

  15. Stage-Related Defense Response Induction in Tomato Plants by Nesidiocoris tenuis.

    PubMed

    Naselli, Mario; Urbaneja, Alberto; Siscaro, Gaetano; Jaques, Josep A; Zappalà, Lucia; Flors, Víctor; Pérez-Hedo, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of direct predation by zoophytophagous biological control agents (BCAs), such as the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis, are well-known. However, the benefits of zoophytophagous BCAs' relation with host plants, via induction of plant defensive responses, have not been investigated until recently. To date, only the females of certain zoophytophagous BCAs have been demonstrated to induce defensive plant responses in tomato plants. The aim of this work was to determine whether nymphs, adult females, and adult males of N. tenuis are able to induce defense responses in tomato plants. Compared to undamaged tomato plants (i.e., not exposed to the mirid), plants on which young or mature nymphs, or adult males or females of N. tenuis fed and developed were less attractive to the whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but were more attractive to the parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Female-exposed plants were more repellent to B. tabaci and more attractive to E. formosa than were male-exposed plants. When comparing young- and mature-nymph-exposed plants, the same level of repellence was obtained for B. tabaci, but mature-nymph-exposed plants were more attractive to E. formosa. The repellent effect is attributed to the signaling pathway of abscisic acid, which is upregulated in N. tenuis-exposed plants, whereas the parasitoid attraction was attributed to the activation of the jasmonic acid signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that all motile stages of N. tenuis can trigger defensive responses in tomato plants, although these responses may be slightly different depending on the stage considered. PMID:27472328

  16. Phylogenetic correlations among chemical and physical plant defenses change with ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Kariñho-Betancourt, Eunice; Agrawal, Anurag A; Halitschke, Rayko; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Theory predicts patterns of defense across taxa based on notions of tradeoffs and synergism among defensive traits when plants and herbivores coevolve. Because the expression of characters changes ontogenetically, the evolution of plant strategies may be best understood by considering multiple traits along a trajectory of plant development. Here we addressed the ontogenetic expression of chemical and physical defenses in 12 Datura species, and tested for macroevolutionary correlations between defensive traits using phylogenetic analyses. We used liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry to identify the toxic tropane alkaloids of Datura, and also estimated leaf trichome density. We report three major patterns. First, we found different ontogenetic trajectories of alkaloids and leaf trichomes, with alkaloids increasing in concentration at the reproductive stage, whereas trichomes were much more variable across species. Second, the dominant alkaloids and leaf trichomes showed correlated evolution, with positive and negative associations. Third, the correlations between defensive traits changed across ontogeny, with significant relationships only occurring during the juvenile phase. The patterns in expression of defensive traits in the genus Datura are suggestive of adaptation to complex selective environments varying in space and time.

  17. The role of root border cells in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Hawes, M C; Gunawardena, U; Miyasaka, S; Zhao, X

    2000-03-01

    The survival of a plant depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Perhaps because of the root tip's vital role in plant health, it is ensheathed by large populations of detached somatic cells - root 'border' cells - which have the ability to engineer the chemical and physical properties of the external environment. Of particular significance, is the production by border cells of specific chemicals that can dramatically alter the behavior of populations of soilborne microflora. Molecular approaches are being used to identify and manipulate the expression of plant genes that control the production and the specialized properties of border cells in transgenic plants. Such plants can be used to test the hypothesis that these unusual cells act as a phalanx of biological 'goalies', which neutralize dangers to newly generated root tissue as the root tip makes its way through soil.

  18. The contribution of Trichoderma to balancing the costs of plant growth and defense.

    PubMed

    Hermosa, Rosa; Rubio, M Belén; Cardoza, Rosa E; Nicolás, Carlos; Monte, Enrique; Gutiérrez, Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Trichoderma is a fungal genus of cosmopolitan distribution and high biotechnological value, with several species currently used as biological control agents. Additionally, the enzyme systems of the fungus are widely applied in industry. Species of Trichoderma protect plants against the attack of soil-borne plant pathogens by competing for nutrients and inhibiting or killing plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes, through the production of antibiotics and/or hydrolytic enzymes. In addition to the role of Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents, they have other beneficial effects on plants, including the stimulation of plant defenses and the promotion of plant growth. In this review, we focus on the complex plant defense signaling network that allows the recognition of fungi as non-hostile microbes, including microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and secreted elicitors. We also examine how fungal interactions with plant receptors can activate induced resistance by priming and balancing plant defense and growth responses. Our observations are integrated into a model describing Trichoderma-plant hormone signaling network interactions.

  19. Tracing Plant Defense Responses in Roots upon MAMP/DAMP Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kei; Saijo, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes how to apply microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) or damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) solutions to Arabidopsis roots to trace defense responses in the root. Plants sense the presence of microbes via the perception of MAMPs or DAMPs by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors. The mechanisms governing plant root immunity are poorly characterized compared with those underlying plant immunity in the leaf, despite the fact that plant roots constantly interact with countless microbes living in soils that carry potential MAMPs and could stimulate the production of plant-derived DAMPs during colonization. To understand how a plant root immune system detects and reacts to the potential sources of a stimulus, we describe a simple method to monitor activation of root immunity upon MAMP/DAMP treatment by measuring relative expression of defense-related genes by RT-qPCR.

  20. Lysozyme- and chitinase activity in latex bearing plants of genus Euphorbia--A contribution to plant defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sytwala, Sonja; Günther, Florian; Melzig, Matthias F

    2015-10-01

    Occurrence of latices in plants is widespread, there are 40 families of plants characterized to establish lactiferous structures. Latices exhibit a constitutive part of plant defense due to the stickiness. The appearance of proteins incorporated in latices is well characterized, and hydrolytic active proteins are considerable. A lot of plants constitute so-called pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, to overcome stressful conditions. In our investigation we are focused on latex bearing plants of Euphorbiaceae Juss., and investigated the appearance of chitinase- and lysozyme activity in particular. The present outcomes represent a comprehensive study, relating to the occurrence of lysozyme and chitinase activity of genus Euphorbia at the first time. 110 different species of genus Euphorbia L. were tested, and the appearance of chitinase and lysozyme were determined in different quantities. The appearance itself, and the physicochemical properties of latices indicate an efficient interaction for plant defense against pathogen attack.

  1. Novel mode of action of plant defense peptides: hevein-like antimicrobial peptides from wheat inhibit fungal metalloproteases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The multilayered plant immune system relies on rapid recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns followed by activation of defense-related genes that results in the reinforcement of plant cell walls and production of antimicrobial compounds. To suppress plant defense, fungi secrete effecto...

  2. Distinct Roles of Jasmonates and Aldehydes in Plant-Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chehab, E. Wassim; Kaspi, Roy; Savchenko, Tatyana; Rowe, Heather; Negre-Zakharov, Florence; Kliebenstein, Dan; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2008-01-01

    Background Many inducible plant-defense responses are activated by jasmonates (JAs), C6-aldehydes, and their corresponding derivatives, produced by the two main competing branches of the oxylipin pathway, the allene oxide synthase (AOS) and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) branches, respectively. In addition to competition for substrates, these branch-pathway-derived metabolites have substantial overlap in regulation of gene expression. Past experiments to define the role of C6-aldehydes in plant defense responses were biased towards the exogenous application of the synthetic metabolites or the use of genetic manipulation of HPL expression levels in plant genotypes with intact ability to produce the competing AOS-derived metabolites. To uncouple the roles of the C6-aldehydes and jasmonates in mediating direct and indirect plant-defense responses, we generated Arabidopsis genotypes lacking either one or both of these metabolites. These genotypes were subsequently challenged with a phloem-feeding insect (aphids: Myzus persicae), an insect herbivore (leafminers: Liriomyza trifolii), and two different necrotrophic fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola). We also characterized the volatiles emitted by these plants upon aphid infestation or mechanical wounding and identified hexenyl acetate as the predominant compound in these volatile blends. Subsequently, we examined the signaling role of this compound in attracting the parasitoid wasp (Aphidius colemani), a natural enemy of aphids. Principal Findings This study conclusively establishes that jasmonates and C6-aldehydes play distinct roles in plant defense responses. The jasmonates are indispensable metabolites in mediating the activation of direct plant-defense responses, whereas the C6-aldehyes are not. On the other hand, hexenyl acetate, an acetylated C6-aldehyde, is the predominant wound-inducible volatile signal that mediates indirect defense responses by directing tritrophic (plant

  3. Self-recognition affects plant communication and defense.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Shiojiri, Kaori

    2009-06-01

    Animals have the ability to distinguish self from non-self, which has allowed them to evolve immune systems and, in some instances, to act preferentially towards individuals that are genetically identical or related. Self-recognition is less well known for plants, although recent work indicates that physically connected roots recognize self and reduce competitive interactions. Sagebrush uses volatile cues emitted by clipped branches of self or different neighbours to increase resistance to herbivory. Here, we show that plants that received volatile cues from genetically identical cuttings accumulated less natural damage than plants that received cues from non-self cuttings. Volatile communication is required to coordinate systemic processes such as induced resistance and plants respond more effectively to self than non-self cues. This self/non-self discrimination did not require physical contact and is a necessary first step towards possible kin recognition and kin selection.

  4. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control. PMID:27215971

  5. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control.

  6. Positive effects of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses in a tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on

  7. Positive Effects of Plant Genotypic and Species Diversity on Anti-Herbivore Defenses in a Tropical Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Mooney, Kailen A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that plant intra- and inter-specific diversity increases primary productivity, and that such effect may in turn cascade up to influence herbivores, there is little information about plant diversity effects on plant anti-herbivore defenses, the relative importance of different sources of plant diversity, and the mechanisms for such effects. For example, increased plant growth at high diversity may lead to reduced investment in defenses via growth-defense trade-offs. Alternatively, positive effects of plant diversity on plant growth may lead to increased herbivore abundance which in turn leads to a greater investment in plant defenses. The magnitude of trait variation underlying diversity effects is usually greater among species than among genotypes within a given species, so plant species diversity effects on resource use by producers as well as on higher trophic levels should be stronger than genotypic diversity effects. Here we compared the relative importance of plant genotypic and species diversity on anti-herbivore defenses and whether such effects are mediated indirectly via diversity effects on plant growth and/or herbivore damage. To this end, we performed a large-scale field experiment where we manipulated genotypic diversity of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) and tree species diversity, and measured effects on mahogany growth, damage by the stem-boring specialist caterpillar Hypsipyla grandella, and defensive traits (polyphenolics and condensed tannins in stem and leaves). We found that both forms of plant diversity had positive effects on stem (but not leaf) defenses. However, neither source of diversity influenced mahogany growth, and diversity effects on defenses were not mediated by either growth-defense trade-offs or changes in stem-borer damage. Although the mechanism(s) of diversity effects on plant defenses are yet to be determined, our study is one of the few to test for and show producer diversity effects on

  8. The Roots of Defense: Plant Resistance and Tolerance to Belowground Herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sean M.; Dodson, Craig D.; Reichman, O. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is conclusive evidence that there are fitness costs of plant defense and that herbivores can drive selection for defense. However, most work has focused on above-ground interactions, even though belowground herbivory may have greater impacts on individual plants than above-ground herbivory. Given the role of belowground plant structures in resource acquisition and storage, research on belowground herbivores has much to contribute to theories on the evolution of plant defense. Pocket gophers (Geomyidae) provide an excellent opportunity to study root herbivory. These subterranean rodents spend their entire lives belowground and specialize on consuming belowground plant parts. Methodology and Principal Findings We compared the root defenses of native forbs from mainland populations (with a history of gopher herbivory) to island populations (free from gophers for up to 500,000 years). Defense includes both resistance against herbivores and tolerance of herbivore damage. We used three approaches to compare these traits in island and mainland populations of two native California forbs: 1) Eschscholzia californica populations were assayed to compare alkaloid deterrents, 2) captive gophers were used to test the palatability of E. californica roots and 3) simulated root herbivory assessed tolerance to root damage in Deinandra fasciculata and E. californica. Mainland forms of E. californica contained 2.5 times greater concentration of alkaloids and were less palatable to gophers than island forms. Mainland forms of D. fasciculata and, to a lesser extent, E. californica were also more tolerant of root damage than island conspecifics. Interestingly, undamaged island individuals of D. fasciculata produced significantly more fruit than either damaged or undamaged mainland individuals. Conclusions and Significance These results suggest that mainland plants are effective at deterring and tolerating pocket gopher herbivory. Results also suggest that both forms of

  9. Neonicotinoid Insecticides Alter Induced Defenses and Increase Susceptibility to Spider Mites in Distantly Related Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Raupp, Michael J.; Parker, Roy D.; Kerns, David; Eubanks, Micky D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemical suppression of arthropod herbivores is the most common approach to plant protection. Insecticides, however, can cause unintended, adverse consequences for non-target organisms. Previous studies focused on the effects of pesticides on target and non-target pests, predatory arthropods, and concomitant ecological disruptions. Little research, however, has focused on the direct effects of insecticides on plants. Here we demonstrate that applications of neonicotinoid insecticides, one of the most important insecticide classes worldwide, suppress expression of important plant defense genes, alter levels of phytohormones involved in plant defense, and decrease plant resistance to unsusceptible herbivores, spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in multiple, distantly related crop plants. Methodology/Principal Findings Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants, we show that transcription of phenylalanine amonia lyase, coenzyme A ligase, trypsin protease inhibitor and chitinase are suppressed and concentrations of the phytohormone OPDA and salicylic acid were altered by neonicotinoid insecticides. Consequently, the population growth of spider mites increased from 30% to over 100% on neonicotinoid-treated plants in the greenhouse and by nearly 200% in the field experiment. Conclusions/Significance Our findings are important because applications of neonicotinoid insecticides have been associated with outbreaks of spider mites in several unrelated plant species. More importantly, this is the first study to document insecticide-mediated disruption of plant defenses and link it to increased population growth of a non-target herbivore. This study adds to growing evidence that bioactive agrochemicals can have unanticipated ecological effects and suggests that the direct effects of insecticides on plant defenses should be considered when the ecological costs of insecticides are evaluated. PMID

  10. Plant defense phenotypes determine the consequences of volatile emission for individuals and neighbors.

    PubMed

    Schuman, Meredith C; Allmann, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Plants are at the trophic base of terrestrial ecosystems, and the diversity of plant species in an ecosystem is a principle determinant of community structure. This may arise from diverse functional traits among species. In fact, genetic diversity within species can have similarly large effects. However, studies of intraspecific genetic diversity have used genotypes varying in several complex traits, obscuring the specific phenotypic variation responsible for community-level effects. Using lines of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata genetically altered in specific well-characterized defense traits and planted into experimental populations in their native habitat, we investigated community-level effects of trait diversity in populations of otherwise isogenic plants. We conclude that the frequency of defense traits in a population can determine the outcomes of these traits for individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that some ecosystem-level services afforded by genetically diverse plant populations could be recaptured in intensive monocultures engineered to be functionally diverse. PMID:25873033

  11. Ribosome-inactivating proteins: from plant defense to tumor attack.

    PubMed

    de Virgilio, Maddalena; Lombardi, Alessio; Caliandro, Rocco; Fabbrini, Maria Serena

    2010-11-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are EC3.2.32.22 N-glycosidases that recognize a universally conserved stem-loop structure in 23S/25S/28S rRNA, depurinating a single adenine (A4324 in rat) and irreversibly blocking protein translation, leading finally to cell death of intoxicated mammalian cells. Ricin, the plant RIP prototype that comprises a catalytic A subunit linked to a galactose-binding lectin B subunit to allow cell surface binding and toxin entry in most mammalian cells, shows a potency in the picomolar range. The most promising way to exploit plant RIPs as weapons against cancer cells is either by designing molecules in which the toxic domains are linked to selective tumor targeting domains or directly delivered as suicide genes for cancer gene therapy. Here, we will provide a comprehensive picture of plant RIPs and discuss successful designs and features of chimeric molecules having therapeutic potential. PMID:22069572

  12. Costs of Defense and a Test of the Carbon-Nutrient Balance and Growth-Differentiation Balance Hypotheses for Two Co-Occurring Classes of Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Massad, Tara Joy; Dyer, Lee A.; Vega C., Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of chemical ecology is to assess costs of plant defenses. Intraspecific trade-offs between growth and defense are traditionally viewed in the context of the carbon-nutrient balance hypothesis (CNBH) and the growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH). Broadly, these hypotheses suggest that growth is limited by deficiencies in carbon or nitrogen while rates of photosynthesis remain unchanged, and the subsequent reduced growth results in the more abundant resource being invested in increased defense (mass-balance based allocation). The GDBH further predicts trade-offs in growth and defense should only be observed when resources are abundant. Most support for these hypotheses comes from work with phenolics. We examined trade-offs related to production of two classes of defenses, saponins (triterpenoids) and flavans (phenolics), in Pentaclethra macroloba (Fabaceae), an abundant tree in Costa Rican wet forests. We quantified physiological costs of plant defenses by measuring photosynthetic parameters (which are often assumed to be stable) in addition to biomass. Pentaclethra macroloba were grown in full sunlight or shade under three levels of nitrogen alone or with conspecific neighbors that could potentially alter nutrient availability via competition or facilitation. Biomass and photosynthesis were not affected by nitrogen or competition for seedlings in full sunlight, but they responded positively to nitrogen in shade-grown plants. The trade-off predicted by the GDBH between growth and metabolite production was only present between flavans and biomass in sun-grown plants (abundant resource conditions). Support was also only partial for the CNBH as flavans declined with nitrogen but saponins increased. This suggests saponin production should be considered in terms of detailed biosynthetic pathway models while phenolic production fits mass-balance based allocation models (such as the CNBH). Contrary to expectations based on the two defense

  13. The importance of ecological costs for the evolution of plant defense against herbivory.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Ellen; Etienne, Rampal S

    2015-05-01

    Plant defense against herbivory comes at a cost, which can be either direct (reducing resources available for growth and reproduction) or indirect (through reducing ecological performance, for example intraspecific competitiveness). While direct costs have been well studied in theoretical models, ecological costs have received almost no attention. In this study we compare models with a direct trade-off (reduced growth rate) to models with an ecological trade-off (reduced competitive ability), using a combination of adaptive dynamics and simulations. In addition, we study the dependence of the level of defense that can evolve on the type of defense (directly by reducing consumption, or indirectly by inducing herbivore mortality (toxicity)), and on the type of herbivore against which the plant is defending itself (generalists or specialists). We find three major results: First, for both direct and ecological costs, defense only evolves if the benefit to the plant is direct (through reducing consumption). Second, the type of cost has a major effect on the evolutionary dynamics: direct costs always lead to a single optimal strategy against herbivores, but ecological costs can lead to branching and the coexistence of non-defending and defending plants; however, coexistence is only possible when defending against generalist herbivores. Finally, we find that fast-growing plants invest less than slow-growing plants when defending against generalist herbivores, as predicted by the Resource Availability Hypothesis, but invest more than slow-growing plants when defending against specialists. Our results clearly show that assumptions about ecological interactions are crucial for understanding the evolution of defense against herbivores.

  14. Turnabout Is Fair Play: Herbivory-Induced Plant Chitinases Excreted in Fall Armyworm Frass Suppress Herbivore Defenses in Maize.

    PubMed

    Ray, Swayamjit; Alves, Patrick C M S; Ahmad, Imtiaz; Gaffoor, Iffa; Acevedo, Flor E; Peiffer, Michelle; Jin, Shan; Han, Yang; Shakeel, Samina; Felton, Gary W; Luthe, Dawn S

    2016-05-01

    The perception of herbivory by plants is known to be triggered by the deposition of insect-derived factors such as saliva and oral secretions, oviposition materials, and even feces. Such insect-derived materials harbor chemical cues that may elicit herbivore and/or pathogen-induced defenses in plants. Several insect-derived molecules that trigger herbivore-induced defenses in plants are known; however, insect-derived molecules suppressing them are largely unknown. In this study, we identified two plant chitinases from fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larval frass that suppress herbivore defenses while simultaneously inducing pathogen defenses in maize (Zea mays). Fall armyworm larvae feed in enclosed whorls of maize plants, where frass accumulates over extended periods of time in close proximity to damaged leaf tissue. Our study shows that maize chitinases, Pr4 and Endochitinase A, are induced during herbivory and subsequently deposited on the host with the feces. These plant chitinases mediate the suppression of herbivore-induced defenses, thereby increasing the performance of the insect on the host. Pr4 and Endochitinase A also trigger the antagonistic pathogen defense pathway in maize and suppress fungal pathogen growth on maize leaves. Frass-induced suppression of herbivore defenses by deposition of the plant-derived chitinases Pr4 and Endochitinase A is a unique way an insect can co-opt the plant's defense proteins for its own benefit. It is also a phenomenon unlike the induction of herbivore defenses by insect oral secretions in most host-herbivore systems.

  15. Jasmonates induce both defense responses and communication in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Abe, Hiroshi; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivatives (jasmonates, JAs) are phytohormones with essential roles in plant defense against pathogenesis and herbivorous arthropods. Both the up- and down-regulation of defense responses are dependent on signaling pathways mediated by JAs as well as other stress hormones (e.g. salicylic acid), generally those involving the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of transcription factors via protein modification and epigenetic regulation. In addition to the typical model plant Arabidopsis (a dicotyledon), advances in genetics research have made rice a model monocot in which innovative pest control traits can be introduced and whose JA signaling pathway can be studied. In this review, we introduce the dynamic functions of JAs in plant defense strategy using defensive substances (e.g. indole alkaloids and terpenoid phytoalexins) and airborne signals (e.g. green leaf volatiles and volatile terpenes) in response to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens as well as above-ground and below-ground herbivores. We then discuss the important issue of how the mutualism of herbivorous arthropods with viruses or bacteria can cause cross-talk between JA and other phytohormones to counter the defense systems.

  16. Small RNAs in plant defense responses during viral and bacterial interactions: similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    Peláez, Pablo; Sanchez, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs constitute an important class of gene expression regulators that control different biological processes in most eukaryotes. In plants, several small RNA (sRNA) silencing pathways have evolved to produce a wide range of small RNAs with specialized functions. Evidence for the diverse mode of action of the small RNA pathways has been highlighted during plant–microbe interactions. Host sRNAs and small RNA silencing pathways have been recognized as essential components of plant immunity. One way plants respond and defend against pathogen infections is through the small RNA silencing immune system. To deal with plant defense responses, pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to avoid and counterattack this defense strategy. The relevance of the small RNA-mediated plant defense responses during viral infections has been well-established. Recent evidence points out its importance also during plant–bacteria interactions. Herein, this review discusses recent findings, similarities and differences about the small RNA-mediated arms race between plants and these two groups of microbes, including the small RNA silencing pathway components that contribute to plant immune responses, the pathogen-responsive endogenous sRNAs and the pathogen-delivered effector proteins. PMID:24046772

  17. The pathogen-actin connection: A platform for defense signaling in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Day, B; Henty, Jessica L; Porter, K J; Staiger, Chris J

    2011-09-08

    The cytoskeleton, a dynamic network of cytoplasmic polymers, plays a central role in numerous fundamental processes, such as development, reproduction, and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stimuli. As a platform for innate immune responses in mammalian cells, the actin cytoskeleton is a central component in the organization and activation of host defenses, including signaling and cellular repair. In plants, our understanding of the genetic and biochemical responses in both pathogen and host that are required for virulence and resistance has grown enormously. Additional advances in live-cell imaging of cytoskeletal dynamics have markedly altered our view of actin turnover in plants. In this review, we outline current knowledge of host resistance following pathogen perception, both in terms of the genetic interactions that mediate defense signaling, as well as the biochemical and cellular processes that are required for defense signaling.

  18. Defense on multiple fronts: how do plants cope with diverse enemies?

    PubMed

    Maleck; Dietrich

    1999-06-01

    Plants have evolved an array of defense mechanisms to protect themselves against the wide variety of pathogens and pests with which they are confronted. Included in these defense mechanisms are inducible responses that are turned on systemically in the plant in response to attempted infection or predation. The two most studied inducible responses are systemic acquired resistance, which provides enhanced resistance to pathogen infection, and the wound response pathway, resulting in enhanced resistance to insect feeding. Recent research suggests that the two pathways are not completely independent, and the induction of one might affect the expression of the other. However, the evidence for cross-talk between different induced defense response pathways is somewhat confusing, and at times contradictory. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of how the different pathways might interact.

  19. Plant hormone jasmonate prioritizes defense over growth by interfering with gibberellin signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Lei; Yao, Jian; Mei, Chuan-Sheng; Tong, Xiao-Hong; Zeng, Long-Jun; Li, Qun; Xiao, Lang-Tao; Sun, Tai-ping; Li, Jigang; Deng, Xing-Wang; Lee, Chin Mei; Thomashow, Michael F; Yang, Yinong; He, Zuhua; He, Sheng Yang

    2012-05-01

    Plants must effectively defend against biotic and abiotic stresses to survive in nature. However, this defense is costly and is often accompanied by significant growth inhibition. How plants coordinate the fluctuating growth-defense dynamics is not well understood and remains a fundamental question. Jasmonate (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) are important plant hormones that mediate defense and growth, respectively. Binding of bioactive JA or GA ligands to cognate receptors leads to proteasome-dependent degradation of specific transcriptional repressors (the JAZ or DELLA family of proteins), which, at the resting state, represses cognate transcription factors involved in defense (e.g., MYCs) or growth [e.g. phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs)]. In this study, we found that the coi1 JA receptor mutants of rice (a domesticated monocot crop) and Arabidopsis (a model dicot plant) both exhibit hallmark phenotypes of GA-hypersensitive mutants. JA delays GA-mediated DELLA protein degradation, and the della mutant is less sensitive to JA for growth inhibition. Overexpression of a selected group of JAZ repressors in Arabidopsis plants partially phenocopies GA-associated phenotypes of the coi1 mutant, and JAZ9 inhibits RGA (a DELLA protein) interaction with transcription factor PIF3. Importantly, the pif quadruple (pifq) mutant no longer responds to JA-induced growth inhibition, and overexpression of PIF3 could partially overcome JA-induced growth inhibition. Thus, a molecular cascade involving the COI1-JAZ-DELLA-PIF signaling module, by which angiosperm plants prioritize JA-mediated defense over growth, has been elucidated.

  20. Plant pathogenic bacteria target the actin microfilament network involved in the trafficking of disease defense components.

    PubMed

    Jelenska, Joanna; Kang, Yongsung; Greenberg, Jean T

    2014-01-01

    Cells of infected organisms transport disease defense-related molecules along actin filaments to deliver them to their sites of action to combat the pathogen. To accommodate higher demand for intracellular traffic, plant F-actin density increases transiently during infection or treatment of Arabidopsis with pathogen-associated molecules. Many animal and plant pathogens interfere with actin polymerization and depolymerization to avoid immune responses. Pseudomonas syringae, a plant extracellular pathogen, injects HopW1 effector into host cells to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton and reduce vesicle movement in order to elude defense responses. In some Arabidopsis accessions, however, HopW1 is recognized and causes resistance via an actin-independent mechanism. HopW1 targets isoform 7 of vegetative actin (ACT7) that is regulated by phytohormones and environmental factors. We hypothesize that dynamic changes of ACT7 filaments are involved in plant immunity. PMID:25551177

  1. Elucidating induced plant defenses: the use of targeted metabolomics as a bridge from elicitation to response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dynamic plant defense responses to biotic attack involve the perception of specific biochemical elicitors associated with the offending agent, activation of signaling cascades, and the production of small molecules with complex protective roles. Chemical analyses are essential empirical tools for el...

  2. Expression of proteins involved in host plant defense against greenbug infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), has been recognized as a major pest of small grains, including sorghum and wheat. To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant defense against greenbug aphids, a proteomic analysis of greenbug-induced proteins in the seedlings of sorghum...

  3. Changes in plant defense chemistry (pyrrolizidine alkaloids) revealed through high-resolution spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; Macel, Mirka; Schlerf, Martin; Moghaddam, Fatemeh Eghbali; Mulder, Patrick P. J.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2013-06-01

    Plant toxic biochemicals play an important role in defense against natural enemies and often are toxic to humans and livestock. Hyperspectral reflectance is an established method for primary chemical detection and could be further used to determine plant toxicity in the field. In order to make a first step for pyrrolizidine alkaloids detection (toxic defense compound against mammals and many insects) we studied how such spectral data can estimate plant defense chemistry under controlled conditions. In a greenhouse, we grew three related plant species that defend against generalist herbivores through pyrrolizidine alkaloids: Jacobaea vulgaris, Jacobaea erucifolia and Senecio inaequidens, and analyzed the relation between spectral measurements and chemical concentrations using multivariate statistics. Nutrient addition enhanced tertiary-amine pyrrolizidine alkaloids contents of J. vulgaris and J. erucifolia and decreased N-oxide contents in S. inaequidens and J. vulgaris. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids could be predicted with a moderate accuracy. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid forms tertiary-amines and epoxides were predicted with 63% and 56% of the variation explained, respectively. The most relevant spectral regions selected for prediction were associated with electron transitions and Csbnd H, Osbnd H, and Nsbnd H bonds in the 1530 and 2100 nm regions. Given the relatively low concentration in pyrrolizidine alkaloids concentration (in the order of mg g-1) and resultant predictions, it is promising that pyrrolizidine alkaloids interact with incident light. Further studies should be considered to determine if such a non-destructive method may predict changes in PA concentration in relation to plant natural enemies. Spectroscopy may be used to study plant defenses in intact plant tissues, and may provide managers of toxic plants, food industry and multitrophic-interaction researchers with faster and larger monitoring possibilities.

  4. The growth-defense trade-off and habitat specialization by plants in Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul V A; Miller, Zachariah J; Mesones, Italo; Irazuzta, Sebastian; Appel, Heidi M; Stevens, M Henry H; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Schultz, Jack C; Coley, Phyllis D

    2006-07-01

    Tropical forests include a diversity of habitats, which has led to specialization in plants. Near Iquitos, in the Peruvian Amazon, nutrient-rich clay forests surround nutrient-poor white-sand forests, each harboring a unique composition of habitat specialist trees. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of impoverished soils and herbivory creates strong natural selection for plant defenses in white-sand forest, while rapid growth is favored in clay forests. Recently, we reported evidence from a reciprocal-transplant experiment that manipulated the presence of herbivores and involved 20 species from six genera, including phylogenetically independent pairs of closely related white-sand and clay specialists. When protected from herbivores, clay specialists exhibited faster growth rates than white-sand specialists in both habitats. But, when unprotected, white-sand specialists outperformed clay specialists in white-sand habitat, and clay specialists outperformed white-sand specialists in clay habitat. Here we test further the hypothesis that the growth defense trade-off contributes to habitat specialization by comparing patterns of growth, herbivory, and defensive traits in these same six genera of white-sand and clay specialists. While the probability of herbivore attack did not differ between the two habitats, an artificial defoliation experiment showed that the impact of herbivory on plant mortality was significantly greater in white-sand forests. We quantified the amount of terpenes, phenolics, leaf toughness, and available foliar protein for the plants in the experiment. Different genera invested in different defensive strategies, and we found strong evidence for phylogenetic constraint in defense type. Overall, however, we found significantly higher total defense investment for white-sand specialists, relative to their clay specialist congeners. Furthermore, herbivore resistance consistently exhibited a significant trade-off against growth rate in each of

  5. The growth-defense trade-off and habitat specialization by plants in Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Fine, Paul V A; Miller, Zachariah J; Mesones, Italo; Irazuzta, Sebastian; Appel, Heidi M; Stevens, M Henry H; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Schultz, Jack C; Coley, Phyllis D

    2006-07-01

    Tropical forests include a diversity of habitats, which has led to specialization in plants. Near Iquitos, in the Peruvian Amazon, nutrient-rich clay forests surround nutrient-poor white-sand forests, each harboring a unique composition of habitat specialist trees. We tested the hypothesis that the combination of impoverished soils and herbivory creates strong natural selection for plant defenses in white-sand forest, while rapid growth is favored in clay forests. Recently, we reported evidence from a reciprocal-transplant experiment that manipulated the presence of herbivores and involved 20 species from six genera, including phylogenetically independent pairs of closely related white-sand and clay specialists. When protected from herbivores, clay specialists exhibited faster growth rates than white-sand specialists in both habitats. But, when unprotected, white-sand specialists outperformed clay specialists in white-sand habitat, and clay specialists outperformed white-sand specialists in clay habitat. Here we test further the hypothesis that the growth defense trade-off contributes to habitat specialization by comparing patterns of growth, herbivory, and defensive traits in these same six genera of white-sand and clay specialists. While the probability of herbivore attack did not differ between the two habitats, an artificial defoliation experiment showed that the impact of herbivory on plant mortality was significantly greater in white-sand forests. We quantified the amount of terpenes, phenolics, leaf toughness, and available foliar protein for the plants in the experiment. Different genera invested in different defensive strategies, and we found strong evidence for phylogenetic constraint in defense type. Overall, however, we found significantly higher total defense investment for white-sand specialists, relative to their clay specialist congeners. Furthermore, herbivore resistance consistently exhibited a significant trade-off against growth rate in each of

  6. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  7. BcIEB1, a Botrytis cinerea secreted protein, elicits a defense response in plants.

    PubMed

    Frías, Marcos; González, Mario; González, Celedonio; Brito, Nélida

    2016-09-01

    BcIEB1 is a very abundant protein in the secretome of Botrytis cinerea but it has no known function and no similarity to any characterized protein family. Previous results suggested that this protein is an elicitor of the plant defense system. In this work we have generated loss-of-function B. cinerea mutants lacking BcIEB1 and we have expressed the protein in yeast to assay its activity on plants. Analysis of the Δbcieb1 mutants did not result in any observable phenotype, including no difference in the virulence on a variety of hosts. However, when BcIEB1 was applied to plant tissues it produced necrosis as well as a whole range of symptoms: inhibition of seedling growth in Arabidopsis and tobacco, ion leakage from tobacco leaf disks, a ROS burst, cell death and autofluorescence in onion epidermis, as well as the expression of defense genes in tobacco. Moreover, tobacco plants treated with BcIEB1 showed an increased systemic resistance to B. cinerea. A small 35-amino acids peptide derived from a conserved region of BcIEB1 is almost as active on plants as the whole protein. These results clearly indicate that BcIEB1 elicits plant defenses, probably as a consequence of its recognition as a pathogen associated molecular pattern. PMID:27457989

  8. Connecting growth and defense: the emerging roles of brassinosteroids and gibberellins in plant innate immunity.

    PubMed

    De Bruyne, Lieselotte; Höfte, Monica; De Vleesschauwer, David

    2014-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and gibberellins (GAs) are two groups of phytohormones that regulate many common developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle. Fueled by large-scale 'omics' technologies and the burgeoning field of plant computational biology, the past few years have witnessed paradigm-shifting advances in our understanding of how BRs and GA are perceived and their signals transduced. Accumulating evidence also implicates BR and GA in the coordination and integration of plant immune responses. Similarly to other growth regulators, BR and GA play ambiguous roles in molding pathological outcomes, the effects of which may depend not only on the pathogen's lifestyle and infection strategy, but also on specialized features of each interaction. Analysis of the underpinning molecular mechanisms points to a crucial role of GA-inhibiting DELLA proteins and the BR-regulated transcription factor BZR1. Acting at the interface of developmental and defense signaling, these proteins likely serve as central hubs for pathway crosstalk and signal integration, allowing appropriate modulation of plant growth and defense in response to various stimuli. In this review, we outline the latest discoveries dealing with BR and GA modulation of plant innate immunity and highlight interactions between BR and GA signaling, plant defense, and microbial virulence.

  9. The MAP kinase substrate MKS1 is a regulator of plant defense responses.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Erik; Jenkins, Thomas; Brodersen, Peter; Thorgrimsen, Stephan; Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Zhu, Shijiang; Qiu, Jin-Long; Micheelsen, Pernille; Rocher, Anne; Petersen, Morten; Newman, Mari-Anne; Bjørn Nielsen, Henrik; Hirt, Heribert; Somssich, Imre; Mattsson, Ole; Mundy, John

    2005-07-20

    Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) functions as a regulator of pathogen defense responses, because it is required for both repression of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent resistance and for activation of jasmonate (JA)-dependent defense gene expression. To understand MPK4 signaling mechanisms, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to identify the MPK4 substrate MKS1. Analyses of transgenic plants and genome-wide transcript profiling indicated that MKS1 is required for full SA-dependent resistance in mpk4 mutants, and that overexpression of MKS1 in wild-type plants is sufficient to activate SA-dependent resistance, but does not interfere with induction of a defense gene by JA. Further yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that MKS1 interacts with the WRKY transcription factors WRKY25 and WRKY33. WRKY25 and WRKY33 were shown to be in vitro substrates of MPK4, and a wrky33 knockout mutant was found to exhibit increased expression of the SA-related defense gene PR1. MKS1 may therefore contribute to MPK4-regulated defense activation by coupling the kinase to specific WRKY transcription factors.

  10. Use of Arabidopsis thaliana defense-related mutants to dissect the plant response to pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Ausubel, F M; Katagiri, F; Mindrinos, M; Glazebrook, J

    1995-01-01

    The plant defense response to microbial pathogens had been studied primarily by using biochemical and physiological techniques. Recently, several laboratories have developed a variety of pathosystems utilizing Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host so that genetic analysis could also be used to study plant defense responses. Utilizing a pathosystem that involves the infection of Arabidopsis with pathogenic pseudomonads, we have cloned the Arabidopsis disease-resistance gene RPS2, which corresponds to the avirulence gene avrRpt2 in a gene-for-gene relationship. RPS2 encodes a 105-kDa protein containing a leucine zipper, a nucleotide binding site, and 14 imperfect leucine-rich repeats. The RPS2 protein is remarkably similar to the product of the tobacco N gene, which confers resistance to tobacco mosaic virus. We have also isolated a series of Arabidopsis mutants that synthesize decreased levels of an Arabidopsis phytoalexin called camalexin. Analysis of these mutants indicated that camalexin does not play a significant role in limiting growth of avirulent Pseudomonas syringae strains during the hypersensitive defense response but that it may play a role in limiting the growth of virulent strains. More generally, we have shown that we can utilize Arabidopsis to systematically dissect the defense response by isolation and characterization of appropriate defense-related mutants. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7753782

  11. Plant vaccination: stimulation of defense system by caffeine production in planta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun-Soo; Choi, Yong-Eui; Sano, Horishi

    2010-05-01

    Plants produce up to 100,000 secondary metabolites. One of their biological functions is self-denfese, and it is referred as chemical defense, directly and/or indirectly counteracting biotic and abiotic stresses. Alkaloids constitute 12% of total secondary metabolites, and some of them exhibit detrimental effects on living organisms. Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a member of purine alkaloids, and its exogenous application to plants at relatively high concentrations (0.01-0.1%) effectively repelled herbivores and pathogenic microbes. This allowed the construction of transgenic crops that endogenously produce caffeine to tolerate stresses. Experimentally, tobacco and chrysanthemum were successfully transformed with three distinct N-methyltranferases involved in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway. They produced 0.4-5 mug caffeine/g tissue (5 x 10(-4)%), this being three magnitudes lower than values found in caffeine-producing plants and in vitro experiments. Nevertheless, they exhibited strong repellence against pest insects, and high resistance to virus and bacterial infection. They also exhibited accelerated self-defense, as estimated by constitutive expression of defense-related genes, and by elevated production of salicylic acid, a critical signaling molecule for defense response. Since caffeine content was low in transgenic lines, observed effects might not be direct, but rather indirect. We presume that, as endogenously produced caffeine could be toxic, the host plants activated its own self-defense system, which commonly occurs regarding other stresses. Eventually the host became on standby to cope with a broad range of biotic stresses. The procedure resembles mammalian vaccination, in which antigen-antibody system is critical. We propose that plants can also be vaccinated as far as proper "antigenic" chemicals are expressed in planta.

  12. Unmasking host and microbial strategies in the Agrobacterium-plant defense tango

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Elizabeth E.; Wang, Melinda B.; Bravo, Janis E.; Banta, Lois M.

    2015-01-01

    Coevolutionary forces drive adaptation of both plant-associated microbes and their hosts. Eloquently captured in the Red Queen Hypothesis, the complexity of each plant–pathogen relationship reflects escalating adversarial strategies, but also external biotic and abiotic pressures on both partners. Innate immune responses are triggered by highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, that are harbingers of microbial presence. Upon cell surface receptor-mediated recognition of these pathogen-derived molecules, host plants mount a variety of physiological responses to limit pathogen survival and/or invasion. Successful pathogens often rely on secretion systems to translocate host-modulating effectors that subvert plant defenses, thereby increasing virulence. Host plants, in turn, have evolved to recognize these effectors, activating what has typically been characterized as a pathogen-specific form of immunity. Recent data support the notion that PAMP-triggered and effector-triggered defenses are complementary facets of a convergent, albeit differentially regulated, set of immune responses. This review highlights the key players in the plant’s recognition and signal transduction pathways, with a focus on the aspects that may limit Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection and the ways it might overcome those defenses. Recent advances in the field include a growing appreciation for the contributions of cytoskeletal dynamics and membrane trafficking to the regulation of these exquisitely tuned defenses. Pathogen counter-defenses frequently manipulate the interwoven hormonal pathways that mediate host responses. Emerging systems-level analyses include host physiological factors such as circadian cycling. The existing literature indicates that varying or even conflicting results from different labs may well be attributable to environmental factors including time of day of infection, temperature, and/or developmental stage of the host plant. PMID:25873923

  13. Evolution of mixed strategies of plant defense allocation against natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Fornoni, Juan; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Rausher, Mark D

    2004-08-01

    In this study we present a simple optimization model for the evolution of defensive strategies (tolerance and resistance) of plants against their natural enemies. The model specifically evaluates the consequences of introducing variable costs and benefits of tolerance and resistance and nonlinear cost-and-benefit functions for tolerance and resistance. Incorporating these assumptions, the present model of plant defense predicts different evolutionary scenarios, not expected by previous work. Basically, the presence of an adaptive peak corresponding to intermediate levels of allocation to tolerance and resistance can arise when the shape parameter of the cost function is higher than the corresponding of the benefit function. The presence of two alternatives peaks of maximum tolerance and maximum resistance occurs only when benefits of tolerance and resistance interact less than additive. Finally, the presence of one peak of maximum resistance or maximum tolerance depends on the relative values of the magnitude of costs for tolerance and resistance. An important outcome of our model is that under a plausible set of conditions, variable costs of tolerance and resistance can represent an important aspect involved in the maintenance of intermediate levels of tolerance and resistance, and in favoring adaptive divergence in plant defensive strategies among populations. The model offers a framework for future theoretical and empirical work toward understanding spatial variation in levels of allocation to different defensive strategies. PMID:15446423

  14. Rewiring of jasmonate and phytochrome B signalling uncouples plant growth-defense tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marcelo L; Yoshida, Yuki; Major, Ian T; de Oliveira Ferreira, Dalton; Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Froehlich, John E; Johnson, Brendan F; Kramer, David M; Jander, Georg; Sharkey, Thomas D; Howe, Gregg A

    2016-01-01

    Plants resist infection and herbivory with innate immune responses that are often associated with reduced growth. Despite the importance of growth-defense tradeoffs in shaping plant productivity in natural and agricultural ecosystems, the molecular mechanisms that link growth and immunity are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth-defense tradeoffs mediated by the hormone jasmonate are uncoupled in an Arabidopsis mutant (jazQ phyB) lacking a quintet of Jasmonate ZIM-domain transcriptional repressors and the photoreceptor phyB. Analysis of epistatic interactions between jazQ and phyB reveal that growth inhibition associated with enhanced anti-insect resistance is likely not caused by diversion of photoassimilates from growth to defense but rather by a conserved transcriptional network that is hardwired to attenuate growth upon activation of jasmonate signalling. The ability to unlock growth-defense tradeoffs through relief of transcription repression provides an approach to assemble functional plant traits in new and potentially useful ways. PMID:27573094

  15. Does investment in leaf defenses drive changes in leaf economic strategy? A focus on whole-plant ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2015-04-01

    Leaf defenses have long been studied in the context of plant growth rate, resource availability, and optimal investment theory. Likewise, one of the central modern paradigms of plant ecophysiology, the leaf economics spectrum (LES), has been extensively studied in the context of these factors across ecological scales ranging from global species data sets to temporal shifts within individuals. Despite strong physiological links between LES strategy and leaf defenses in structure, function, and resource investment, the relationship between these trait classes has not been well explored. This study investigates the relationship between leaf defenses and LES strategy across whole-plant ontogeny in three diverse Helianthus species known to exhibit dramatic ontogenetic shifts in LES strategy, focusing primarily on physical and quantitative chemical defenses. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions and sampled for LES and defense traits at four ontogenetic stages. Defenses were found to shift strongly with ontogeny, and to correlate strongly with LES strategy. More advanced ontogenetic stages with more conservative LES strategy leaves had higher tannin activity and toughness in all species, and higher leaf dry matter content in two of three species. Modeling results in two species support the conclusion that changes in defenses drive changes in LES strategy through ontogeny, and in one species that changes in defenses and LES strategy are likely independently driven by ontogeny. Results of this study support the hypothesis that leaf-level allocation to defenses might be an important determinant of leaf economic traits, where high investment in defenses drives a conservative LES strategy.

  16. The role of NDR1 in pathogen perception and plant defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Knepper, Caleb; Savory, Elizabeth A; Day, Brad

    2011-08-01

    The biochemical and cellular function of NDR1 in plant immunity and defense signaling has long remained elusive. Herein, we describe a novel role for NDR1 in both pathogen perception and plant defense signaling, elucidated by exploring a broader, physiological role for NDR1 in general stress responses and cell wall adhesion. Based on our predictive homology modeling, coupled with a structure-function approach, we found that NDR1 shares a striking similarity to mammalian integrins, well-characterized for their role in mediating the interaction between the extracellular matrix and stress signaling. ndr1-1 mutant plants exhibit higher electrolyte leakage following pathogen infection, compared to wild type Col-0. In addition, we observed an altered plasmolysis phenotype, supporting a role for NDR1 in maintaining cell wall-plasma membrane adhesions through mediating fluid loss under stress.  PMID:21758001

  17. Synthetic Ultrashort Cationic Lipopeptides Induce Systemic Plant Defense Responses against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens ▿

    PubMed Central

    Brotman, Yariv; Makovitzki, Arik; Shai, Yechiel; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada

    2009-01-01

    A new family of synthetic, membrane-active, ultrashort lipopeptides composed of only four amino acids linked to fatty acids was tested for the ability to induce systemic resistance and defense responses in plants. We found that two peptides wherein the third residue is a d-enantiomer (italic), C16-KKKK and C16-KLLK, can induce medium alkalinization of tobacco suspension-cultured cells and expression of defense-related genes in cucumber and Arabidopsis seedlings. Moreover, these compounds can prime systemic induction of antimicrobial compounds in cucumber leaves similarly to the plant-beneficial fungus Trichoderma asperellum T203 and provide systemic protection against the phytopathogens Botrytis cinerea B05, Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans, and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Thus, short cationic lipopeptides are a new category of compounds with potentially high utility in the induction of systemic resistance in plants. PMID:19542326

  18. Manipulation of Host Quality and Defense by a Plant Virus Improves Performance of Whitefly Vectors.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi; Preisser, Evan L; Zhou, Xiao Mao; Xie, Wen; Liu, Bai Ming; Wang, Shao Li; Wu, Qing Jun; Zhang, You Jun

    2015-02-01

    Pathogen-mediated interactions between insect vectors and their host plants can affect herbivore fitness and the epidemiology of plant diseases. While the role of plant quality and defense in mediating these tripartite interactions has been recognized, there are many ecologically and economically important cases where the nature of the interaction has yet to be characterized. The Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) cryptic species Mediterranean (MED) is an important vector of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and performs better on virus-infected tomato than on uninfected controls. We assessed the impact of TYLCV infection on plant quality and defense, and the direct impact of TYLCV infection on MED feeding. We found that although TYLCV infection has a minimal direct impact on MED, the virus alters the nutritional content of leaf tissue and phloem sap in a manner beneficial to MED. TYLCV infection also suppresses herbivore-induced production of plant defensive enzymes and callose deposition. The strongly positive net effect on TYLCV on MED is consistent with previously reported patterns of whitefly behavior and performance, and provides a foundation for further exploration of the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects and the evolutionary processes that shape them. PMID:26470098

  19. Defense signaling among interconnected ramets of a rhizomatous clonal plant, induced by jasmonic-acid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin-Song; Lei, Ning-Fei; Liu, Qing

    2011-07-01

    Resource sharing between ramets of clonal plants is a well-known phenomenon that allows stoloniferous and rhizomatous species to internally transport water, mineral nutrients and carbohydrates from sites of high supply to sites of high demand. Moreover, vascular ramet connections are likely to provide an excellent means to share substances other than resources, such as defense signals. In a greenhouse experiment, the rhizomatous sedge Carex alrofusca, consisting of integrated ramets of different ages, was used to study the transmission of defense signals through belowground rhizome connections in response to local spray with jasmonic-acid. A feeding preference test with the caterpillar Gynaephora rnenyuanensis was employed to assess benefits of rhizome connections on defense signaling. Young ramets were more responsive to jasmonic-acid treatment than middle-aged or old ramets. Condensed tannin content in the foliage of young ramets showed a significant increase and soluble carbohydrate and nitrogen content showed marginally significant decreases in the 1 mM jasmonic-acid treatment but not in control and/or 0.0001 mM jasmonic-acid treatments. The caterpillar G. rnenyuanensis preferentially grazed young ramets. After a localized spray of 1 mM jasmonic-acid, the leaf area of young ramets consumed by herbivores was greatly reduced. We propose that defense signals may be transmitted through physical connections (stolon or rhizome) among interconnected ramets of clonal plants. Induced resistance to herbivory may selectively enhance the protection of more vulnerable and valuable plant tissues and confer a significant benefit to clonal plants by a modular risk-spreading strategy, equalizing ontogenetic differences of unevenly-aged ramets in chemical defense compounds and nutritional properties of tissue.

  20. Arabidopsis sigma factor binding proteins are activators of the WRKY33 transcription factor in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Lai, Zhibing; Li, Ying; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Yuan; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2011-10-01

    Necrotrophic pathogens are important plant pathogens that cause many devastating plant diseases. Despite their impact, our understanding of the plant defense response to necrotrophic pathogens is limited. The WRKY33 transcription factor is important for plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens; therefore, elucidation of its functions will enhance our understanding of plant immunity to necrotrophic pathogens. Here, we report the identification of two WRKY33-interacting proteins, nuclear-encoded SIGMA FACTOR BINDING PROTEIN1 (SIB1) and SIB2, which also interact with plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase SIGMA FACTOR1. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain an N-terminal chloroplast targeting signal and a putative nuclear localization signal, suggesting that they are dual targeted. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation indicates that WRKY33 interacts with SIBs in the nucleus of plant cells. Both SIB1 and SIB2 contain a short VQ motif that is important for interaction with WRKY33. The two VQ motif-containing proteins recognize the C-terminal WRKY domain and stimulate the DNA binding activity of WRKY33. Like WRKY33, both SIB1 and SIB2 are rapidly and strongly induced by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Resistance to B. cinerea is compromised in the sib1 and sib2 mutants but enhanced in SIB1-overexpressing transgenic plants. These results suggest that dual-targeted SIB1 and SIB2 function as activators of WRKY33 in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens.

  1. Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    PubMed

    War, Abdul Rashid; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-11-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense.

  2. Beta-aminobutyric acid priming of plant defense: the role of ABA and other hormones.

    PubMed

    Baccelli, Ivan; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Plants are exposed to recurring biotic and abiotic stresses that can, in extreme situations, lead to substantial yield losses. With the changing environment, the stress pressure is likely to increase and sustainable measures to alleviate the effect on our crops are sought. Priming plants for better stress resistance is one of the sustainable possibilities to reach this goal. Here, we report on the effects of beta-aminobutyric acid, a priming agent with an exceptionally wide range of action and describe its way of preparing plants to defend themselves against various attacks, among others through the modulation of their hormonal defense signaling, and highlight the special role of abscisic acid in this process.

  3. LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Wan, Jinrong; Stacey, Gary; Stacey, Minviluz; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2013-10-15

    Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

  4. LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens

    DOEpatents

    Wan, Jinrong; Stacey, Gary; Stacey, Minviluz; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2012-01-17

    Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

  5. Pathogen-induced accumulation of an ellagitannin elicits plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Mamaní, Alicia; Filippone, María Paula; Grellet, Carlos; Welin, Björn; Castagnaro, Atilio Pedro; Ricci, Juan Carlos Díaz

    2012-11-01

    In an incompatible interaction between Colletotrichum fragariae and strawberry plants, the accumulation of phenolic compounds in plant leaves was observed. A particularly abundant penta-esterified ellagitannin that accumulated in response to pathogen attack was identified as 1-0-galloyl-2,3;4,6-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-β-d-glucopyranose (HeT) by mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance. Foliar application of purified HeT prior to inoculation with a virulent pathogen was shown to increase resistance toward C. acutatum in strawberry plants and to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in lemon plants. The induced resistance in strawberry was associated with a rapid oxidative burst, callose deposition, a transient increase of salicylic acid in phloem, and induction of gene expression responsive to salicylic acid. Results obtained suggested that HeT could be a common plant defense response molecule capable of inducing pathogen resistance in different plant species. PMID:22934564

  6. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  7. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Olivia L.; Padula, Matthew P.; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a “beneficial substance”. This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  8. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels.

  9. Ralstonia solanacearum Extracellular Polysaccharide Is a Specific Elicitor of Defense Responses in Wilt-Resistant Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Milling, Annett; Babujee, Lavanya; Allen, Caitilyn

    2011-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum, which causes bacterial wilt of diverse plants, produces copious extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), a major virulence factor. The function of EPS in wilt disease is uncertain. Leading hypotheses are that EPS physically obstructs plant water transport, or that EPS cloaks the bacterium from host plant recognition and subsequent defense. Tomato plants infected with R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 strain UW551 and tropical strain GMI1000 upregulated genes in both the ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) defense signal transduction pathways. The horizontally wilt-resistant tomato line Hawaii7996 activated expression of these defense genes faster and to a greater degree in response to R. solanacearum infection than did susceptible cultivar Bonny Best. However, EPS played different roles in resistant and susceptible host responses to R. solanacearum. In susceptible plants the wild-type and eps− mutant strains induced generally similar defense responses. But in resistant Hawaii7996 tomato plants, the wild-type pathogens induced significantly greater defense responses than the eps− mutants, suggesting that the resistant host recognizes R. solanacearum EPS. Consistent with this idea, purified EPS triggered significant SA pathway defense gene expression in resistant, but not in susceptible, tomato plants. In addition, the eps− mutant triggered noticeably less production of defense-associated reactive oxygen species in resistant tomato stems and leaves, despite attaining similar cell densities in planta. Collectively, these data suggest that bacterial wilt-resistant plants can specifically recognize EPS from R. solanacearum. PMID:21253019

  10. Sterol-dependent induction of plant defense responses by a microbe-associated molecular pattern from Trichoderma viride.

    PubMed

    Sharfman, Miya; Bar, Maya; Schuster, Silvia; Leibman, Meirav; Avni, Adi

    2014-02-01

    Plant-microbe interactions involve numerous regulatory systems essential for plant defense against pathogens. An ethylene-inducing xylanase (Eix) of Trichoderma viride is a potent elicitor of plant defense responses in specific cultivars of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). We demonstrate that tomato cyclopropyl isomerase (SlCPI), an enzyme involved in sterol biosynthesis, interacts with the LeEix2 receptor. Moreover, we examined the role of SlCPI in signaling during the LeEix/Eix defense response. We found that SlCPI is an important factor in the regulation of the induction of defense responses such as the hypersensitive response, ethylene biosynthesis, and the induction of pathogenesis-related protein expression in the case of LeEix/Eix. Our results also suggest that changes in the sterol composition reduce LeEix internalization, thereby attenuating the induction of plant defense responses. PMID:24351686

  11. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  12. Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage

    PubMed Central

    Savatin, Daniel V.; Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Cervone, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to agents such as herbivores and environmental mechanical stresses that cause wounding and open the way to the invasion by microbial pathogens. Wounding provides nutrients to pathogens and facilitates their entry into the tissue and subsequent infection. Plants have evolved constitutive and induced defense mechanisms to properly respond to wounding and prevent infection. The constitutive defenses are represented by physical barriers, i.e., the presence of cuticle or lignin, or by metabolites that act as toxins or deterrents for herbivores. Plants are also able to sense the injured tissue as an altered self and induce responses similar to those activated by pathogen infection. Endogenous molecules released from wounded tissue may act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) that activate the plant innate immunity. Wound-induced responses are both rapid, such as the oxidative burst and the expression of defense-related genes, and late, such as the callose deposition, the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and of hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., chitinases and gluganases). Typical examples of DAMPs involved in the response to wounding are the peptide systemin, and the oligogalacturonides, which are oligosaccharides released from the pectic component of the cell wall. Responses to wounding take place both at the site of damage (local response) and systemically (systemic response) and are mediated by hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid. PMID:25278948

  13. Molecular insights into mechanisms of lepidopteran serine proteinase resistance to natural plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Terra, Walter R

    2015-11-27

    Plants have a wide range of chemical defenses against predation, including substances that target digestive serine proteinases of herbivorous. Previous works demonstrated that lepidopteran insects have digestive serine proteinases resistant to plant proteinase inhibitors (PPIs) and ketone modifications, while coleopteran ones are sensitive to those plant defenses. This paper focuses on molecular aspects that lead lepidopteran serine proteinases to PPI and ketone modification resistance. Using biochemical experiments and computer 3D modeling we demonstrated that lepidopteran trypsins are more hydrophobic than coleopteran ones, a feature associated to trypsin oligomerization and decreased inhibition by PPI. Moreover, the determination of pKa values of chymotrypsin catalytic residues obtained by TPCK modification indicates that the environment around the active site of ketone-resistant and -sensitive chymotrypsins are different. Structural analysis using resistant and sensitive chymotrypsins data allowed us to point 2 hotspot regions around the active site that could explain the observed differences. Our set of results highlights features of serine proteinases important for understanding the resistance of insects to plant chemical defenses.

  14. Wounding in the plant tissue: the defense of a dangerous passage.

    PubMed

    Savatin, Daniel V; Gramegna, Giovanna; Modesti, Vanessa; Cervone, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to agents such as herbivores and environmental mechanical stresses that cause wounding and open the way to the invasion by microbial pathogens. Wounding provides nutrients to pathogens and facilitates their entry into the tissue and subsequent infection. Plants have evolved constitutive and induced defense mechanisms to properly respond to wounding and prevent infection. The constitutive defenses are represented by physical barriers, i.e., the presence of cuticle or lignin, or by metabolites that act as toxins or deterrents for herbivores. Plants are also able to sense the injured tissue as an altered self and induce responses similar to those activated by pathogen infection. Endogenous molecules released from wounded tissue may act as Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) that activate the plant innate immunity. Wound-induced responses are both rapid, such as the oxidative burst and the expression of defense-related genes, and late, such as the callose deposition, the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors and of hydrolytic enzymes (i.e., chitinases and gluganases). Typical examples of DAMPs involved in the response to wounding are the peptide systemin, and the oligogalacturonides, which are oligosaccharides released from the pectic component of the cell wall. Responses to wounding take place both at the site of damage (local response) and systemically (systemic response) and are mediated by hormones such as jasmonic acid, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid.

  15. How does the foraging behavior of large herbivores cause different associational plant defenses?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Zeng, De-Hui; Liu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The attractant-decoy hypothesis predicts that focal plants can defend against herbivory by neighboring with preferred plant species when herbivores make decisions at the plant species scale. The repellent-plant hypothesis assumes that focal plants will gain protection by associating with nonpreferred neighbors when herbivores are selective at the patch scale. However, herbivores usually make foraging decisions at these scales simultaneously. The net outcomes of the focal plant vulnerability could depend on the spatial scale at which the magnitude of selectivity by the herbivores is stronger. We quantified and compared the within- and between-patch overall selectivity index (OSI) of sheep to examine the relationships between associational plant effects and herbivore foraging selectivity. We found that the sheep OSI was stronger at the within- than the between-patch scale, but focal plant vulnerability followed both hypotheses. Focal plants defended herbivory with preferred neighbors when the OSI difference between the two scales was large. Focal plants gained protection with nonpreferred neighbors when the OSI difference was narrowed. Therefore, the difference in selectivity by the herbivores between the relevant scales results in different associational plant defenses. Our study suggests important implications for understanding plant-herbivore interactions and grassland management. PMID:26847834

  16. Microbial community induces a plant defense system under growing on the lunar regolith analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaetz, Irina; Mytrokhyn, Olexander; Lukashov, Dmitry; Mashkovska, Svitlana; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The lunar rock considered as a potential source of chemical elements essential for plant nutrition, however, this substrate is of a low bioavailability. The use of microorganisms for decomposition of silicate rocks and stimulation of plant growth is a key idea in precursory scenario of growing pioneer plants for a lunar base (Kozyrovska et al., 2004; 2006; Zaetz et al., 2006). In model experiments a consortium of well-defined plant-associated bacteria were used for growing of French marigold (Tagetes patula L.) in anorthosite, analogous to a lunar rock. Inoculated plants appeared better seed germination, more fast development and also increased accumulation of K, Mg, Mn, Co, Cu and lowered level of the toxic Zn, Ni, Cr, comparing to control tagetes'. Bacteria regulate metal homeostasis in plants by changing their bioavailability and by stimulating of plant defense mechanisms. Inoculated plants were being accommodated to growth under stress conditions on anorthosite used as a substrate. In contrast, control plants manifested a heavy metal-induced oxidative stress, as quantified by protein carbonyl accumulation. Depending on the plant organ sampled and developmental stage there were increases or loses in the antioxidant enzyme activities (guaiacol peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase). These changes were most evident in inoculated plants. Production of phenolic compounds, known as antioxidants and heavy metal chelators, is rised in variants of inoculated marigolds. Guaiacol peroxidase plays the main role, finally, in a reducing toxicity of heavy metals in plant leaves, while glutathione-S-transferase and phenolics overcome stress in roots.

  17. A Specialist Herbivore Uses Chemical Camouflage to Overcome the Defenses of an Ant-Plant Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Susan R.; Reid, Ellen; Sapp, Joseph; Poveda, Katja; Royer, Anne M.; Posto, Amanda L.; Kessler, André

    2014-01-01

    Many plants and ants engage in mutualisms where plants provide food and shelter to the ants in exchange for protection against herbivores and competitors. Although several species of herbivores thwart ant defenses and extract resources from the plants, the mechanisms that allow these herbivores to avoid attack are poorly understood. The specialist insect herbivore, Piezogaster reclusus (Hemiptera: Coreidae), feeds on Neotropical bull-horn acacias (Vachellia collinsii) despite the presence of Pseudomyrmex spinicola ants that nest in and aggressively defend the trees. We tested three hypotheses for how P. reclusus feeds on V. collinsii while avoiding ant attack: (1) chemical camouflage via cuticular surface compounds, (2) chemical deterrence via metathoracic defense glands, and (3) behavioral traits that reduce ant detection or attack. Our results showed that compounds from both P. reclusus cuticles and metathoracic glands reduce the number of ant attacks, but only cuticular compounds appear to be essential in allowing P. reclusus to feed on bull-horn acacia trees undisturbed. In addition, we found that ant attack rates to P. reclusus increased significantly when individuals were transferred between P. spinicola ant colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chemical mimicry of colony-specific ant or host plant odors plays a key role in allowing P. reclusus to circumvent ant defenses and gain access to important resources, including food and possibly enemy-free space. This interaction between ants, acacias, and their herbivores provides an excellent example of the ability of herbivores to adapt to ant defenses of plants and suggests that herbivores may play an important role in the evolution and maintenance of mutualisms. PMID:25047551

  18. NPP1, a Phytophthora-associated trigger of plant defense in parsley and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fellbrich, Guido; Romanski, Annette; Varet, Anne; Blume, Beatrix; Brunner, Frédéric; Engelhardt, Stefan; Felix, Georg; Kemmerling, Birgit; Krzymowska, Magdalena; Nürnberger, Thorsten

    2002-11-01

    Activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense against attempted microbial infection is mediated through the recognition of pathogen-derived elicitors. Previously, we have identified a peptide fragment (Pep-13) within a 42-kDa cell wall transglutaminase from various Phytophthora species that triggers a multifacetted defense response in parsley cells. Many of these oomycete species have now been shown to possess another cell wall protein (24 kDa), that evoked the same pattern of responses in parsley as Pep-13. Unlike Pep-13, necrosis-inducing Phytophthora protein 1 (NPP1) purified from P. parasitica also induced hypersensitive cell death-like lesions in parsley. NPP1 structural homologs were found in oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria, but not in plants. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the intact protein as well as two cysteine residues to be essential for elicitor activity. NPP1-mediated activation of pathogen defense in parsley does not employ the Pep-13 receptor. However, early induced cellular responses implicated in elicitor signal transmission (increased levels of cytoplasmic calcium, production of reactive oxygen species, MAP kinase activation) were stimulated by either elicitor, suggesting the existence of converging signaling pathways in parsley. Infiltration of NPP1 into leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 plants resulted in transcript accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, production of ROS and ethylene, callose apposition, and HR-like cell death. NPP1-mediated induction of the PR1 gene is salicylic acid-dependent, and, unlike the P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000(avrRpm1)-induced PR1 gene expression, requires both functional NDR1 and PAD4. In summary, Arabidopsis plants infiltrated with NPP1 constitute an experimental system that is amenable to forward genetic approaches aiming at the dissection of signaling pathways implicated in the activation of non-cultivar-specific plant defense.

  19. Arabidopsis Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Key Roles of Melatonin in Plant Defense Systems

    PubMed Central

    Weeda, Sarah; Zhang, Na; Zhao, Xiaolei; Ndip, Grace; Guo, Yangdong; Buck, Gregory A.; Fu, Conggui; Ren, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exists across kingdoms including plant species. Studies on melatonin in plants have mainly focused on its physiological influence on growth and development, and on its biosynthesis. Much less attention has been drawn to its affect on genome-wide gene expression. To comprehensively investigate the role(s) of melatonin at the genomics level, we utilized mRNA-seq technology to analyze Arabidopsis plants subjected to a 16-hour 100 pM (low) and 1 mM (high) melatonin treatment. The expression profiles were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes. 100 pM melatonin treatment significantly affected the expression of only 81 genes with 51 down-regulated and 30 up-regulated. However, 1 mM melatonin significantly altered 1308 genes with 566 up-regulated and 742 down-regulated. Not all genes altered by low melatonin were affected by high melatonin, indicating different roles of melatonin in regulation of plant growth and development under low and high concentrations. Furthermore, a large number of genes altered by melatonin were involved in plant stress defense. Transcript levels for many stress receptors, kinases, and stress-associated calcium signals were up-regulated. The majority of transcription factors identified were also involved in plant stress defense. Additionally, most identified genes in ABA, ET, SA and JA pathways were up-regulated, while genes pertaining to auxin responses and signaling, peroxidases, and those associated with cell wall synthesis and modifications were mostly down-regulated. Our results indicate critical roles of melatonin in plant defense against various environmental stresses, and provide a framework for functional analysis of genes in melatonin-mediated signaling pathways. PMID:24682084

  20. Arabidopsis transcriptome analysis reveals key roles of melatonin in plant defense systems.

    PubMed

    Weeda, Sarah; Zhang, Na; Zhao, Xiaolei; Ndip, Grace; Guo, Yangdong; Buck, Gregory A; Fu, Conggui; Ren, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule and exists across kingdoms including plant species. Studies on melatonin in plants have mainly focused on its physiological influence on growth and development, and on its biosynthesis. Much less attention has been drawn to its affect on genome-wide gene expression. To comprehensively investigate the role(s) of melatonin at the genomics level, we utilized mRNA-seq technology to analyze Arabidopsis plants subjected to a 16-hour 100 pM (low) and 1 mM (high) melatonin treatment. The expression profiles were analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes. 100 pM melatonin treatment significantly affected the expression of only 81 genes with 51 down-regulated and 30 up-regulated. However, 1 mM melatonin significantly altered 1308 genes with 566 up-regulated and 742 down-regulated. Not all genes altered by low melatonin were affected by high melatonin, indicating different roles of melatonin in regulation of plant growth and development under low and high concentrations. Furthermore, a large number of genes altered by melatonin were involved in plant stress defense. Transcript levels for many stress receptors, kinases, and stress-associated calcium signals were up-regulated. The majority of transcription factors identified were also involved in plant stress defense. Additionally, most identified genes in ABA, ET, SA and JA pathways were up-regulated, while genes pertaining to auxin responses and signaling, peroxidases, and those associated with cell wall synthesis and modifications were mostly down-regulated. Our results indicate critical roles of melatonin in plant defense against various environmental stresses, and provide a framework for functional analysis of genes in melatonin-mediated signaling pathways.

  1. Defense mechanisms of Solanum tuberosum L. in response to attack by plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Poiatti, Vera A D; Dalmas, Fernando R; Astarita, Leandro V

    2009-01-01

    The natural resistance of plants to disease is based not only on preformed mechanisms, but also on induced mechanisms. The defense mechanisms present in resistant plants may also be found in susceptible ones. This study attempted to analyze the metabolic alterations in plants of the potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agata that were inoculated with the incompatible plant-pathogenic bacteria X. axonopodis and R. solanacearum, and the compatible bacterium E. carotovora. Levels of total phenolic compounds, including the flavonoid group, and the activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) were evaluated. Bacteria compatibility was evaluated by means of infiltration of tubers. The defense response was evaluated in the leaves of the potato plants. Leaves were inoculated depending on their number and location on the stem. Multiple-leaf inoculation was carried out on basal, intermediate, and apical leaves, and single inoculations on intermediate leaves. Leaves inoculated with X. axonopodis and with R. solanacearum showed hypersensitive responses within 24 hours post-inoculation, whereas leaves inoculated with E. carotovora showed disease symptoms. Therefore, the R. solanacearum isolate used in the experiments did not exhibit virulence to this potato cultivar. Regardless of the bacterial treatments, the basal leaves showed higher PPO and POX activities and lower levels of total phenolic compounds and flavonoids, compared to the apical leaves. However, basal and intermediate leaves inoculated with R. solanacearum and X. axonopodis showed increases in total phenolic compounds and flavonoid levels. In general, multiple-leaf inoculation showed the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, whereas the single inoculations resulted in the highest increase in PPO activity. The POX activity showed no significant difference between single- and multiple-leaf inoculations. Plants inoculated with E. carotovora showed no significant increase in defense mechanisms

  2. Role of proline and pyrroline-5-carboxylate metabolism in plant defense against invading pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aarzoo; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    Pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) is an intermediate product of both proline biosynthesis and catabolism. Recent evidences indicate that proline-P5C metabolism is tightly regulated in plants, especially during pathogen infection and abiotic stress. However, role of P5C and its metabolism in plants has not yet been fully understood. Studies indicate that P5C synthesized in mitochondria has a role in both resistance (R)-gene-mediated and non-host resistance against invading pathogens. Proline dehydrogenase and delta-ornithine amino transferase-encoding genes, both involved in P5C synthesis in mitochondria are implicated in defense response of Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana against bacterial pathogens. Such defense response is proposed to involve salicylic acid-dependent pathway, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hypersensitive response (HR)-associated cell death. Recently HR, a form of programmed cell death (PCD), has been proposed to be induced by changes in mitochondrial P5C synthesis or the increase in P5C levels per se in plants inoculated with either a host pathogen carrying suitable avirulent (Avr) gene or a non-host pathogen. Consistently, A. thaliana mutant plants deficient in P5C catabolism showed HR like cell death when grown in external P5C or proline supplemented medium. Similarly, yeast and plant cells under oxidative stress were shown to increase ROS production and PCD due to increase in P5C levels. Similar mechanism has also been reported as one of the triggers for apoptosis in mammalian cells. This review critically analyzes results from various studies and enumerates the pathways for regulation of P5C levels in the plant cell, especially in mitochondria, during pathogen infection. Further, mechanisms regulating P5C- mediated defense responses, namely HR are outlined. This review also provides new insights into the differential role of proline-P5C metabolism in plants exposed to pathogen infection. PMID:26217357

  3. Inbreeding compromises host plant defense gene expression and improves herbivore survival.

    PubMed

    Portman, Scott L; Kariyat, Rupesh R; Johnston, Michelle A; Stephenson, Andrew G; Marden, James H

    2015-01-01

    Inbreeding commonly occurs in flowering plants and often results in a decline in the plant's defense response. Insects prefer to feed and oviposit on inbred plants more than outbred plants--suggesting that selecting inbred host plants offers them fitness benefits. Until recently, no studies have examined the effects of host plant inbreeding on insect fitness traits such as growth and dispersal ability. In a recent article, we documented that tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.) larvae that fed on inbred horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) plants exhibited accelerated larval growth and increased adult flight capacity compared to larvae that fed on outbred plants. Here we report that M. sexta mortality decreased by 38.2% when larvae were reared on inbred horsenettle plants compared to larvae reared on outbreds. Additionally, inbred plants showed a notable reduction in the average relative expression levels of lipoxygenease-D (LoxD) and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase-3 (OPR3), two genes in the jasmonic acid signaling pathway that are upregulated in response to herbivore damage. Our study presents evidence that furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism responsible for differences in insect performance on inbred vs. outbred host plants. PMID:26039489

  4. Inbreeding compromises host plant defense gene expression and improves herbivore survival

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Scott L; Kariyat, Rupesh R; Johnston, Michelle A; Stephenson, Andrew G; Marden, James H

    2015-01-01

    Inbreeding commonly occurs in flowering plants and often results in a decline in the plant's defense response. Insects prefer to feed and oviposit on inbred plants more than outbred plants – suggesting that selecting inbred host plants offers them fitness benefits. Until recently, no studies have examined the effects of host plant inbreeding on insect fitness traits such as growth and dispersal ability. In a recent article, we documented that tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta L.) larvae that fed on inbred horsenettle (Solanum carolinense L.) plants exhibited accelerated larval growth and increased adult flight capacity compared to larvae that fed on outbred plants. Here we report that M. sexta mortality decreased by 38.2% when larvae were reared on inbred horsenettle plants compared to larvae reared on outbreds. Additionally, inbred plants showed a notable reduction in the average relative expression levels of LIPOXYGENEASE-D (LoxD) and 12-OXOPHYTODIENOATE REDUCTASE-3 (OPR3), two genes in the jasmonic acid signaling pathway that are upregulated in response to herbivore damage. Our study presents evidence that furthers our understanding of the biochemical mechanism responsible for differences in insect performance on inbred vs. outbred host plants. PMID:26039489

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Statistics Analysis Reveals the Defense Response Mechanism in Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhichao; Zhao, Yunjie; Zeng, Chen; Computational Biophysics Lab Team

    As the main protein of the bacterial flagella, flagellin plays an important role in perception and defense response. The newly discovered locus, FLS2, is ubiquitously expressed. FLS2 encodes a putative receptor kinase and shares many homologies with some plant resistance genes and even with some components of immune system of mammals and insects. In Arabidopsis, FLS2 perception is achieved by the recognition of epitope flg22, which induces FLS2 heteromerization with BAK1 and finally the plant immunity. Here we use both analytical methods such as Direct Coupling Analysis (DCA) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulations to get a better understanding of the defense mechanism of FLS2. This may facilitate a redesign of flg22 or de-novo design for desired specificity and potency to extend the immune properties of FLS2 to other important crops and vegetables.

  6. Hormone crosstalk in plant disease and defense: more than just jasmonate-salicylate antagonism.

    PubMed

    Robert-Seilaniantz, Alexandre; Grant, Murray; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, most studies on the role of hormones in plant-pathogen interactions focused on salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene (ET). It is now clear that pathogen-induced modulation of signaling via other hormones contributes to virulence. A picture is emerging of complex crosstalk and induced hormonal changes that modulate disease and resistance, with outcomes dependent on pathogen lifestyles and the genetic constitution of the host. Recent progress has revealed intriguing similarities between hormone signaling mechanisms, with gene induction responses often achieved by derepression. Here, we report on recent advances, updating current knowledge on classical defense hormones SA, JA, and ET, and the roles of auxin, abscisic acid (ABA), cytokinins (CKs), and brassinosteroids in molding plant-pathogen interactions. We highlight an emerging theme that positive and negative regulators of these disparate hormone signaling pathways are crucial regulatory targets of hormonal crosstalk in disease and defense.

  7. Pinoresinol: A lignol of plant origin serving for defense in a caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Frank C; del Campo, Marta L; Grant, Jacqualine B; Weibel, Douglas B; Smedley, Scott R; Bolton, Kelly L; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Thomas

    2006-10-17

    Pinoresinol, a lignan of wide distribution in plants, is found to occur as a minor component in the defensive secretion produced by glandular hairs of caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. The compound or a derivative is appropriated by the larva from its normal food plant (the cabbage, Brassica oleracea). Pinoresinol was shown to be absent from the secretion if the larva was given a cabbage-free diet but present in the effluent if that diet was supplemented with pinoresinol. Pinoresinol is shown to be a feeding deterrent to ants (Formica exsectoides), indicating that it can complement the defensive action of the primary components of the secretion, a set of previously reported lipids called mayolenes. In the test with F. exsectoides, pinoresinol proved to be more potent than concomitantly tested mayolene-16.

  8. Induction of defense responses in common bean plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, G M; El-Haddad, S A; Hafez, E E; Rashad, Y M

    2011-05-20

    Interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a bio-agent and Rhizoctonia root rot disease of common bean plant was investigated in this study under natural conditions in pot experiment. A mixture of Egyptian formulated AM (Multi-VAM) in suspension form (1 × 10(6) unit L(-1) in concentration) was used at dilution of 5 ml L(-1) water. The results demonstrated that colonization of bean plants with AM fungi significantly increased growth parameters, yield parameters and mineral nutrient concentrations and reduced the negative effects on these parameters as well as both disease severity and disease incidence. Different physical and biochemical mechanisms have been shown to play a role in enhancement of plant resistance against Rhizoctonia solani, namely, improved plant nutrition, improved plant growth, increase in cell wall thickening, cytoplasmic granulation, and accumulation of some antimicrobial substances (phenolic compounds and defense related enzymes).

  9. Programmed cell death in plants: a pathogen-triggered response activated coordinately with multiple defense functions.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, J T; Guo, A; Klessig, D F; Ausubel, F M

    1994-05-20

    In plants, the hypersensitive response (HR) to pathogens involves rapid cell death, which is hypothesized to arise from the activation of a cell death program. We describe mutant A. thaliana plants that contain lesions in a single accelerated cell death (ACD) gene called ACD2 and that bypass the need for pathogen exposure to induce the HR. acd2 plants that develop spontaneous lesions show typical HR characteristics both within the necrotic tissue and within the healthy part of the plant, including: modification of plant cell walls, resistance to bacterial pathogens, and accumulation of defense-related gene transcripts, the signal molecule salicylic acid and an antimicrobial compound. We propose that the ACD2 gene is involved in a pathway(s) that negatively regulates a genetically programmed HR.

  10. Salicylic Acid, a Plant Defense Hormone, Is Specifically Secreted by a Molluscan Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Kästner, Julia; von Knorre, Dietrich; Himanshu, Himanshu; Erb, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Meldau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Slugs and snails are important herbivores in many ecosystems. They differ from other herbivores by their characteristic mucus trail. As the mucus is secreted at the interface between the plants and the herbivores, its chemical composition may play an essential role in plant responses to slug and snail attack. Based on our current knowledge about host-manipulation strategies employed by pathogens and insects, we hypothesized that mollusks may excrete phytohormone-like substances into their mucus. We therefore screened locomotion mucus from thirteen molluscan herbivores for the presence of the plant defense hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). We found that the locomotion mucus of one slug, Deroceras reticulatum, contained significant amounts of SA, a plant hormone that is known to induce resistance to pathogens and to suppress plant immunity against herbivores. None of the other slugs and snails contained SA or any other hormone in their locomotion mucus. When the mucus of D. reticulatum was applied to wounded leaves of A. thaliana, the promotor of the SA-responsive gene pathogenesis related 1 (PR1) was activated, demonstrating the potential of the mucus to regulate plant defenses. We discuss the potential ecological, agricultural and medical implications of this finding. PMID:24466122

  11. Interplays between Soil-Borne Plant Viruses and RNA Silencing-Mediated Antiviral Defense in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Andika, Ida Bagus; Kondo, Hideki; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions. RNA silencing is an important innate defense mechanism to combat virus infection in plants, but the specific information on the activities and molecular mechanism of RNA silencing-mediated viral defense in root tissue is still limited. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding RNA silencing aspects of the interactions between soil-borne viruses and host plants. Overall, research evidence suggests that soil-borne viruses have evolved to adapt to the distinct mechanism of antiviral RNA silencing in roots.

  12. Interplays between Soil-Borne Plant Viruses and RNA Silencing-Mediated Antiviral Defense in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Andika, Ida Bagus; Kondo, Hideki; Sun, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of plant viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors and invade the host plants through the aerial parts, there is a considerable number of plant viruses that infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors such as plasmodiophorids, chytrids, and nematodes. These soil-borne viruses belong to diverse families, and many of them cause serious diseases in major crop plants. Thus, roots are important organs for the life cycle of many viruses. Compared to shoots, roots have a distinct metabolism and particular physiological characteristics due to the differences in development, cell composition, gene expression patterns, and surrounding environmental conditions. RNA silencing is an important innate defense mechanism to combat virus infection in plants, but the specific information on the activities and molecular mechanism of RNA silencing-mediated viral defense in root tissue is still limited. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding RNA silencing aspects of the interactions between soil-borne viruses and host plants. Overall, research evidence suggests that soil-borne viruses have evolved to adapt to the distinct mechanism of antiviral RNA silencing in roots. PMID:27695446

  13. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  14. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  15. Priming by Rhizobacterium Protects Tomato Plants from Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogen Infections through Multiple Defense Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Il-Pyung; Lee, Sang-Woo; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul

    2011-01-01

    A selected strain of rhizobacterium, Pseudomonas putida strain LSW17S (LSW17S), protects tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. cv. Seokwang) from bacterial speck by biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (DC3000) and bacterial wilt by necrotrophic Ralstonia solanacearum KACC 10703 (Rs10703). To investigate defense mechanisms induced by LSW17S in tomato plants, transcription patterns of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes and H2O2 production were analyzed in plants treated with LSW17S and subsequent pathogen inoculation. LSW17S alone did not induce transcriptions of employed PR genes in leaves and roots. DC3000 challenge following LSW17S triggered rapid transcriptions of PR genes and H2O2 production in leaves and roots. Catalase infiltration with DC3000 attenuated defense-related responses and resistance against DC3000 infection. Despite depriving H2O2 production and PR1b transcription by the same treatment, resistance against Rs10703 infection was not deterred significantly. H2O2 is indispensable for defense signaling and/or mechanisms primed by LSW17S and inhibition of bacterial speck, however, it is not involved in resistance against bacterial wilt. PMID:21710203

  16. Diel trends in plant sensitivity to ozone: Toward parameterization of the defense component of effective flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantz, D. A.; Vu, H.; Heath, R. L.; Burkey, K.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) injury to vegetation can be conceptually divided into three stages: 1) O3 entrance into the leaf including fractionation of stomatal vs. non-stomatal deposition; 2) O3 overcoming initial metabolic defenses within individual leaves, and 3) oxidant attack by O3 or derivatives on bioreceptors to produce injury. Ozone deposition at canopy scale and uptake at leaf scale are routinely obtained by observational and modeling techniques (Massman and Grantz, 1995). Injury can be assessed experimentally. However, predictive association between ozone concentration or flux and injury is currently not well characterized. This is due to uncertainties in rates and capacities of ozone detoxification, the nature of plant defense mechanisms, and their temporal (diel and seasonal) variability (Heath et al., 2009; Massman et al., 2000). We have developed a plant sensitivity parameter (SO3) relating injury (I) to the sum of O3 flux and photon flux density (FO3 + PPFD) during exposure. By restricting leaf exposure to O3 to a brief (15 min) pulse, we assess passive defense mechanisms, assuming that the pulse duration provides insufficient time for induction of additional (active) defense capacity during exposure. Greenhouse grown Pima cotton was exposed in chambers to pulsed O3 at a range of concentrations, stomatal conductance was measured directly pre- and post-exposure, and injury was assessed 1 week later using several indicators. SO3, determined at 2 hour intervals, exhibited clear diel trends, with maximal sensitivity shortly after solar noon, and minimal sensitivity early and late in the photoperiod. This diel pattern of SO3 did not support suggestions that plant defense is correlated with instantaneous photosynthetic rate. There was only weak correlation between SO3 and whole leaf ascorbate, ascorbate redox poise, or total antioxidant capacity, though future measurements of apoplastic antioxidants may improve these relationships. The parameter, SO3, may be directly

  17. Rhamnolipid Biosurfactants as New Players in Animal and Plant Defense against Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Vatsa, Parul; Sanchez, Lisa; Clement, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Rhamnolipids are known as very efficient biosurfactant molecules. They are used in a wide range of industrial applications including food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical formulations and bioremediation of pollutants. The present review provides an overview of the effect of rhamnolipids in animal and plant defense responses. We describe the current knowledge on the stimulation of plant and animal immunity by these molecules, as well as on their direct antimicrobial properties. Given their ecological acceptance owing to their low toxicity and biodegradability, rhamnolipids have the potential to be useful molecules in medicine and to be part of alternative strategies in order to reduce or replace pesticides in agriculture. PMID:21614194

  18. Systemic Acquired Resistance in Moss: Further Evidence for Conserved Defense Mechanisms in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Peter S.; Bowman, Collin E.; Villani, Philip J.; Dolan, Thomas E.; Hauck, Nathanael R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular plants possess multiple mechanisms for defending themselves against pathogens. One well-characterized defense mechanism is systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In SAR, a plant detects the presence of a pathogen and transmits a signal throughout the plant, inducing changes in the expression of various pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. Once SAR is established, the plant is capable of mounting rapid responses to subsequent pathogen attacks. SAR has been characterized in numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species; however, despite several pieces of evidence suggesting SAR may also exist in non-vascular plants6–8, its presence in non-vascular plants has not been conclusively demonstrated, in part due to the lack of an appropriate culture system. Here, we describe and use a novel culture system to demonstrate that the moss species Amblystegium serpens does initiate a SAR-like reaction upon inoculation with Pythium irregulare, a common soil-borne oomycete. Infection of A. serpens gametophores by P. irregulare is characterized by localized cytoplasmic shrinkage within 34 h and chlorosis and necrosis within 7 d of inoculation. Within 24 h of a primary inoculation (induction), moss gametophores grown in culture became highly resistant to infection following subsequent inoculation (challenge) by the same pathogen. This increased resistance was a response to the pathogen itself and not to physical wounding. Treatment with β-1,3 glucan, a structural component of oomycete cell walls, was equally effective at triggering SAR. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that this important defense mechanism exists in a non-vascular plant, and, together with previous studies, suggest that SAR arose prior to the divergence of vascular and non-vascular plants. In addition, this novel moss – pathogen culture system will be valuable for future characterization of the mechanism of SAR in moss, which is necessary for a better understanding of the evolutionary history of SAR

  19. Plant defense phenotypes determine the consequences of volatile emission for individuals and neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Meredith C; Allmann, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Plants are at the trophic base of terrestrial ecosystems, and the diversity of plant species in an ecosystem is a principle determinant of community structure. This may arise from diverse functional traits among species. In fact, genetic diversity within species can have similarly large effects. However, studies of intraspecific genetic diversity have used genotypes varying in several complex traits, obscuring the specific phenotypic variation responsible for community-level effects. Using lines of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata genetically altered in specific well-characterized defense traits and planted into experimental populations in their native habitat, we investigated community-level effects of trait diversity in populations of otherwise isogenic plants. We conclude that the frequency of defense traits in a population can determine the outcomes of these traits for individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that some ecosystem-level services afforded by genetically diverse plant populations could be recaptured in intensive monocultures engineered to be functionally diverse. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04490.001 PMID:25873033

  20. Photosynthesis in desiccation tolerant plants: energy metabolism and antioxidative stress defense.

    PubMed

    Dinakar, Challabathula; Djilianov, Dimitar; Bartels, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Resurrection plants are regarded as excellent models to study the mechanisms associated with desiccation tolerance. During the past years tremendous progress has been made in understanding the phenomenon of desiccation tolerance in resurrection plants, but many questions are open concerning the mechanisms enabling these plants to survive desiccation. The photosynthetic apparatus is very sensitive to reactive oxygen species mediated injury during desiccation and must be maintained or quickly repaired upon rehydration. The photosynthetic apparatus is a primary source of generating reactive oxygen species. The unique ability of plants to withstand the oxidative stress imposed by reactive oxygen species during desiccation depends on the production of antioxidants. The present review considers the overall strategies and the mechanisms involved in the desiccation tolerance in the first part and will focus on the effects on photosynthesis, energy metabolism and antioxidative stress defenses in the second part.

  1. Stress defense mechanisms of NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Cha, Joon-Yung; Barman, Dhirendra Nath; Kim, Min Gab; Kim, Woe-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Plants establish highly and systemically organized stress defense mechanisms against unfavorable living conditions. To interpret these environmental stimuli, plants possess communication tools, referred as secondary messengers, such as Ca(2+) signature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) wave. Maintenance of ROS is an important event for whole lifespan of plants, however, in special cases, toxic ROS molecules are largely accumulated under excess stresses and diverse enzymes played as ROS scavengers. Arabidopsis and rice contain 3 NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs) which transfer reducing power to Thioredoxin/Peroxiredoxin (Trx/Prx) system for scavenging ROS. However, due to functional redundancy between cytosolic and mitochondrial NTRs (NTRA and NTRB, respectively), their functional involvements under stress conditions have not been well characterized. Recently, we reported that cytosolic NTRA confers the stress tolerance against oxidative and drought stresses via regulation of ROS amounts using NTRA-overexpressing plants. With these findings, mitochondrial NTRB needs to be further elucidated.

  2. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    PubMed

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation. PMID:27107260

  3. Pectinous cell wall thickenings formation - A common defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb.

    PubMed

    Krzesłowska, Magdalena; Rabęda, Irena; Basińska, Aneta; Lewandowski, Michał; Mellerowicz, Ewa J; Napieralska, Anna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Woźny, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Lead, one of the most abundant and hazardous trace metals affecting living organisms, has been commonly detected in plant cell walls including some tolerant plants, mining ecotypes and hyperaccumulators. We have previously shown that in tip growing Funaria sp. protonemata cell wall is remodeled in response to lead by formation of thickenings rich in low-methylesterified pectins (pectin epitope JIM5 - JIM5-P) able to bind metal ions, which accumulate large amounts of Pb. Hence, it leads to the increase of cell wall capacity for Pb compartmentalization. Here we show that diverse plant species belonging to different phyla (Arabidopsis, hybrid aspen, star duckweed), form similar cell wall thickenings in response to Pb. These thickenings are formed in tip growing cells such as the root hairs, and in diffuse growing cells such as meristematic and root cap columella cells of root apices in hybrid aspen and Arabidopsis and in mesophyll cells in star duckweed fronds. Notably, all analyzed cell wall thickenings were abundant in JIM5-P and accumulated high amounts of Pb. In addition, the co-localization of JIM5-P and Pb commonly occurred in these cells. Hence, cell wall thickenings formed the extra compartment for Pb accumulation. In this way plant cells increased cell wall capacity for compartmentalization of this toxic metal, protecting protoplast from its toxicity. As cell wall thickenings occurred in diverse plant species and cell types differing in the type of growth we may conclude that pectinous cell wall thickenings formation is a widespread defense strategy of plants to cope with Pb. Moreover, detection of natural defense strategy, increasing plant cell walls capacity for metal accumulation, reveals a promising direction for enhancing plant efficiency in phytoremediation.

  4. Plant Aquaporin AtPIP1;4 Links Apoplastic H2O2 Induction to Disease Immunity Pathways1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shan; Wang, Xiaobing; Li, Ping; Wang, Hao; Ji, Hongtao; Xie, Junyi; Qiu, Qinglei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a stable component of reactive oxygen species, and its production in plants represents the successful recognition of pathogen infection and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This production of H2O2 is typically apoplastic but is subsequently associated with intracellular immunity pathways that regulate disease resistance, such as systemic acquired resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity. Here, we elucidate that an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) aquaporin (i.e. the plasma membrane intrinsic protein AtPIP1;4) acts to close the cytological distance between H2O2 production and functional performance. Expression of the AtPIP1;4 gene in plant leaves is inducible by a bacterial pathogen, and the expression accompanies H2O2 accumulation in the cytoplasm. Under de novo expression conditions, AtPIP1;4 is able to mediate the translocation of externally applied H2O2 into the cytoplasm of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells. In plant cells treated with H2O2, AtPIP1;4 functions as an effective facilitator of H2O2 transport across plasma membranes and mediates the translocation of externally applied H2O2 from the apoplast to the cytoplasm. The H2O2-transport role of AtPIP1;4 is essentially required for the cytoplasmic import of apoplastic H2O2 induced by the bacterial pathogen and two typical PAMPs in the absence of induced production of intracellular H2O2. As a consequence, cytoplasmic H2O2 quantities increase substantially while systemic acquired resistance and PAMP-triggered immunity are activated to repress the bacterial pathogenicity. By contrast, loss-of-function mutation at the AtPIP1;4 gene locus not only nullifies the cytoplasmic import of pathogen- and PAMP-induced apoplastic H2O2 but also cancels the subsequent immune responses, suggesting a pivotal role of AtPIP1;4 in apocytoplastic signal transduction in immunity pathways. PMID:26945050

  5. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants' susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants.

  6. A novel protein elicitor (SsCut) from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum induces multiple defense responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huajian; Wu, Qun; Cao, Shun; Zhao, Tongyao; Chen, Ling; Zhuang, Peitong; Zhou, Xiuhong; Gao, Zhimou

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we report the cloning of the SsCut gene encoding cutinase from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We isolated a 609-bp cDNA encoding a polypeptide of 202 amino acids with a molecular weight of 20.4 kDa. Heterologous expression of SsCut in Escherichia coli (His-SsCut) caused the formation of lesions in tobacco that closely resembled hypersensitive response lesions. Mutational analysis identified the C-terminal-half peptide and the same amino acids indispensable for both enzyme and elicitor activity. His-SsCut was caused cell death in Arabidopsis, soybean (Glycine max), oilseed rape (Brassica napus), rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum), indicating that both dicot and monocot species are responsive to the elicitor. Furthermore, the elicitation of tobacco was effective in the induction of the activities of hydrogen peroxide, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxides, and polyphenol oxidase. His-SsCut-treated plants exhibited enhanced resistance as indicated by a significant reduction in the number and size of S. sclerotiorum, Phytophthora sojae, and P. nicotianae lesions on leaves relative to controls. Real-time PCR results indicated that the expression of defense-related genes and genes involved in signal transduction were induced by His-SsCut. Our results demonstrate that SsCut is an elicitor that triggers defense responses in plants and will help to clarify its relationship to downstream signaling pathways that induce defense responses.

  7. Adaptive evolution of threonine deaminase in plant defense against insect herbivores

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Howe, Gregg A.

    2011-11-07

    Gene duplication is a major source of plant chemical diversity that mediates plant-herbivore interactions. There is little direct evidence, however, that novel chemical traits arising from gene duplication reduce herbivory. Higher plants use threonine deaminase (TD) to catalyze the dehydration of threonine (Thr) to {alpha}-ketobutyrate and ammonia as the committed step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine (Ile). Cultivated tomato and related Solanum species contain a duplicated TD paralog (TD2) that is coexpressed with a suite of genes involved in herbivore resistance. Analysis of TD2-deficient tomato lines showed that TD2 has a defensive function related to Thr catabolism in the gut of lepidopteran herbivores. During herbivory, the regulatory domain of TD2 is removed by proteolysis to generate a truncated protein (pTD2) that efficiently degrades Thr without being inhibited by Ile. We show that this proteolytic activation step occurs in the gut of lepidopteran but not coleopteran herbivores, and is catalyzed by a chymotrypsin-like protease of insect origin. Analysis of purified recombinant enzymes showed that TD2 is remarkably more resistant to proteolysis and high temperature than the ancestral TD1 isoform. The crystal structure of pTD2 provided evidence that electrostatic interactions constitute a stabilizing feature associated with adaptation of TD2 to the extreme environment of the lepidopteran gut. These findings demonstrate a role for gene duplication in the evolution of a plant defense that targets and co-opts herbivore digestive physiology.

  8. Bemisia tabaci Q carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus strongly suppresses host plant defenses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively. Only viruliferous B had higher fecundity on viruliferous Q-infested plants than on control plants. The longevity of viruliferous B showed the same phenomenon. At 1 d infestion, the jasmonic acid content in leaves noninfested and in leaves infested with nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous B and viruliferous Q was 407.000, 281.333, 301.333, 266.667 and 134.000 ng/g FW, respectively. The JA content was lowest in viruliferous Q-infested leaves. The proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of JA-related upstream gene LOX and downstream gene PI II showed the same trend. The substantial suppression of host defenses by Q carrying TYLCV probably enhances the spread of Q and TYLCV in China. PMID:24912756

  9. Bemisia tabaci Q carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus strongly suppresses host plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaobin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhang, Hongyi; Jiao, Xiaoguo; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Fang, Yong; Chen, Gong; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous Q and viruliferous B was 11.080, 12.060, 10.760, and 11.220 respectively on plants previously attacked by the other biotype, however, on their respective noninfested control leaves fecundity was 12.000, 10.880, 9.760, and 8.020 respectively. Only viruliferous B had higher fecundity on viruliferous Q-infested plants than on control plants. The longevity of viruliferous B showed the same phenomenon. At 1 d infestion, the jasmonic acid content in leaves noninfested and in leaves infested with nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q, viruliferous B and viruliferous Q was 407.000, 281.333, 301.333, 266.667 and 134.000 ng/g FW, respectively. The JA content was lowest in viruliferous Q-infested leaves. The proteinase inhibitor activity and expression of JA-related upstream gene LOX and downstream gene PI II showed the same trend. The substantial suppression of host defenses by Q carrying TYLCV probably enhances the spread of Q and TYLCV in China. PMID:24912756

  10. Chlorophyllase 1, a Damage Control Enzyme, Affects the Balance between Defense Pathways in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Kariola, Tarja; Brader, Günter; Li, Jing; Palva, E. Tapio

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is central to plant response to several pathogens. One of the sources of ROS is the chloroplast because of the photoactive nature of the chlorophylls. Chlorophyllase 1 (encoded by AtCLH1) of Arabidopsis thaliana is quickly induced after tissue damage (e.g., caused by the bacterial necrotroph Erwinia carotovora or the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola). RNA interference silencing of AtCLH1 resulted in failure to degrade free chlorophyll after tissue damage and in resistance to E. carotovora. Both inoculation with E. carotovora and exposure to high light caused elevated accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in AtCLH1 silenced plants. This was accompanied by expression of marker genes for systemic acquired resistance and induction of antioxidant defenses. Interestingly, downregulation of AtCLH1 resulted in increased susceptibility to A. brassicicola, resistance to which requires jasmonate signaling. We propose that AtCLH1 is involved in plant damage control and can modulate the balance between different plant defense pathways. PMID:15598807

  11. Fertility, root reserves and the cost of inducible defenses in the perennial plant Solanum carolinense.

    PubMed

    Walls, Ramona; Appel, Heidi; Cipollini, Martin; Schultz, Jack

    2005-10-01

    We examined the relationship between internal resources (root reserves), external resources (soil fertility), and allocation to defense vs. growth in the clonal, perennial herb Solanum carolinense. In a short-term (9 d) greenhouse experiment, plants were treated once with jasmonic acid (JA) to determine if polyphenols and glycoalkaloids were inducible by simulated herbivory. In a longer-term (4 wk) greenhouse experiment, we measured the cost, in terms of growth, of treatment with JA every 3 d, to determine if the induced response was due more to carbon limitation or nitrogen limitation. We manipulated the resources available to the plants by varying soil fertility and the size of root cuttings from which plants were grown, and assessed how different resource levels affected the growth and production of polyphenols and alkaloids under JA treatment or control conditions. In the short term, JA increased the concentration of polyphenols in both above- and below-ground plant parts, as well as alkaloid concentrations in the roots. In the long term, the only significant secondary chemistry response to JA was an increased polyphenol concentration in above ground tissues. The total amount of polyphenols produced was the same for JA and control plants, indicating that the higher concentration was a result of the lower biomass of treated plants. In contrast, alkaloid concentrations in plants treated with JA for 4 wk did not differ from controls, but JA-treated plants contained lower total amounts of alkaloids in above ground tissues, as a result of decreased growth. Fertilizer level and root cutting size had effects on growth and the production of secondary compounds and influenced the cost of induction. Plants grown under high fertility had a greater reduction in growth in response to JA than plants grown under low fertility, indicating a greater trade-off between growth and defense for high fertility plants. Plants from larger root cuttings grew bigger without any reduction

  12. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Li, Guiping; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number of egg masses in tomato roots after RKN infection and partially alleviated RKN-induced decreases in plant fresh weight and net photosynthetic rate. These molecules also alleviated RKN-induced increases in root electrolyte leakage and membrane peroxidation. Importantly, NO scavenger partially inhibited JA-induced RKN defense. The pharmacological inhibition of JA biosynthesis significantly increased the plants’ susceptibility to RKNs, which was effectively alleviated by SNP application, showing that NO may be involved in the JA-dependent RKN defense pathway. Furthermore, both JA and SNP induced increases in protease inhibitor 2 (PI2) gene expression after RKN infestation. Silencing of PI2 compromised both JA- and SNP-induced RKN defense responses, suggesting that the PI2 gene mediates JA- and NO-induced defense against RKNs. This work will be important for deepening the understanding of the mechanisms involved in basal defense against RKN attack in plants. PMID:25914698

  13. Latitudinal patterns in plant defense: evolution of cardenolides, their toxicity and induction following herbivory.

    PubMed

    Rasmann, Sergio; Agrawal, Anurag A

    2011-05-01

    Attempts over the past 50 years to explain variation in the abundance, distribution and diversity of plant secondary compounds gave rise to theories of plant defense. Remarkably, few phylogenetically robust tests of these long-standing theories have been conducted. Using >50 species of milkweed (Asclepias spp.), we show that variation among plant species in the induction of toxic cardenolides is explained by latitude, with higher inducibility evolving more frequently at lower latitudes. We also found that: (1) the production of cardenolides showed positive-correlated evolution with the diversity of cardenolides, (2) greater cardenolide investment by a species is accompanied by an increase in an estimate of toxicity (measured as chemical polarity) and (3) instead of trading off, constitutive and induced cardenolides were positively correlated. Analyses of root and shoot cardenolides showed concordant patterns. Thus, milkweed species from lower latitudes are better defended with higher inducibility, greater diversity and added toxicity of cardenolides. PMID:21371232

  14. A mixture of peptides and sugars derived from plant cell walls increases plant defense responses to stress and attenuates ageing-associated molecular changes in cultured skin cells.

    PubMed

    Apone, Fabio; Tito, Annalisa; Carola, Antonietta; Arciello, Stefania; Tortora, Assunta; Filippini, Lucio; Monoli, Irene; Cucchiara, Mirna; Gibertoni, Simone; Chrispeels, Maarten J; Colucci, Gabriella

    2010-02-15

    Small peptides and aminoacid derivatives have been extensively studied for their effect of inducing plant defense responses, and thus increasing plant tolerance to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Similarly to plants, these compounds can activate different signaling pathways in mammalian skin cells as well, leading to the up-regulation of anti-aging specific genes. This suggests the existence of analogous defense response mechanisms, well conserved both in plants and animal cells. In this article, we describe the preparation of a new mixture of peptides and sugars derived from the chemical and enzymatic digestion of plant cell wall glycoproteins. We investigate the multiple roles of this product as potential "biostimulator" to protect plants from abiotic stresses, and also as potential cosmeceutical. In particular, the molecular effects of the peptide/sugar mixture of inducing plant defense responsive genes and protecting cultured skin cells from oxidative burst damages were deeply evaluated.

  15. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed Central

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Janssens, Ivan A.; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including “all” papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  16. Stimulating natural defenses in poplar clones (OP-367) increases plant metabolism of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Ferrieri, Abigail P; Thorpe, Michael R; Ferrieri, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) presents a health risk as a potential carcinogen and pollutant that is capable of depleting the ozone layer. Although use of poplar trees in a phytoremediation capacity has proven to be cost effective for cleaning contaminated sites, minimizing leaf emission of volatile contaminants remains a pressing issue. We hypothesized that recently fixed carbon plays a key role in CCl4 metabolism in planta yielding nonvolatile trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and that the extent of this metabolism can be altered by heightening plant defenses. Labeling intact leaves with (11)CO2 (t 1/2 20.4 m) can test this hypothesis, because the extremely short half-life of the tracer reflects only those processes involving recently fixed carbon. Using radio-HPLC analysis, we observed [(11)C]TCA from leaf extract from poplar clones (OP-367) whose roots were exposed to a saturated solution of CCl4 (520 ppm). Autoradiography of [(11)C]photosynthate showed increased leaf export and partitioning to the apex within 24 h of CCl4 exposure, suggesting that changes in plant metabolism and partitioning of recently fixed carbon occur rapidly. Additionally, leaf CCl4 emissions were highest in the morning, when carbon pools are low, suggesting a link between contaminant metabolism and leaf carbon utilization. Further, treatment with methyljasmonate, a plant hormone implicated in defense signal transduction, reduced leaf CCl4 emissions two-fold due to the increased formation of TCA.

  17. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    PubMed

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity.

  18. Disentangling effects of induced plant defenses and food quantity on herbivores by fitting nonlinear models.

    PubMed

    Morris, W F

    1997-09-01

    Plants can respond to herbivore damage through both broad-scale (systemic) and localized induced responses. While many studies have quantified the impact of systemic responses on herbivores, measuring the impact of localized changes is difficult because plant tissues that have suffered direct damage may represent both a lower quality and a lower quantity of food. This article uses nonlinear models to disentangle the confounding effects of prior herbivory on food quantity and quality. The first (null) model assumes that herbivore performance is determined only by the quantity of food available to an average herbivore. Modified models allow two distinct effects of damage-induced defenses: an increase in the amount of food each herbivore is required to consume in order to achieve maximum performance and a reduction in the maximum performance even when herbivores are fed ad lib. Maximum likelihood methods were used to fit the models to data from field experiments in which Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae were reared on three varieties of potatoes that had been damaged to varying degrees by adult beetles. Prior damage reduced the mean mass of beetles at pupation, and this effect was due to both a decrease in food quantity and induced changes in food quality. In contrast, beetle survival was affected in some cases by reduced food quantity but showed no responses that could be attributed to induced defenses. I discuss this result in the context of previous studies of induced (mostly systemic) responses in the potato-potato beetle system, and I suggest that detailed studies of particular chemical responses and the proposed method of combining bioassays with quantitative models should be used as complementary approaches in future studies of herbivore-induced defenses in plants.

  19. Field Evaluation of Plant Defense Inducers for the Control of Citrus Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyun; Trivedi, Pankaj; Wang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently the most economically devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no established cure is available. Defense inducing compounds are able to induce plant resistance effective against various pathogens. In this study the effects of various chemical inducers on HLB diseased citrus were evaluated in four groves (three with sweet orange and one with mandarin) in Florida (United States) for two to four consecutive growing seasons. Results have demonstrated that plant defense inducers including β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (BTH), and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA), individually or in combination, were effective in suppressing progress of HLB disease. Ascorbic acid (AA) and the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DDG) also exhibited positive control effects on HLB. After three or four applications for each season, the treatments AA (60 to 600 µM), BABA (0.2 to 1.0 mM), BTH (1.0 mM), INA (0.1 mM), 2-DDG (100 µM), BABA (1.0 mM) plus BTH (1.0 mM), BTH (1.0 mM) plus AA (600 µM), and BTH (1.0 mM) plus 2-DDG (100 µM) slowed down the population growth in planta of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', the putative pathogen of HLB and reduced HLB disease severity by approximately 15 to 30% compared with the nontreated control, depending on the age and initial HLB severity of infected trees. These treatments also conferred positive effect on fruit yield and quality. Altogether, these findings indicate that plant defense inducers may be a useful strategy for the management of citrus HLB.

  20. Expression proteomics identifies biochemical adaptations and defense responses in transgenic plants with perturbed polyamine metabolism.

    PubMed

    Franceschetti, Marina; Perry, Barry; Thompson, Benjamin; Hanfrey, Colin; Michael, Anthony J

    2004-10-22

    Soluble proteins from leaves of transgenic tobacco plants with perturbed polyamine metabolism, caused by S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase overexpression, were analysed by comparative proteomics. A group of proteins was found to be increasingly repressed, in parallel with the degree of polyamine perturbation, in each of the three independent transgenic lines. These were identified as isoforms of chloroplast ribonucleoproteins, known to be involved in chloroplast mRNA stability, processing and translation. Another group of eight proteins strongly induced in the most metabolically perturbed line was identified as multiple, uncharacterised isoforms of the defense protein PR-1, a known marker for systemic acquired resistance.

  1. S-glycoprotein-like protein regulates defense responses in Nicotiana plants against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Maimbo, Milimo; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Kiba, Akinori

    2010-04-01

    RsRGA4 (for Ralstonia solanacearum-responsive gene A4) encodes a polypeptide similar to S-locus glycoprotein (SGP) from Brassica rapa and SGP-like proteins from Ipomoea trifida and Medicago truncatula. Therefore, we designated RsRGA4 as NtSGLP (for Nicotiana tabacum SGP-like protein) and NbSGLP (its Nicotiana benthamiana ortholog). NbSGLP is expressed in root, leaf, petal, gynoecium, and stamen. Expression of NbSGLP was strongly induced by inoculation with an avirulent strain of R. solanacearum (Rs8107) and slightly enhanced by inoculation with virulent R. solanacearum (RsOE1-1). Expression of NbSGLP was induced by inoculation with an hrpY-deficient mutant of RsOE1-1 and Rs8107. Expression was also induced by aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid and salicylic acid. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbSGLP enhanced the growth of Rs8107. Growth of RsOE1-1 and appearance of wilt symptoms were also accelerated in silenced plants. Expression of PR-1a and EREBP was reduced, and markers for basal defense, such as callose deposition and reduced vascular flow, were compromised in NbSGLP-silenced plants. Moreover, growth of Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci, and P. syringae pv mellea was also enhanced in the silenced plants. On the other hand, silencing of NbSGLP did not interfere with the appearance of the hypersensitive response. NbSGLP was secreted in a signal peptide-dependent manner. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated expression of NbSGLP induced PR-1a and EREBP expression, callose deposition, and reduced vascular flow. NbSGLP-induced callose deposition and reduced vascular flow were not observed in salicylic acid-deficient N. benthamiana NahG plants. Taken together, SGLP might have a role in the induction of basal defense in Nicotiana plants.

  2. S-glycoprotein-like protein regulates defense responses in Nicotiana plants against Ralstonia solanacearum.

    PubMed

    Maimbo, Milimo; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hikichi, Yasufumi; Yoshioka, Hirofumi; Kiba, Akinori

    2010-04-01

    RsRGA4 (for Ralstonia solanacearum-responsive gene A4) encodes a polypeptide similar to S-locus glycoprotein (SGP) from Brassica rapa and SGP-like proteins from Ipomoea trifida and Medicago truncatula. Therefore, we designated RsRGA4 as NtSGLP (for Nicotiana tabacum SGP-like protein) and NbSGLP (its Nicotiana benthamiana ortholog). NbSGLP is expressed in root, leaf, petal, gynoecium, and stamen. Expression of NbSGLP was strongly induced by inoculation with an avirulent strain of R. solanacearum (Rs8107) and slightly enhanced by inoculation with virulent R. solanacearum (RsOE1-1). Expression of NbSGLP was induced by inoculation with an hrpY-deficient mutant of RsOE1-1 and Rs8107. Expression was also induced by aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid and salicylic acid. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbSGLP enhanced the growth of Rs8107. Growth of RsOE1-1 and appearance of wilt symptoms were also accelerated in silenced plants. Expression of PR-1a and EREBP was reduced, and markers for basal defense, such as callose deposition and reduced vascular flow, were compromised in NbSGLP-silenced plants. Moreover, growth of Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas syringae pv tabaci, and P. syringae pv mellea was also enhanced in the silenced plants. On the other hand, silencing of NbSGLP did not interfere with the appearance of the hypersensitive response. NbSGLP was secreted in a signal peptide-dependent manner. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated expression of NbSGLP induced PR-1a and EREBP expression, callose deposition, and reduced vascular flow. NbSGLP-induced callose deposition and reduced vascular flow were not observed in salicylic acid-deficient N. benthamiana NahG plants. Taken together, SGLP might have a role in the induction of basal defense in Nicotiana plants. PMID:20118275

  3. Promoting Students' Conceptual Understanding of Plant Defense Responses Using the Fighting Plant Learning Unit (FPLU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2012-01-01

    Most students think animals are more interesting than plants as a study topic believing that plants are inferior to animals because they are passive and unable to respond to external challenges, particularly biological invaders such as microorganisms and insect herbivores. The purpose of this study was to develop an inquiry-based learning unit,…

  4. Plant-associated bacteria degrade defense chemicals and reduce their adverse effects on an insect defoliator.

    PubMed

    Mason, Charles J; Couture, John J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2014-07-01

    Phytophagous insects must contend with numerous secondary defense compounds that can adversely affect their growth and development. The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) is a polyphagous herbivore that encounters an extensive range of hosts and chemicals. We used this folivore and a primary component of aspen chemical defenses, namely, phenolic glycosides, to investigate if bacteria detoxify phytochemicals and benefit larvae. We conducted insect bioassays using bacteria enriched from environmental samples, analyses of the microbial community in the midguts of bioassay larvae, and in vitro phenolic glycoside metabolism assays. Inoculation with bacteria enhanced larval growth in the presence, but not absence, of phenolic glycosides in the artificial diet. This effect of bacteria on growth was observed only in larvae administered bacteria from aspen foliage. The resulting midgut community composition varied among the bacterial treatments. When phenolic glycosides were included in diet, the composition of midguts in larvae fed aspen bacteria was significantly altered. Phenolic glycosides increased population responses by bacteria that we found able to metabolize these compounds in liquid growth cultures. Several aspects of these results suggest that vectoring or pairwise symbiosis models are inadequate for understanding microbial mediation of plant-herbivore interactions in some systems. First, bacteria that most benefitted larvae were initially foliar residents, suggesting that toxin-degrading abilities of phyllosphere inhabitants indirectly benefit herbivores upon ingestion. Second, assays with single bacteria did not confer the benefits to larvae obtained with consortia, suggesting multi- and inter-microbial interactions are also involved. Our results show that bacteria mediate insect interactions with plant defenses but that these interactions are community specific and highly complex. PMID:24798201

  5. The growth-defense pivot: Crisis management in plants mediated by LRR-RK surface receptors

    PubMed Central

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Yang, Li; Hetzel, Jonathan; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Chory, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of greater than 200 leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense tradeoffs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants. PMID:25089011

  6. Transcriptomes That Confer to Plant Defense against Powdery Mildew Disease in Lagerstroemia indica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Rinehart, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptome analysis was conducted in two popular Lagerstroemia cultivars: “Natchez” (NAT), a white flower and powdery mildew resistant interspecific hybrid and “Carolina Beauty” (CAB), a red flower and powdery mildew susceptible L. indica cultivar. RNA-seq reads were generated from Erysiphe australiana infected leaves and de novo assembled. A total of 37,035 unigenes from 224,443 assembled contigs in both genotypes were identified. Approximately 85% of these unigenes have known function. Of them, 475 KEGG genes were found significantly different between the two genotypes. Five of the top ten differentially expressed genes (DEGs) involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (plant defense) and four in flavonoid biosynthesis pathway (antioxidant activities or flower coloration). Furthermore, 5 of the 12 assembled unigenes in benzoxazinoid biosynthesis and 7 of 11 in flavonoid biosynthesis showed higher transcript abundance in NAT. The relative abundance of transcripts for 16 candidate DEGs (9 from CAB and 7 from NAT) detected by qRT-PCR showed general agreement with the abundances of the assembled transcripts in NAT. This study provided the first transcriptome analyses in L. indica. The differential transcript abundance between two genotypes indicates that it is possible to identify candidate genes that are associated with the plant defenses or flower coloration. PMID:26247009

  7. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts.

  8. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  9. Exploring lower limits of plant elemental defense by cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Dorothy J; Boyd, Robert S; Moar, William J

    2013-05-01

    Elemental defense is a relatively newly recognized phenomenon in which plants use elements present in their tissue to reduce damage by herbivores or pathogens. In the present study, neonates of the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were fed artificial diets amended with varying concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn that are hyperaccumulated by plants to determine minimum lethal concentrations (MLC) and minimum sublethal concentrations (MSC) for each metal. MLC values (dry mass) for Co (45 μg/g), Ni (230 μg/g), and Zn (280 μg/g) were below published minimum hyperaccumulator levels. MSC levels (dry mass) for Co (15 μg/g), Ni (140 μg/g), and Zn (200 μg/g) were at concentrations lower than published minimum accumulator levels. Furthermore, both MLC and MSC values for Zn were within normal tissue concentrations. These results indicate that elemental defense for Co, Ni, and Zn may be effective at concentrations lower than hyperaccumulator levels and so may be more widespread than previously believed. PMID:23584612

  10. Cranberry Resistance to Dodder Parasitism: Induced Chemical Defenses and Behavior of a Parasitic Plant.

    PubMed

    Tjiurutue, Muvari Connie; Sandler, Hilary A; Kersch-Becker, Monica F; Theis, Nina; Adler, Lynn A

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic plants are common in many ecosystems, where they can structure community interactions and cause major economic damage. For example, parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp.) can cause up to 80-100 % yield loss in heavily infested cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) patches. Despite their ecological and economic importance, remarkably little is known about how parasitic plants affect, or are affected by, host chemistry. To examine chemically-mediated interactions between dodder and its cranberry host, we conducted a greenhouse experiment asking whether: (1) dodder performance varies with cranberry cultivar; (2) cultivars differ in levels of phytohormones, volatiles, or phenolics, and whether such variation correlates with dodder parasitism; (3) dodder parasitism induced changes in phytohormones, volatiles, or phenolics, and whether the level of inducible response varied among cultivars. We used five cranberry cultivars to assess host attractiveness to dodder and dodder performance. Dodder performance did not differ across cultivars, but there were marginally significant differences in host attractiveness to dodder, with fewer dodder attaching to Early Black than to any other cultivar. Dodder parasitism induced higher levels of salicylic acid (SA) across cultivars. Cultivars differed in overall levels of flavonols and volatile profiles, but not phenolic acids or proanthocyanidins, and dodder attachment induced changes in several flavonols and volatiles. While cultivars differed slightly in resistance to dodder attachment, we did not find evidence of chemical defenses that mediate these interactions. However, induction of several defenses indicates that parasitism alters traits that could influence subsequent interactions with other species, thus shaping community dynamics. PMID:26905738

  11. Theroa zethus Caterpillars Use Acid Secretion of Anti-Predator Gland to Deactivate Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Dussourd, David E.

    2015-01-01

    In North America, notodontid caterpillars feed almost exclusively on hardwood trees. One notable exception, Theroa zethus feeds instead on herbaceous plants in the Euphorbiaceae protected by laticifers. These elongate canals follow leaf veins and contain latex under pressure; rupture causes the immediate release of sticky poisonous exudate. T. zethus larvae deactivate the latex defense of poinsettia and other euphorbs by applying acid from their ventral eversible gland, thereby creating furrows in the veins. The acid secretion softens the veins allowing larvae to compress even large veins with their mandibles and to disrupt laticifers internally often without contacting latex. Acid secretion collected from caterpillars and applied to the vein surface sufficed to create a furrow and to reduce latex exudation distal to the furrow where T. zethus larvae invariably feed. Larvae with their ventral eversible gland blocked were unable to create furrows and suffered reduced growth on poinsettia. The ventral eversible gland in T. zethus and other notodontids ordinarily serves to deter predators; when threatened, larvae spray acid from the gland orifice located between the mouthparts and first pair of legs. To my knowledge, T. zethus is the first caterpillar found to use an antipredator gland for disabling plant defenses. The novel combination of acid application and vein constriction allows T. zethus to exploit its unusual latex-bearing hosts. PMID:26517872

  12. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defense to human health.

    PubMed

    Korkina, L G

    2007-04-15

    Phenylpropanoids (PPs) belong to the largest group of secondary metabolites produced by plants, mainly, in response to biotic or abiotic stresses such as infections, wounding, UV irradiation, exposure to ozone, pollutants, and other hostile environmental conditions. It is thought that the molecular basis for the protective action of phenylpropanoids in plants is their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. These numerous phenolic compounds are major biologically active components of human diet, spices, aromas, wines, beer, essential oils, propolis, and traditional medicine. Last few years, much interest has been attracted to natural and synthetic phenylpropanoids for medicinal use as antioxidant, UV screens, anticancer, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antibacterial agents. They are of great interest for cosmetic and perfume industries as active natural ingredients. In the present review, the metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants and the mechanism of phenylpropanoid-mediated plant defense are described. Learning from plants, free radical-driven, molecular and cellular processes modulated by phenylpropanoids in human cell cultures in vitro and in the in vivo animal models of tumors, inflammation, and cellular damage are also reviewed.

  13. Lipids in salicylic acid-mediated defense in plants: focusing on the roles of phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiong; Xiao, Shunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved effective defense strategies to protect themselves from various pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates pathogen-triggered signals perceived by different immune receptors to induce downstream defense responses. While many proteins play essential roles in regulating SA signaling, increasing evidence also supports important roles for signaling phospholipids in this process. In this review, we collate the experimental evidence in support of the regulatory roles of two phospholipids, phosphatidic acid (PA), and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P), and their metabolizing enzymes in plant defense, and examine the possible mechanistic interaction between phospholipid signaling and SA-dependent immunity with a particular focus on the immunity-stimulated biphasic PA production that is reminiscent of and perhaps mechanistically connected to the biphasic reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and SA accumulation during defense activation. PMID:26074946

  14. Trichoderma-plant root colonization: escaping early plant defense responses and activation of the antioxidant machinery for saline stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Yariv; Landau, Udi; Cuadros-Inostroza, Álvaro; Tohge, Takayuki; Takayuki, Tohge; Fernie, Alisdair R; Chet, Ilan; Viterbo, Ada; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2013-03-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts which can colonize the apoplast of plant roots. Microarrays analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots inoculated with Trichoderma asperelloides T203, coupled with qPCR analysis of 137 stress responsive genes and transcription factors, revealed wide gene transcript reprogramming, proceeded by a transient repression of the plant immune responses supposedly to allow root colonization. Enhancement in the expression of WRKY18 and WRKY40, which stimulate JA-signaling via suppression of JAZ repressors and negatively regulate the expression of the defense genes FMO1, PAD3 and CYP71A13, was detected in Arabidopsis roots upon Trichoderma colonization. Reduced root colonization was observed in the wrky18/wrky40 double mutant line, while partial phenotypic complementation was achieved by over-expressing WRKY40 in the wrky18 wrky40 background. On the other hand increased colonization rate was found in roots of the FMO1 knockout mutant. Trichoderma spp. stimulate plant growth and resistance to a wide range of adverse environmental conditions. Arabidopsis and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants treated with Trichoderma prior to salt stress imposition show significantly improved seed germination. In addition, Trichoderma treatment affects the expression of several genes related to osmo-protection and general oxidative stress in roots of both plants. The MDAR gene coding for monodehydroascorbate reductase is significantly up-regulated and, accordingly, the pool of reduced ascorbic acid was found to be increased in Trichoderma treated plants. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC)-deaminase silenced Trichoderma mutants were less effective in providing tolerance to salt stress, suggesting that Trichoderma, similarly to ACC deaminase producing bacteria, can ameliorate plant growth under conditions of abiotic stress, by lowering ameliorating increases in ethylene levels as well as promoting an elevated antioxidative capacity.

  15. New evidence for a multi-functional role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Frost, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    A diverse, often species-specific, array of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack. Although research in the last 3 decades indicates a multi-functional role of these HIPVs, the evolutionary rationale underpinning HIPV emissions remains an open question. Many studies have documented that HIPVs can attract natural enemies, and some studies indicate that neighboring plants may eavesdrop their undamaged neighbors and induce or prime their own defenses prior to herbivore attack. Both of these ecological roles for HIPVs are risky strategies for the emitting plant. In a recent paper, we reported that most branches within a blueberry bush share limited vascular connectivity, which restricts the systemic movement of internal signals. Blueberry branches circumvent this limitation by responding to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant: exposure to HIPVs increases levels of defensive signaling hormones, changes their defensive status, and makes undamaged branches more resistant to herbivores. Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush, poplar and lima beans, where intra-plant communication played a role in activating or priming defenses against herbivores. Thus, there is increasing evidence that intra-plant communication occurs in a wide range of taxonomically unrelated plant species. While the degree to which this phenomenon increases a plant's fitness remains to be determined in most cases, we here argue that within-plant signaling provides more adaptive benefit for HIPV emissions than does between-plant signaling or attraction of predators. That is, the emission of HIPVs might have evolved primarily to protect undamaged parts of the plant against potential enemies, and neighboring plants and predators of herbivores later co-opted such HIPV signals for their own benefit.

  16. Keeping Control: The Role of Senescence and Development in Plant Pathogenesis and Defense

    PubMed Central

    Häffner, Eva; Konietzki, Sandra; Diederichsen, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Many plant pathogens show interactions with host development. Pathogens may modify plant development according to their nutritional demands. Conversely, plant development influences pathogen growth. Biotrophic pathogens often delay senescence to keep host cells alive, and resistance is achieved by senescence-like processes in the host. Necrotrophic pathogens promote senescence in the host, and preventing early senescence is a resistance strategy of plants. For hemibiotrophic pathogens both patterns may apply. Most signaling pathways are involved in both developmental and defense reactions. Increasing knowledge about the molecular components allows to distinguish signaling branches, cross-talk and regulatory nodes that may influence the outcome of an infection. In this review, recent reports on major molecular players and their role in senescence and in pathogen response are reviewed. Examples of pathosystems with strong developmental implications illustrate the molecular basis of selected control strategies. A study of gene expression in the interaction between the hemibiotrophic vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum and its cruciferous hosts shows processes that are fine-tuned to counteract early senescence and to achieve resistance. The complexity of the processes involved reflects the complex genetic control of quantitative disease resistance, and understanding the relationship between disease, development and resistance will support resistance breeding. PMID:27135337

  17. Anthropogenic increase in carbon dioxide compromises plant defense against invasive insects

    SciTech Connect

    Zavala, J.; Casteel, C.; DeLucia, E.; Berenbaum, M.

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), a consequence of anthropogenic global change, can profoundly affect the interactions between crop plants and insect pests and may promote yet another form of global change: the rapid establishment of invasive species. Elevated CO{sub 2} increased the susceptibility of soybean plants grown under field conditions to the invasive Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) and to a variant of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) resistant to crop rotation by down-regulating gene expression related to defense signaling [lipoxygenase 7 (lox7), lipoxygenase 8 (lox8), and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (acc-s)]. The down-regulation of these genes, in turn, reduced the production of cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CystPIs), which are specific deterrents to coleopteran herbivores. Beetle herbivory increased CystPI activity to a greater degree in plants grown under ambient than under elevated CO{sub 2}. Gut cysteine proteinase activity was higher in beetles consuming foliage of soybeans grown under elevated CO{sub 2} than in beetles consuming soybeans grown in ambient CO{sub 2}, consistent with enhanced growth and development of these beetles on plants grown in elevated CO{sub 2}. These findings suggest that predicted increases in soybean productivity under projected elevated CO{sub 2} levels may be reduced by increased susceptibility to invasive crop pests.

  18. Quantifying the response of free-ranging mammalian herbivores to the interplay between plant defense and nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Bedoya-Pérez, Miguel A; Issa, Daniel D; Banks, Peter B; McArthur, Clare

    2014-08-01

    While trying to achieve their nutritional requirements, foraging herbivores face the costs of plant defenses, such as toxins. Teasing apart the costs and benefits of various chemical constituents in plants is difficult because their chemical defenses and nutrient concentrations often co-vary. We used an approach derived from predator-prey studies to quantitatively compare the foraging response of a free-ranging mammalian herbivore, the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), through three feeding trials with artificial diets that differed in their concentrations of (1) the terpene 1,8-cineole, (2) primary constituents (including nitrogen and fiber), and (3) both the terpene and the primary constituents. Applying the giving-up density (GUD) framework, we demonstrated that the foraging cost of food patches increases with higher dietary cineole concentration and decreases with higher dietary nutrient concentration. The effect of combined differences in nutrients and cineole concentrations on GUD was interactive, and high nutrient food required more cineole to achieve the same patch value as low nutrient food. Our results indicate that swamp wallabies equate low nutrient, poorly defended food with high nutrient, highly defended food, providing two contrasting diets with similar cost-benefit outcomes. This behavior suggests that equal concentrations of chemical defenses provide nutrient-poor plants with relatively greater protection as nutrient-rich plants. Nutrient-rich plants may therefore face the exacerbated problem of being preferred by herbivores and therefore need to produce more defense compounds to achieve the same level of defense as nutrient-poor plants. Our findings help explain the difference in anti-herbivore strategy of nutrient-poor and rich plants, i.e., tolerance versus defense. PMID:24924590

  19. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  20. Inter-organ defense networking: Leaf whitefly sucking elicits plant immunity to crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Plants have elaborate defensive machinery to protect against numerous pathogens and insects. Plant hormones function as modulators of defensive mechanisms to maintain plant resistance to natural enemies. Our recent study suggests that salicylic acid (SA) is the primary phytohormone regulating plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana Domin.) immune responses against Agrobacterium-mediated crown gall disease were activated by exposure to the sucking insect whitefly, which stimulated SA biosynthesis in aerial tissues; in turn, SA synthesized in aboveground tissues systemically modulated SA secretion in root tissues. Further investigation revealed that endogenous SA biosynthesis negatively modulated Agrobacterium-mediated plant genetic transformation. Our study provides novel evidence that activation of the SA-signaling pathway mediated by a sucking insect infestation has a pivotal role in subsequently attenuating Agrobacterium infection. These results demonstrate new insights into interspecies cross-talking among insects, plants, and soil bacteria. PMID:26357873

  1. Involvement of the glutamate receptor AtGLR3.3 in plant defense signaling and resistance to Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Hamid; Kelloniemi, Jani; Chiltz, Annick; Wendehenne, David; Pugin, Alain; Poinssot, Benoit; Garcia-Brugger, Angela

    2013-11-01

    Like their animal counterparts, plant glutamate receptor-like (GLR) homologs are intimately associated with Ca(2+) influx through plasma membrane and participate in various physiological processes. In pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP)-/elicitor-mediated resistance, Ca(2+) fluxes are necessary for activating downstream signaling events related to plant defense. In this study, oligogalacturonides (OGs), which are endogenous elicitors derived from cell wall degradation, were used to investigate the role of Arabidopsis GLRs in defense signaling. Pharmacological investigations indicated that GLRs are partly involved in free cytosolic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]cyt) variations, nitric oxide (NO) production, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and expression of defense-related genes by OGs. In addition, wild-type Col-0 plants treated with the glutamate-receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitriquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) had a compromised resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Moreover, we provide genetic evidence that AtGLR3.3 is a key component of resistance against H. arabidopsidis. In addition, some OGs-triggered immune events such as defense gene expression, NO and ROS production are also to different extents dependent on AtGLR3.3. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of GLRs in elicitor/pathogen-mediated plant defense signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:23952652

  2. Phosphorylation of an ERF transcription factor by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 regulates plant defense gene induction and fungal resistance.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzong; Xu, Juan; He, Yunxia; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Mordorski, Breanne; Liu, Yidong; Zhang, Shuqun

    2013-03-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 and MPK6, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or MPKs), play critical roles in plant disease resistance by regulating multiple defense responses. Previously, we characterized the regulation of phytoalexin biosynthesis by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 cascade and its downstream WRKY33 transcription factor. Here, we report another substrate of MPK3/MPK6, ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6 (ERF6), in regulating Arabidopsis defense gene expression and resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Phosphorylation of ERF6 by MPK3/MPK6 in either the gain-of-function transgenic plants or in response to B. cinerea infection increases ERF6 protein stability in vivo. Phospho-mimicking ERF6 is able to constitutively activate defense-related genes, especially those related to fungal resistance, including PDF1.1 and PDF1.2, and confers enhanced resistance to B. cinerea. By contrast, expression of ERF6-EAR, in which ERF6 was fused to the ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif, strongly suppresses B. cinerea-induced defense gene expression, leading to hypersusceptibility of the ERF6-EAR transgenic plants to B. cinerea. Different from ERF1, the regulation and function of ERF6 in defensin gene activation is independent of ethylene. Based on these data, we conclude that ERF6, another substrate of MPK3 and MPK6, plays important roles downstream of the MPK3/MPK6 cascade in regulating plant defense against fungal pathogens.

  3. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Racchi, Milvia Luisa

    2013-01-01

    This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits. PMID:26784469

  4. New roles for cis-jasmone as an insect semiochemical and in plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michael A.; Campbell, Colin A. M.; Chamberlain, Keith; Guerrieri, Emilio; Hick, Alastair J.; Martin, Janet L.; Matthes, Michaela; Napier, Johnathan A.; Pettersson, Jan; Pickett, John A.; Poppy, Guy M.; Pow, Eleanor M.; Pye, Barry J.; Smart, Lesley E.; Wadhams, George H.; Wadhams, Lester J.; Woodcock, Christine M.

    2000-01-01

    cis-Jasmone, or (Z)-jasmone, is well known as a component of plant volatiles, and its release can be induced by damage, for example during insect herbivory. Using the olfactory system of the lettuce aphid to investigate volatiles from plants avoided by this insect, (Z)-jasmone was found to be electrophysiologically active and also to be repellent in laboratory choice tests. In field studies, repellency from traps was demonstrated for the damson-hop aphid, and with cereal aphids numbers were reduced in plots of winter wheat treated with (Z)-jasmone. In contrast, attractant activity was found in laboratory and wind tunnel tests for insects acting antagonistically to aphids, namely the seven-spot ladybird and an aphid parasitoid. When applied in the vapor phase to intact bean plants, (Z)-jasmone induced the production of volatile compounds, including the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, which affect plant defense, for example by stimulating the activity of parasitic insects. These plants were more attractive to the aphid parasitoid in the wind tunnel when tested 48 h after exposure to (Z)-jasmone had ceased. This possible signaling role of (Z)-jasmone is qualitatively different from that of the biosynthetically related methyl jasmonate and gives a long-lasting effect after removal of the stimulus. Differential display was used to compare mRNA populations in bean leaves exposed to the vapor of (Z)-jasmone and methyl jasmonate. One differentially displayed fragment was cloned and shown by Northern blotting to be up-regulated in leaf tissue by (Z)-jasmone. This sequence was identified by homology as being derived from a gene encoding an α-tubulin isoform. PMID:10900270

  5. Extrafloral nectaries alter arthropod community structure and mediate peach (Prunus persica) plant defense.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Clarissa R; Bottrell, Dale G; Brown, Mark W

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the role of extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in mediating plant defense for newly established peach (Prunus persica) trees. We used peaches of a single cultivar ("Lovell") that varied with respect to EFN leaf phenotype (with or without EFNs) to determine if the EFNs affected the structure of the arthropod community colonizing newly planted seedlings. We also tested if the plants producing EFNs benefited from reduced herbivory or enhanced productivity. In the first year following planting, the young peach trees with EFNs were dominated by ants, and arthropod community diversity was lower than for trees without EFNs. The young trees with EFNs harbored fewer herbivores and experienced a twofold reduction in folivory compared to trees without EFNs. Productivity was also enhanced for the trees with EFNs, which attained significantly higher rates of trunk growth, greater terminal carbon composition, and a threefold increase in buds produced in subsequent years. In the second year of the field study, ants remained numerically dominant on trees with EFNs, but arthropod community diversity was higher than for trees without EFNs. An additional study revealed that folivory rates in May increased dramatically for trees with EFNs if ants were excluded from their canopies, indicating that ants have a protective function when the perennial trees produce new leaves. However, in later months, regardless of ants' presence, the trees with EFNs suffered less folivory than trees lacking EFNs. The diversity and richness of the predator trophic group increased when ants were excluded from trees with EFNs, but overall community diversity (i.e., herbivores and predators combined) was not affected by the ants' presence. Our research indicates that the EFNs play an important role in attracting predators that protect the trees from herbivores, and the EFN host-plant characteristic should be retained in future peach cultivar selections. Furthermore, peach production programs aimed

  6. Effects of the virus satellite gene βC1 on host plant defense signaling and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Salvaudon, Lucie; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Yang, Jun-Yi; Chua, Nam-Hai; Mescher, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl China virus spreads together with its invasive vector, the silverleaf whitefly B biotype, which exhibits higher growth rates on infected plants. Previous studies indicate that the virus satellite gene βC1 accounts for the visible symptoms of infection and inhibits the constitutive expression of jasmonic acid (JA)—a phytohormone involved in plant defense against whiteflies—and of some JA-regulated genes. Here we present new details of the effects of on plant signaling and defense, obtained with (non-host) transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that JA induction in response to wounding was reduced in plants expressing βC1. This result implies that βC1 acts on conserved plant regulation mechanisms and might impair the entire JA defense pathway. Furthermore, transformed N. benthamiana plants exhibited elevated emissions of the volatile compound linalool, suggesting that βC1 also influences plant-derived olfactory cues available to vector and non-vector insects. PMID:23299332

  7. The Role of the Proteinase Inhibitor Ovorubin in Apple Snail Eggs Resembles Plant Embryo Defense against Predation

    PubMed Central

    Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Ituarte, Santiago; Heras, Horacio

    2010-01-01

    Background Fieldwork has thoroughly established that most eggs are intensely predated. Among the few exceptions are the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata which have virtually no predators. Its defenses are advertised by the pigmented ovorubin perivitellin providing a conspicuous reddish coloration. The nature of the defense however, was not clear, except for a screening for defenses that identified a neurotoxic perivitellin with lethal effect on rodents. Ovorubin is a proteinase inhibitor (PI) whose role to protect against pathogens was taken for granted, according to the prevailing assumption. Through biochemical, biophysical and feeding experiments we studied the proteinase inhibitor function of ovorubin in egg defenses. Methodology/Principal Findings Mass spectrometry sequencing indicated ovorubin belongs to the Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor family. It specifically binds trypsin as determined by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cross-linking studies but, in contrast to the classical assumption, it does not prevent bacterial growth. Ovorubin was found extremely resistant to in vitro gastrointestinal proteolysis. Moreover feeding studies showed that ovorubin ingestion diminishes growth rate in rats indicating that this highly stable PI is capable of surviving passage through the gastrointestinal tract in a biologically active form. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence of the interaction of an egg PI with a digestive protease of potential predators, limiting predator's ability to digest egg nutrients. This role has not been reported in the animal kingdom but it is similar to plant defenses against herbivory. Further, this would be the only defense model with no trade-offs between conspicuousness and noxiousness by encoding into the same molecule both the aposematic warning signal and an antinutritive/antidigestive defense. These defenses, combined with a neurotoxin and probably unpalatable

  8. NIK1, a host factor specialized in antiviral defense or a novel general regulator of plant immunity?

    PubMed

    Machado, Joao P B; Brustolini, Otavio J B; Mendes, Giselle C; Santos, Anésia A; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2015-11-01

    NIK1 is a receptor-like kinase involved in plant antiviral immunity. Although NIK1 is structurally similar to the plant immune factor BAK1, which is a key regulator in plant immunity to bacterial pathogens, the NIK1-mediated defenses do not resemble BAK1 signaling cascades. The underlying mechanism for NIK1 antiviral immunity has recently been uncovered. NIK1 activation mediates the translocation of RPL10 to the nucleus, where it interacts with LIMYB to fully down-regulate translational machinery genes, resulting in translation inhibition of host and viral mRNAs and enhanced tolerance to begomovirus. Therefore, the NIK1 antiviral immunity response culminates in global translation suppression, which represents a new paradigm for plant antiviral defenses. Interestingly, transcriptomic analyses in nik1 mutant suggest that NIK1 may suppress antibacterial immune responses, indicating a possible opposite effect of NIK1 in bacterial and viral infections.

  9. Is crypsis a common defensive strategy in plants? Speculation on signal deception in the New Zealand flora.

    PubMed

    Burns, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Color is a common feature of animal defense. Herbivorous insects are often colored in shades of green similar to their preferred food plants, making them difficult for predators to locate. Other insects advertise their presence with bright colors after they sequester enough toxins from their food plants to make them unpalatable. Some insects even switch between cryptic and aposomatic coloration during development. Although common in animals, quantitative evidence for color-based defense in plants is rare. After all, the primary function of plant leaves is to absorb light for photosynthesis, rather than reflect light in ways that alter their appearance to herbivores. However, recent research is beginning to challenge the notion that color-based defence is restricted to animals.

  10. Central heating plant modernization study for defense distribution Region East. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Savoie, M.J.; Durbin, T.E.; McCammon, T.; Carroll, R.

    1996-08-01

    Due to the age of its central heating plant (CHP) equipment and changes in energy industry environmental regulations, the Defense Distribution Region East (DDRE), New Cumberland, PA, began investigating modernization opportunities for its CHP. The U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) was tasked with performing a central heating plant modernization study to determine viable options to provide energy for the coming years. Energy use patterns and the condition of existing equipment were determined, and five major potential energy supply alternatives were identified and evaluated on the basis of energy consumption and economics, including initial capital costs, annual fuel consumption, and annual Operations and Maintenance (OM) costs. For economy, it was recommended that boiler replacement be delayed until the year 2009, and that natural gas be used as fuel both before and after replacement, provided that funding for a natural gas pipeline can be obtained. If funding to replace the boilers does become available, the small difference in Life Cycle Cost should not delay DDRE from an immediate equipment upgrade.

  11. Prophage-Encoded Peroxidase in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' Is a Secreted Effector That Suppresses Plant Defenses.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Fleites, Laura A; Gabriel, Dean W

    2015-12-01

    'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' is transmitted by psyllids and causes huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus. Most pathogenic 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strains carry two nearly identical prophages similar to SC1 and SC2 in strain UF506. SC2 was observed to replicate as a moderately high-copy excision plasmid encoding a reactive oxygen species-scavenging peroxidase (SC2_gp095), a predicted lysogenic conversion factor. SC2_gp095 was expressed at significantly higher levels in periwinkle than in citrus and was suppressed in psyllids. SC2_gp095 was cloned in a shuttle vector and transformed into Escherichia coli and Liberibacter crescens, a culturable proxy for 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. Transformed L. crescens cells showed 20 to 25% enhanced resistance to H₂O₂on agar plates, 47% greater enzymatic activity, and enhanced growth in liquid cultures. A nonclassical secretion potential was predicted for SC2_gp095 and secretion from L. crescens was confirmed by enzymatic and Western blot analyses. Transient expression of SC2_gp095 in planta resulted in strong transcriptional downregulation of RbohB, the key gatekeeper of the H₂O₂-mediated defense signaling in plants, helping explain the surprisingly long incubation period (years) before HLB symptoms appear in 'Ca. L. asiaticus'-infected citrus. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' peroxidase is likely a secreted, horizontally acquired effector that suppresses host symptom development, a tactic used by most biotrophic plant pathogens. PMID:26313412

  12. Involvement of Trichoderma Trichothecenes in the Biocontrol Activity and Induction of Plant Defense-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, M. G.; Cardoza, R. E.; Alexander, N. J.; McCormick, S. P.; Hermosa, R.; Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the Fusarium tri clusters. Here we describe the isolation of Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxygenates trichodiene to give rise to isotrichodiol, and the effect of tri4 gene disruption and silencing on the expression of other tri genes. Our results indicate that the tri4 gene disruption resulted in a reduced antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani and also in a reduced ability to induce the expression of tomato plant defense-related genes belonging to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) pathways against B. cinerea, in comparison to the wild-type strain, indicating that HA plays an important function in the sensitization of Trichoderma-pretreated plants against this fungal pathogen. Additionally, the effect of the interaction of T. arundinaceum with B. cinerea or R. solani and with tomato seedlings on the expressions of the tri genes was studied. PMID:22562989

  13. Defensive plant-ants stabilize megaherbivore-driven landscape change in an African savanna.

    PubMed

    Goheen, Jacob R; Palmer, Todd M

    2010-10-12

    Tree cover in savanna ecosystems is usually regarded as unstable, varying with rainfall, fire, and herbivory. In sub-Saharan Africa, elephants (Loxodonta africana) suppress tree cover, thereby maintaining landscape heterogeneity by promoting tree-grass coexistence. In the absence of elephants, tree encroachment may convert savannas into closed-canopy woodlands; when elephants increase in abundance, intensified browsing pressure can transform savannas into open grasslands. We show that symbiotic ants stabilize tree cover across landscapes in Kenya by protecting a dominant tree from elephants. In feeding trials, elephants avoided plants with ants and did not distinguish between a myrmecophyte (the whistling-thorn tree [Acacia drepanolobium]) from which ants had been removed and a highly palatable, nonmyrmecophytic congener. In field experiments, elephants inflicted severe damage on whistling-thorn trees from which ants had been removed. Across two properties on which elephants increased between 2003 and 2008, cover of whistling-thorn did not change significantly inside versus outside large-scale elephant exclusion fences; over the same period of time, cover of nonmyrmecophytes differed profoundly inside versus outside exclusion fences. These results highlight the powerful role that symbioses and plant defense play in driving tree growth and survival in savannas, ecosystems of global economic and ecological importance.

  14. Temporal and Spatial Resolution of Activated Plant Defense Responses in Leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana Infected with Dickeya dadantii

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bueno, María L.; Granum, Espen; Pineda, Mónica; Flors, Víctor; Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia; Barón, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The necrotrophic bacteria Dickeya dadantii is the causal agent of soft-rot disease in a broad range of hosts. The model plant Nicotiana benthamiana, commonly used as experimental host for a very broad range of plant pathogens, is susceptible to infection by D. dadantii. The inoculation with D. dadantii at high dose seems to overcome the plant defense capacity, inducing maceration and death of the tissue, although restricted to the infiltrated area. By contrast, the output of the defense response to low dose inoculation is inhibition of maceration and limitation in the growth, or even eradication, of bacteria. Responses of tissue invaded by bacteria (neighboring the infiltrated areas after 2–3 days post-inoculation) included: (i) inhibition of photosynthesis in terms of photosystem II efficiency; (ii) activation of energy dissipation as non-photochemical quenching in photosystem II, which is related to the activation of plant defense mechanisms; and (iii) accumulation of secondary metabolites in cell walls of the epidermis (lignins) and the apoplast of the mesophyll (phytoalexins). Infiltrated tissues showed an increase in the content of the main hormones regulating stress responses, including abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid. We propose a mechanism involving the three hormones by which N. benthamiana could activate an efficient defense response against D. dadantii. PMID:26779238

  15. Grape Marc Extract-Induced Defense Reactions and Protection against Phytophthora parasitica Are Impaired in NahG Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Benouaret, Razik; Goupil, Pascale

    2015-08-01

    Grape marc extract (GME) acts as an elicitor of plant defense responses. This study analyzed GME-induced plant defense reactions in NahG transgenic tobacco. Leaf infiltration of NahG leaves revealed HR-like reactions with reduced lesions and weak deployment of autofluorescent compounds in the surrounding infiltrated tissues. The β-1,3-glucanase PR2-, endochitinase PR3-, and osmotin PR5-target transcript levels were strongly lowered in NahG leaves, and the mutant failed to accumulate the antimicrobial PR1 transcripts. GME-induced protection against Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) was evaluated on tobacco leaves. The antimicrobial properties of GME against Ppn were evidenced using a range of in vitro tests. GME-sprayed wild-type leaves showed reduced infection areas, whereas GME failed to induce a protective effect against Ppn in NahG leaves. The results suggest that GME-induced plant defense reactions in tobacco plants was mediated by salicylic acid (SA) and that GME-induced protection against Ppn could be the combined result of antimicrobial and defense actions.

  16. Modulation of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity differentially activates wound and pathogen defense responses in tomato plants.

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, A; Oecking, C

    1999-01-01

    Systemin is an important mediator of wound-induced defense gene activation in tomato plants, and it elicits a rapid alkalinization of the growth medium of cultured Lycopersicon peruvianum cells. A possible mechanistic link between proton fluxes across the plasma membrane and the induction of defense genes was investigated by modulating plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity. Inhibitors of H+-ATPase (erythrosin B, diethyl stilbestrol, and vanadate) were found to alkalinize the growth medium of L. peruvianum cell cultures and to induce wound response genes in whole tomato plants. Conversely, an activator of the H+-ATPase (fusicoccin) acidified the growth medium of L. peruvianum cell cultures and suppressed systemin-induced medium alkalinization. Likewise, in fusicoccin-treated tomato plants, the wound- and systemin-triggered accumulation of wound-responsive mRNAs was found to be suppressed. However, fusicoccin treatment of tomato plants led to the accumulation of salicylic acid and the expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Apparently, the wound and pathogen defense signaling pathways are differentially regulated by changes in the proton electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In addition, alkalinization of the L. peruvianum cell culture medium was found to depend on the influx of Ca2+ and the activity of a protein kinase. Reversible protein phosphorylation was also shown to be involved in the induction of wound response genes. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase as a possible target of a Ca2+-activated protein kinase and its role in defense signaling are discussed. PMID:9927643

  17. Salivary glucose oxidase from caterpillars mediates the induction of rapid and delayed-induced defenses in the tomato plant.

    PubMed

    Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica; Tooker, John; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic; Luthe, Dawn S; Felton, Gary W

    2012-01-01

    Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2). Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts.

  18. Salivary Glucose Oxidase from Caterpillars Mediates the Induction of Rapid and Delayed-Induced Defenses in the Tomato Plant

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Donglan; Peiffer, Michelle; Shoemaker, Erica; Tooker, John; Haubruge, Eric; Francis, Frederic; Luthe, Dawn S.; Felton, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Caterpillars produce oral secretions that may serve as cues to elicit plant defenses, but in other cases these secretions have been shown to suppress plant defenses. Ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on the salivary secretions of the tomato fruitworm, Helicoverpa zea. In previous studies we have shown that saliva and its principal component glucose oxidase acts as an effector by suppressing defenses in tobacco. In this current study, we report that saliva elicits a burst of jasmonic acid (JA) and the induction of late responding defense genes such as proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2). Transcripts encoding early response genes associated with the JA pathway were not affected by saliva. We also observed a delayed response to saliva with increased densities of Type VI glandular trichomes in newly emerged leaves. Proteomic analysis of saliva revealed glucose oxidase (GOX) was the most abundant protein identified and we confirmed that it plays a primary role in the induction of defenses in tomato. These results suggest that the recognition of GOX in tomato may represent a case for effector-triggered immunity. Examination of saliva from other caterpillar species indicates that saliva from the noctuids Spodoptera exigua and Heliothis virescens also induced Pin2 transcripts. PMID:22558369

  19. Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

  20. Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory.

  1. Effects of time delay and space on herbivore dynamics: linking inducible defenses of plants to herbivore outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Gui-Quan; Wang, Su-Lan; Ren, Qian; Jin, Zhen; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Empirical results indicate that inducible defenses of plants have effects on herbivore populations. However, little is known about how inducible defenses of plants have influences on herbivore outbreak when space effect is considered. To reveal the relationship between inducible defenses and herbivore outbreak, we present a mathematical model to describe the interaction of them. It was found that time delay plays dual effects in the persistence of herbivore populations: (i) large value of time delay may be associated with small density of herbivore populations, and thus causes the populations to run a higher risk of extinction; (ii) moderate value of time delay is beneficial for maintaining herbivore density in a determined range which may promote the persistence of herbivore populations. Additionally, we revealed that interaction of time delay and space promotes the growth of average density of herbivore populations during their outbreak period which implied that time delay may drive the resilience of herbivore populations. Our findings highlight the close relationship between inducible defenses of plants and herbivore outbreak. PMID:26084812

  2. Fungal mitochondrial DNases: effectors with the potential to activate plant defenses in nonhost resistance.

    PubMed

    Hadwiger, Lee A; Polashock, James

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports on the model nonhost resistance interaction between Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli and pea endocarp tissue have described the disease resistance-signaling role of a fungal DNase1-like protein. The response resulted in no further growth beyond spore germination. This F. solani f. sp. phaseoli DNase gene, constructed with a pathogenesis-related (PR) gene promoter, when transferred to tobacco, generated resistance against Pseudomonas syringe pv. tabaci. The current analytical/theoretical article proposes similar roles for the additional nuclear and mitochondrial nucleases, the coding regions for which are identified in newly available fungal genome sequences. The amino acid sequence homologies within functional domains are conserved within a wide array of fungi. The potato pathogen Verticillium dahliae nuclease was divergent from that of the saprophyte, yeast; however, the purified DNase from yeast also elicited nonhost defense responses in pea, including pisatin accumulation, PR gene induction, and resistance against a true pea pathogen. The yeast mitochondrial DNase gene (open reading frame) predictably codes for a signal peptide providing the mechanism for secretion. Mitochondrial DNase genes appear to provide an unlimited source of components for developing transgenic resistance in all transformable plants. PMID:23228145

  3. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  4. Tomato SOBIR1/EVR Homologs Are Involved in Elicitin Perception and Plant Defense Against the Oomycete Pathogen Phytophthora parasitica.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ke-Chun; Wang, Chao-Wen; Wu, Chih-Hang; Huang, Chun-Tzu; Liou, Ruey-Fen

    2015-08-01

    During host-pathogen interactions, pattern recognition receptors form complexes with proteins, such as receptor-like kinases, to elicit pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), an evolutionarily conserved plant defense program. However, little is known about the components of the receptor complex, as are the molecular events leading to PTI induced by the oomycete Phytophthora pathogen. Here, we demonstrate that tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) SlSOBIR1 and SlSOBIR1-like genes are involved in defense responses to Phytophthora parasitica. Silencing of SlSOBIR1 and SlSOBIR1-like enhanced susceptibility to P. parasitica in tomato. Callose deposition, reactive oxygen species production, and PTI marker gene expression were compromised in SlSOBIR1- and SlSOBIR1-like-silenced plants. Interestingly, P. parasitica infection and elicitin (ParA1) treatment induced the relocalization of SlSOBIR1 from the plasma membrane to endosomal compartments and silencing of NbSOBIR1 compromised ParA1-mediated cell death on Nicotiana benthamiana. Moreover, the SlSOBIR1 kinase domain is indispensable for ParA1 to trigger SlSOBIR1 internalization and plant cell death. Taken together, these results support the idea of participation of solanaceous SOBIR1/EVR homologs in the perception of elicitins and indicate their important roles in plant basal defense against oomycete pathogens.

  5. Streptomyces-induced resistance against oak powdery mildew involves host plant responses in defense, photosynthesis, and secondary metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Florence; Mailänder, Sarah; Bönn, Markus; Feldhahn, Lasse; Herrmann, Sylvie; Große, Ivo; Buscot, François; Schrey, Silvia D; Tarkka, Mika T

    2014-09-01

    Rhizobacteria are known to induce defense responses in plants without causing disease symptoms, resulting in increased resistance to plant pathogens. This study investigated how Streptomyces sp. strain AcH 505 suppressed oak powdery mildew infection in pedunculate oak, by analyzing RNA-Seq data from singly- and co-inoculated oaks. We found that this Streptomyces strain elicited a systemic defense response in oak that was, in part, enhanced upon pathogen challenge. In addition to induction of the jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent pathway, the RNA-Seq data suggests the participation of the salicylic acid-dependent pathway. Transcripts related to tryptophan, phenylalanine, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were enriched and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity increased, indicating that priming by Streptomyces spp. in pedunculate oak shares some determinants with the Pseudomonas-Arabidopsis system. Photosynthesis-related transcripts were depleted in response to powdery mildew infection, but AcH 505 alleviated this inhibition, which suggested there is a fitness benefit for primed plants upon pathogen challenge. This study offers novel insights into the mechanisms of priming by actinobacteria and highlights their capacity to activate plant defense responses in the absence of pathogen challenge. PMID:24779643

  6. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  7. Plant Defense Mechanisms Are Activated during Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Development of Colletotricum graminicola in Maize1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Walter A.; Martín, José M. Sanz; Rech, Gabriel E.; Rivera, Lina P.; Benito, Ernesto P.; Díaz-Mínguez, José M.; Thon, Michael R.; Sukno, Serenella A.

    2012-01-01

    Hemibiotrophic plant pathogens first establish a biotrophic interaction with the host plant and later switch to a destructive necrotrophic lifestyle. Studies of biotrophic pathogens have shown that they actively suppress plant defenses after an initial microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered activation. In contrast, studies of the hemibiotrophs suggest that they do not suppress plant defenses during the biotrophic phase, indicating that while there are similarities between the biotrophic phase of hemibiotrophs and biotrophic pathogens, the two lifestyles are not analogous. We performed transcriptomic, histological, and biochemical studies of the early events during the infection of maize (Zea mays) with Colletotrichum graminicola, a model pathosystem for the study of hemibiotrophy. Time-course experiments revealed that mRNAs of several defense-related genes, reactive oxygen species, and antimicrobial compounds all begin to accumulate early in the infection process and continue to accumulate during the biotrophic stage. We also discovered the production of maize-derived vesicular bodies containing hydrogen peroxide targeting the fungal hyphae. We describe the fungal respiratory burst during host infection, paralleled by superoxide ion production in specific fungal cells during the transition from biotrophy to a necrotrophic lifestyle. We also identified several novel putative fungal effectors and studied their expression during anthracnose development in maize. Our results demonstrate a strong induction of defense mechanisms occurring in maize cells during C. graminicola infection, even during the biotrophic development of the pathogen. We hypothesize that the switch to necrotrophic growth enables the fungus to evade the effects of the plant immune system and allows for full fungal pathogenicity. PMID:22247271

  8. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice

    PubMed Central

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T.; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata’s OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  9. Modulation of plant defense responses to herbivores by simultaneous recognition of different herbivore-associated elicitors in rice.

    PubMed

    Shinya, Tomonori; Hojo, Yuko; Desaki, Yoshitake; Christeller, John T; Okada, Kazunori; Shibuya, Naoto; Galis, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Induced plant defense responses against insect herbivores are triggered by wounding and/or perception of herbivore elicitors from their oral secretions (OS) and/or saliva. In this study, we analyzed OS isolated from two rice chewing herbivores, Mythimna loreyi and Parnara guttata. Both types of crude OS had substantial elicitor activity in rice cell system that allowed rapid detection of early and late defense responses, i.e. accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense secondary metabolites, respectively. While the OS from M. loreyi contained large amounts of previously reported insect elicitors, fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs), the elicitor-active P. guttata's OS contained no detectable FACs. Subsequently, elicitor activity associated with the high molecular mass fraction in OS of both herbivores was identified, and shown to promote ROS and metabolite accumulations in rice cells. Notably, the application of N-linolenoyl-Gln (FAC) alone had only negligible elicitor activity in rice cells; however, the activity of isolated elicitor fraction was substantially promoted by this FAC. Our results reveal that plants integrate various independent signals associated with their insect attackers to modulate their defense responses and reach maximal fitness in nature. PMID:27581373

  10. Induction of defense responses in cucumber plants by using the cell-free filtrate of the plant growth-promoting fungus Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kaori; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher; Kato, Kimihiko; Kubota, Mashaharu; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    Penicillium simplicissimum GP17-2 is a plant growth-promoting fungus (PGPF) and an inducer of systemic defense responses. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GP17-2 on the reduction of cucumber leaf damage caused by the anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum orbiculare were investigated. Cucumber leaves treated with the culture filtrate (CF) of GP17-2 exhibited a clear systemic resistance against subsequent infection with C. orbiculare. The number and size of lesions caused by the disease were reduced in CF-treated plants, in comparison with that in the control plants. The results showed that CF treatment could trigger a set of defense responses, including the production of hydrogen peroxide, formation of lignin, emission of ultra-weak photons, accumulation of salicylic acid, and increase in the transcription of the genes for the defense-related enzymes chitinase and peroxidase. Furthermore, subsequent inoculation of CF-pretreated plants with C. orbiculare resulted in higher systemic expression of the genes for chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, and peroxidase relative to nontreated, inoculated plants; this indicated that CF mediates a potentiation state in the plant, enabling it to mount a rapid and effective response on infection by C. orbiculare. Our results indicate that the ability of CF of GP17-2 to stimulate active oxygen species, lignification, SA accumulation, and defense gene activation and potentiation in the host is the possible mode of action of the GP17-2 elicitor and inducer of induced systemic resistance against C. orbiculare infection in cucumber plants.

  11. Dysfunctionality of the xylem in Olea europaea L. Plants associated with the infection process by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Role of phenolic compounds in plant defense mechanism.

    PubMed

    Báidez, Ana G; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río, José A; Ortuño, Ana

    2007-05-01

    Xylem ultrastructural modification and the possible participation of phenolic compounds in the natural defense or resistance mechanisms of olive plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. were studied. Microscopic study showed that the mycelium propagated and passed from one element to another through the pit. The formation of tyloses and aggregates contributed to obstruction of the xylem lumen. In vivo changes in the levels of these phenolic compounds in infected olive plants and their antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae Kleb., as revealed by in vitro study, strongly suggest that they are involved in natural defense or resistance mechanisms in this plant material, the most active being quercetin and luteolin aglycons, followed by rutin, oleuropein, luteolin-7-glucoside, tyrosol, p-coumaric acid, and catechin. . PMID:17394331

  12. Herbivore-induced plant vaccination. Part I. The orchestration of plant defenses in nature and their fitness consequences in the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Kessler, André; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-05-01

    A plant's responses to attack from particular pathogens and herbivores may result in resistance to subsequent attack from the same species, but may also affect different species. Such a cross-resistance, called immunization or vaccination, can benefit the plant, if the fitness consequences of attack from the initial attacker are less than those from subsequent attackers. Here, we report an example of naturally occurring vaccination of the native tobacco plant, Nicotiana attenuata, against Manduca hornworms by prior attack from the mirid bug, Tupiocoris notatus (Dicyphus minimus), which results from the elicitation of two categories of induced plant responses. First, attack from both herbivore species causes the plants in nature to release predator-attracting volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the attracted generalist predator, Geocoris pallens, preferentially attacks the less mobile hornworm larvae. Second, attack from both mirids and hornworms increases the accumulation of secondary metabolites and proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in the leaf tissue, which is correlated with the slow growth of Manduca larvae. Mirid damage does not significantly reduce the fitness of the plant in nature, whereas attack from the hornworm reduces lifetime seed production. Consequently, plants that are attacked by mirids realize a significant fitness advantage in environments with both herbivores. The combination of growth-slowing direct defenses and predator-attracting indirect defenses results in greater hornworm mortality on mirid-attacked plants and provides the mechanism of the vaccination phenomenon.

  13. Mixtures in the real world: The importance of plant self-defense toxicants, mycotoxins, and the human diet

    SciTech Connect

    Mattsson, Joel L.

    2007-09-01

    A perusal of research presented at the Annual Society of Toxicology Meetings, or in nearly any toxicology journal, will show that the overwhelming emphasis of toxicology research is on synthetic chemistries. Because of substantial potency and exposure to natural chemicals, the overwhelming focus on synthetic chemistries cannot lead to a realistic understanding of chemical risk to the general population. Natural chemicals, simply because of their abundance and potency, may be as likely to be a public health concern and to be involved in chemical interactions (natural:natural, natural:pharmaceutical; or natural:synthetic) as are environmental levels of synthetic chemicals. All plants have a mix of natural self-defense chemistries and mycotoxins that, when tested in a manner comparable to synthetic pesticides, cause the entire spectrum of toxic effects. As a further complication, plants also escalate much of their self-defense chemistry when attacked by insects and fungi, and damaged crops often have higher mycotoxins levels. Effective crop protection will typically reduce the plant's levels of self-defense toxicants and mycotoxins, but may add residues of synthetic pesticides or add some other risk variable. In addition, cooking may also alter the food chemistry (e.g., acrylamide). The mixtures toxicologist needs to address the real world mixture of natural and synthetic chemicals. Public policy on crop-food safety cannot be sensibly guided without these data and large voids in our understanding of risks from real-world mixtures cannot be in the public interest.

  14. The Diversification of Plant NBS-LRR Defense Genes Directs the Evolution of MicroRNAs That Target Them

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Kuang, Hanhui; Meyers, Blake C.

    2016-01-01

    High expression of plant nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) defense genes is often lethal to plant cells, a phenotype perhaps associated with fitness costs. Plants implement several mechanisms to control the transcript level of NBS-LRR defense genes. As negative transcriptional regulators, diverse miRNAs target NBS-LRRs in eudicots and gymnosperms. To understand the evolutionary benefits of this miRNA-NBS-LRR regulatory system, we investigated the NBS-LRRs of 70 land plants, coupling this analysis with extensive small RNA data. A tight association between the diversity of NBS-LRRs and miRNAs was found. The miRNAs typically target highly duplicated NBS-LRRs. In comparison, families of heterogeneous NBS-LRRs were rarely targeted by miRNAs in Poaceae and Brassicaceae genomes. We observed that duplicated NBS-LRRs from different gene families periodically gave birth to new miRNAs. Most of these newly emerged miRNAs target the same conserved, encoded protein motif of NBS-LRRs, consistent with a model of convergent evolution for these miRNAs. By assessing the interactions between miRNAs and NBS-LRRs, we found nucleotide diversity in the wobble position of the codons in the target site drives the diversification of miRNAs. Taken together, we propose a co-evolutionary model of plant NBS-LRRs and miRNAs hypothesizing how plants balance the benefits and costs of NBS-LRR defense genes. PMID:27512116

  15. Modifications of Sphingolipid Content Affect Tolerance to Hemibiotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens by Modulating Plant Defense Responses in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Magnin-Robert, Maryline; Le Bourse, Doriane; Markham, Jonathan; Dorey, Stéphan; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dhondt-Cordelier, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are emerging as second messengers in programmed cell death and plant defense mechanisms. However, their role in plant defense is far from being understood, especially against necrotrophic pathogens. Sphingolipidomics and plant defense responses during pathogenic infection were evaluated in the mutant of long-chain base phosphate (LCB-P) lyase, encoded by the dihydrosphingosine-1-phosphate lyase1 (AtDPL1) gene and regulating long-chain base/LCB-P homeostasis. Atdpl1 mutants exhibit tolerance to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea but susceptibility to the hemibiotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst). Here, a direct comparison of sphingolipid profiles in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during infection with pathogens differing in lifestyles is described. In contrast to long-chain bases (dihydrosphingosine [d18:0] and 4,8-sphingadienine [d18:2]), hydroxyceramide and LCB-P (phytosphingosine-1-phosphate [t18:0-P] and 4-hydroxy-8-sphingenine-1-phosphate [t18:1-P]) levels are higher in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants in response to B. cinerea. Following Pst infection, t18:0-P accumulates more strongly in Atdpl1-1 than in wild-type plants. Moreover, d18:0 and t18:0-P appear as key players in Pst- and B. cinerea-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Salicylic acid levels are similar in both types of plants, independent of the pathogen. In addition, salicylic acid-dependent gene expression is similar in both types of B. cinerea-infected plants but is repressed in Atdpl1-1 after treatment with Pst. Infection with both pathogens triggers higher jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-isoleucine accumulation, and jasmonic acid-dependent gene expression in Atdpl1-1 mutants. Our results demonstrate that sphingolipids play an important role in plant defense, especially toward necrotrophic pathogens, and highlight a novel connection between the jasmonate signaling pathway, cell death, and sphingolipids. PMID:26378098

  16. Exposure of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to soil, manure, or water influences its survival on plants and initiation of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seungwook; Matthews, Karl R

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated whether growth medium or exposure conditions influence the production of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) by Escherichia coli O157:H7, and whether changes in CPS impact plant defense responses, consequently affecting survival on plants. E. coli O157:H7 grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth supplemented with manure extracts showed an approximately 58% increase in CPS production compared to cells grown in LB medium alone. Levels of CPS were significantly higher for E. coli O157:H7 cells exposed to soil or manure extracts as compared to the non-exposed LB cultured control. Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing β-glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of the β-1,3-glucanase (BGL2) promoter were used to investigate whether E. coli O157:H7 induces defense-related gene expression. Plants inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 grown in LB containing manure extracts or cells exposed to manure extracts exhibited 3-fold and 2-fold lower GUS activity, respectively, suggesting a limited plant defense response compared to plants inoculated with cells grown in LB. On day 5 post inoculation the population of E. coli O157:H7 grown in LB supplemented with manure on plants was significantly greater than the population of E. coli O157:H7 grown in LB medium alone. E. coli O157:H7 cells exposed to soil or manure exhibited greater survival on plants compared to LB-grown E. coli O157:H7. The results of this study underscore the need to consider medium composition and cultural conditions when conducting crop challenge studies.

  17. Role of plant β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of iridoid glycosides and their hydrolyzing enzymes in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Buschmann, Torsten; Müller, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The typical defense compounds of Plantaginaceae are the iridoid glycosides, which retard growth and/or enhance mortality of non-adapted herbivores. In plants, glycosidic defense compounds and hydrolytic enzymes often form a dual defense system, in which the glycosides are activated by the enzymes to exert biological effects. Yet, little is known about the activating enzymes in iridoid glycoside-containing plants. To examine the role of plant-derived β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of two common plantain species, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major, we determined the concentration of iridoid glycosides as well as the β-glucosidase activity in leaves of different age. To investigate the presence of other leaf metabolites potentially involved in plant defense, we used a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. According to the optimal defense hypothesis, more valuable parts such as young leaves should be better protected than less valuable parts. Therefore, we expected that both, the concentrations of defense compounds as well as the β-glucosidase activity, should be highest in younger leaves and decrease with increasing leaf age. Both species possessed β-glucosidase activity, which hydrolyzed aucubin, one of the two most abundant iridoid glycosides in both plant species, with high activity. In line with the optimal defense hypothesis, the β-glucosidase activity in both Plantago species as well as the concentration of defense-related metabolites such as iridoid glycosides correlated negatively to leaf age. When leaf extracts were incubated with bovine serum albumin and aucubin, SDS-PAGE revealed a protein-denaturing effect of the leaf extracts of both plantain species, suggesting that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidase interact in a dual defense system.

  18. Role of plant β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of iridoid glycosides and their hydrolyzing enzymes in Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Pankoke, Helga; Buschmann, Torsten; Müller, Caroline

    2013-10-01

    The typical defense compounds of Plantaginaceae are the iridoid glycosides, which retard growth and/or enhance mortality of non-adapted herbivores. In plants, glycosidic defense compounds and hydrolytic enzymes often form a dual defense system, in which the glycosides are activated by the enzymes to exert biological effects. Yet, little is known about the activating enzymes in iridoid glycoside-containing plants. To examine the role of plant-derived β-glucosidases in the dual defense system of two common plantain species, Plantago lanceolata and Plantago major, we determined the concentration of iridoid glycosides as well as the β-glucosidase activity in leaves of different age. To investigate the presence of other leaf metabolites potentially involved in plant defense, we used a metabolic fingerprinting approach with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. According to the optimal defense hypothesis, more valuable parts such as young leaves should be better protected than less valuable parts. Therefore, we expected that both, the concentrations of defense compounds as well as the β-glucosidase activity, should be highest in younger leaves and decrease with increasing leaf age. Both species possessed β-glucosidase activity, which hydrolyzed aucubin, one of the two most abundant iridoid glycosides in both plant species, with high activity. In line with the optimal defense hypothesis, the β-glucosidase activity in both Plantago species as well as the concentration of defense-related metabolites such as iridoid glycosides correlated negatively to leaf age. When leaf extracts were incubated with bovine serum albumin and aucubin, SDS-PAGE revealed a protein-denaturing effect of the leaf extracts of both plantain species, suggesting that iridoid glycosides and plant β-glucosidase interact in a dual defense system. PMID:23773298

  19. Novel animal defenses against predation: a snail egg neurotoxin combining lectin and pore-forming chains that resembles plant defense and bacteria attack toxins.

    PubMed

    Dreon, Marcos Sebastián; Frassa, María Victoria; Ceolín, Marcelo; Ituarte, Santiago; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jin; Fernández, Patricia E; Heras, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning) coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator. Capacity to resist digestion was assayed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectroscopy and simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. PcPV2 oligomer is antinutritive, withstanding proteinase digestion and displaying structural stability between pH 4.0-10.0. cDNA sequencing and protein domain search showed that its two subunits share homology with membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF)-like toxins and tachylectin-like lectins, a previously unknown structure that resembles plant Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and bacterial botulinum toxins. The protomer has therefore a novel AB toxin combination of a MACPF-like chain linked by disulfide bonds to a lectin-like chain, indicating a delivery system for the former. This was further supported by observing PcPV2 binding to glycocalix of enterocytes in vivo and in culture, and by its hemaggutinating, but not hemolytic activity, which suggested an interaction with surface oligosaccharides. PcPV2 is able to get into predator's body as evidenced in rats and mice by the presence of circulating antibodies in response to sublethal oral doses. To our knowledge, a lectin-pore-forming toxin has not been reported before, providing the first evidence of a neurotoxic lectin in animals, and a novel function for ancient and widely distributed proteins. The acquisition of this unique neurotoxic/antinutritive/storage protein may confer the eggs a survival advantage, opening new

  20. Non-indolyl cruciferous phytoalexins: Nasturlexins and tridentatols, a striking convergent evolution of defenses in terrestrial plants and marine animals?

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; To, Q Huy

    2015-05-01

    Highly specialized chemical defense pathways are a particularly noteworthy metabolic characteristic of sessile organisms, whether terrestrial or marine, providing protection against pests and diseases. For this reason, knowledge of the metabolites involved in these processes is crucial to producing ecologically fit crops. Toward this end, the elicited chemical defenses of the crucifer watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), i.e. phytoalexins, were investigated and are reported. Almost three decades after publication of cruciferous phytoalexins derived from (S)-Trp, phytoalexins derived from other aromatic amino acids were isolated; their chemical structures were determined by analyses of their spectroscopic data and confirmed by synthesis. Nasturlexin A, nasturlexin B, and tridentatol C are hitherto unknown phenyl containing cruciferous phytoalexins produced by watercress under abiotic stress; tridentatol C is also produced by a marine animal (Tridentata marginata), where it functions in chemical defense against predators. The biosynthesis of these metabolites in both a terrestrial plant and a marine animal suggests a convergent evolution of unique metabolic pathways recruited for defense.

  1. Medicago truncatula Mutants Demonstrate the Role of Plant Calcium Oxalate Crystals as an Effective Defense against Chewing Insects1

    PubMed Central

    Korth, Kenneth L.; Doege, Sarah J.; Park, Sang-Hyuck; Goggin, Fiona L.; Wang, Qin; Gomez, S. Karen; Liu, Guangjie; Jia, Lingling; Nakata, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    Calcium oxalate is the most abundant insoluble mineral found in plants and its crystals have been reported in more than 200 plant families. In the barrel medic Medicago truncatula Gaertn., these crystals accumulate predominantly in a sheath surrounding secondary veins of leaves. Mutants of M. truncatula with decreased levels of calcium oxalate crystals were used to assess the defensive role of this mineral against insects. Caterpillar larvae of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner show a clear feeding preference for tissue from calcium oxalate-defective (cod) mutant lines cod5 and cod6 in choice test comparisons with wild-type M. truncatula. Compared to their performance on mutant lines, larvae feeding on wild-type plants with abundant calcium oxalate crystals suffer significantly reduced growth and increased mortality. Induction of wound-responsive genes appears to be normal in cod5 and cod6, indicating that these lines are not deficient in induced insect defenses. Electron micrographs of insect mouthparts indicate that the prismatic crystals in M. truncatula leaves act as physical abrasives during feeding. Food utilization measurements show that, after consumption, calcium oxalate also interferes with the conversion of plant material into insect biomass during digestion. In contrast to their detrimental effects on a chewing insect, calcium oxalate crystals do not negatively affect the performance of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris, a sap-feeding insect with piercing-sucking mouthparts. The results confirm a long-held hypothesis for the defensive function of these crystals and point to the potential value of genes controlling crystal formation and localization in crop plants. PMID:16514014

  2. Turnabout Is Fair Play: Herbivory-Induced Plant Chitinases Excreted in Fall Armyworm Frass Suppress Herbivore Defenses in Maize1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Patrick C.M.S.; Gaffoor, Iffa; Acevedo, Flor E.; Peiffer, Michelle; Jin, Shan; Han, Yang; Shakeel, Samina; Felton, Gary W.

    2016-01-01

    The perception of herbivory by plants is known to be triggered by the deposition of insect-derived factors such as saliva and oral secretions, oviposition materials, and even feces. Such insect-derived materials harbor chemical cues that may elicit herbivore and/or pathogen-induced defenses in plants. Several insect-derived molecules that trigger herbivore-induced defenses in plants are known; however, insect-derived molecules suppressing them are largely unknown. In this study, we identified two plant chitinases from fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larval frass that suppress herbivore defenses while simultaneously inducing pathogen defenses in maize (Zea mays). Fall armyworm larvae feed in enclosed whorls of maize plants, where frass accumulates over extended periods of time in close proximity to damaged leaf tissue. Our study shows that maize chitinases, Pr4 and Endochitinase A, are induced during herbivory and subsequently deposited on the host with the feces. These plant chitinases mediate the suppression of herbivore-induced defenses, thereby increasing the performance of the insect on the host. Pr4 and Endochitinase A also trigger the antagonistic pathogen defense pathway in maize and suppress fungal pathogen growth on maize leaves. Frass-induced suppression of herbivore defenses by deposition of the plant-derived chitinases Pr4 and Endochitinase A is a unique way an insect can co-opt the plant’s defense proteins for its own benefit. It is also a phenomenon unlike the induction of herbivore defenses by insect oral secretions in most host-herbivore systems. PMID:26979328

  3. Receptor-mediated activation of a plant Ca2+-permeable ion channel involved in pathogen defense

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Sabine; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Wirtz, Wolfgang; Guern, Jean; Hedrich, Rainer; Scheel, Dierk

    1997-01-01

    Pathogen recognition at the plant cell surface typically results in the initiation of a multicomponent defense response. Transient influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane is postulated to be part of the signaling chain leading to pathogen resistance. Patch-clamp analysis of parsley protoplasts revealed a novel Ca2+-permeable, La3+-sensitive plasma membrane ion channel of large conductance (309 pS in 240 mM CaCl2). At an extracellular Ca2+ concentration of 1 mM, which is representative of the plant cell apoplast, unitary channel conductance was determined to be 80 pS. This ion channel (LEAC, for large conductance elicitor-activated ion channel) is reversibly activated upon treatment of parsley protoplasts with an oligopeptide elicitor derived from a cell wall protein of Phytophthora sojae. Structural features of the elicitor found previously to be essential for receptor binding, induction of defense-related gene expression, and phytoalexin formation are identical to those required for activation of LEAC. Thus, receptor-mediated stimulation of this channel appears to be causally involved in the signaling cascade triggering pathogen defense in parsley. PMID:11038609

  4. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  5. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  6. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.206... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated...

  7. The use of ECAS in plant protection: a green and efficient antimicrobial approach that primes selected defense genes.

    PubMed

    Zarattini, Marco; De Bastiani, Morena; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Ferro, Sergio; De Battisti, Achille

    2015-11-01

    The use of highly polluting chemicals for plant and crop protection is one of the components of the negative environmental impact of agricultural activities. In the present paper, an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticide application has been studied, based on the so-called electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS). Experiments have been carried out, by applying ECAS having different contents of active ingredients, on tobacco plants at a laboratory scale and on apple trees at fruit garden scale. The results, accumulated during a couple of years, have shown that properly selected dilute solutions of chlorides, once activated by an electrochemical treatment, exhibit a very effective protecting action of plants, irrespective of their nature. Extension of the research has shown that the observed effect is the result of two distinct factors: the expected anti-microbial action of the electrochemically synthesized oxidants, and an unexpected priming of immune plant defenses, which is clearly due to the treatment with ECAS. Interestingly, the repetition of ECAS application triggers an even stronger activation of defense genes. No oxidative damages, due to the use of the activated solutions, could be detected. PMID:26350548

  8. Phyllotreta striolata flea beetles use host plant defense compounds to create their own glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Pauchet, Yannick; Kunert, Grit; Reichelt, Michael; Wielsch, Natalie; Vogel, Heiko; Reinecke, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Mewis, Inga; Schmid, Daniela; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Ulrichs, Christian; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-05-20

    The ability of a specialized herbivore to overcome the chemical defense of a particular plant taxon not only makes it accessible as a food source but may also provide metabolites to be exploited for communication or chemical defense. Phyllotreta flea beetles are adapted to crucifer plants (Brassicales) that are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the so-called "mustard-oil bomb." Tissue damage caused by insect feeding brings glucosinolates into contact with the plant enzyme myrosinase, which hydrolyzes them to form toxic compounds, such as isothiocyanates. However, we previously observed that Phyllotreta striolata beetles themselves produce volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Here, we show that P. striolata adults selectively accumulate glucosinolates from their food plants to up to 1.75% of their body weight and express their own myrosinase. By combining proteomics and transcriptomics, a gene responsible for myrosinase activity in P. striolata was identified. The major substrates of the heterologously expressed myrosinase were aliphatic glucosinolates, which were hydrolyzed with at least fourfold higher efficiency than aromatic and indolic glucosinolates, and β-O-glucosides. The identified beetle myrosinase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and has up to 76% sequence similarity to other β-glucosidases. Phylogenetic analyses suggest species-specific diversification of this gene family in insects and an independent evolution of the beetle myrosinase from other insect β-glucosidases. PMID:24799680

  9. Sequential effects of root and foliar herbivory on aboveground and belowground induced plant defense responses and insect performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Biere, Arjen; Van der Putten, Wim H; Bezemer, T Martijn

    2014-05-01

    Plants are often simultaneously or sequentially attacked by multiple herbivores and changes in host plants induced by one herbivore can influence the performance of other herbivores. We examined how sequential feeding on the plant Plantago lanceolata by the aboveground herbivore Spodoptera exigua and the belowground herbivore Agriotes lineatus influences plant defense and the performance of both insects. Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in the food consumption by the aboveground herbivore independent of whether it was initiated before, at the same time, or after that of the aboveground herbivore. By contrast, aboveground herbivory did not significantly affect belowground herbivore performance, but significantly reduced the performance of later arriving aboveground conspecifics. Interestingly, belowground herbivores negated negative effects of aboveground herbivores on consumption efficiency of their later arriving conspecifics, but only if the belowground herbivores were introduced simultaneously with the early arriving aboveground herbivores. Aboveground-belowground interactions could only partly be explained by induced changes in an important class of defense compounds, iridoid glycosides (IGs). Belowground herbivory caused a reduction in IGs in roots without affecting shoot levels, while aboveground herbivory increased IG levels in roots in the short term (4 days) but only in the shoots in the longer term (17 days). We conclude that the sequence of aboveground and belowground herbivory is important in interactions between aboveground and belowground herbivores and that knowledge on the timing of exposure is essential to predict outcomes of aboveground-belowground interactions.

  10. Role of the 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferase of Trichoderma virens in secondary metabolism and induction of plant defense responses.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Robledo, R; Contreras-Cornejo, H A; Macias-Rodriguez, L; Hernandez-Morales, A; Aguirre, J; Casas-Flores, S; Lopez-Bucio, J; Herrera-Estrella, A

    2011-12-01

    Trichoderma virens is a ubiquitous soil fungus successfully used in biological control due to its efficient colonization of plant roots. In fungi, 4-phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) activate enzymes involved in primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, we cloned the PPTase gene ppt1 from T. virens and generated PPTase-deficient (?ppt1) and overexpressing strains to investigate the role of this enzyme in biocontrol and induction of plant defense responses. The ?ppt1 mutants were auxotrophic for lysine, produced nonpigmented conidia, and were unable to synthesize nonribosomal peptides. Although spore germination was severely compromised under both low and high iron availability, mycelial growth occurred faster than the wild type, and the mutants were able to efficiently colonize plant roots. The ?ppt1 mutants were unable of inhibiting growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings co-cultivated with wild-type T. virens showed increased expression of pPr1a:uidA and pLox2:uidA markers, which correlated with enhanced accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid, camalexin, and resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Co-cultivation of A. thaliana seedlings with ?ppt1 mutants compromised the SA and camalexin responses, resulting in decreased protection against the pathogen. Our data reveal an important role of T. virens PPT1 in antibiosis and induction of SA and camalexin-dependent plant defense responses.

  11. Phyllotreta striolata flea beetles use host plant defense compounds to create their own glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

    PubMed

    Beran, Franziska; Pauchet, Yannick; Kunert, Grit; Reichelt, Michael; Wielsch, Natalie; Vogel, Heiko; Reinecke, Andreas; Svatoš, Aleš; Mewis, Inga; Schmid, Daniela; Ramasamy, Srinivasan; Ulrichs, Christian; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G

    2014-05-20

    The ability of a specialized herbivore to overcome the chemical defense of a particular plant taxon not only makes it accessible as a food source but may also provide metabolites to be exploited for communication or chemical defense. Phyllotreta flea beetles are adapted to crucifer plants (Brassicales) that are defended by the glucosinolate-myrosinase system, the so-called "mustard-oil bomb." Tissue damage caused by insect feeding brings glucosinolates into contact with the plant enzyme myrosinase, which hydrolyzes them to form toxic compounds, such as isothiocyanates. However, we previously observed that Phyllotreta striolata beetles themselves produce volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Here, we show that P. striolata adults selectively accumulate glucosinolates from their food plants to up to 1.75% of their body weight and express their own myrosinase. By combining proteomics and transcriptomics, a gene responsible for myrosinase activity in P. striolata was identified. The major substrates of the heterologously expressed myrosinase were aliphatic glucosinolates, which were hydrolyzed with at least fourfold higher efficiency than aromatic and indolic glucosinolates, and β-O-glucosides. The identified beetle myrosinase belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 1 and has up to 76% sequence similarity to other β-glucosidases. Phylogenetic analyses suggest species-specific diversification of this gene family in insects and an independent evolution of the beetle myrosinase from other insect β-glucosidases.

  12. Pseudomonas fluorescens induces strain-dependent and strain-independent host plant responses in defense networks, primary metabolism and photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, Dale A; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Karve, Abhijit A; Lu, Tse-Yuan S; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Chen, Jay; Martin, Madhavi Z; Jawdy, Sara; Weston, David; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of plants by nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens strains can confer enhanced defense capacity against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Few studies, however, have linked defense pathway regulation to primary metabolism and physiology. In this study, physiological data, metabolites, and transcript profiles are integrated to elucidate how molecular networks initiated at the root-microbe interface influence shoot metabolism and whole-plant performance. Experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were performed using the newly identified P. fluorescens GM30 or P. fluorescens Pf-5 strains. Co-expression networks indicated that Pf-5 and GM30 induced a subnetwork specific to roots enriched for genes participating in RNA regulation, protein degradation, and hormonal metabolism. In contrast, only GM30 induced a subnetwork enriched for calcium signaling, sugar and nutrient signaling, and auxin metabolism, suggesting strain dependence in network architecture. In addition, one subnetwork present in shoots was enriched for genes in secondary metabolism, photosynthetic light reactions, and hormone metabolism. Metabolite analysis indicated that this network initiated changes in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Consistent with this, we observed strain-specific responses in tryptophan and phenylalanine abundance. Both strains reduced host plant carbon gain and fitness, yet provided a clear fitness benefit when plants were challenged with the pathogen P. syringae DC3000.

  13. Isolation, identification, and quantification of potential defensive compounds in the viceroy butterfly and its larval host-plant, Carolina willow.

    PubMed

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Khera, Smriti; Sólyom, Anikó; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2007-06-01

    The viceroy-monarch and viceroy-queen butterfly associations are classic examples of mimicry. These relationships were originally classified as Batesian, or parasitic, but were later reclassified as Müllerian, or mutalistic, based on predator bioassays. The Müllerian reclassification implies that viceroy is unpalatable because it too is chemically defended like the queen and the monarch. However, unlike the queen and the monarch, the viceroy defensive chemistry has remained uncharacterized. We demonstrate that the viceroy butterfly (Limenitis archippus, Nymphalidae) not only sequesters nonvolatile defensive compounds from its larval host-plant, the Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana, Salicaceae), but also secretes volatile defensive compounds when disturbed. We developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry methods to identify a set of phenolic glycosides shared between the adult viceroy butterfly and the Carolina willow, and solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods to identify volatile phenolic compounds released from stressed viceroy butterflies. In both approaches, all structures were characterized based on their mass spectral fragmentation patterns and confirmed with authentic standards. The phenolics we found are known to deter predator attack in other prey systems, including other willow-feeding insect species. Because these compounds have a generalized defensive function at the concentrations we described, our results are consistent with the Müllerian reclassification put forth by other researchers based on bioassay results. It seems that the viceroy butterfly possesses chemical defenses different from its monarch and queen butterfly counterparts (phenolic glycosides vs. cardiac glycosides, respectively), an unusual phenomenon in mimicry warranting future study.

  14. Limited impact of elevated levels of polyphenol oxidase on tree-feeding caterpillars: assessing individual plant defenses with transgenic poplar.

    PubMed

    Barbehenn, Raymond V; Jones, Christopher P; Yip, Lynn; Tran, Lan; Constabel, C Peter

    2007-11-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is commonly believed to function as an effective antiherbivore defense in plants. PPO is induced in plants following herbivory, and insect performance is often negatively correlated with PPO levels. However, induced defenses create numerous changes in plants, and very little work has been done to test the direct effects of PPO on insect herbivores separately from other changes. This study examined the impacts of high levels of PPO on the performance of two species of tree-feeding caterpillars (Lymantria dispar and Orgyia leucostigma) on poplar. Transgenic PPO-overexpressing poplar (Populus tremula x Populus alba) was used as a source of elevated-PPO leaves, thereby controlling for the multiple effects of induction. In addition, the impacts of treating poplar foliage with high levels of purified mushroom PPO were examined on the two caterpillar species. Contrary to expectation, in several cases increased PPO levels had no significant effect on insect consumption or growth rates. Although one of the mechanisms by which PPO is believed to impact herbivores is via increased oxidative stress, the ingestion of large amounts of PPO had little or no effect on semiquinone radical and oxidized protein levels in the gut contents of lymantriid caterpillars. PPO activity in caterpillars is likely limited by the low oxygen and high ascorbate levels commonly found in their gut contents. This study questions whether induced PPO functions as an effective post-ingestive defense against tree-feeding caterpillars, and indicates that controlled, mechanistic studies are needed in other plant-herbivore systems to test for a direct effect of PPO on insect performance.

  15. The relationship between the plant-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 and alternative oxidase in tomato basal defense against Tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yang-Wen-Ke; Liu, Ya-Ru; Liang, Jia-Yang; Wang, Wen-Ping; Zhou, Jie; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan; Shi, Kai

    2015-03-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen attack. The SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense, which is pathogenesis-related protein-independent but involves an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1)-mediated RNA silencing mechanism and/or an alternative oxidase (AOX)-associated defense pathway. However, the relationship between these two viral defense-related pathways remains unclear. In this study, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) inoculation onto Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) leaves induced a rapid induction of the SlAOX1a transcript level as well as the total and CN-resistant respiration at 0.5 dpi, followed by an increase in SlRDR1 gene expression at 1 dpi in the upper uninoculated leaves. Silencing SlRDR1 using virus-induced gene silencing system significantly reduced SlRDR1 expression and tomato defense against TMV but had no evident effect on SlAOX1a transcription. Conversely, silencing SlAOX1a not only effectively reduced the AOX1a transcript level, but also blocked the TMV-induced SlRDR1 expression and decreased the basal defense against TMV. Furthermore, the application of an exogenous AOX activator on empty vector-silenced control plants greatly induced the accumulation of SlRDR1 and SlAOX1a transcript and reduced TMV viral RNA accumulation, but failed to have such effects on SlRDR1-silenced plants. Moreover, RDR1-overexpressed transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants enhanced defense against TMV than the empty vector-transformed plants, but these effects were not affected by the exogenous AOX activator or inhibitor. These results indicate that RDR1 is involved in the AOX-mediated defense pathway against TMV infection and plays a crucial role in enhancing RNA silencing to limit virus systemic spread.

  16. Induction of defense response against Rhizoctonia solani in cucumber plants by endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis GS1.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Song, Yong-Su; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2012-03-01

    An endophytic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis GS1, was isolated from bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and found to have maximal production of chitinase (4.3 units/ml) at 5 days after culture. This study investigated the ability of B. thuringiensis GS1 to induce resistance to Rhizoctonia solani KACC 40111 (RS) in cucumber plants. Chitinase activity was greatest in RS-treated plants at 4 days. beta-1,3- Glucanase activity was highest in GS1-treated plants at 5 days. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD) activity increased continuously in all treated plants for 5 days. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity in RS-treated plants was increased 1.5-fold compared with the control at 4 days. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in RS-treated plants was increased 1.5-fold compared with the control at 3 days. At 5 days after treatment, activity staining revealed three bands with chitinase activity (Ch1, Ch2, and Ch3) on SDSPAGE of cucumber plants treated with GS1+RS, whereas only one band was observed for RS-treated plants (Ch2). One GPOD isozyme (Gp1) was also observed in response to treatment with RS and GS1+RS at 4 days. One APX band (Ap2) was present on the native-PAGE gel of the control, and GS1- and GS1+RS-treated plants at 1 day. PPO bands (Po1 and Po2) from RS- and GS1+RS-treated plants were stronger than in the control and GS1-treated plants upon native-PAGE at 5 days. Taken together, these results indicate that the induction of PR proteins and defense-related enzymes by B. thuringiensis GS1 might have suppressed the damping-off caused by R. solani KACC 40111 in cucumber plants.

  17. Induced plant defenses, host-pathogen interactions, and forest insect outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Elderd, Bret D; Rehill, Brian J; Haynes, Kyle J; Dwyer, Greg

    2013-09-10

    Cyclic outbreaks of defoliating insects devastate forests, but their causes are poorly understood. Outbreak cycles are often assumed to be driven by density-dependent mortality due to natural enemies, because pathogens and predators cause high mortality and because natural-enemy models reproduce fluctuations in defoliation data. The role of induced defenses is in contrast often dismissed, because toxic effects of defenses are often weak and because induced-defense models explain defoliation data no better than natural-enemy models. Natural-enemy models, however, fail to explain gypsy moth outbreaks in North America, in which outbreaks in forests with a higher percentage of oaks have alternated between severe and mild, whereas outbreaks in forests with a lower percentage of oaks have been uniformly moderate. Here we show that this pattern can be explained by an interaction between induced defenses and a natural enemy. We experimentally induced hydrolyzable-tannin defenses in red oak, to show that induction reduces variability in a gypsy moth's risk of baculovirus infection. Because this effect can modulate outbreak severity and because oaks are the only genus of gypsy moth host tree that can be induced, we extended a natural-enemy model to allow for spatial variability in inducibility. Our model shows alternating outbreaks in forests with a high frequency of oaks, and uniform outbreaks in forests with a low frequency of oaks, matching the data. The complexity of this effect suggests that detecting effects of induced defenses on defoliator cycles requires a combination of experiments and models. PMID:23966566

  18. Transgenic Plants That Express the Phytoplasma Effector SAP11 Show Altered Phosphate Starvation and Defense Responses1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yen-Ting; Li, Meng-Ying; Cheng, Kai-Tan; Tan, Choon Meng; Su, Li-Wen; Lin, Wei-Yi; Shih, Hsien-Tzung; Chiou, Tzyy-Jen; Yang, Jun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplasmas have the smallest genome among bacteria and lack many essential genes required for biosynthetic and metabolic functions, making them unculturable, phloem-limited plant pathogens. In this study, we observed that transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) expressing the secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 shows an altered root architecture, similarly to the disease symptoms of phytoplasma-infected plants, by forming hairy roots. This morphological change is paralleled by an accumulation of cellular phosphate (Pi) and an increase in the expression levels of Pi starvation-induced genes and microRNAs. In addition to the Pi starvation responses, we found that secreted Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom protein11 suppresses salicylic acid-mediated defense responses and enhances the growth of a bacterial pathogen. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the role of phytoplasma effector SAP11 and provide new insights for understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:24464367

  19. Arabidopsis thaliana—Myzus persicae interaction: shaping the understanding of plant defense against phloem-feeding aphids

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Joe; Shah, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    The phloem provides a unique niche for several organisms. Aphids are a large group of Hemipteran insects that utilize stylets present in their mouthparts to pierce sieve elements and drink large volumes of phloem sap. In addition, many aphids also vector viral diseases. Myzus persicae, commonly known as the green peach aphid (GPA), is an important pest of a large variety of plants that includes Arabidopsis thaliana. This review summarizes recent studies that have exploited the compatible interaction between Arabidopsis and GPA to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms utilized by plants to control aphid infestation, as well as genes and mechanisms that contribute to susceptibility. In addition, recent efforts to identify aphid-delivered elicitors of plant defenses and novel aphid salivary components that facilitate infestation are also discussed. PMID:23847627

  20. Characterization of a Beta vulgaris PGIP defense gene promoter in transgenic plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (BvPGIP) genes were cloned from a sugar beet breeding line F1016 with increased tolerance to the sugar beet root maggot. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins with crucial roles in development, pathogen defense an...

  1. Novel Animal Defenses against Predation: A Snail Egg Neurotoxin Combining Lectin and Pore-Forming Chains That Resembles Plant Defense and Bacteria Attack Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Ceolín, Marcelo; Ituarte, Santiago; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Sun, Jin; Fernández, Patricia E.; Heras, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    Although most eggs are intensely predated, the aerial egg clutches from the aquatic snail Pomacea canaliculata have only one reported predator due to unparalleled biochemical defenses. These include two storage-proteins: ovorubin that provides a conspicuous (presumably warning) coloration and has antinutritive and antidigestive properties, and PcPV2 a neurotoxin with lethal effect on rodents. We sequenced PcPV2 and studied whether it was able to withstand the gastrointestinal environment and reach circulation of a potential predator. Capacity to resist digestion was assayed using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), fluorescence spectroscopy and simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. PcPV2 oligomer is antinutritive, withstanding proteinase digestion and displaying structural stability between pH 4.0–10.0. cDNA sequencing and protein domain search showed that its two subunits share homology with membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF)-like toxins and tachylectin-like lectins, a previously unknown structure that resembles plant Type-2 ribosome-inactivating proteins and bacterial botulinum toxins. The protomer has therefore a novel AB toxin combination of a MACPF-like chain linked by disulfide bonds to a lectin-like chain, indicating a delivery system for the former. This was further supported by observing PcPV2 binding to glycocalix of enterocytes in vivo and in culture, and by its hemaggutinating, but not hemolytic activity, which suggested an interaction with surface oligosaccharides. PcPV2 is able to get into predator’s body as evidenced in rats and mice by the presence of circulating antibodies in response to sublethal oral doses. To our knowledge, a lectin-pore-forming toxin has not been reported before, providing the first evidence of a neurotoxic lectin in animals, and a novel function for ancient and widely distributed proteins. The acquisition of this unique neurotoxic/antinutritive/storage protein may confer the eggs a survival advantage, opening new

  2. The Arabidopsis Glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 Conjugates Isoleucic Acid and Modulates Plant Defense and Senescence[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    von Saint Paul, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Kanawati, Basem; Geist, Birgit; Faus-Keßler, Theresa; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schäffner, Anton R.

    2011-01-01

    Plants coordinate and tightly regulate pathogen defense by the mostly antagonistic salicylate (SA)- and jasmonate (JA)-mediated signaling pathways. Here, we show that the previously uncharacterized glucosyltransferase UGT76B1 is a novel player in this SA-JA signaling crosstalk. UGT76B1 was selected as the top stress-induced isoform among all 122 members of the Arabidopsis thaliana UGT family. Loss of UGT76B1 function leads to enhanced resistance to the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and accelerated senescence but increased susceptibility toward necrotrophic Alternaria brassicicola. This is accompanied by constitutively elevated SA levels and SA-related marker gene expression, whereas JA-dependent markers are repressed. Conversely, UGT76B1 overexpression has the opposite effect. Thus, UGT76B1 attenuates SA-dependent plant defense in the absence of infection, promotes the JA response, and delays senescence. The ugt76b1 phenotypes were SA dependent, whereas UGT76B1 overexpression indicated that this gene possibly also has a direct effect on the JA pathway. Nontargeted metabolomic analysis of UGT76B1 knockout and overexpression lines using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and activity assays with the recombinant enzyme led to the ab initio identification of isoleucic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methyl-pentanoic acid) as a substrate of UGT76B1. Exogenously applied isoleucic acid increased resistance against P. syringae infection. These findings indicate a novel link between amino acid–related molecules and plant defense that is mediated by small-molecule glucosylation. PMID:22080599

  3. Effects of Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 on defense responses in soybean plants infected by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Jung, Woo-Jin; Park, Ro-Dong; Mabood, Fazli; Souleimanov, Alfred; L Smith, Donald

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 63-28 to induce plant defense systems, including defense-related enzyme levels and expression of defense-related isoenzymes, and isoflavone production, leading to improved resistance to the phytopathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Seven-dayold soybean seedlings were inoculated with P. aureofaciens 63-28, R. solani AG-4, or P. aureofaciens 63-28 plus R. solani AG-4 (P+R), or not inoculated (control). After 7 days of incubation, roots treated with R. solani AG-4 had obvious damping-off symptoms, but P+R-treated soybean plants had less disease development, indicating suppression of R. solani AG-4 in soybean seedlings. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots increased by 24.6% and 54.0%, respectively, compared with control roots. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities of R. solani AG-4-treated roots were increased by 75.1% and 23.6%, respectively. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in soybean roots challenged with P. aureofaciens 63-28 and P+R increased by 25.0% and 11.6%, respectively. Mn-SOD (S1 band on gel) and Fe-SOD (S2) were strongly induced in P+R-treated roots, whereas one CAT (C1) and one APX (A3) were strongly induced in R. solani AG-4- treated roots. The total isoflavone concentration in P+Rtreated shoots was 27.2% greater than the control treatment. The isoflavone yield of R. solani AG-4-treated shoots was 60.9% less than the control.

  4. Degradation of the Plant Defense Signal Salicylic Acid Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Toxicity and Enhances Virulence on Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Lowe-Power, Tiffany M.; Jacobs, Jonathan M.; Ailloud, Florent; Fochs, Brianna; Prior, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Plants use the signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) to trigger defenses against diverse pathogens, including the bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. SA can also inhibit microbial growth. Most sequenced strains of the heterogeneous R. solanacearum species complex can degrade SA via gentisic acid to pyruvate and fumarate. R. solanacearum strain GMI1000 expresses this SA degradation pathway during tomato pathogenesis. Transcriptional analysis revealed that subinhibitory SA levels induced expression of the SA degradation pathway, toxin efflux pumps, and some general stress responses. Interestingly, SA treatment repressed expression of virulence factors, including the type III secretion system, suggesting that this pathogen may suppress virulence functions when stressed. A GMI1000 mutant lacking SA degradation activity was much more susceptible to SA toxicity but retained the wild-type colonization ability and virulence on tomato. This may be because SA is less important than gentisic acid in tomato defense signaling. However, another host, tobacco, responds strongly to SA. To test the hypothesis that SA degradation contributes to virulence on tobacco, we measured the effect of adding this pathway to the tobacco-pathogenic R. solanacearum strain K60, which lacks SA degradation genes. Ectopic addition of the GMI1000 SA degradation locus, including adjacent genes encoding two porins and a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, significantly increased the virulence of strain K60 on tobacco. Together, these results suggest that R. solanacearum degrades plant SA to protect itself from inhibitory levels of this compound and also to enhance its virulence on plant hosts like tobacco that use SA as a defense signal molecule. PMID:27329752

  5. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen.

  6. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  7. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G.; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M. Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  8. Induced release of a plant-defense volatile 'deceptively' attracts insect vectors to plants infected with a bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Mann, Rajinder S; Ali, Jared G; Hermann, Sara L; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S; Alborn, Hans T; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens by insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the plant, insect, and pathogen. Pathogen-induced plant responses can include changes in volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites as well as major plant nutrients. Experiments were conducted to understand how a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), affects host preference behavior of its psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) vector. D. citri were attracted to volatiles from pathogen-infected plants more than to those from non-infected counterparts. Las-infected plants were more attractive to D. citri adults than non-infected plants initially; however after feeding, psyllids subsequently dispersed to non-infected rather than infected plants as their preferred settling point. Experiments with Las-infected and non-infected plants under complete darkness yielded similar results to those recorded under light. The behavior of psyllids in response to infected versus non-infected plants was not influenced by whether or not they were carriers of the pathogen. Quantification of volatile release from non-infected and infected plants supported the hypothesis that odorants mediate psyllid preference. Significantly more methyl salicylate, yet less methyl anthranilate and D-limonene, was released by infected than non-infected plants. Methyl salicylate was attractive to psyllids, while methyl anthranilate did not affect their behavior. Feeding on citrus by D. citri adults also induced release of methyl salicylate, suggesting that it may be a cue revealing location of conspecifics on host plants. Infected plants were characterized by lower levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, and iron, as well as, higher levels of potassium and boron than non-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that host selection behavior of D. citri may be modified by bacterial infection of plants, which alters release of specific headspace

  9. Temperature-driven range expansion of an irruptive insect heightened by weakly coevolved plant defenses.

    PubMed

    Raffa, Kenneth F; Powell, Erinn N; Townsend, Philip A

    2013-02-01

    Warming climate has increased access of native bark beetles to high-elevation pines that historically received only intermittent exposure to these tree-killing herbivores. Here we show that a dominant, relatively naïve, high-elevation species, whitebark pine, has inferior defenses against mountain pine beetle compared with its historical lower-elevation host, lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pines respond by exuding more resin and accumulating higher concentrations of toxic monoterpenes than whitebark pine, where they co-occur. Furthermore, the chemical composition of whitebark pine appears less able to inhibit the pheromonal communication beetles use to jointly overcome tree defenses. Despite whitebark pine's inferior defenses, beetles were more likely to attack their historical host in mixed stands. This finding suggests there has been insufficient sustained contact for beetles to alter their complex behavioral mechanisms driving host preference. In no-choice assays, however, beetles readily entered and tunneled in both hosts equally, and in stands containing less lodgepole pine, attacks on whitebark pines increased. High-elevation trees in pure stands may thus be particularly vulnerable to temperature-driven range expansions. Predators and competitors were more attracted to volatiles from herbivores attacking their historical host, further increasing risk in less coevolved systems. Our results suggest cold temperatures provided a sufficient barrier against herbivores for high-elevation trees to allocate resources to other physiological processes besides defense. Changing climate may reduce the viability of that evolutionary strategy, and the life histories of high-elevation trees seem unlikely to foster rapid counter adaptation. Consequences extend from reduced food supplies for endangered grizzly bears to altered landscape and hydrological processes.

  10. Whole-plant allocation to storage and defense in juveniles of related evergreen and deciduous shrub species.

    PubMed

    Wyka, T P; Karolewski, P; Żytkowiak, R; Chmielarz, P; Oleksyn, J

    2016-05-01

    In evergreen plants, old leaves may contribute photosynthate to initiation of shoot growth in the spring. They might also function as storage sites for carbohydrates and nitrogen (N). We hence hypothesized that whole-plant allocation of carbohydrates and N to storage in stems and roots may be lower in evergreen than in deciduous species. We selected three species pairs consisting of an evergreen and a related deciduous species: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Prunus laurocerasus L. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae), and Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. and Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae). Seedlings were grown outdoors in pots and harvested on two dates during the growing season for the determination of biomass, carbohydrate and N allocation ratios. Plant size-adjusted pools of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and roots were lower in the evergreen species of Berberidaceae and Adoxaceae, and the slope of the carbohydrate pool vs plant biomass relationship was lower in the evergreen species of Rosaceae compared with the respective deciduous species, consistent with the leading hypothesis. Pools of N in stems and roots, however, did not vary with leaf habit. In all species, foliage contained more than half of the plant's nonstructural carbohydrate pool and, in late summer, also more than half of the plant's N pool, suggesting that in juvenile individuals of evergreen species, leaves may be a major storage site. Additionally, we hypothesized that concentration of defensive phenolic compounds in leaves should be higher in evergreen than in deciduous species, because the lower carbohydrate pool in stems and roots of the former restricts their capacity for regrowth following herbivory and also because of the need to protect their longer-living foliage. Our results did not support this hypothesis, suggesting that evergreen plants may rely predominantly on structural defenses. In summary, our study indicates that leaf habit has

  11. Antimicrobial peptide inhibition of fungalysin proteases that target plant type 19 Family IV defense chitinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal crops and other plants produce secreted seed chitinases that reduce pathogenic infection, most likely by targeting the fungal chitinous cell wall. We have shown that corn (Zea mays) produces three GH family 19, plant class IV chitinases, that help in protecting the plant against Fusarium and ...

  12. Purification and characterization of AsES protein: a subtilisin secreted by Acremonium strictum is a novel plant defense elicitor.

    PubMed

    Chalfoun, Nadia R; Grellet-Bournonville, Carlos F; Martínez-Zamora, Martín G; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Díaz-Ricci, Juan C

    2013-05-17

    In this work, the purification and characterization of an extracellular elicitor protein, designated AsES, produced by an avirulent isolate of the strawberry pathogen Acremonium strictum, are reported. The defense eliciting activity present in culture filtrates was recovered and purified by ultrafiltration (cutoff, 30 kDa), anionic exchange (Q-Sepharose, pH 7.5), and hydrophobic interaction (phenyl-Sepharose) chromatographies. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of the purified active fraction revealed a single spot of 34 kDa and pI 8.8. HPLC (C2/C18) and MS/MS analysis confirmed purification to homogeneity. Foliar spray with AsES provided a total systemic protection against anthracnose disease in strawberry, accompanied by the expression of defense-related genes (i.e. PR1 and Chi2-1). Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2 and O2(˙)) and callose was also observed in Arabidopsis. By using degenerate primers designed from the partial amino acid sequences and rapid amplification reactions of cDNA ends, the complete AsES-coding cDNA of 1167 nucleotides was obtained. The deduced amino acid sequence showed significant identity with fungal serine proteinases of the subtilisin family, indicating that AsES is synthesized as a larger precursor containing a 15-residue secretory signal peptide and a 90-residue peptidase inhibitor I9 domain in addition to the 283-residue mature protein. AsES exhibited proteolytic activity in vitro, and its resistance eliciting activity was eliminated when inhibited with PMSF, suggesting that its proteolytic activity is required to induce the defense response. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of a fungal subtilisin that shows eliciting activity in plants. This finding could contribute to develop disease biocontrol strategies in plants by activating its innate immunity. PMID:23530047

  13. The importance of aboveground–belowground interactions on the evolution and maintenance of variation in plant defense traits

    PubMed Central

    van Geem, Moniek; Gols, Rieta; van Dam, Nicole M.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Fortuna, Taiadjana; Harvey, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades a growing body of empirical research has shown that many ecological processes are mediated by a complex array of indirect interactions occurring between rhizosphere-inhabiting organisms and those found on aboveground plant parts. Aboveground–belowground studies have thus far focused on elucidating processes and underlying mechanisms that mediate the behavior and performance of invertebrates in opposite ecosystem compartments. Less is known about genetic variation in plant traits such as defense as that may be driven by above- and belowground trophic interactions. For instance, although our understanding of genetic variation in aboveground plant traits and its effects on community-level interactions is well developed, little is known about the importance of aboveground–belowground interactions in driving this variation. Plant traits may have evolved in response to selection pressures from above- and below-ground interactions from antagonists and mutualists. Here, we discuss gaps in our understanding of genetic variation in plant-related traits as they relate to aboveground and belowground multitrophic interactions. When metabolic resources are limiting, multiple attacks by antagonists in both domains may lead to trade-offs. In nature, these trade-offs may critically depend upon their effects on plant fitness. Natural enemies of herbivores may also influence selection for different traits via top–down control. At larger scales these interactions may generate evolutionary “hotspots” where the expression of various plant traits is the result of strong reciprocal selection via direct and indirect interactions. The role of abiotic factors in driving genetic variation in plant traits is also discussed. PMID:24348484

  14. Disease Interactions in a Shared Host Plant: Effects of Pre-Existing Viral Infection on Cucurbit Plant Defense Responses and Resistance to Bacterial Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Kerry E.; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and

  15. Disease interactions in a shared host plant: effects of pre-existing viral infection on cucurbit plant defense responses and resistance to bacterial wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Lori R; Salvaudon, Lucie; Mauck, Kerry E; Pulido, Hannier; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Stephenson, Andrew G; Mescher, Mark C

    2013-01-01

    Both biotic and abiotic stressors can elicit broad-spectrum plant resistance against subsequent pathogen challenges. However, we currently have little understanding of how such effects influence broader aspects of disease ecology and epidemiology in natural environments where plants interact with multiple antagonists simultaneously. In previous work, we have shown that healthy wild gourd plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana) contract a fatal bacterial wilt infection (caused by Erwinia tracheiphila) at significantly higher rates than plants infected with Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV). We recently reported evidence that this pattern is explained, at least in part, by reduced visitation of ZYMV-infected plants by the cucumber beetle vectors of E. tracheiphila. Here we examine whether ZYMV-infection may also directly elicit plant resistance to subsequent E. tracheiphila infection. In laboratory studies, we assayed the induction of key phytohormones (SA and JA) in single and mixed infections of these pathogens, as well as in response to the feeding of A. vittatum cucumber beetles on healthy and infected plants. We also tracked the incidence and progression of wilt disease symptoms in plants with prior ZYMV infections. Our results indicate that ZYMV-infection slightly delays the progression of wilt symptoms, but does not significantly reduce E. tracheiphila infection success. This observation supports the hypothesis that reduced rates of wilt disease in ZYMV-infected plants reflect reduced visitation by beetle vectors. We also documented consistently strong SA responses to ZYMV infection, but limited responses to E. tracheiphila in the absence of ZYMV, suggesting that the latter pathogen may effectively evade or suppress plant defenses, although we observed no evidence of antagonistic cross-talk between SA and JA signaling pathways. We did, however, document effects of E. tracheiphila on induced responses to herbivory that may influence host-plant quality for (and

  16. Identification of genes potentially responsible for extra-oral digestion and overcoming plant defense from salivary glands of the tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris) using cDNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris) feeding. TPBs secrete saliva during feeding to facilitate the piercing into plant tissues. More importantly, the enzyme-rich saliva may be used for extra-oral digestion and for overcoming plant defense before the p...

  17. Marine-terrestrial contrasts in the ecology of plant chemical defenses against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Hay, M E

    1991-11-01

    Small marine herbivores that live on the plants they consume often selectively eat seaweeds that are chemically defended from fishes. Their feeding is unaffected or stimulated by the plant metabolites that deter fishes, and these small herbivores dramatically reduce their susceptibility to predation by associating with host plants that are noxious to fishes. Ecological similarities between these small marine herbivores and numerous terrestrial insects suggest that herbivorous insects also may have evolved a preference for toxic plants because this diminishes their losses to predators, parasites and pathogens. Although marine and terrestrial plants and herbivores evolved in strikingly different environments, the ease of experimentation in some marine systems makes them ideal for addressing certain questions of fundamental importance to both terrestrial and marine workers.

  18. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants. PMID:26517544

  19. An Assessment of Engineered Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation on Plant Growth and Development as a Step toward Evaluating Its Use to Enhance Plant Defense.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of new approaches to control chewing insects has been sought not only for direct use in reducing crop loss but also in managing resistance to the pesticides already in use. Engineered formation of calcium oxalate crystals is a potential strategy that could be developed to fulfill both these needs. As a step toward this development, this study investigates the effects of transforming a non-calcium oxalate crystal accumulating plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, into a crystal accumulating plant. Calcium oxalate crystal accumulating A. thaliana lines were generated by ectopic expression of a single bacterial gene encoding an oxalic acid biosynthetic enzyme. Biochemical and cellular studies suggested that the engineered A. thaliana lines formed crystals of calcium oxalate in a manner similar to naturally occurring crystal accumulating plants. The amount of calcium oxalate accumulated in leaves also reached levels similar to those measured in the leaves of Medicago truncatula in which the crystals are known to play a defensive role. Visual inspection of the different engineered lines, however, suggested a phenotypic consequence on plant growth and development with higher calcium oxalate concentrations. The restoration of a near wild-type plant phenotype through an enzymatic reduction of tissue oxalate supported this observation. Overall, this study is a first to provide initial insight into the potential consequences of engineering calcium oxalate crystal formation in non-crystal accumulating plants.

  20. Unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways suggests potential involvement in plant defense against the gall midge Mayetiola destructor in wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuming; Zhang, Shize; Whitworth, R Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. We found that the abundance of total glutathione increased up to 60% in resistant wheat plants within 72 hours following attack by the gall midge Mayetiola destructor, the Hessian fly. The increase in total glutathione abundance, however, is coupled with an unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways. The activity and transcript abundance of glutathione peroxidases, which convert reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), increased in infested resistant plants. However, the enzymatic activity and transcript abundance of glutathione reductases, which convert GSSG back to GSH, did not change. This unbalanced regulation of the glutathione oxidation/reduction cycle indicates the existence of an alternative pathway to regenerate GSH from GSSG to maintain a stable GSSG/GSH ratio. Our data suggest the possibility that GSSG is transported from cytosol to apoplast to serve as an oxidant for class III peroxidases to generate reactive oxygen species for plant defense against Hessian fly larvae. Our results provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular processes involved in glutathione-mediated plant resistance to Hessian fly and potentially other pests as well. PMID:25627558

  1. Coordinated Activation of Programmed Cell Death and Defense Mechanisms in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing a Bacterial Proton Pump.

    PubMed Central

    Mittler, R.; Shulaev, V.; Lam, E.

    1995-01-01

    In plants, programmed cell death is thought to be activated during the hypersensitive response to certain avirulent pathogens and in the course of several differentiation processes. We describe a transgenic model system that mimics the activation of programmed cell death in higher plants. In this system, expression of a bacterial proton pump in transgenic tobacco plants activates a cell death pathway that may be similar to that triggered by recognition of an incompatible pathogen. Thus, spontaneous lesions that resemble hypersensitive response lesions are formed, multiple defense mechanisms are apparently activated, and systemic resistance is induced in the absence of a pathogen. Interestingly, mutation of a single amino acid in the putative channel of this proton pump renders it inactive with respect to lesion formation and induction of resistance to pathogen challenge. This transgenic model system may provide insights into the mechanisms involved in mediating cell death in higher plants. In addition, it may also be used as a general agronomic tool to enhance disease protection. PMID:12242350

  2. Effects of the Timing of Herbivory on Plant Defense Induction and Insect Performance in Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Depend on Plant Mycorrhizal Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H; Biere, Arjen

    2015-11-01

    Plants often are exposed to antagonistic and symbiotic organisms both aboveground and belowground. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms may occur either simultaneously or sequentially, and jointly can determine plant responses to future enemies. However, little is known about time-dependency of such aboveground-belowground interactions. We examined how the timing of a 24 h period of aboveground herbivory by Spodoptera exigua (1-8 d prior to later arriving conspecifics) influenced the response of Plantago lanceolata and the performance of later arriving conspecifics. We also examined whether these induced responses were modulated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae. The amount of leaf area consumed by later arriving herbivores decreased with time after induction by early herbivores. Mycorrhizal infection reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of later arriving herbivores, associated with a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food rather than a reduction in relative consumption rates. In non-mycorrhizal plants, leaf concentrations of the defense compound catalpol showed a linear two-fold increase during the eight days following early herbivory. By contrast, mycorrhizal plants already had elevated levels of leaf catalpol prior to their exposure to early herbivory and did not show any further increase following herbivory. These results indicate that AMF resulted in a systemic induction, rather than priming of these defenses. AMF infection significantly reduced shoot biomass of Plantago lanceolata. We conclude that plant responses to future herbivores are not only influenced by exposure to prior aboveground and belowground organisms, but also by when these prior organisms arrive and interact. PMID:26552915

  3. Effects of the Timing of Herbivory on Plant Defense Induction and Insect Performance in Ribwort Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Depend on Plant Mycorrhizal Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Minggang; Bezemer, T Martijn; van der Putten, Wim H; Biere, Arjen

    2015-11-01

    Plants often are exposed to antagonistic and symbiotic organisms both aboveground and belowground. Interactions between above- and belowground organisms may occur either simultaneously or sequentially, and jointly can determine plant responses to future enemies. However, little is known about time-dependency of such aboveground-belowground interactions. We examined how the timing of a 24 h period of aboveground herbivory by Spodoptera exigua (1-8 d prior to later arriving conspecifics) influenced the response of Plantago lanceolata and the performance of later arriving conspecifics. We also examined whether these induced responses were modulated by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Funneliformis mosseae. The amount of leaf area consumed by later arriving herbivores decreased with time after induction by early herbivores. Mycorrhizal infection reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of later arriving herbivores, associated with a reduction in efficiency of conversion of ingested food rather than a reduction in relative consumption rates. In non-mycorrhizal plants, leaf concentrations of the defense compound catalpol showed a linear two-fold increase during the eight days following early herbivory. By contrast, mycorrhizal plants already had elevated levels of leaf catalpol prior to their exposure to early herbivory and did not show any further increase following herbivory. These results indicate that AMF resulted in a systemic induction, rather than priming of these defenses. AMF infection significantly reduced shoot biomass of Plantago lanceolata. We conclude that plant responses to future herbivores are not only influenced by exposure to prior aboveground and belowground organisms, but also by when these prior organisms arrive and interact.

  4. Plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures revealed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry proteomics.

    PubMed

    Zulak, Katherine G; Khan, Morgan F; Alcantara, Joenel; Schriemer, David C; Facchini, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, including the narcotic analgesic morphine and the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine. In contrast to the plant, cell cultures of opium poppy do not accumulate alkaloids constitutively but produce sanguinarine in response to treatment with certain fungal-derived elicitors. The induction of sanguinarine biosynthesis provides a model platform to characterize the regulation of benzylisoquinoline alkaloid pathways and other defense responses. Proteome analysis of elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures by two-dimensional denaturing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry facilitated the identification of 219 of 340 protein spots based on peptide fragment fingerprint searches of a combination of databases. Of the 219 hits, 129 were identified through pre-existing plant proteome databases, 63 were identified by matching predicted translation products in opium poppy-expressed sequence tag databases, and the remainder shared evidence from both databases. Metabolic enzymes represented the largest category of proteins and included S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, several glycolytic, and a nearly complete set of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, one alkaloid, and several other secondary metabolic enzymes. The abundance of chaperones, heat shock proteins, protein degradation factors, and pathogenesis-related proteins provided a comprehensive proteomics view on the coordination of plant defense responses. Qualitative comparison of protein abundance in control and elicitor-treated cell cultures allowed the separation of induced and constitutive or suppressed proteins. DNA microarrays were used to corroborate increases in protein abundance with a corresponding induction in cognate transcript levels.

  5. Sequential expression of bacterial virulence and plant defense genes during infection of tomato with Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

    PubMed

    Chalupowicz, L; Cohen-Kandli, M; Dror, O; Eichenlaub, R; Gartemann, K-H; Sessa, G; Barash, I; Manulis-Sasson, S

    2010-03-01

    The molecular interactions between Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and tomato plant were studied by following the expression of bacterial virulence and host-defense genes during early stages of infection. The C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis genes included the plasmid-borne cellulase (celA) and the serine protease (pat-1), and the serine proteases chpC and ppaA, residing on the chp/tomA pathogenicity island (PAI). Gene expression was measured following tomato inoculation with Cmm382 (wild type), Cmm100 (lacking the plasmids pCM1 and pCM2), and Cmm27 (lacking the PAI). Transcriptional analysis revealed that celA and pat-1 were significantly induced in Cmm382 at initial 12 to 72 h, whereas chpC and ppaA were highly expressed only 96 h after inoculation. Interdependence between the expression of chromosomal and of plasmid-located genes was revealed: expression of celA and pat-1 was substantially reduced in the absence of the chp/tomA PAI, whereas chpC and ppaA expressions were reduced in the absence of the virulence plasmids. Transcription of chromosomal genes involved in cell wall degradation (i.e., pelA1, celB, xysA, and xysB), was also induced at early stages of infection. Expression of the host-defense genes, chitinase class II and pathogenesis-related protein-5 isoform was induced in the absence of the PAI at early stages of infection, suggesting that PAI-located genes are involved in suppression of tomato basal defenses.

  6. Disruption of Ethylene Responses by Turnip mosaic virus Mediates Suppression of Plant Defense against the Green Peach Aphid Vector.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; De Alwis, Manori; Bak, Aurélie; Dong, Haili; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Plants employ diverse responses mediated by phytohormones to defend themselves against pathogens and herbivores. Adapted pathogens and herbivores often manipulate these responses to their benefit. Previously, we demonstrated that Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense induced in response to feeding by its aphid vector, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), and increases aphid fecundity compared with uninfected control plants. Further, we determined that production of a single TuMV protein, Nuclear Inclusion a-Protease (NIa-Pro) domain, was responsible for changes in host plant physiology and increased green peach aphid reproduction. To characterize the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, we examined the role of three phytohormone signaling pathways, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene (ET), in TuMV-infected Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), with or without aphid herbivory. Experiments with Arabidopsis mutants ethylene insensitive2 and ethylene response1, and chemical inhibitors of ET synthesis and perception (aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and 1-methylcyclopropene, respectively), show that the ET signaling pathway is required for TuMV-mediated suppression of Arabidopsis resistance to the green peach aphid. Additionally, transgenic expression of NIa-Pro in Arabidopsis alters ET responses and suppresses aphid-induced callose formation in an ET-dependent manner. Thus, disruption of ET responses in plants is an additional function of NIa-Pro, a highly conserved potyvirus protein. Virus-induced changes in ET responses may mediate vector-plant interactions more broadly and thus represent a conserved mechanism for increasing transmission by insect vectors across generations. PMID:26091820

  7. Root border cells and secretions as critical elements in plant host defense.

    PubMed

    Driouich, Azeddine; Follet-Gueye, Marie-Laure; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté; Hawes, Martha

    2013-08-01

    Border cells and border-like cells are released from the root tip as individual cells and small aggregates, or as a group of attached cells. These are viable components of the root system that play a key role in controlling root interaction with living microbes of the rhizosphere. As their separation from root tip proceeds, the cells synthesize and secrete a hydrated mucilage that contains polysaccharides, secondary metabolites, antimicrobial proteins and extracellular DNA (exDNA). This exDNA-based matrix seems to function in root defense in a way similar to that of recently characterized neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in mammalian cells. This review discusses the role of the cells and secreted compounds in the protection of root tip against microbial infections.

  8. Fast-forward generation of effective artificial small RNAs for enhanced antiviral defense in plants

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, Alberto; Carrington, James C.; Daròs, José-Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Artificial small RNAs (sRNAs) are short ≈21-nt non-coding RNAs engineered to inactivate sequence complementary RNAs. In plants, they have been extensively used to silence cellular transcripts in gene function analyses and to target invading RNA viruses to induce resistance. Current artificial sRNA-based antiviral resistance in plants is mainly limited to a single virus, and is jeopardized by the emergence of mutations in the artificial sRNA target site or by the presence of co-infecting viruses. Hence, there is a need to further develop the artificial sRNA approach to generate more broad and durable antiviral resistance in plants. A recently developed toolbox allows for the time and cost-effective large-scale production of artificial sRNA constructs in plants. The toolbox includes the P-SAMS web tool for the automated design of artificial sRNAs, and a new generation of artificial microRNA and synthetic trans-acting small interfering RNA (syn-tasiRNA) vectors for direct cloning and high expression of artificial sRNAs. Here we describe how the simplicity and high-throughput capability of these new technologies should accelerate the study of artificial sRNA-based antiviral resistance in plants. In particular, we discuss the potential of the syn-tasiRNA approach as a promising strategy for developing more effective, durable and broad antiviral resistance in plants. PMID:26925463

  9. Caterpillar mimicry by plant galls as a visual defense against herbivores.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    Plant galls, induced by arthropods and various other organisms have an intimate relationship with host plants, and gall-inducers have limited mobility. In addition to their own photosynthesis, galls are resource sinks rich with nutrients, with neighboring plant organs commonly serving as external photosynthate sources. Galls, if not well defended, may therefore be attractive food sources for herbivores. Galls produced by some aphids, jumping plant lice, thrips, and gall midges in Japan, Palearctic region and in the Middle East visually resemble lepidopteran caterpillars. I propose that such visual resemblance may reduce herbivory of galls and surrounding plant tissues, resulting in an increase in galler survival due to reduced gall damage and in enhanced galler growth due to improved nutrient inflow to the galls, when herbivores avoid colonizing or consuming plant parts that look as if they have been occupied by other herbivores. Potential predators and parasitoids of caterpillars may be attracted to the caterpillar-like galls and then attack real caterpillars and other invertebrate herbivores, which would also be beneficial for both gallers and their hosts. PMID:27220745

  10. Phosphorous and sulfur nutrition modulate antioxidant defenses in Myracrodruom urundeuva plants exposed to arsenic.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M P; Soares, A M; Garcia, Q S

    2014-07-15

    We investigated if plant nutrition and antioxidant system activation are correlated features of arsenic (As)-tolerance in Myracrodruom urundeuva. Plants were grown for 120 days in substrates with 0, 10, 50 and 100mg Askg(-1) and its As-tolerance was demonstrated. As-concentrations greater than 10mgkg(-1) decreased plant growth and photosynthesis but did not induce plant death. Plants coupled alterations in stomatal conductance and transpiration to avoid As-deleterious effects to the photosynthetic apparatus. As-toxicity in M. urundeuva was due to lipid peroxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gluthatione peroxidase (GPX) had central roles in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging in leaves, and their activities were linked to changes in redox potentials (ascorbate and glutathione pools). APX and GPX inactivation/degeneration led to H2O2 accumulation and related lipid peroxidation. Increased phosphorus (P) and sulfur (S) concentrations in leaves were related to increased APX and GPX activities by stimulating increases in glutathione biosynthesis. We concluded that P and S nutrition were directly linked to As-tolerance in M. urundeuva plants by increasing antioxidant system activities.

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects. PMID:27581362

  12. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects.

  13. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects. PMID:27581362

  14. The HERBIVORE ELICITOR-REGULATED1 Gene Enhances Abscisic Acid Levels and Defenses against Herbivores in Nicotiana attenuata Plants1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Dinh, Son Truong; Baldwin, Ian T.; Galis, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Nicotiana attenuata plants can distinguish the damage caused by herbivore feeding from other types of damage by perceiving herbivore-associated elicitors, such as the fatty acid-amino acid conjugates (FACs) in oral secretions (OS) of Manduca sexta larvae, which are introduced into wounds during feeding. However, the transduction of FAC signals into downstream plant defense responses is still not well established. We identified a novel FAC-regulated protein in N. attenuata (NaHER1; for herbivore elicitor regulated) and show that it is an indispensable part of the OS signal transduction pathway. N. attenuata plants silenced in the expression of NaHER1 by RNA interference (irHER1) were unable to amplify their defenses beyond basal, wound-induced levels in response to OS elicitation. M. sexta larvae performed 2-fold better when reared on irHER1 plants, which released less volatile organic compounds (indirect defense) and had strongly reduced levels of several direct defense metabolites, including trypsin proteinase inhibitors, 17-hydroxygeranyllinallool diterpene glycosides, and caffeoylputrescine, after real and/or simulated herbivore attack. In parallel to impaired jasmonate signaling and metabolism, irHER1 plants were more drought sensitive and showed reduced levels of abscisic acid (ABA) in the leaves, suggesting that silencing of NaHER1 interfered with ABA metabolism. Because treatment of irHER1 plants with ABA results in both the accumulation of significantly more ABA catabolites and the complete restoration of normal wild-type levels of OS-induced defense metabolites, we conclude that NaHER1 acts as a natural suppressor of ABA catabolism after herbivore attack, which, in turn, activates the full defense profile and resistance against herbivores. PMID:23784463

  15. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under three different plant interference conditions: (i) allelopathy simulated by application of aqueous needle extracts of Pinus, (ii) resource competition created by the physical presence of a neighboring species (Pinus or Quercus), and (iii) a combination of both allelopathy and competition. After 24 months of experimentation in simulated field conditions, Quercus was more affected by plant interference treatments than was Pinus, and a hierarchical response to biotic interference (allelopathy < competition < allelopathy + competition) was observed in terms of relative impact on growth and plant defense. Both species modulated their respective metabolic profiles according to plant interference treatment and thus their inherent chemical defense status, resulting in a physiological trade-off between plant growth and production of defense metabolites. For Quercus, an increase in secondary metabolite production and a decrease in plant growth were observed in all treatments. In contrast, this trade-off in Pinus was only observed in competition and allelopathy + competition treatments. Although Pinus and Quercus expressed differential responses when subjected to a single interference condition, either allelopathy or competition, species responses were similar or positively correlated when strong interference conditions (allelopathy + competition) were imposed.

  16. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A.; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under three different plant interference conditions: (i) allelopathy simulated by application of aqueous needle extracts of Pinus, (ii) resource competition created by the physical presence of a neighboring species (Pinus or Quercus), and (iii) a combination of both allelopathy and competition. After 24 months of experimentation in simulated field conditions, Quercus was more affected by plant interference treatments than was Pinus, and a hierarchical response to biotic interference (allelopathy < competition < allelopathy + competition) was observed in terms of relative impact on growth and plant defense. Both species modulated their respective metabolic profiles according to plant interference treatment and thus their inherent chemical defense status, resulting in a physiological trade-off between plant growth and production of defense metabolites. For Quercus, an increase in secondary metabolite production and a decrease in plant growth were observed in all treatments. In contrast, this trade-off in Pinus was only observed in competition and allelopathy + competition treatments. Although Pinus and Quercus expressed differential responses when subjected to a single interference condition, either allelopathy or competition, species responses were similar or positively correlated when strong interference conditions (allelopathy + competition) were imposed. PMID:27200062

  17. The Impact of Competition and Allelopathy on the Trade-Off between Plant Defense and Growth in Two Contrasting Tree Species.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Catherine; Monnier, Yogan; Santonja, Mathieu; Gallet, Christiane; Weston, Leslie A; Prévosto, Bernard; Saunier, Amélie; Baldy, Virginie; Bousquet-Mélou, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to plant-animal interactions, the conceptual framework regarding the impact of secondary metabolites in mediating plant-plant interference is currently less well defined. Here, we address hypotheses about the role of chemically-mediated plant-plant interference (i.e., allelopathy) as a driver of Mediterranean forest dynamics. Growth and defense abilities of a pioneer (Pinus halepensis) and a late-successional (Quercus pubescens) Mediterranean forest species were evaluated under three different plant interference conditions: (i) allelopathy simulated by application of aqueous needle extracts of Pinus, (ii) resource competition created by the physical presence of a neighboring species (Pinus or Quercus), and (iii) a combination of both allelopathy and competition. After 24 months of experimentation in simulated field conditions, Quercus was more affected by plant interference treatments than was Pinus, and a hierarchical response to biotic interference (allelopathy < competition < allelopathy + competition) was observed in terms of relative impact on growth and plant defense. Both species modulated their respective metabolic profiles according to plant interference treatment and thus their inherent chemical defense status, resulting in a physiological trade-off between plant growth and production of defense metabolites. For Quercus, an increase in secondary metabolite production and a decrease in plant growth were observed in all treatments. In contrast, this trade-off in Pinus was only observed in competition and allelopathy + competition treatments. Although Pinus and Quercus expressed differential responses when subjected to a single interference condition, either allelopathy or competition, species responses were similar or positively correlated when strong interference conditions (allelopathy + competition) were imposed. PMID:27200062

  18. Nuclear waste-form risk assessment for US Defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, H.; Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-12-01

    Savannah River Plant has been supporting the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in its present effort to perform risk assessments of alternative waste forms for defense waste. This effort relates to choosing a suitable combination of solid form and geologic medium on the basis of risk of exposure to future generations; therefore, the focus is on post-closure considerations of deep geologic repositories. The waste forms being investigated include borosilicate glass, SYNROC, and others. Geologic media under consideration are bedded salt, basalt, and tuff. The results of our work during FY 1981 are presented in this, our second annual report. The two complementary tasks that comprise our program, analysis of waste-form dissolution and risk assessment, are described.

  19. Application of an Improved Proteomics Method for Abundant Protein Cleanup: Molecular and Genomic Mechanisms Study in Plant Defense*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S.; Dai, Susie Y.

    2013-01-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery. PMID:23943779

  20. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion.

  1. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Deepak K; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion. PMID:26815857

  2. Structural basis for dual functionality of isoflavonoid O-methyltransferases in the evolution of plant defense responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jun; Deavours, Bettina E; Richard, Stéphane B; Ferrer, Jean-Luc; Blount, Jack W; Huhman, David; Dixon, Richard A; Noel, Joseph P

    2006-12-01

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  3. Use of chemical variation and predation as plant defenses byEncelia farinosa against a specialist herbivore.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, C S

    1985-11-01

    Larvae of the monophagous herbivore,Trirhabda geminata, selectively eat particular plants and plant parts of its natural host,Encelia farinosa. Measurements of leaf damage and larval positions on branches through time support this observation. Time-lapse movie photography revealed that larvae are sufficiently mobile to search most of a plant in a 48-hr period and that aggregations were the result of larval activity and not directly the result of oviposition. Experiments withT. geminata larvae on artificial diets containing a range of natural concentrations of chemical extracts fromE. farinosa leaves showed that the larvae grew significantly slower and had a lower overall survivorship at the high concentration. Combining the results of all choice tests, larvae appeared unable to distinguish between high- and low-concentration agar diets. Considered individually, larval preferences for natural production concentrations changed as the season progressed. Early-season larvae preferred low-concentration leaves, while late-season larvae preferred high-concentrations. Measurements of chemical and nitrogen content of leaves selected by larvae in the field confirmed this pattern. Percent parasitism in field-collected larvae increased with season as the larval population decreased. This combination of slowed growth and increasing parasitism and predation is a putative defense strategy ofEncelia farinosa to prevent adaptation by a specialist herbivore to the total range of compounds elaborated.

  4. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.-J.; Deavours, B.E.; Richard, S.B.; Ferrer, J.-L.; Blount, J.W.; Huhman, D.; Dixon, R.A.; Noel, J.

    2007-07-10

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  5. Structural Basis for Dual Functionality of Isoflavonoid O-Methyltransferases in the Evolution of Plant Defense Responses

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Deavours, B; Richard, S; Ferrer, J; Blount, J; Huhman, D; Dixon, R; Noel, J

    2006-01-01

    In leguminous plants such as pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula), and chickpea (Cicer arietinum), 4'-O-methylation of isoflavonoid natural products occurs early in the biosynthesis of defense chemicals known as phytoalexins. However, among these four species, only pea catalyzes 3-O-methylation that converts the pterocarpanoid isoflavonoid 6a-hydroxymaackiain to pisatin. In pea, pisatin is important for chemical resistance to the pathogenic fungus Nectria hematococca. While barrel medic does not biosynthesize 6a-hydroxymaackiain, when cell suspension cultures are fed 6a-hydroxymaackiain, they accumulate pisatin. In vitro, hydroxyisoflavanone 4'-O-methyltransferase (HI4'OMT) from barrel medic exhibits nearly identical steady state kinetic parameters for the 4'-O-methylation of the isoflavonoid intermediate 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and for the 3-O-methylation of the 6a-hydroxymaackiain isoflavonoid-derived pterocarpanoid intermediate found in pea. Protein x-ray crystal structures of HI4'OMT substrate complexes revealed identically bound conformations for the 2S,3R-stereoisomer of 2,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavanone and the 6aR,11aR-stereoisomer of 6a-hydroxymaackiain. These results suggest how similar conformations intrinsic to seemingly distinct chemical substrates allowed leguminous plants to use homologous enzymes for two different biosynthetic reactions. The three-dimensional similarity of natural small molecules represents one explanation for how plants may rapidly recruit enzymes for new biosynthetic reactions in response to changing physiological and ecological pressures.

  6. Application of an improved proteomics method for abundant protein cleanup: molecular and genomic mechanisms study in plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixiang; Gao, Peng; Xing, Zhuo; Jin, Shumei; Chen, Zhide; Liu, Lantao; Constantino, Nasie; Wang, Xinwang; Shi, Weibing; Yuan, Joshua S; Dai, Susie Y

    2013-11-01

    High abundance proteins like ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) impose a consistent challenge for the whole proteome characterization using shot-gun proteomics. To address this challenge, we developed and evaluated Polyethyleneimine Assisted Rubisco Cleanup (PARC) as a new method by combining both abundant protein removal and fractionation. The new approach was applied to a plant insect interaction study to validate the platform and investigate mechanisms for plant defense against herbivorous insects. Our results indicated that PARC can effectively remove Rubisco, improve the protein identification, and discover almost three times more differentially regulated proteins. The significantly enhanced shot-gun proteomics performance was translated into in-depth proteomic and molecular mechanisms for plant insect interaction, where carbon re-distribution was used to play an essential role. Moreover, the transcriptomic validation also confirmed the reliability of PARC analysis. Finally, functional studies were carried out for two differentially regulated genes as revealed by PARC analysis. Insect resistance was induced by over-expressing either jacalin-like or cupin-like genes in rice. The results further highlighted that PARC can serve as an effective strategy for proteomics analysis and gene discovery.

  7. Virulent Diuraphis noxia Aphids Over-Express Calcium Signaling Proteins to Overcome Defenses of Aphid-Resistant Wheat Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Deepak K.; Chandran, Predeesh; Timm, Alicia E.; Aguirre-Rojas, Lina; Smith, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, an invasive phytotoxic pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, and barley, Hordeum vulgare, causes huge economic losses in Africa, South America, and North America. Most acceptable and ecologically beneficial aphid management strategies include selection and breeding of D. noxia-resistant varieties, and numerous D. noxia resistance genes have been identified in T. aestivum and H. vulgare. North American D. noxia biotype 1 is avirulent to T. aestivum varieties possessing Dn4 or Dn7 genes, while biotype 2 is virulent to Dn4 and avirulent to Dn7. The current investigation utilized next-generation RNAseq technology to reveal that biotype 2 over expresses proteins involved in calcium signaling, which activates phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism. Calcium signaling proteins comprised 36% of all transcripts identified in the two D. noxia biotypes. Depending on plant resistance gene-aphid biotype interaction, additional transcript groups included those involved in tissue growth; defense and stress response; zinc ion and related cofactor binding; and apoptosis. Activation of enzymes involved in PI metabolism by D. noxia biotype 2 aphids allows depletion of plant calcium that normally blocks aphid feeding sites in phloem sieve elements and enables successful, continuous feeding on plants resistant to avirulent biotype 1. Inhibition of the key enzyme phospholipase C significantly reduced biotype 2 salivation into phloem and phloem sap ingestion. PMID:26815857

  8. Exogenous application of methyl jasmonate induces a defense response and resistance against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in dry bean plants.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Barros; Junior, Murillo Lobo; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Petrofeza, Silvana

    2015-06-15

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes a disease known as white mold, which is a major problem for dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and other crops in many growing areas in Brazil. To investigate the role of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) in defending dry bean plants against S. sclerotiorum, we used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) of cDNA and identified genes that are differentially expressed during plant-pathogen interactions after treatment. Exogenous MeJA application enhanced resistance to the pathogen, and SSH analyses led to the identification of 94 unigenes, presumably involved in a variety of functions, which were classified into several functional categories, including metabolism, signal transduction, protein biogenesis and degradation, and cell defense and rescue. Using RT-qPCR, some unigenes were found to be differentially expressed in a time-dependent manner in dry bean plants during the interaction with S. sclerotiorum after MeJA treatment, including the pathogenesis-related protein PR3 (chitinase), PvCallose (callose synthase), PvNBS-LRR (NBS-LRR resistance-like protein), PvF-box (F-box family protein-like), and a polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP). Based on these expression data, the putative roles of differentially expressed genes were discussed in relation to the disease and MeJA resistance induction. Changes in the activity of the pathogenesis-related proteins β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and peroxidase in plants after MeJA treatment and following inoculation of the pathogen were also investigated as molecular markers of induced resistance. Foliar application of MeJA induced partial resistance against S. sclerotiorum in plants as well as a consistent increase in pathogenesis-related protein activities. Our findings provide new insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms of resistance induced by MeJA in the P. vulgaris-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem.

  9. Diverse roles of SERK family genes in plant growth, development and defense response.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Wang, Minmin; Bai, Ming-Yi

    2016-09-01

    Plant receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain and an intracellular kinase domain, which enable plant perceiving diverse extracellular stimuli to trigger the intracellular signal transduction. The somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) code the leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK), and have been demonstrated to associate with multiple ligand-binding receptors to regulate plant growth, root development, male fertility, stomatal development and movement, and immune responses. Here, we focus on the progress made in recent years in understanding the versatile functions of Arabidopsis SERK proteins, and review SERK proteins as co-receptor to perceive different endogenous and environmental cues in different signaling pathway, and discuss how the kinase activity of SERKs is regulated by various modification. PMID:27525989

  10. PathoPlant: a platform for microarray expression data to analyze co-regulated genes involved in plant defense responses.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Lorenz; Schindler, Martin; Hehl, Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    Plants react to pathogen attack by expressing specific proteins directed toward the infecting pathogens. This involves the transcriptional activation of specific gene sets. PathoPlant, a database on plant-pathogen interactions and signal transduction reactions, has now been complemented by microarray gene expression data from Arabidopsis thaliana subjected to pathogen infection and elicitor treatment. New web tools enable identification of plant genes regulated by specific stimuli. Sets of genes co-regulated by multiple stimuli can be displayed as well. A user-friendly web interface was created for the submission of gene sets to be analyzed. This results in a table, listing the stimuli that act either inducing or repressing on the respective genes. The search can be restricted to certain induction factors to identify, e.g. strongly up- or down-regulated genes. Up to three stimuli can be combined with the option of induction factor restriction to determine similarly regulated genes. To identify common cis-regulatory elements in co-regulated genes, a resulting gene list can directly be exported to the AthaMap database for analysis. PathoPlant is freely accessible at http://www.pathoplant.de. PMID:17099232

  11. Plant aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) as multi-tasking soldiers involved in diverse plant metabolic processes and stress defense: A structure-function update.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Naik, Dhiraj; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2015-05-01

    The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily comprises of a large number of primarily monomeric protein members, which reduce a broad spectrum of substrates ranging from simple sugars to potentially toxic aldehydes. Plant AKRs can be broadly categorized into four important functional groups, which highlight their roles in diverse plant metabolic reactions including reactive aldehyde detoxification, biosynthesis of osmolytes, secondary metabolism and membrane transport. Further, multiple overlapping functional aspects of plant AKRs including biotic and abiotic stress defense, production of commercially important secondary metabolites, iron acquisition from soil, plant-microbe interactions etc. are discussed as subcategories within respective major groups. Owing to the broad substrate specificity and multiple stress tolerance of the well-characterized AKR4C9 from Arabidopsis thaliana, protein sequences of all the homologues of AKR4C9 (A9-like proteins) from forty different plant species (Phytozome database) were analyzed. The analysis revealed that all A9-like proteins possess strictly conserved key catalytic residues (D-47, Y-52 and K-81) and belong to the pfam00248 and cl00470 AKR superfamilies. Based on structural homology of the three flexible loops of AKR4C9 (Loop A, B and C) responsible for broad substrate specificity, A9-like proteins found in Brassica rapa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cucumis sativus, Populus trichocarpa and Solanum lycopersicum were predicted to have a similar range of substrate specificity. Thus, plant AKRs can be considered as potential breeding targets for developing stress tolerant varieties in the future. The present review provides a consolidated update on the current research status of plant AKRs with an emphasis on important functional aspects as well as their potential future prospects and an insight into the overall structure-function relationships of A9-like proteins.

  12. Alpha-momorcharin, a RIP produced by bitter melon, enhances defense response in tobacco plants against diverse plant viruses and shows antifungal activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Ping; Meng, Yan-Fa; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Da-Wei; Cheng, Jian; Lin, Hong-Hui; Xi, De-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is type-1 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) with molecular weight of 29 kDa and has lots of biological activity. Our recent study indicated that the α-MMC purified from seeds of Momordica charantia exhibited distinct antiviral and antifungal activity. Tobacco plants pre-treated with 0.5 mg/mL α-MMC 3 days before inoculation with various viruses showed less-severe symptom and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation compared to that inoculated with viruses only. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the replication levels of viruses were lower in the plants treated with the α-MMC than control plants at 15 days post inoculation. Moreover, the coat protein expression of viruses was almost completely inhibited in plants which were treated with the α-MMC compared with control plants. Furthermore, the SA-responsive defense-related genes including non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1), PR1, PR2 were up-regulated and activities of some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) were increased after the α-MMC treatment. In addition, the α-MMC (500 μg/mL) revealed remarkable antifungal effect against phytopathogenic fungi, in the growth inhibition range 50.35-67.21 %, along with their MIC values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The α-MMC had also a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The α-MMC showed a remarkable antiviral and antifungal effect and hence could possibly be exploited in crop protection for controlling certain important plant diseases.

  13. Plant aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) as multi-tasking soldiers involved in diverse plant metabolic processes and stress defense: A structure-function update.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Naik, Dhiraj; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2015-05-01

    The aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily comprises of a large number of primarily monomeric protein members, which reduce a broad spectrum of substrates ranging from simple sugars to potentially toxic aldehydes. Plant AKRs can be broadly categorized into four important functional groups, which highlight their roles in diverse plant metabolic reactions including reactive aldehyde detoxification, biosynthesis of osmolytes, secondary metabolism and membrane transport. Further, multiple overlapping functional aspects of plant AKRs including biotic and abiotic stress defense, production of commercially important secondary metabolites, iron acquisition from soil, plant-microbe interactions etc. are discussed as subcategories within respective major groups. Owing to the broad substrate specificity and multiple stress tolerance of the well-characterized AKR4C9 from Arabidopsis thaliana, protein sequences of all the homologues of AKR4C9 (A9-like proteins) from forty different plant species (Phytozome database) were analyzed. The analysis revealed that all A9-like proteins possess strictly conserved key catalytic residues (D-47, Y-52 and K-81) and belong to the pfam00248 and cl00470 AKR superfamilies. Based on structural homology of the three flexible loops of AKR4C9 (Loop A, B and C) responsible for broad substrate specificity, A9-like proteins found in Brassica rapa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cucumis sativus, Populus trichocarpa and Solanum lycopersicum were predicted to have a similar range of substrate specificity. Thus, plant AKRs can be considered as potential breeding targets for developing stress tolerant varieties in the future. The present review provides a consolidated update on the current research status of plant AKRs with an emphasis on important functional aspects as well as their potential future prospects and an insight into the overall structure-function relationships of A9-like proteins. PMID:25840343

  14. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts.

  15. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and Vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report are two-fold: (1) to define the hydrogeologic conditions in the vicinity of the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) and, (2) to evaluate the potential for movement of a concentrated salt-solution waste if released at or near the DWPF. These purposes were accomplished by assembling and evaluating existing hydrogeologic data; collecting additional geologic, hydrologic, and water-quality data; developing a local geologic framework; developing a conceptual model of the local ground-water flow system; and by performing laboratory experiments to determine the mobility of salt-solution waste in surface and near-surface sediments. Although the unconsolidated sediments are about 1000 ft thick in the study area, only the Tertiary age sediments, or upper 300 ft are discussed in this report. The top of the Ellenton Formation acts as the major confining unit between the overlying aquifers in Tertiary sediments and the underlying aquifers in Cretaceous sediments; therefore, the Ellenton Formation is the vertical limit of our hydrogeologic investigation. The majority of the hydrologic data for this study come from monitoring wells at the saltstone disposal site (SDS) in Z Area (fig. 3). No recent water-level data were collected in S Area owing to the removal of S Area monitoring wells prior to construction at the DWPF. 46 refs., 26 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Glyceollin is an important component of soybean plant defense against Phytophthora sojae and Macrophomina phaseolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic soybean plants were generated using bombardment of embryogenic cultures with the PAL5 (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), CHS6 (chalcone synthase) and IFS2 (isoflavone synthase) genes in sense orientation, driven by the cotyledon-preferable lectin promoter, or with the IFS2 (isoflavone synthas...

  17. The role of arabidopsis WDR protein in plant growth and defense strategies.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Huey-Wen; Feng, Ji-Huan; Feng, Yung-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Evidence indicates that the mechanisms controlling photosynthesis efficiency also regulate plant response to biotic and abiotic stress. Light-induced cell death is genetically maintained for the control of innate immunity. In a recent study we showed that the expression of AtWDR26 was induced by light, multiple plant hormones, and abiotic stress; increased AtWDR26 strongly upregulated gene groups related to chloroplast metabolism, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses in transgenic plants demonstrated the involvement of AtWDR26 in signaling pathways; these controls were osmotic as well as salt stress tolerance. More detailed transcriptome evidence suggested that AtWDR26 was a powerful inducer of gene expression associated with chloroplast metabolism. This included the electron transport chain of the photosystem, carbohydrate synthesis, and enzymatic activity involved in photorespiration. Moreover, genes in auxin synthesis (and perception) constituted a significant portion of those that were upregulated. Gene expression involved in disease resistance, control of cell wall flexibility, Zn uptake, and AP2/ERF transcription factors was also be upregulated. We concluded that AtWDR26 is one component in the regulatory network between light-regulated plant growth and the adaptation response to disease resistance and abiotic stress. Auxin signal acts downstream for AtWDR26 regulation and the adaptation response to biotic and abiotic stress: this occurs through modulating cell wall flexibility, Zn homeostasis, and controlling stress-related transcription factors. PMID:27472469

  18. For ant-protected plants, the best defense is a hungry offense.

    PubMed

    Ness, J H; Morris, W F; Bronstein, Judith L

    2009-10-01

    Animal foraging has been characterized as an attempt to maximize the intake of carbon and nitrogen at appropriate ratios. Plant species in over 90 families produce carbohydrate-rich extrafloral nectar (EFN), a resource attractive to ants and other omnivorous insects. This attraction can benefit the plant if those arthropods subsequently attack herbivores. This protective response has been attributed to the increased visitation and "ownership" of plants that provide a predictable source of fuel. Here, we propose and test an alternative (but non-mutually exclusive) hypothesis, that access to C-rich carbohydrates increases the ants' desire for N-rich protein and hence the likelihood that they will attack herbivorous insects on the host plant. This "deficit hypothesis" would be rejected if (1) EFN were itself a sufficiently balanced food source in terms of C and N, (2) ant dietary preferences were similar in the presence vs. absence of EFN, (3) protein-hungry ants were not more predaceous, or (4) ants provided access to protein were more aggressive toward potential prey items than were ants provided access to carbohydrates. We test these predictions in a protective mutualism between a guild of desert ants and the barrel cactus Ferocactus wislizeni. C:N ratios of EFN exceeded that of ants or potential prey items by an order of magnitude (i.e., EFN is an N-poor food for ants). Baiting studies demonstrated that plant-tending ant species recruited more workers to N-rich protein baits than to C-rich sugar baits; this difference was more pronounced when the ants had access to F. wislizeni EFN. From these data, we infer that protein is a valuable resource and that its relative value increases when carbohydrates are readily available. Moreover, ant colonies provided access to supplemental carbohydrates responded more aggressively to surrogate herbivores than did control colonies (to which no additional resources were provided) or colonies provided protein. These results

  19. A below-ground herbivore shapes root defensive chemistry in natural plant populations.

    PubMed

    Huber, Meret; Bont, Zoe; Fricke, Julia; Brillatz, Théo; Aziz, Zohra; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Erb, Matthias

    2016-03-30

    Plants display extensive intraspecific variation in secondary metabolites. However, the selective forces shaping this diversity remain often unknown, especially below ground. Using Taraxacum officinale and its major native insect root herbivore Melolontha melolontha, we tested whether below-ground herbivores drive intraspecific variation in root secondary metabolites. We found that high M. melolontha infestation levels over recent decades are associated with high concentrations of major root latex secondary metabolites across 21 central European T. officinale field populations. By cultivating offspring of these populations, we show that both heritable variation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to the observed differences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the production of the sesquiterpene lactone taraxinic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (TA-G) is costly in the absence, but beneficial in the presence of M. melolontha, resulting in divergent selection of TA-G. Our results highlight the role of soil-dwelling insects for the evolution of plant defences in nature. PMID:27009228

  20. The conformational and subcellular compartmental dance of plant NLRs during viral recognition and defense signaling

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Meenu S; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2014-01-01

    Plant innate immune response against viruses utilizes intracellular Nucleotide Binding domain Leucine Rich Repeat (NLR) class of receptors. NLRs recognize different viral proteins termed elicitors and initiate diverse signaling processes that induce programmed cell death (PCD) in infected cells and restrict virus spread. In this review we describe the recent advances made in the study of plant NLRs that detect viruses. We describe some of the physical and functional interactions these NLRs undertake. We elaborate on the intra-molecular and homotypic association of NLRs that function in self-regulation and activation. Nuclear role for some viral NLRs is discussed as well as the emerging importance of the RNAi pathway in regulating the NLR family. PMID:24906192

  1. EDTA enhanced plant growth, antioxidant defense system, and phytoextraction of copper by Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Habiba, Ume; Ali, Shafaqat; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan; Hayat, Tahir; Ali, Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland's nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils. PMID:25163559

  2. EDTA enhanced plant growth, antioxidant defense system, and phytoextraction of copper by Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Habiba, Ume; Ali, Shafaqat; Farid, Mujahid; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan; Hayat, Tahir; Ali, Basharat

    2015-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for normal plant growth and development, but in excess, it is also toxic to plants. The present study investigated the influence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing Cu uptake and tolerance as well as the morphological and physiological responses of Brassica napus L. seedlings under Cu stress. Four-week-old seedlings were transferred to hydroponics containing Hoagland's nutrient solution. After 2 weeks of transplanting, three levels (0, 50, and 100 μM) of Cu were applied with or without application of 2.5 mM EDTA and plants were further grown for 8 weeks in culture media. Results showed that Cu alone significantly decreased plant growth, biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and gas exchange characteristics. Cu stress also reduced the activities of antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) along with protein contents. Cu toxicity increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by the increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in both leaves and roots. The application of EDTA significantly alleviated Cu-induced toxic effects in B. napus, showing remarkable improvement in all these parameters. EDTA amendment increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes by decreasing the concentrations of MDA and H2O2 both in leaves and roots of B. napus. Although, EDTA amendment with Cu significantly increased Cu uptake in roots, stems, and leaves in decreasing order of concentration but increased the growth, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzymes. These results showed that the application of EDTA can be a useful strategy for phytoextraction of Cu by B. napus from contaminated soils.

  3. Exposure of cerium oxide nanoparticles to kidney bean shows disturbance in the plant defense mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose-Angel; Sahi, Shivendra; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-08-15

    Overwhelming use of engineered nanoparticles demands rapid assessment of their environmental impacts. The transport of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) in plants and their impact on cellular homeostasis as a function of exposure duration is not well understood. In this study, kidney bean plants were exposed to suspensions of ∼ 8 ± 1 nm nCeO2 (62.5 to 500 mg/L) for 15 days in hydroponic conditions. Plant parts were analyzed for cerium accumulation after one, seven, and 15 days of nCeO2 exposure. The primary indicators of stress like lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities, total soluble protein and chlorophyll contents were studied. Cerium in tissues was localized using scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron μ-XRF mapping, and the chemical forms were identified using μ-XANES. In the root epidermis, cerium was primarily shown to exist as nCeO2, although a small fraction (12%) was biotransformed to Ce(III) compound. Cerium was found to reach the root vascular tissues and translocate to aerial parts with time. Upon prolonged exposure to 500 mg nCeO2/L, the root antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly reduced, simultaneously increasing the root soluble protein by 204%. In addition, leaf's guaiacol peroxidase activity was enhanced with nCeO2 exposure in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. PMID:24981679

  4. Antioxidant Enzyme Responses Induced by Whiteflies in Tobacco Plants in Defense against Aphids: Catalase May Play a Dominant Role

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Haipeng; Sun, Xia; Xue, Ming; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Qingliang

    2016-01-01

    led to the suppression of the B. tabaci mediated PR-2a expression. Conclusions/Significance Aphid resistance in plants infested with B. tabaci nymphs is associated with enhanced antioxidant activities in which CAT may play a dominant role. This resistance probably acted via interactions with SA-mediated defense responses. PMID:27788203

  5. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46’s role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S.; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46’s function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled less nicotine because of lower hemolymph nicotine concentrations. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were impaired in distributing ingested nicotine from midgut to hemolymph, but not in the clearing of hemolymph nicotine or in the exhalation of nicotine from hemolymph. MsCYP6B46 could be a component of a previously hypothesized pump that converts nicotine to a short-lived, transportable, metabolite. Other predators, big-eyed bugs, and antlion larvae were insensitive to this defense. Thus, chemical defenses, too toxic to sequester, can be repurposed for defensive functions through respiration as a form of defensive halitosis, and predators can assist the functional elucidation of herbivore genes. PMID:24379363

  6. Natural history-driven, plant-mediated RNAi-based study reveals CYP6B46's role in a nicotine-mediated antipredator herbivore defense.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Pandit, Sagar S; Steppuhn, Anke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2014-01-28

    Manduca sexta (Ms) larvae are known to efficiently excrete ingested nicotine when feeding on their nicotine-producing native hostplant, Nicotiana attenuata. Here we describe how ingested nicotine is co-opted for larval defense by a unique mechanism. Plant-mediated RNAi was used to silence a midgut-expressed, nicotine-induced cytochrome P450 6B46 (CYP6B46) in larvae consuming transgenic N. attenuata plants producing MsCYP6B46 dsRNA. These and transgenic nicotine-deficient plants were planted into native habitats to study the phenotypes of larvae feeding on these plants and the behavior of their predators. The attack-behavior of a native wolf spider (Camptocosa parallela), a major nocturnal predator, provided the key to understanding MsCYP6B46's function: spiders clearly preferred CYP6B46-silenced larvae, just as they had preferred larvae fed nicotine-deficient plants. MsCYP6B46 redirects a small amount (0.65%) of ingested nicotine from the midgut into hemolymph, from which nicotine is exhaled through the spiracles as an antispider signal. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were more susceptible to spider-attack because they exhaled less nicotine because of lower hemolymph nicotine concentrations. CYP6B46-silenced larvae were impaired in distributing ingested nicotine from midgut to hemolymph, but not in the clearing of hemolymph nicotine or in the exhalation of nicotine from hemolymph. MsCYP6B46 could be a component of a previously hypothesized pump that converts nicotine to a short-lived, transportable, metabolite. Other predators, big-eyed bugs, and antlion larvae were insensitive to this defense. Thus, chemical defenses, too toxic to sequester, can be repurposed for defensive functions through respiration as a form of defensive halitosis, and predators can assist the functional elucidation of herbivore genes. PMID:24379363

  7. Viral RNase3 Co-Localizes and Interacts with the Antiviral Defense Protein SGS3 in Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer, Isabel; Haikonen, Tuuli; Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Moser, Mirko; Streng, Janne; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P. T.

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3) that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA) and long dsRNA to fragments that are too short to be utilized in RNAi. However, RNase3 can suppress only RNAi induced by sense RNA. Sense-mediated RNAi involves host suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3) and RNA–dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6). In this study, subcellular localization and host interactions of RNase3 were studied in plant cells. RNase3 was found to interact with SGS3 of sweetpotato and Arabidopsis thaliana when expressed in leaves, and it localized to SGS3/RDR6 bodies in the cytoplasm of leaf cells and protoplasts. RNase3 was also detected in the nucleus. Co-expression of RNase3 and SGS3 in leaf tissue enhanced the suppression of RNAi, as compared with expression of RNase3 alone. These results suggest additional mechanisms needed for efficient RNase3-mediated suppression of RNAi and provide new information about the subcellular context and phase of the RNAi pathway in which RNase3 realizes RNAi suppression. PMID:27391019

  8. A free lunch? No cost for acquiring defensive plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a specialist arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Trigo, José R; Futuyma, Douglas J

    2012-12-01

    Many herbivorous insects sequester defensive chemicals from their host plants. We tested sequestration fitness costs in the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We added pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations. Of all the larval and adult fitness components measured, only development time was negatively affected by PA concentration. These results were repeated under stressful laboratory conditions. On the other hand, the amount of PAs sequestered greatly increased with the diet PA concentration. Absence of a detectable negative effect does not necessarily imply a lack of costs if all individuals express the biochemical machinery of detoxification and sequestration constitutively. Therefore, we used qPCR to show that expression of the gene used to detoxify PAs, pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenase (pno), increased 41-fold in our highest PA treatment. Nevertheless, fitness components were affected only slightly or not at all, suggesting that sequestration in this species does not incur a strong cost. The apparent lack of costs has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of ecological interactions; for example, it implies that selection by specialist herbivores may decrease the levels of certain chemical defences in plant populations.

  9. Viral RNase3 Co-Localizes and Interacts with the Antiviral Defense Protein SGS3 in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Weinheimer, Isabel; Haikonen, Tuuli; Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Moser, Mirko; Streng, Janne; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3) that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA) and long dsRNA to fragments that are too short to be utilized in RNAi. However, RNase3 can suppress only RNAi induced by sense RNA. Sense-mediated RNAi involves host suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6). In this study, subcellular localization and host interactions of RNase3 were studied in plant cells. RNase3 was found to interact with SGS3 of sweetpotato and Arabidopsis thaliana when expressed in leaves, and it localized to SGS3/RDR6 bodies in the cytoplasm of leaf cells and protoplasts. RNase3 was also detected in the nucleus. Co-expression of RNase3 and SGS3 in leaf tissue enhanced the suppression of RNAi, as compared with expression of RNase3 alone. These results suggest additional mechanisms needed for efficient RNase3-mediated suppression of RNAi and provide new information about the subcellular context and phase of the RNAi pathway in which RNase3 realizes RNAi suppression. PMID:27391019

  10. A free lunch? No cost for acquiring defensive plant pyrrolizidine alkaloids in a specialist arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).

    PubMed

    Cogni, Rodrigo; Trigo, José R; Futuyma, Douglas J

    2012-12-01

    Many herbivorous insects sequester defensive chemicals from their host plants. We tested sequestration fitness costs in the specialist moth Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). We added pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) to an artificial diet at different concentrations. Of all the larval and adult fitness components measured, only development time was negatively affected by PA concentration. These results were repeated under stressful laboratory conditions. On the other hand, the amount of PAs sequestered greatly increased with the diet PA concentration. Absence of a detectable negative effect does not necessarily imply a lack of costs if all individuals express the biochemical machinery of detoxification and sequestration constitutively. Therefore, we used qPCR to show that expression of the gene used to detoxify PAs, pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenase (pno), increased 41-fold in our highest PA treatment. Nevertheless, fitness components were affected only slightly or not at all, suggesting that sequestration in this species does not incur a strong cost. The apparent lack of costs has important implications for our understanding of the evolution of ecological interactions; for example, it implies that selection by specialist herbivores may decrease the levels of certain chemical defences in plant populations. PMID:23110459

  11. Disruption of web structure and predatory behavior of a spider by plant-derived chemical defenses of an aposematic aphid.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, S B

    1989-06-01

    Two toxic and bitter-tasting cardenolides (cardiac-active steroids) were sequestered by the brightly colored oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., from the neotropical milkweed host plantAsclepias curassavica L. After feeding on milkweed-reared aphids, the orb-web spiderZygiella x-notata (Clerck) built severely disrupted webs and attacked fewer nontoxic, control aphids, whereas the webs of spiders fed only nontoxic aphids remained intact. The regularity and size of the prey-trapping area of webs were reduced significantly in proportion to the amount of toxic aphids eaten. The effects of toxic aphids on spider web structure were mimicked by feeding spiders the bitter-tasting cardenolide digitoxin, a cardenolide with similar steroidal structure and pharmacological activity to the two aphid cardenolides. These results show that the well-known effects of psychoactive drugs on spider web structure are more than interesting behavioral assays of drag activity. Similar effects, produced by plant-derived chemicals in the spider's aphid prey, are relevant to the ecology and evolution of interactions between prey defense and predator foraging.

  12. The maize lipoxygenase, ZmLOX10, mediates green leaf volatile, jasmonate, and herbivore-induced plant volatile production for defense against insect attack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid derivatives are of central importance for plant immunity against insect herbivores. However, major regulatory genes and the signals that modulate these defense metabolites are vastly understudied, especially in important agro-economic monocot species. Here we show that products and sign...

  13. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Beatriz P.; Solferini, Vera N.

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense. PMID:26517873

  14. Feeding on Host Plants with Different Concentrations and Structures of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids Impacts the Chemical-Defense Effectiveness of a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos H Z; Cunha, Beatriz P; Solferini, Vera N; Trigo, José R

    2015-01-01

    Sequestration of chemical defenses from host plants is a strategy widely used by herbivorous insects to avoid predation. Larvae of the arctiine moth Utetheisa ornatrix feeding on unripe seeds and leaves of many species of Crotalaria (Leguminosae) sequester N-oxides of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from these host plants, and transfer them to adults through the pupal stage. PAs confer protection against predation on all life stages of U. ornatrix. As U. ornatrix also uses other Crotalaria species as host plants, we evaluated whether the PA chemical defense against predation is independent of host plant use. We fed larvae from hatching to pupation with either leaves or seeds of one of eight Crotalaria species (C. incana, C. juncea, C. micans, C. ochroleuca, C. pallida, C. paulina, C. spectabilis, and C. vitellina), and tested if adults were preyed upon or released by the orb-weaving spider Nephila clavipes. We found that the protection against the spider was more effective in adults whose larvae fed on seeds, which had a higher PA concentration than leaves. The exceptions were adults from larvae fed on C. paulina, C. spectabilis and C. vitellina leaves, which showed high PA concentrations. With respect to the PA profile, we describe for the first time insect-PAs in U. ornatrix. These PAs, biosynthesized from the necine base retronecine of plant origin, or monocrotaline- and senecionine-type PAs sequestered from host plants, were equally active in moth chemical defense, in a dose-dependent manner. These results are also partially explained by host plant phylogeny, since PAs of the host plants do have a phylogenetic signal (clades with high and low PA concentrations in leaves) which is reflected in the adult defense.

  15. Capsicum annuum homeobox 1 (CaHB1) is a nuclear factor that has roles in plant development, salt tolerance, and pathogen defense

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Yoon, Joonseon; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Hyun A; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •The CaHB1 is a nuclear factor, belonging to HD-Zip proteins. •SA and ET, as signal molecules, modulate CaHB1-mediated responses. •Overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato resulted in a thicker cell wall. •CaHB1-transgenic tomato confers resistance to Phytophthora infestans. •CaHB1 enhanced tolerance to saline stress in tomato. -- Abstract: Homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) family proteins are unique to plants, but little is known about their role in defense responses. CaHB1 is a nuclear factor in peppers, belonging to subfamily II of HD-Zip proteins. Here, we determined the role of CaHB1 in the defense response. CaHB1 expression was induced when pepper plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici, a plant pathogen to which peppers are susceptible, or environmental stresses such as drought and salt stimuli. CaHB1 was also highly expressed in pepper leaves following application of SA, whereas ethephon and MeJA had a moderate effect. To further investigate the function of CaHB1 in plants, we performed gain-of-function study by overexpression of CaHB1 in tomato. CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes showed significant growth enhancement including increased leaf thickness and enlarged cell size (1.8-fold larger than control plants). Microscopic analysis revealed that leaves from CaHB1-transgenic plants had thicker cell walls and cuticle layers than those from controls. Moreover, CaHB1-transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance against Phytophthora infestans and increased tolerance to salt stress. Additionally, RT-PCR analysis of CaHB1-transgenic tomatoes revealed constitutive up-regulation of multiple genes involved in plant defense and osmotic stress. Therefore, our findings suggest roles for CaHB1 in development, salt stress, and pathogen defense.

  16. Stability of plant defensive traits among populations in two Eucalyptus species under elevated carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Adam B; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Price, Cassandra; Davies, Noel W; Potts, Brad M; Hovenden, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) mediate a wide range of ecological interactions. Investigating the effect of environment on PSM production is important for our understanding of how plants will adapt to large scale environmental change, and the extended effects on communities and ecosystems. We explored the production of PSMs under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO(2)]) in the species rich, ecologically and commercially important genus Eucalyptus. Seedlings from multiple Eucalyptus globulus and E. pauciflora populations were grown in common glasshouse gardens under elevated or ambient [CO(2)]. Variation in primary and secondary chemistry was determined as a function of genotype and treatment. There were clear population differences in PSM expression in each species. Elevated [CO(2)] did not affect concentrations of individual PSMs, total phenolics, condensed tannins or the total oil yield, and there was no population by [CO(2)] treatment interaction for any traits. Multivariate analysis revealed similar results with significant variation in concentrations of E. pauciflora oil components between populations. A [CO(2)] treatment effect was detected within populations but no interactions were found between elevated [CO(2)] and population. These eucalypt seedlings appear to be largely unresponsive to elevated [CO(2)], indicating stronger genetic than environmental (elevated [CO(2)]) control of expression of PSMs.

  17. Arabidopsis protein phosphatase DBP1 nucleates a protein network with a role in regulating plant defense.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, José Luis; Castelló, María José; Naumann, Kai; Lassowskat, Ines; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Scheel, Dierk; Vera, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana DBP1 belongs to the plant-specific family of DNA-binding protein phosphatases. Although recently identified as a novel host factor mediating susceptibility to potyvirus, little is known about DBP1 targets and partners and the molecular mechanisms underlying its function. Analyzing changes in the phosphoproteome of a loss-of-function dbp1 mutant enabled the identification of 14-3-3λ isoform (GRF6), a previously reported DBP1 interactor, and MAP kinase (MAPK) MPK11 as components of a small protein network nucleated by DBP1, in which GRF6 stability is modulated by MPK11 through phosphorylation, while DBP1 in turn negatively regulates MPK11 activity. Interestingly, grf6 and mpk11 loss-of-function mutants showed altered response to infection by the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV), and the described molecular mechanism controlling GRF6 stability was recapitulated upon PPV infection. These results not only contribute to a better knowledge of the biology of DBP factors, but also of MAPK signalling in plants, with the identification of GRF6 as a likely MPK11 substrate and of DBP1 as a protein phosphatase regulating MPK11 activity, and unveils the implication of this protein module in the response to PPV infection in Arabidopsis.

  18. Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or Development of Transgenic Plants or Neighbors1[W

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Meredith C.; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, with approximately 5,000 structures, are the most diverse class of plant volatiles with manifold hypothesized functions in defense, stress tolerance, and signaling between and within plants. These hypotheses have often been tested by transforming plants with sesquiterpene synthases expressed behind the constitutively active 35S promoter, which may have physiological costs measured as inhibited growth and reduced reproduction or may require augmentation of substrate pools to achieve enhanced emission, complicating the interpretation of data from affected transgenic lines. Here, we expressed maize (Zea mays) terpene synthase10 (ZmTPS10), which produces (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene, or a point mutant ZmTPS10M, which produces primarily (E)-β-farnesene, under control of the 35S promoter in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. Transgenic N. attenuata plants had specifically enhanced emission of target sesquiterpene(s) with no changes detected in their emission of any other volatiles. Treatment with herbivore or jasmonate elicitors induces emission of (E)-α-bergamotene in wild-type plants and also tended to increase emission of (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene in transgenics. However, transgenics did not differ from the wild type in defense signaling or chemistry and did not alter defense chemistry in neighboring wild-type plants. These data are inconsistent with within-plant and between-plant signaling functions of (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-α-bergamotene in N. attenuata. Ectopic sesquiterpene emission was apparently not costly for transgenics, which were similar to wild-type plants in their growth and reproduction, even when forced to compete for common resources. These transgenics would be well suited for field experiments to investigate indirect ecological effects of sesquiterpenes for a wild plant in its native habitat. PMID:25187528

  19. Failure of tannic acid to inhibit digestion or reduce digestibility of plant protein in gut fluids of insect herbivores : Implications for theories of plant defense.

    PubMed

    Martin, J S; Martin, M M; Bernays, E A

    1987-03-01

    The rate of hydrolysis of the abundant foliar protein, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPC), in enzymatically active gut fluid ofManduca sexta larvae is very rapid and is unaffected by the presence of tannic acid, even when tannic acid is present in the incubation mixture in amounts in excess of the amount of RuBPC. When this protein is dissolved in the denatured gut fluids ofM. sexta larvae orSchistocerca gregaria nymphs, large amounts of tannic acid must be added to bring about the precipitation of significant quantities of protein. The ability of insect gut fluid to prevent the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes is due to the presence of surfactants. On the basis of our results and a review of the findings of other investigators, we argue that there is no evidence that tannins reduce the nutritional value of an insect's food by inhibiting digestive enzymes or by reducing the digestibility of ingested proteins and, further, that the failure of tannins to interfere with digestion is readily explained on the basis of well-documented characteristics of the digestive systems of herbivorous insects. In challenging the currently popular notion that tannins are digestibility-reducing substances, we do not challenge the general utility of either the apparency theory or resource availability theory of plant defense. In debating the merits of these two analyses of plant-herbivore interactions, however, the demise of tannins as all-purpose, dose-dependent, digestibility-reducing defensive substances must be taken into account.

  20. Preparation and properties of SYNROC D containing simulated Savannah River Plant high-level defense waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenig, C.; Rozsa, R.; Bazan, F.; Otto, R.; Grens, J.

    1981-07-23

    We describe in detail the formulation and processing steps used to prepare all SYNROC D samples tested in the Comparative Leach Testing Program at the Savannah River Laboratory. We also discuss how the composition of the Savannah River Plant sludge influences the formulation and ultimate preparation of SYNROC D. Mechanical properties are reported in the categories of elastic constants, flexural and compressive strengths, and microhardness; thermal expansion and thermal conductivity results are presented. The thermal expansion data indicated the presence of significant residual strain and the possibility of an unidentified amorphous or glassy phase in the microstructure. We summarize the standardized (MCC) leaching results for both crushed Synroc and monoliths in deionized water, silicate water, and salt brine at 90/sup 0/C and 150/sup 0/C.

  1. Small RNAs: essential regulators of gene expression and defenses against environmental stresses in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Lin V; Chekanova, Julia A

    2016-05-01

    Eukaryotic genomes produce thousands of diverse small RNAs (smRNAs), which play vital roles in regulating gene expression in all conditions, including in survival of biotic and abiotic environmental stresses. SmRNA pathways intersect with most of the pathways regulating different steps in the life of a messenger RNA (mRNA), starting from transcription and ending at mRNA decay. SmRNAs function in both nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments; the regulation of mRNA stability and translation in the cytoplasm and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the nucleus are the main and best-known modes of smRNA action. However, recent evidence from animal systems indicates that smRNAs and RNA interference (RNAi) also participate in the regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing, one of the most crucial steps in the fast, efficient global reprogramming of gene expression required for survival under stress. Emerging evidence from bioinformatics studies indicates that a specific class of plant smRNAs, induced by various abiotic stresses, the sutr-siRNAs, has the potential to target regulatory regions within introns and thus may act in the regulation of splicing in response to stresses. This review summarizes the major types of plant smRNAs in the context of their mechanisms of action and also provides examples of their involvement in regulation of gene expression in response to environmental cues and developmental stresses. In addition, we describe current advances in our understanding of how smRNAs function in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:356-381. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1340 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  2. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum – Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  3. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani Interaction.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani.

  4. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani Interaction.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  5. Impact of an Invasive Insect and Plant Defense on a Native Forest Defoliator

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Claire M.; Vendettuoli, Justin F.; Orwig, David A.; Preisser, Evan L.

    2016-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carriére) in the United States is threatened by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). The native hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria Guenée) also appears to have played a role in previous population declines of this conifer. Although these two insects co-occur in much of the adelgid’s invaded range, their interactions remain unstudied. We assessed looper performance and preference on both uninfested and adelgid-infested foliage from adelgid-susceptible hemlocks, as well as on uninfested foliage from an eastern hemlock that is naturally adelgid-resistant. Larvae reared on uninfested foliage from adelgid-susceptible hemlocks experienced 60% mortality within the first two weeks of the experiment, and pupated at a lower weight than larvae fed adelgid-infested foliage. Despite differences in foliage source, this first look and strong pattern suggests that the hemlock looper performs better (pupates earlier, weighs more) on adelgid-infested foliage. In addition, trends suggested that larvae reared on foliage from the adelgid-resistant tree survived better, pupated earlier, and weighed more than in the other treatments. Larvae preferred adelgid-resistant over adelgid-susceptible foliage. Our results suggest that looper perform slightly better on adelgid-infested foliage and that plant resistance to xylem-feeding adelgid may increase susceptibility to foliar-feeding looper larvae. PMID:27649247

  6. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the area around the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina consists of 2 to 3 separate water bearing units. In the northern half of the study area, the Barnwell and underlying McBean aquifers are considered one aquifer owing to the absence of the tan clay-confining unit between them. In the southern half of the study area they are separated by the tan clay into two aquifers. Underlying these aquifers, and separated from them by the green clay-confining unit, is the Congaree aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifers range from 0.00000001 to 0.0001 ft/sec. Directions of groundwater flow in the Barnwell and McBean aquifers are to the north, with a component of flow directed downward across the green clay and into the Congaree aquifer. The direction of flow in the Congaree aquifer is to the northwest. Water in these aquifers evolves from an acidic (pH < 6.5) mixed-cation type in the Barnwell aquifer to an alkaline (pH > 8) calcium bicarbonate water in the Congaree aquifer. Laboratory experiments indicate that reactions between sediments of the Barnwell aquifer and a salt-solution waste to be stored at the study area would significantly reduce the permeability of the sediment, thereby limiting the movement of the waste in groundwater at the site. (USGS)

  7. Volatile isoprenoids as defense compounds during abiotic stress in tropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions of volatile isoprenoids from tropical forests play central roles in atmospheric processes by fueling atmospheric chemistry resulting in modified aerosol and cloud lifecycles and their associated feedbacks with the terrestrial biosphere. However, the identities of tropical isoprenoids, their biological and environmental controls, and functions within plants and ecosystems remain highly uncertain. As part of the DOE ARM program's GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign, extensive field and laboratory observations of volatile isoprenoids are being conducted in the central Amazon. Here we report the results of our completed and ongoing activities at the ZF2 forest reserve in the central Amazon. Among the results of the research are the suprisingly high abundance of light-dependent volatile isoprenoid emissions across abundant tree genera in the Amazon in both primary and secondary forests, the discovery of highly reactive monoterpene emissions from Amazon trees, and evidence for the importance of volatile isoprenoids in protecting photosynthesis during oxidative stress under elevated temperatures including energy consumption and direct antioxidant functions and a tight connection betwen volatile isoprenoid emissions, photorespiration, and CO2 recycling within leaves. The results highlight the need to model allocation of carbon to isoprenoids during elevated temperature stress in the tropics.

  8. Impact of an Invasive Insect and Plant Defense on a Native Forest Defoliator.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Claire M; Vendettuoli, Justin F; Orwig, David A; Preisser, Evan L

    2016-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carriére) in the United States is threatened by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). The native hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria Guenée) also appears to have played a role in previous population declines of this conifer. Although these two insects co-occur in much of the adelgid's invaded range, their interactions remain unstudied. We assessed looper performance and preference on both uninfested and adelgid-infested foliage from adelgid-susceptible hemlocks, as well as on uninfested foliage from an eastern hemlock that is naturally adelgid-resistant. Larvae reared on uninfested foliage from adelgid-susceptible hemlocks experienced 60% mortality within the first two weeks of the experiment, and pupated at a lower weight than larvae fed adelgid-infested foliage. Despite differences in foliage source, this first look and strong pattern suggests that the hemlock looper performs better (pupates earlier, weighs more) on adelgid-infested foliage. In addition, trends suggested that larvae reared on foliage from the adelgid-resistant tree survived better, pupated earlier, and weighed more than in the other treatments. Larvae preferred adelgid-resistant over adelgid-susceptible foliage. Our results suggest that looper perform slightly better on adelgid-infested foliage and that plant resistance to xylem-feeding adelgid may increase susceptibility to foliar-feeding looper larvae. PMID:27649247

  9. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    Irradiated nuclear fuel has been reprocessed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) since 1953 to recover uranium-235 and krypton-85 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The resulting acidic high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel underground bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage at the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  10. Overexpression of an Isoprenyl Diphosphate Synthase in Spruce Leads to Unexpected Terpene Diversion Products That Function in Plant Defense1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Raimund; Berasategui, Aileen; Paetz, Christian; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schmidt, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Spruce (Picea spp.) and other conifers employ terpenoid-based oleoresin as part of their defense against herbivores and pathogens. The short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) are situated at critical branch points in terpene biosynthesis, producing the precursors of the different terpenoid classes. To determine the role of IDS and to create altered terpene phenotypes for assessing the defensive role of terpenoids, we overexpressed a bifunctional spruce IDS, a geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in white spruce (Picea glauca) saplings. While transcript level (350-fold), enzyme activity level (7-fold), and in planta geranyl diphosphate and geranylgeranyl diphosphate levels (4- to 8-fold) were significantly increased in the needles of transgenic plants, there was no increase in the major monoterpenes and diterpene acids of the resin and no change in primary isoprenoids, such as sterols, chlorophylls, and carotenoids. Instead, large amounts of geranylgeranyl fatty acid esters, known from various gymnosperm and angiosperm plant species, accumulated in needles and were shown to act defensively in reducing the performance of larvae of the nun moth (Lymantria monacha), a conifer pest in Eurasia. These results show the impact of overexpression of an IDS and the defensive role of an unexpected accumulation product of terpenoid biosynthesis with the potential for a broader function in plant protection. PMID:24346420

  11. An ANNEXIN-like protein from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae suppresses plant defense.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changlong; Liu, Shusen; Liu, Qian; Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin) and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS) caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana.

  12. An ANNEXIN-Like Protein from the Cereal Cyst Nematode Heterodera avenae Suppresses Plant Defense

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changlong; Liu, Shusen; Liu, Qian; Niu, Junhai; Liu, Pei; Zhao, Jianlong; Jian, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism genes encoding secreted effector proteins of plant-parasitic nematodes play important roles in facilitating parasitism. An annexin-like gene was isolated from the cereal cyst nematode Heterodera avenae (termed Ha-annexin) and had high similarity to annexin 2, which encodes a secreted protein of Globodera pallida. Ha-annexin encodes a predicted 326 amino acid protein containing four conserved annexin domains. Southern blotting revealed that there are at least two homologies in the H. avenae genome. Ha-annexin transcripts were expressed within the subventral gland cells of the pre-parasitic second-stage juveniles by in situ hybridization. Additionally, expression of these transcripts were relatively higher in the parasitic second-stage juveniles by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis, coinciding with the time when feeding cell formation is initiated. Knockdown of Ha-annexin by method of barley stripe mosaic virus-based host-induced gene silencing (BSMV-HIGS) caused impaired nematode infections at 7 dpi and reduced females at 40 dpi, indicating important roles of the gene in parasitism at least in early stage in vivo. Transiently expression of Ha-ANNEXIN in onion epidermal cells and Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells showed the whole cell-localization. Using transient expression assays in N. benthamiana, we found that Ha-ANNEXIN could suppress programmed cell death triggered by the pro-apoptotic mouse protein BAX and the induction of marker genes of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) in N. benthamiana. In addition, Ha-ANNEXIN targeted a point in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway downstream of two kinases MKK1 and NPK1 in N. benthamiana. PMID:25849616

  13. The pepper GNA-related lectin and PAN domain protein gene, CaGLP1, is required for plant cell death and defense signaling during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Du Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins, commonly referred to as lectins or agglutinins, function in defense responses to microbial pathogens. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) GNA-related lectin and PAN-domain protein gene CaGLP1 was isolated and functionally characterized from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaGLP1 contained an amine-terminus prokaryotic membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site, a Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin domain responsible for the recognition of high-mannose N-glycans, and a carboxyl-terminus PAN/apple domain. RNA gel blot and immunoblot analyses determined that CaGLP1 was strongly induced in pepper by compatible and incompatible Xcv infection. CaGLP1 protein localized primarily to the plasma membrane and exhibited mannose-binding specificity. CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants were more susceptible to compatible or incompatible Xcv infection compared with that of non-silenced control plants. CaGLP1 silencing in pepper leaves did not accumulate H2O2 and induce cell death during incompatible Xcv infection. Defense-related CaDEF1 (defensin) gene expression was significantly reduced in CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants. CaGLP1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Defense-related AtPDF1.2 expression was elevated in CaGLP1-overexpression lines. Together, these results suggest that CaGLP1 is required for plant cell death and defense responses through the reactive oxygen species burst and downstream defense-related gene expression in response to bacterial pathogen challenge.

  14. An Amino Acid Substitution Inhibits Specialist Herbivore Production of an Antagonist Effector and Recovers Insect-Induced Plant Defenses1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Schmelz, Eric A.; Huffaker, Alisa; Carroll, Mark J.; Alborn, Hans T.; Ali, Jared G.; Teal, Peter E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to insect herbivory through the production of biochemicals that function as either direct defenses or indirect defenses via the attraction of natural enemies. While attack by closely related insect pests can result in distinctive levels of induced plant defenses, precise biochemical mechanisms responsible for differing responses remain largely unknown. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) responds to Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) herbivory through the detection of fragments of chloroplastic ATP synthase γ-subunit proteins, termed inceptin-related peptides, present in larval oral secretions (OS). In contrast to generalists like Fall armyworm, OS of the legume-specializing velvetbean caterpillar (VBC; Anticarsia gemmatalis) do not elicit ethylene production and demonstrate significantly lower induced volatile emission in direct herbivory comparisons. Unlike all other Lepidoptera OS examined, which preferentially contain inceptin (Vu-In; +ICDINGVCVDA−), VBC OS contain predominantly a C-terminal truncated peptide, Vu-In−A (+ICDINGVCVD−). Vu-In−A is both inactive and functions as a potent naturally occurring antagonist of Vu-In-induced responses. To block antagonist production, amino acid substitutions at the C terminus were screened for differences in VBC gut proteolysis. A valine-substituted peptide (Vu-InΔV; +ICDINGVCVDV−) retaining full elicitor activity was found to accumulate in VBC OS. Compared with the native polypeptide, VBC that previously ingested 500 pmol of the valine-modified chloroplastic ATP synthase γ-subunit precursor elicited significantly stronger plant responses in herbivory assays. We demonstrate that a specialist herbivore minimizes the activation of defenses by converting an elicitor into an antagonist effector and identify an amino acid substitution that recovers these induced plant defenses to a level observed with generalist herbivores. PMID:23008466

  15. Nuclear waste form risk assessment for US defense waste at Savannah River Plant. Annual report fiscal year 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, H.; Jackson, D.D.; Revelli, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    Waste form dissolution studies and preliminary performance analyses were carried out to contribute a part of the data needed for the selection of a waste form for the disposal of Savannah River Plant defense waste in a deep geologic repository. The first portion of this work provides descriptions of the chemical interactions between the waste form and the geologic environment. We reviewed critically the dissolution/leaching data for borosilicate glass and SYNROC. Both chemical kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the dissolution process of these candidate waste forms so as to establish a fundamental basis for interpretation of experimental data and to provide directions for future experiments. The complementary second portion of this work is an assessment of the impacts of alternate waste forms upon the consequences of disposal in various proposed geological media. Employing systems analysis methodology, we began to evaluate the performance of a generic waste form for the case of a high risk scenario for a bedded salt repository. Results of sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analyses, and sensitivity to uncertainty analysis are presented.

  16. Evolution of plant defense mechanisms. Relationships of phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases to pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.

    PubMed

    Gang, D R; Kasahara, H; Xia, Z Q; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Bauw, G; Boerjan, W; Van Montagu, M; Davin, L B; Lewis, N G

    1999-03-12

    Pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductase classes are phylogenetically related, as is a third, the so-called "isoflavone reductase homologs." This study establishes the first known catalytic function for the latter, as being able to engender the NADPH-dependent reduction of phenylcoumaran benzylic ethers. Accordingly, all three reductase classes are involved in the biosynthesis of important and related phenylpropanoid-derived plant defense compounds. In this investigation, the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase from the gymnosperm, Pinus taeda, was cloned, with the recombinant protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme reduces the benzylic ether functionalities of both dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol and dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, with a higher affinity for the former, as measured by apparent Km and Vmax values and observed kinetic 3H-isotope effects. It abstracts the 4R-hydride of the required NADPH cofactor in a manner analogous to that of the pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases. A similar catalytic function was observed for the corresponding recombinant reductase whose gene was cloned from the angiosperm, Populus trichocarpa. Interestingly, both pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductases and isoflavone reductases catalyze enantiospecific conversions, whereas the phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase only shows regiospecific discrimination. A possible evolutionary relationship among the three reductase classes is proposed, based on the supposition that phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases represent the progenitors of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and isoflavone reductases.

  17. Plant self-defense mechanisms against oxidative injury and protection of the forest by planting trees of triploids and tetraploids.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Yukie; Sasaki, Yoshinori

    2003-05-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer, and the resulting substantial increase in incident ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and subsequent oxygen radical formation on the Earth, have caused an extensive variety of damage to the world's forests. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), which scavenge harmful oxygen radicals and inhibit lipid peroxides, were examined in two types of Japanese cedars, black pines, and cypresses, namely those with leaves showing premature withering, shedding, or dying and those with leaves not showing these effects prematurely. The effect of homogenates from these trees on lipid peroxide formation in a reaction system which UV light induces was also studied. The results indicate that strong black pines have significantly higher SOD activities than ordinary black pines, the leaves of which prematurely wither or die. Remarkably, trees that had triploid or tetraploid chromosomes showed higher SOD levels than diploid trees and markedly inhibited lipid peroxide formation since the SOD gene resides on a chromosome. This was especially true of plus trees of Japanese cypress, some of which had five times higher SOD activities than common Japanese cypresses although GSH-Px appears to play less of a role in this regard. Rice leaves and osmunda which are resistant to UV damage showed markedly higher SOD and GSH-Px activity. Our experiments suggest that the trees that have high SOD can protect themselves by scavenging oxygen radicals induced by UV irradiation and inhibit harmful lipid peroxide formation. In order to protect forests from oxidative damage by UV light, we should plant trees of natural mutants and artificially crossed triploids and tetraploids.

  18. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp. PMID:26168138

  19. Trichodiene Production in a Trichoderma harzianum erg1-Silenced Strain Provides Evidence of the Importance of the Sterol Biosynthetic Pathway in Inducing Plant Defense-Related Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Malmierca, M G; McCormick, S P; Cardoza, R E; Monte, E; Alexander, N J; Gutiérrez, S

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma species are often used as biocontrol agents against plant-pathogenic fungi. A complex molecular interaction occurs among the biocontrol agent, the antagonistic fungus, and the plant. Terpenes and sterols produced by the biocontrol fungus have been found to affect gene expression in both the antagonistic fungus and the plant. The terpene trichodiene (TD) elicits the expression of genes related to tomato defense and to Botrytis virulence. We show here that TD itself is able to induce the expression of Botrytis genes involved in the synthesis of botrydial (BOT) and also induces terpene gene expression in Trichoderma spp. The terpene ergosterol, in addition to its role as a structural component of the fungal cell membranes, acts as an elicitor of defense response in plants. In the present work, using a transformant of T. harzianum, which is silenced in the erg1 gene and accumulates high levels of squalene, we show that this ergosterol precursor also acts as an important elicitor molecule of tomato defense-related genes and induces Botrytis genes involved in BOT biosynthesis, in both cases, in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data emphasize the importance of a balance of squalene and ergosterol in fungal interactions as well as in the biocontrol activity of Trichoderma spp.

  20. Insect Attraction versus Plant Defense: Young Leaves High in Glucosinolates Stimulate Oviposition by a Specialist Herbivore despite Poor Larval Survival due to High Saponin Content

    PubMed Central

    Badenes-Perez, Francisco R.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Heckel, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosinolates are plant secondary metabolites used in plant defense. For insects specialized on Brassicaceae, such as the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), glucosinolates act as “fingerprints” that are essential in host plant recognition. Some plants in the genus Barbarea (Brassicaceae) contain, besides glucosinolates, saponins that act as feeding deterrents for P. xylostella larvae, preventing their survival on the plant. Two-choice oviposition tests were conducted to study the preference of P. xylostella among Barbarea leaves of different size within the same plant. P. xylostella laid more eggs per leaf area on younger leaves compared to older ones. Higher concentrations of glucosinolates and saponins were found in younger leaves than in older ones. In 4-week-old plants, saponins were present in true leaves, while cotyledons contained little or no saponins. When analyzing the whole foliage of the plant, the content of glucosinolates and saponins also varied significantly in comparisons among plants that were 4, 8, and 12 weeks old. In Barbarea plants and leaves of different ages, there was a positive correlation between glucosinolate and saponin levels. This research shows that, in Barbarea plants, ontogenetical changes in glucosinolate and saponin content affect both attraction and resistance to P. xylostella. Co-occurrence of a high content of glucosinolates and saponins in the Barbarea leaves that are most valuable for the plant, but are also the most attractive to P. xylostella, provides protection against this specialist herbivore, which oviposition behavior on Barbarea seems to be an evolutionary mistake. PMID:24752069

  1. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  2. Primary Metabolism in Plant Defense (Regulation of a Bean Malic Enzyme Gene Promoter in Transgenic Tobacco by Developmental and Environmental Cues).

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, J.; Walter, M. H.; Hess, D.

    1995-01-01

    NADP-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME, EC 1.1.1.40) catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate, producing CO2 and NADPH. We have examined regulatory properties of a 2.8-kb promoter-leader fragment of a bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) NADP-ME gene (PvME1) predicted to encode a cytosolic form of the enzyme by expression analysis of promoter-[beta]-glucuronidase fusions in transgenic tobacco plants. The PvME1 promoter directed strong expression in stems, which was confined to vascular and pith tissues, and was also active in floral and reproductive tissues. Wounding caused a marked induction of promoter activity, which was further strongly enhanced upon application of stimuli related to pathogen defense. Glutathione (reduced form) was the strongest inducer, but oxidized glutathione, fungal elicitor, cellulase, catalase, ascorbic acid, and NADPH were additional potent promoter-stimulating agents. Responsiveness to reduced glutathione was also shown at the level of PvME1 mRNA accumulation in bean plants. The putative contributions of NADP-ME gene expression to the plant defense response and possible mechanisms of defense gene regulation by conditions of oxidative stress as well as by H2O2 and antioxidant levels are discussed. PMID:12228518

  3. Cotton WRKY1 mediates the plant defense-to-development transition during infection of cotton by Verticillium dahliae by activating JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; He, Xin; Luo, Xiangyin; Xu, Li; Liu, Linlin; Min, Ling; Jin, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Zhang, Xianlong

    2014-12-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate signaling network to ensure an appropriate level of immune response to meet the differing demands of developmental processes. Previous research has demonstrated that DELLA proteins physically interact with JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN1 (JAZ1) and dynamically regulate the interaction of the gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA) signaling pathways. However, whether and how the JAZ1-DELLA regulatory node is regulated at the transcriptional level in plants under normal growth conditions or during pathogen infection is not known. Here, we demonstrate multiple functions of cotton (Gossypium barbadense) GbWRKY1 in the plant defense response and during development. Although GbWRKY1 expression is induced rapidly by methyl jasmonate and infection by Verticillium dahliae, our results show that GbWRKY1 is a negative regulator of the JA-mediated defense response and plant resistance to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and V. dahliae. Under normal growth conditions, GbWRKY1-overexpressing lines displayed GA-associated phenotypes, including organ elongation and early flowering, coupled with the down-regulation of the putative targets of DELLA. We show that the GA-related phenotypes of GbWRKY1-overexpressing plants depend on the constitutive expression of Gossypium hirsutum GhJAZ1. We also show that GhJAZ1 can be transactivated by GbWRKY1 through TGAC core sequences, and the adjacent sequences of this binding site are essential for binding specificity and affinity to GbWRKY1, as revealed by dual-luciferase reporter assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. In summary, our data suggest that GbWRKY1 is a critical regulator mediating the plant defense-to-development transition during V. dahliae infection by activating JAZ1 expression.

  4. Tobacco bZIP transcription factor TGA2.2 and related factor TGA2.1 have distinct roles in plant defense responses and plant development.

    PubMed

    Thurow, Corinna; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Krawczyk, Stefanie; Butterbrodt, Thomas; Nickolov, Kaloian; Gatz, Christiane

    2005-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a crucial internal signaling molecule needed for the induction of plant defense responses upon attack of a variety of pathogens. Basic leucine zipper transcription factors of the TGA family bind to activating sequence-1 (as-1)-like elements which are SA-responsive cis elements found in promoters of 'immediate early' and 'late' SA-inducible genes. TGA2.2 constitutes the main component of tobacco as-1-binding factor-1 (ASF-1). TGA2.1, which differs from TGA2.2 by being able to activate transcription in yeast, constitutes a minor fraction of the complex. Both proteins interact with NPR1, a protein essential for SA inducibility of 'late' genes. Here we demonstrate using dsRNAi mediated gene silencing that reducing the amount of TGA2.2 and TGA2.1 correlates with a significant decrease in ASF-1 activity and with a decreased inducibility of both 'immediate early' and 'late' genes. In contrast, reducing the amount of TGA2.1 alone had no effect on the expression of these target genes suggesting that TGA2.1 is dispensable for SA-inducible gene expression from the as-1 element. Expression of a TGA2.2 mutant unable to form heterodimers with the endogenous pool of TGA factors led to reduced SA-inducibility of 'immediate early' gene Nt103, indicating that the native leucine zipper is important for the protein to act positively on transcription. Plants with reduced amounts of TGA2.1 developed petal like stamens indicating a regulatory role of TGA2.1 in defining organ identity in tobacco flowers. A model is suggested that unifies conflicting results on the function of tobacco TGA factors with respect to activation of the 'late' PR-1a promoter.

  5. Leaf-mining by Phyllonorycter blancardella reprograms the host-leaf transcriptome to modulate phytohormones associated with nutrient mobilization and plant defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Body, Mélanie; Glevarec, Gaëlle; Reichelt, Michael; Unsicker, Sybille; Bruneau, Maryline; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Huguet, Elisabeth; Dubreuil, Géraldine; Giron, David

    2016-01-01

    Phytohormones have long been hypothesized to play a key role in the interactions between plant-manipulating organisms and their host-plants such as insect-plant interactions that lead to gall or 'green-islands' induction. However, mechanistic understanding of how phytohormones operate in these plant reconfigurations is lacking due to limited information on the molecular and biochemical phytohormonal modulation following attack by plant-manipulating insects. In an attempt to fill this gap, the present study provides an extensive characterization of how the leaf-miner Phyllonorycter blancardella modulates the major phytohormones and the transcriptional activity of plant cells in leaves of Malus domestica. We show here, that cytokinins strongly accumulate in mined tissues despite a weak expression of plant cytokinin-related genes. Leaf-mining is also associated with enhanced biosynthesis of jasmonic acid precursors but not the active form, a weak alteration of the salicylic acid pathway and a clear inhibition of the abscisic acid pathway. Our study consolidates previous results suggesting that insects may produce and deliver cytokinins to the plant as a strategy to manipulate the physiology of the leaf to create a favorable nutritional environment. We also demonstrate that leaf-mining by P. blancardella leads to a strong reprogramming of the plant phytohormonal balance associated with increased nutrient mobilization, inhibition of leaf senescence and mitigation of plant direct and indirect defense.

  6. Study on citrus response to huanglongbing highlights a down-regulation of defense-related proteins in lemon plants upon 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' infection.

    PubMed

    Nwugo, Chika C; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacterasiaticus' (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citrus limon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las.

  7. Alternative Growth and Defensive Strategies Reveal Potential and Gender Specific Trade-Offs in Dioecious Plants Salix paraplesia to Nutrient Availability

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Yanbao; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biasedPopulus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defense capacities and trade-offs between growth and defense. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defense, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification. PMID:27489556

  8. Alternative Growth and Defensive Strategies Reveal Potential and Gender Specific Trade-Offs in Dioecious Plants Salix paraplesia to Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Yanbao; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biasedPopulus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defense capacities and trade-offs between growth and defense. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defense, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification.

  9. Alternative Growth and Defensive Strategies Reveal Potential and Gender Specific Trade-Offs in Dioecious Plants Salix paraplesia to Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Sheng; Lei, Yanbao; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Population sex ratios of many dioecious plants in nature are biased. This may be attributed to sexually different resource demands and adaptive capacity. In male-biasedPopulus, males often display stronger physiological adaptation than females. Interestingly, Populus and Salix, belonging to Salicaceae, display an opposite biased sex ratio, especially in nutrient-poor environmental conditions. Do female willows have a greater tolerance to nutrient deficiency than males? In this study, we investigated the growth and defensive strategies of Salix paraplesia cuttings, which were grown with high and low soil fertility for about 140 days over one growing season. Results suggest that different strategies for biomass allocation may result in sexually different defense capacities and trade-offs between growth and defense. Females are likely to adopt radical strategies, overdrawing on available resources to satisfy both growth and defense, which seems to be more like a gamble compared with males. It is also suggested that females may have an extra mechanism to compensate for the investment in growth under nutrient-poor conditions. In summary, the results may help focus restoration efforts on sex selection such that a moderate increase in female willow quantity could increase the resistance and resilience of willow populations to early sporadic desertification. PMID:27489556

  10. Cuticular Defects in Oryza sativa ATP-binding Cassette Transporter G31 Mutant Plants Cause Dwarfism, Elevated Defense Responses and Pathogen Resistance.

    PubMed

    Garroum, Imène; Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Daraspe, Jean; Mucciolo, Antonio; Humbel, Bruno M; Morel, Jean-Benoit; Nawrath, Christiane

    2016-06-01

    The cuticle covers the surface of the polysaccharide cell wall of leaf epidermal cells and forms an essential diffusion barrier between plant and environment. Homologs of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter AtABCG32/HvABCG31 clade are necessary for the formation of a functional cuticle in both monocots and dicots. Here we characterize the osabcg31 knockout mutant and hairpin RNA interference (RNAi)-down-regulated OsABCG31 plant lines having reduced plant growth and a permeable cuticle. The reduced content of cutin in leaves and structural alterations in the cuticle and at the cuticle-cell wall interface in plants compromised in OsABCG31 expression explain the cuticle permeability. Effects of modifications of the cuticle on plant-microbe interactions were evaluated. The cuticular alterations in OsABCG31-compromised plants did not cause deficiencies in germination of the spores or the formation of appressoria of Magnaporthe oryzae on the leaf surface, but a strong reduction of infection structures inside the plant. Genes involved in pathogen resistance were constitutively up-regulated in OsABCG31-compromised plants, thus being a possible cause of the resistance to M. oryzae and the dwarf growth phenotype. The findings show that in rice an abnormal cuticle formation may affect the signaling of plant growth and defense. PMID:27121976

  11. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Sandra S; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  12. Insect Herbivory-Elicited GABA Accumulation in Plants is a Wound-Induced, Direct, Systemic, and Jasmonate-Independent Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Sandra S.; Reichelt, Michael; Mekonnen, Dereje W.; Ludewig, Frank; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The non-proteinogenic amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in all organisms analyzed so far. In invertebrates GABA acts as a neurotransmitter; in plants different functions are under discussion. Among others, its involvement in abiotic stress reactions and as a defensive compound against feeding insects is suggested. GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylases and degraded by GABA-transaminases. Here, in Arabidopsis thaliana, gad1/2 double mutants showing reduced GABA concentrations as well as GABA-enriched triple mutants (gad1/2 x pop2-5) were generated and employed for a systematic study of GABA induction, accumulation and related effects in Arabidopsis leaves upon herbivory. The results demonstrate that GABA accumulation is stimulated by insect feeding-like wounding by a robotic caterpillar, MecWorm, as well as by real insect (Spodoptera littoralis) herbivory. Higher GABA levels in both plant tissue and artificial dietary supplements in turn affect the performance of feeding larvae. GABA enrichment occurs not only in the challenged but also in adjacent leaf. This induced response is neither dependent on herbivore defense-related phytohormones, jasmonates, nor is jasmonate induction dependent on the presence of GABA. Thus, in Arabidopsis the rapid accumulation of GABA very likely represents a general, direct and systemic defense reaction against insect herbivores. PMID:26734035

  13. Cyclic Lipopeptides of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum Colonizing the Lettuce Rhizosphere Enhance Plant Defense Responses Toward the Bottom Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Uhl, Jenny; Grosch, Rita; Alquéres, Sylvia; Pittroff, Sabrina; Dietel, Kristin; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton

    2015-09-01

    The commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is able to considerably reduce lettuce bottom rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To understand the interaction between FZB42 and R. solani in the rhizosphere of lettuce, we used an axenic system with lettuce bacterized with FZB42 and inoculated with R. solani. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that FZB42 could delay the initial establishment of R. solani on the plants. To show which secondary metabolites of FZB42 are produced under these in-situ conditions, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry-based method and identified surfactin, fengycin, and bacillomycin D in the lettuce rhizosphere. We hypothesized that lipopeptides and polyketides play a role in enhancing the plant defense responses in addition to the direct antagonistic effect toward R. solani and used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay for marker genes involved in defense signaling pathways in lettuce. A significant higher expression of PDF 1.2 observed in the bacterized plants in response to subsequent pathogen challenge showed that FZB42 could enhance the lettuce defense response toward the fungal pathogen. To identify if surfactin or other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites could elicit the observed enhanced defense gene expression, we examined two mutants of FZB42 deficient in production of surfactin and the lipopetides and polyketides, by expression analysis and pot experiments. In the absence of surfactin and other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites, there was no enhanced PDF 1.2-mediated response to the pathogen challenge. Pot experiment results showed that the mutants failed to reduce disease incidence in lettuce as compared with the FZB42 wild type, indicating, that surfactin as well as other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites play a role in the actual disease suppression and on lettuce

  14. Heterotrimeric G Proteins Serve as a Converging Point in Plant Defense Signaling Activated by Multiple Receptor-Like Kinases1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinman; Ding, Pingtao; Sun, Tongjun; Nitta, Yukino; Dong, Oliver; Huang, Xingchuan; Yang, Wei; Li, Xin; Botella, José Ramón; Zhang, Yuelin

    2013-01-01

    In fungi and metazoans, extracellular signals are often perceived by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and transduced through heterotrimeric G-protein complexes to downstream targets. Plant heterotrimeric G proteins are also involved in diverse biological processes, but little is known about their upstream receptors. Moreover, the presence of bona fide GPCRs in plants is yet to be established. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), heterotrimeric G protein consists of one Gα subunit (G PROTEIN α-SUBUNIT1), one Gβ subunit (ARABIDOPSIS G PROTEIN β-SUBUNIT1 [AGB1]), and three Gγs subunits (ARABIDOPSIS G PROTEIN γ-SUBUNIT1 [AGG1], AGG2, and AGG3). We identified AGB1 from a suppressor screen of BAK1-interacting receptor-like kinase1-1 (bir1-1), a mutant that activates cell death and defense responses mediated by the receptor-like kinase (RLK) SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1. Mutations in AGB1 suppress the cell death and defense responses in bir1-1 and transgenic plants overexpressing SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1. In addition, agb1 mutant plants were severely compromised in immunity mediated by three other RLKs, FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE2 (FLS2), Elongation Factor-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), and CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1), respectively. By contrast, G PROTEIN α-SUBUNIT1 is not required for either cell death in bir1-1 or pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity mediated by FLS2, EFR, and CERK1. Further analysis of agg1 and agg2 mutant plants indicates that AGG1 and AGG2 are also required for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses mediated by FLS2, EFR, and CERK1, as well as cell death and defense responses in bir1-1. We hypothesize that the Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins function as a converging point of plant defense signaling by mediating responses initiated by multiple RLKs, which may fulfill equivalent roles to GPCRs in fungi and animals. PMID:23424249

  15. Chilli leaf curl virus infection highlights the differential expression of genes involved in protein homeostasis and defense in resistant chilli plants.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2015-06-01

    Geminiviruses have evolved with tremendous potential of recombination and possess the ability to manipulate several cellular processes of hosts. Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV) is a monopartite Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) which has emerged as a serious threat to chilli production worldwide. To date, development of resistant chilli varieties through conventional plant breeding techniques remains the major antiviral strategy. To explore the potential resistance factors in Capsicum annuum var. Punjab Lal, we performed a transcriptome analysis in ChiLCV-infected plants by exploiting the advantage of sensitivity and efficiency of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Out of 480 clones screened, 231 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) involved in different cellular and physiological processes were identified. An interactome network of ChiLCV responsive differentially expressed genes revealed an array of proteins involved in key cellular processes including transcription, replication, photosynthesis, and defense. A comparative study of gene expression between resistant and susceptible chilli plants revealed upregulation of several defense-related genes such as nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domain containing protein, lipid transfer protein, thionin, polyphenol oxidase, and other proteins like ATP/ADP transporter in the ChiLCV-resistant variety. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the transcriptomics of ChiLCV-resistant chilli plants.

  16. Chilli leaf curl virus infection highlights the differential expression of genes involved in protein homeostasis and defense in resistant chilli plants.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Nirbhay; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Prasad, Manoj; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2015-06-01

    Geminiviruses have evolved with tremendous potential of recombination and possess the ability to manipulate several cellular processes of hosts. Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV) is a monopartite Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) which has emerged as a serious threat to chilli production worldwide. To date, development of resistant chilli varieties through conventional plant breeding techniques remains the major antiviral strategy. To explore the potential resistance factors in Capsicum annuum var. Punjab Lal, we performed a transcriptome analysis in ChiLCV-infected plants by exploiting the advantage of sensitivity and efficiency of suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Out of 480 clones screened, 231 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) involved in different cellular and physiological processes were identified. An interactome network of ChiLCV responsive differentially expressed genes revealed an array of proteins involved in key cellular processes including transcription, replication, photosynthesis, and defense. A comparative study of gene expression between resistant and susceptible chilli plants revealed upregulation of several defense-related genes such as nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) domain containing protein, lipid transfer protein, thionin, polyphenol oxidase, and other proteins like ATP/ADP transporter in the ChiLCV-resistant variety. Taken together, the present study provides novel insights into the transcriptomics of ChiLCV-resistant chilli plants. PMID:25693670

  17. Two volatile organic compounds trigger plant self-defense against a bacterial pathogen and a sucking insect in cucumber under open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  18. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  19. Differential transcriptome analysis of leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) provides comprehensive insights into the defense responses to Ectropis oblique attack using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Tang, Lei; Hou, Yan; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Tea is a very popular and healthy nonalcoholic beverage worldwide. As an evergreen woody plant, the cultivation of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) is challenged by biotic stresses, and one of which is feeding of Ectropis oblique. In China, E. oblique infestation causes serious damages in many tea cultivation areas. Tea plants have evolved sophisticated strategies to cope with attack by E. oblique. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the response to E. oblique in tea plants, the differential gene expression profiles between the E. oblique damage-induced tea plants and undamaged control using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were obtained. A total of 1859 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 949 upregulated and 910 downregulated genes. Overall, 90 signal transduction genes, 100 anti-insect responsive transcription factors, 50 genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, 41 unigenes related to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) biosynthesis, and 8 caffeine biosynthesis genes were found to be differentially regulated. Metabolic pathway analysis indicated that plant secondary metabolites and the signaling pathways may play an important role in defense against insects, and a closer examination at the expression of some crucial genes revealed differential expression patterns after feeding by E. oblique. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Our dataset provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for studying the resistance to E. oblique in tea, which will benefit our understanding of the overall mechanisms underlying inducible defenses responses, and may be useful to create novel prevention measures against insects to reduce pesticide usage in eco-friendly tea farming.

  20. Differential transcriptome analysis of leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) provides comprehensive insights into the defense responses to Ectropis oblique attack using RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Tang, Lei; Hou, Yan; Wang, Ping; Yang, Hua; Wei, Chao-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Tea is a very popular and healthy nonalcoholic beverage worldwide. As an evergreen woody plant, the cultivation of tea plants (Camellia sinensis) is challenged by biotic stresses, and one of which is feeding of Ectropis oblique. In China, E. oblique infestation causes serious damages in many tea cultivation areas. Tea plants have evolved sophisticated strategies to cope with attack by E. oblique. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the response to E. oblique in tea plants, the differential gene expression profiles between the E. oblique damage-induced tea plants and undamaged control using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were obtained. A total of 1859 differentially expressed genes were identified, including 949 upregulated and 910 downregulated genes. Overall, 90 signal transduction genes, 100 anti-insect responsive transcription factors, 50 genes related to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, 41 unigenes related to herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) biosynthesis, and 8 caffeine biosynthesis genes were found to be differentially regulated. Metabolic pathway analysis indicated that plant secondary metabolites and the signaling pathways may play an important role in defense against insects, and a closer examination at the expression of some crucial genes revealed differential expression patterns after feeding by E. oblique. Furthermore, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Our dataset provides the most comprehensive sequence resource available for studying the resistance to E. oblique in tea, which will benefit our understanding of the overall mechanisms underlying inducible defenses responses, and may be useful to create novel prevention measures against insects to reduce pesticide usage in eco-friendly tea farming. PMID:27098524

  1. Pepper pathogenesis-related protein 4c is a plasma membrane-localized cysteine protease inhibitor that is required for plant cell death and defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-01-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector AvrBsT triggers programmed cell death (PCD) and activates the hypersensitive response (HR) in plants. Here, we isolated and identified the plasma membrane localized pathogenesis-related (PR) protein 4c gene (CaPR4c) from pepper (Capsicum annuum) leaves undergoing AvrBsT-triggered HR cell death. CaPR4c encodes a protein with a signal peptide and a Barwin domain. Recombinant CaPR4c protein expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited cysteine protease-inhibitor activity and ribonuclease (RNase) activity. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that CaPR4c localized to the plasma membrane in plant cells. CaPR4c expression was rapidly and specifically induced by avirulent Xcv (avrBsT) infection. Transient expression of CaPR4c caused HR cell death in pepper leaves, which was accompanied by enhanced accumulation of H2 O2 and significant induction of some defense-response genes. Deletion of the signal peptide from CaPR4c abolished the induction of HR cell death, indicating a requirement for plasma membrane localization of CaPR4c for HR cell death. CaPR4c silencing in pepper disrupted both basal and AvrBsT-triggered resistance responses, and enabled Xcv proliferation in infected leaves. H2 O2 accumulation, cell-death induction, and defense-response gene expression were distinctly reduced in CaPR4c-silenced pepper. CaPR4c overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred greater resistance against infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. These results collectively suggest that CaPR4c plays an important role in plant cell death and defense signaling.

  2. Salvaging effect of triacontanol on plant growth, thermotolerance, macro-nutrient content, amino acid concentration and modulation of defense hormonal levels under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Asaf, Sajjad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Kang, Sang-Mo; Bilal, Saqib; Hamayun, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-02-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that application of triacontanol, a ubiquitous saturated primary alcohol, at different times-before (TBHS), mid (TMHS), and after (TAHS) heat stress-will extend heat stress (HS) protection in mungbean. The effect of triacontanol on the levels of defense hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) was investigated along with the plant growth promotion, nutrient and amino acid content with and without heat stress. Heat stress caused a prominent reduction in plant growth attributes, nutrient and amino acid content, which were attributed to the decreased level of ABA and JA. However, application of triacontanol, particularly in the TBHS and TMHS treatments, reversed the deleterious effects of HS by showing increased ABA and JA levels that favored the significant increase in plant growth attributes, enhanced nutrient content, and high amount of amino acid. TAHS, a short-term application of triacontanol, also significantly increased ABA and JA levels and thus revealed important information of its association with hormonal modulation. The growth-promoting effect of triacontanol was also confirmed under normal growth conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the beneficial effects of triacontanol, with or without heat stress, on mungbean and its interaction with or regulation of the levels of defense hormones.

  3. Plant Defenses and Predation Risk Differentially Shape Patterns of Consumption, Growth, and Digestive Efficiency in a Guild of Leaf-Chewing Insects

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ian; McArt, Scott H.; Thaler, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Herbivores are squeezed between the two omnipresent threats of variable food quality and natural enemy attack, but these two factors are not independent of one another. The mechanisms by which organisms navigate the dual challenges of foraging while avoiding predation are poorly understood. We tested the effects of plant defense and predation risk on herbivory in an assemblage of leaf-chewing insects on Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) that included two Solanaceae specialists (Manduca sexta and Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and one generalist (Trichoplusia ni). Defenses were altered using genetic manipulations of the jasmonate phytohormonal cascade, whereas predation risk was assessed by exposing herbivores to cues from the predaceous stink bug, Podisus maculiventris. Predation risk reduced herbivore food intake by an average of 29% relative to predator-free controls. Interestingly, this predator-mediated impact on foraging behavior largely attenuated when quantified in terms of individual growth rate. Only one of the three species experienced lower body weight under predation risk and the magnitude of this effect was small (17% reduction) compared with effects on foraging behavior. Manduca sexta larvae, compensated for their predator-induced reduction in food intake by more effectively converting leaf tissue to body mass. They also had higher whole-body lipid content when exposed to predators, suggesting that individuals convert energy to storage forms to draw upon when risk subsides. In accordance with expectations based on insect diet breadth, plant defenses tended to have a stronger impact on consumption and growth in the generalist than the two specialists. These data both confirm the ecological significance of predators in the foraging behavior of herbivorous prey and demonstrate how sophisticated compensatory mechanisms allow foragers to partially offset the detrimental effects of reduced food intake. The fact that these mechanisms operated across a wide range of

  4. Tri-Trophic Effects of Seasonally Variable Induced Plant Defenses Vary across the Development of a Shelter Building Moth Larva and Its Parasitoid

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Noah H.; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H.

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

  5. Tri-trophic effects of seasonally variable induced plant defenses vary across the development of a shelter building moth larva and its parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Rose, Noah H; Halitschke, Rayko; Morse, Douglass H

    2015-01-01

    Plant chemical defenses can negatively affect insect herbivore fitness, but they can also decrease herbivore palatability to predators or decrease parasitoid fitness, potentially changing selective pressures on both plant investment in production of chemical defenses and host feeding behavior. Larvae of the fern moth Herpetogramma theseusalis live in and feed upon leaf shelters of their own construction, and their most abundant parasitoid Alabagrus texanus oviposits in early instar larvae, where parasitoid larvae lay dormant for most of host development before rapidly developing and emerging just prior to host pupation. As such, both might be expected to live in a relatively constant chemical environment. Instead, we find that a correlated set of phenolic compounds shows strong seasonal variation both within shelters and in undamaged fern tissue, and the relative level of these compounds in these two different fern tissue types switches across the summer. Using experimental feeding treatments, in which we exposed fern moth larvae to different chemical trajectories across their development, we show that exposure to this set of phenolic compounds reduces the survival of larvae in early development. However, exposure to this set of compounds just before the beginning of explosive parasitoid growth increased parasitoid survival. Exposure during the period of rapid parasitoid growth and feeding decreased parasitoid survival. These results highlight the spatial and temporal complexity of leaf shelter chemistry, and demonstrate the developmental contingency of associated effects on both host and parasitoid, implying the existence of complex selective pressures on plant investment in chemical defenses, host feeding behavior, and parasitoid life history. PMID:25781029

  6. Study on Citrus Response to Huanglongbing Highlights a Down-Regulation of Defense-Related Proteins in Lemon Plants Upon ‘Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus’ Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nwugo, Chika C.; Duan, Yongping; Lin, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus presumably caused by ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), a gram-negative, insect-transmitted, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium. Although almost all citrus plants are susceptible to HLB, reports have shown reduced susceptibility to Las infection in lemon (Citruslimon) plants. The aim of this study is to identify intra-species specific molecular mechanisms associated with Las-induced responses in lemon plants. To achieve this, comparative 2-DE and mass spectrometry, in addition to Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) analyses, were applied to investigate differences in protein accumulation and the concentrations of cationic elements in leaves of healthy and Las-infected lemon plants. Results showed a differential accumulation of 27 proteins, including an increase in accumulation of starch synthase but decrease in the production of photosynthesis-related proteins in Las-infected lemon plants compared to healthy plants. Furthermore, there was a 6% increase (P > 0.05) in K concentration in leaves of lemon plants upon Las infection, which support results from previous studies and might represent a common response pattern of citrus plants to Las infection. Interestingly, contrary to reports from prior studies, this study showed a general reduction in the production of defense-related pathogen-response proteins but a 128% increase in Zn concentration in lemon plants in response to Las infection. Taken together, this study sheds light on general and intra-species specific responses associated with the response of citrus plants to Las. PMID:23922636

  7. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  8. Role of antioxidant defense system and biochemical adaptation on stress tolerance of high mountain and steppe plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öncel, Işıl; Yurdakulol, Ender; Keleş, Yüksel; Kurt, Latif; Yıldız, Atilla

    2004-12-01

    Eleven species were collected from Northwest Anatolian mountains (1500-2000 m) and 18 species were collected from the Central Anatolian steppes (850-1000 m) in June 1998 and 1999. In all the species investigated, the water and dry matter percentages and solute contents were measured. The chlorophyll, β-carotene, ascorbate and α-tocopherol contents and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities of the plants were also determined. The steppe plants had lower water content compared with alpine plants. The chlorophyll contents of the plants investigated did not change with altitude. However, the carotenoid/chlorophyll ratio of alpine plants was found to be significantly higher. The antioxidant/chlorophyll ratio of the trees and shrubs was higher than that of herbaceous plants. Carotenoid concentrations and SOD activity were higher in alpine plants than in steppe plants. Proline and soluble protein concentrations were significantly higher in alpine plants than in steppe plants. There was a significant difference between the plants as regards to antioxidant capacity at the family level. Though there was a high antioxidant capacity in alpine Poaceae, Lamiaceae species from steppe had very low concentrations of antioxidants. In conclusion, it was shown that although antioxidant protection was important in alpine plants, there were significant differences among the plant species. In addition to antioxidant protection, the higher soluble protein and proline contents have a very important role in the stress resistance of the alpine plants.

  9. ABA Affects Brassinosteroid-Induced Antioxidant Defense via ZmMAP65-1a in Maize Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Weijuan; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Juan; Chiu, Tsanyu; Yan, Jingwei; Jiang, Mingyi; Tan, Mingpu; Zhang, Aying

    2015-07-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and ABA co-ordinately regulate water deficit tolerance in maize leaves. ZmMAP65-1a, a maize microtubule-associated protein (MAP) which plays an essential role in BR-induced antioxidant defense, has been characterized previously. However, the interactions among BR, ABA and ZmMAP65-1a in water deficit tolerance remain unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated that ABA was required for BR-induced antioxidant defense via ZmMAP65-1a by using biochemical blocking and ABA biosynthetic mutants. The expression of ZmMAP65-1a in maize leaves and mesophyll protoplasts could be increased under polyethylene glycol- (PEG) stimulated water deficit and ABA treatments. Furthermore, the importance of ABA in the early pathway of BR-induced water deficit tolerance was demonstrated by limiting ABA availability. Blocking ABA biosynthesis biochemically or by a null mutation inhibited the downstream gene expression of ZmMAP65-1a and the activity of ZmMAPK5 in the pathway. It also affected the activities of BR-induced antioxidant defense-related enzymes, namely ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and NADPH oxidase. In addition, combining results from transiently overexpressed or silenced ZmMAP65-1a in mesophyll protoplasts, we discovered that ZmMAP65-1a mediated the ABA-induced gene expression and activities of APX and SOD. Surprisingly, silencing of ZmMAP65-1a in mesophyll protoplasts did not alter the gene expression of ZmCCaMK and vice versa in response to ABA. Taken together, our data indicate that water deficit-induced ABA is a key mediator in BR-induced antioxidant defense via ZmMAP65-1a in maize.

  10. Reserves accumulated in non-photosynthetic organs during the previous growing season drive plant defenses and growth in aspen in the subsequent growing season.

    PubMed

    Najar, Ahmed; Landhäusser, Simon M; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2014-01-01

    Plants store non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), nitrogen (N), as well as other macro and micronutrients, in their stems and roots; the role of these stored reserves in plant growth and defense under herbivory pressure is poorly understood, particularly in trees. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) seedlings with different NSC and N reserves accumulated during the previous growing season were generated in the greenhouse. Based on NSC and N contents, seedlings were assigned to one of three reserve statuses: Low N-Low NSC, High N-Medium NSC, or High N-High NSC. In the subsequent growing season, half of the seedlings in each reserve status was subjected to defoliation by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) while the other half was left untreated. Following defoliation, the effect of reserves was measured on foliar chemistry (N, NSC) and caterpillar performance (larval development). Due to their importance in herbivore feeding, we also quantified concentrations of phenolic glycoside compounds in foliage. Seedlings in Low N-Low NSC reserve status contained higher amounts of induced phenolic glycosides, grew little, and supported fewer caterpillars. In contrast, aspen seedlings in High N-Medium or High NSC reserve statuses contained lower amounts of induced phenolic glycosides, grew faster, and some of the caterpillars which fed on these seedlings developed up to their fourth instar. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis indicated that foliar phenolic glycoside concentration was related to reserve chemistry (NSC, N). Overall, these results demonstrate that reserves accumulated during the previous growing season can influence tree defense and growth in the subsequent growing season. Additionally, our study concluded that the NSC/N ratio of reserves in the previous growing season represents a better measure of resources available for use in defense and growth than the foliar NSC/N ratios.

  11. The Arabidopsis RESURRECTION1 Gene Regulates a Novel Antagonistic Interaction in Plant Defense to Biotrophs and Necrotrophs1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Hyung Gon; Laluk, Kristin A.; Parsons, Eugene P.; Kosma, Dylan K.; Cooper, Bruce R.; Park, Hyeong Cheol; AbuQamar, Synan; Boccongelli, Claudia; Miyazaki, Saori; Consiglio, Federica; Chilosi, Gabriele; Bohnert, Hans J.; Bressan, Ray A.; Mengiste, Tesfaye; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    We report a role for the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RESURRECTION1 (RST1) gene in plant defense. The rst1 mutant exhibits enhanced susceptibility to the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum but enhanced resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. RST1 encodes a novel protein that localizes to the plasma membrane and is predicted to contain 11 transmembrane domains. Disease responses in rst1 correlate with higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and increased basal and B. cinerea-induced expression of the plant defensin PDF1.2 gene but reduced E. cichoracearum-inducible salicylic acid levels and expression of pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR2. These results are consistent with rst1's varied resistance and susceptibility to pathogens of different life styles. Cuticular lipids, both cutin monomers and cuticular waxes, on rst1 leaves were significantly elevated, indicating a role for RST1 in the suppression of leaf cuticle lipid synthesis. The rst1 cuticle exhibits normal permeability, however, indicating that the disease responses of rst1 are not due to changes in this cuticle property. Double mutant analysis revealed that the coi1 mutation (causing defective JA signaling) is completely epistatic to rst1, whereas the ein2 mutation (causing defective ethylene signaling) is partially epistatic to rst1, for resistance to B. cinerea. The rst1 mutation thus defines a unique combination of disease responses to biotrophic and necrotrophic fungi in that it antagonizes salicylic acid-dependent defense and enhances JA-mediated defense through a mechanism that also controls cuticle synthesis. PMID:19625635

  12. Hydrogen peroxide acts as a second messenger for the induction of defense genes in tomato plants in response to wounding, systemin, and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Cárdenas, M L; Narváez-Vásquez, J; Ryan, C A

    2001-01-01

    The systemic accumulation of both hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and proteinase inhibitor proteins in tomato leaves in response to wounding was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitors diphenylene iodonium (DPI), imidazole, and pyridine. The expression of several defense genes in response to wounding, systemin, oligosaccharides, and methyl jasmonate also was inhibited by DPI. These genes, including those of four proteinase inhibitors and polyphenol oxidase, are expressed within 4 to 12 hr after wounding. However, DPI did not inhibit the wound-inducible expression of genes encoding prosystemin, lipoxygenase, and allene oxide synthase, which are associated with the octadecanoid signaling pathway and are expressed 0.5 to 2 hr after wounding. Accordingly, treatment of plants with the H(2)O(2)-generating enzyme glucose oxidase plus glucose resulted in the induction of only the later-expressed defensive genes and not the early-expressed signaling-related genes. H(2)O(2) was cytochemically detected in the cell walls of vascular parenchyma cells and spongy mesophyll cells within 4 hr after wounding of wild-type tomato leaves, but not earlier. The cumulative results suggest that active oxygen species are generated near cell walls of vascular bundle cells by oligogalacturonide fragments produced by wound-inducible polygalacturonase and that the resulting H(2)O(2) acts as a second messenger for the activation of defense genes in mesophyll cells. These data provide a rationale for the sequential, coordinated, and functional roles of systemin, jasmonic acid, oligogalacturonides, and H(2)O(2) signals for systemic signaling in tomato plants in response to wounding.

  13. Biological inventory of the proposed site of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Vitt, L.J.

    1981-10-01

    Continued inventories of biota at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) site have resulted in the identification of indicator species (Representative Important Species) in addition to adding to our long-term data base on biota of the site. A large number of plant, insect, miscellaneous invertebrate, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammal species occur on the DWPF site. Of these, there are no nationally Threatened or Endangered species. Three plant species considered Threatened by the State of South Carolina occur on the DWPF site, and one of these, the spathulate seed box is known on the SRP only from Sun Bay, the Carolina bay located directly on the DWPF site. Mitigation attempts to relocate species are discussed. Monitoring will continue. (PSB)

  14. Aphids indirectly increase virulence and transmission potential of a monarch butterfly parasite by reducing defensive chemistry of a shared food plant.

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D

    2011-05-01

    Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites. PMID:21375682

  15. Aphids indirectly increase virulence and transmission potential of a monarch butterfly parasite by reducing defensive chemistry of a shared food plant.

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D

    2011-05-01

    Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites.

  16. Applying behavioral-ecological theory to plant defense: light-dependent movement in Mimosa pudica suggests a trade-off between predation risk and energetic reward.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Evelyn L; Dill, Lawrence M; Cahill, James F

    2011-03-01

    Many animal species tolerate different amounts of predation risk based on environmental conditions and the individual's own condition, often accepting greater risk when energetically stressed. We studied the sensitive plant Mimosa pudica to see whether it too accepts greater risk of predation when less light energy is available. This plant displays a defensive behavior of rapidly folding its leaves when stimulated by touch, thereby decreasing visibility to herbivores. Averting herbivory involves a trade-off because leaf closure results in a reduction in light foraging. We manipulated the light environment of individual M. pudica plants and recorded the time it took a plant to reopen its leaves following stimulation as a measure of tolerance of predation risk. As predicted by theory, avoidance behavior was sustained longer under high light conditions than under more light-limited conditions. These findings suggest this species balances the risk and reward of antiherbivore behavior in relation to current environmental conditions and that behavioral-ecological theory is a useful framework for understanding plant responses to predators.

  17. Induced Release of a Plant-Defense Volatile ‘Deceptively’ Attracts Insect Vectors to Plants Infected with a Bacterial Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Rajinder S.; Ali, Jared G.; Hermann, Sara L.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Pelz-Stelinski, Kirsten S.; Alborn, Hans T.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of plant pathogens by insect vectors is a complex biological process involving interactions between the plant, insect, and pathogen. Pathogen-induced plant responses can include changes in volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites as well as major plant nutrients. Experiments were conducted to understand how a plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), affects host preference behavior of its psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) vector. D. citri were attracted to volatiles from pathogen-infected plants more than to those from non-infected counterparts. Las-infected plants were more attractive to D. citri adults than non-infected plants initially; however after feeding, psyllids subsequently dispersed to non-infected rather than infected plants as their preferred settling point. Experiments with Las-infected and non-infected plants under complete darkness yielded similar results to those recorded under light. The behavior of psyllids in response to infected versus non-infected plants was not influenced by whether or not they were carriers of the pathogen. Quantification of volatile release from non-infected and infected plants supported the hypothesis that odorants mediate psyllid preference. Significantly more methyl salicylate, yet less methyl anthranilate and D-limonene, was released by infected than non-infected plants. Methyl salicylate was attractive to psyllids, while methyl anthranilate did not affect their behavior. Feeding on citrus by D. citri adults also induced release of methyl salicylate, suggesting that it may be a cue revealing location of conspecifics on host plants. Infected plants were characterized by lower levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, zinc, and iron, as well as, higher levels of potassium and boron than non-infected plants. Collectively, our results suggest that host selection behavior of D. citri may be modified by bacterial infection of plants, which alters release of specific headspace

  18. Novel aspinolide production by Trichoderma arundinaceum with a potential role in Botrytis cinerea antagonistic activity and plant defense priming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harzianum A (HA), a trichothecene produced by Trichoderma arundinaceum, has recently been described to have antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens and to induce plant defence genes. In the present work, we have shown that a tri5 genedisrupted mutant that lacks HA production overproduce...

  19. Chitosan nanoparticle induced defense responses in fingermillet plants against blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea (Cke.) Sacc.

    PubMed

    Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Manikandan, Appu

    2016-12-10

    The in vitro antifungal properties of chitosan nanoparticle and its role in protection of fingermillet plants from blast disease were evaluated. Chitosan nanoparticle inhibited the radial growth of Pyricularia grisea indicating the antifungal property. Application of chitosan nanoparticle delayed blast symptom expression on fingermillet leaves for 25days while it was on 15day in control plants. Chitosan naoparticle was able to induce the reactive oxygen species and the level of peroxidase actvitiy in leaves of fingermillet, which might be the reason for delayed symptom. The treated plants showed reduced disease incidence when compared to untreated control plants. These results suggested the role of chitosan nanoparticle in protecting fingermillet plants from P. grisea infection. PMID:27577915

  20. Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E

    2012-07-01

    Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides.

  1. Attenuation of the jasmonate burst, plant defensive traits, and resistance to specialist monarch caterpillars on shaded common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca).

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Kearney, Emily E; Hastings, Amy P; Ramsey, Trey E

    2012-07-01

    Plant responses to herbivory and light competition are often in opposing directions, posing a potential conflict for plants experiencing both stresses. For sun-adapted species, growing in shade typically makes plants more constitutively susceptible to herbivores via reduced structural and chemical resistance traits. Nonetheless, the impact of light environment on induced resistance has been less well-studied, especially in field experiments that link physiological mechanisms to ecological outcomes. Accordingly, we studied induced resistance of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca, a sun-adapted plant), and linked hormonal responses, resistance traits, and performance of specialist monarch caterpillars (Danaus plexippus) in varying light environments. In natural populations, plants growing under forest-edge shade showed reduced levels of resistance traits (lower leaf toughness, cardenolides, and trichomes) and enhanced light-capture traits (higher specific leaf area, larger leaves, and lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratio) compared to paired plants in full sun. In a field experiment repeated over two years, only milkweeds growing in full sun exhibited induced resistance to monarchs, whereas plants growing in shade were constitutively more susceptible and did not induce resistance. In a more controlled field experiment, plant hormones were higher in the sun (jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, indole acidic acid) and were induced by herbivory (jasmonic acid and abscisic acid). In particular, the jasmonate burst following herbivory was halved in plants raised in shaded habitats, and this correspondingly reduced latex induction (but not cardenolide induction). Thus, we provide a mechanistic basis for the attenuation of induced plant resistance in low resource environments. Additionally, there appears to be specificity in these interactions, with light-mediated impacts on jasmonate-induction being stronger for latex exudation than cardenolides. PMID:22661306

  2. Hydroxycinnamic acid degradation, a broadly conserved trait, protects Ralstonia solanacearum from chemical plant defenses and contributes to root colonization and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tiffany M.; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2014-01-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid defense compounds (HCAs) to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a Δfcs (feruloyl-CoA synthetase) mutant that cannot degrade HCAs was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen (1) grow, as a carbon source; (2) spread, by reducing physical barriers HCA-derived; and (3) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCAs in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCAs are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCAs: caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCAs contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity. PMID:25423265

  3. Hydroxycinnamic Acid Degradation, a Broadly Conserved Trait, Protects Ralstonia solanacearum from Chemical Plant Defenses and Contributes to Root Colonization and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tiffany M; Ailloud, Florent; Allen, Caitilyn

    2015-03-01

    Plants produce hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) defense compounds to combat pathogens, such as the bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum. We showed that an HCA degradation pathway is genetically and functionally conserved across diverse R. solanacearum strains. Further, a feruloyl-CoA synthetase (Δfcs) mutant that cannot degrade HCA was less virulent on tomato plants. To understand the role of HCA degradation in bacterial wilt disease, we tested the following hypotheses: HCA degradation helps the pathogen i) grow, as a carbon source; ii) spread, by reducing HCA-derived physical barriers; and iii) survive plant antimicrobial compounds. Although HCA degradation enabled R. solanacearum growth on HCA in vitro, HCA degradation was dispensable for growth in xylem sap and root exudate, suggesting that HCA are not significant carbon sources in planta. Acetyl-bromide quantification of lignin demonstrated that R. solanacearum infections did not affect the gross quantity or distribution of stem lignin. However, the Δfcs mutant was significantly more susceptible to inhibition by two HCA, namely, caffeate and p-coumarate. Finally, plant colonization assays suggested that HCA degradation facilitates early stages of infection and root colonization. Together, these results indicated that ability to degrade HCA contributes to bacterial wilt virulence by facilitating root entry and by protecting the pathogen from HCA toxicity.

  4. Arabidopsis LIP5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, Is a Critical Target of Pathogen-Responsive MAPK Cascade in Plant Basal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shang, Yifen; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) play essential roles in many cellular processes. The MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transports (ESCRTs) for sustained protein trafficking. Membrane dissociation of ESCRTs is catalyzed by the AAA ATPase SKD1, which is stimulated by LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5). We report here that LIP5 is a target of pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) and plays a critical role in plant basal resistance. Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD and pathogen infection. Disruption of LIP5 has little effects on flg22-, salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromises basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. The critical role of LIP5 in plant basal resistance is dependent on its ability to interact with SKD1. Mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 does not affect interaction with SKD1 but reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 mutant phenotypes. Using the membrane-selective FM1–43 dye and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that pathogen infection increases formation of both intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles situated between the plasma membrane and the cell wall in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. These results indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system likely through relocalization of defense-related molecules. PMID:25010425