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Sample records for plant druckstossberechnungen fuer

  1. Pflanzen als Naehrsubstrat fuer Cryptococcus Neoformans (Plants as a Substratum for Growth of Cryptococcus Neoformans),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The suitability of plants as a possible substratum for growth (in vitro) of C . neoformans has been investigated. A sample of hay collected from...the second left unsterile. The samples were inoculated by flooding them with suspensions prepared from two known strains of C . neoformans . The...month and subsequently at room temperature. Discrete colonies of C . neoformans appeared after five days on samples of hay as well as of dandelion

  2. 20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. HISTORIC VIEW OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT, 1930. LEFT TO RIGHT: RUDOLF NEBEL, FRANZ RITTER, UNKNOWN, KURT HEINISCH, UNKNOWN, HERMANN OBERTH, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL, WERNHER VON BRAUN, UNKNOWN, KLAUS RIEDEL HOLDS EARLY VERSION OR MODEL FOR THE MINIMUM ROCKET, 'MIRAK'. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. Chemical Research at the Institut fuer Strahlenchemie, Muelheim.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-16

    distributed in microorganisms, higher plants, and animals. In plants it is found as the fully phosphorylated derivative, phytic acid . IHP is the...deoxyribonucleic acid olefin radical cation vesicles inositol hexaphosphate (IHP) photochemistry hemoglobin photochemical disinfection of water 20...OF TIS PAGE fMb 21" -. effort of the institute involves the radiation chemistry of deoxyribonucleic acid and model compounds. Described in this report

  4. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  5. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  6. [Poisonous plants].

    PubMed

    Hoppu, Kalle; Mustonen, Harriet; Pohjalainen, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Approximately ten species of dangerously poisonous plants are found in Finland. Severe plant poisonings are very rare. Edible plants eaten raw or wrongly processed may cause severe symptoms. As first aid, activated charcoal should be given to the person who has eaten a plant causing a risk of significant poisoning. In case of exposure to topically irritating plant fluids, the exposed person's eyes must be irrigated and mouth or skin washed with copious amounts of water. In combination with solar UV radiation, light-sensitizing plants cause local burns. The diagnosis of plant poisoning is usually based on incidental information; the plant should be identified in order to make the correct treatment decisions.

  7. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  8. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  9. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  10. Hardwood planting

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    Hardwood planting used to be most common on private land. Now more and more hardwoods are being planted on public land. Not much hardwood planting research is going on but recent summaries of earlier trials allow us to give you the following guidelines.

  11. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  12. Autoluminescent Plants

    PubMed Central

    Krichevsky, Alexander; Meyers, Benjamin; Vainstein, Alexander; Maliga, Pal; Citovsky, Vitaly

    2010-01-01

    Prospects of obtaining plants glowing in the dark have captivated the imagination of scientists and layman alike. While light emission has been developed into a useful marker of gene expression, bioluminescence in plants remained dependent on externally supplied substrate. Evolutionary conservation of the prokaryotic gene expression machinery enabled expression of the six genes of the lux operon in chloroplasts yielding plants that are capable of autonomous light emission. This work demonstrates that complex metabolic pathways of prokaryotes can be reconstructed and function in plant chloroplasts and that transplastomic plants can emit light that is visible by naked eye. PMID:21103397

  13. Plant nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Herth, Simone

    2011-11-01

    The anthropogenic release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment poses a potential hazard to human health and life. The interplay between NPs and biological processes is receiving increasing attention. Plants expose huge interfaces to the air and soil environment. Thus, NPs are adsorbed to the plant surfaces, taken up through nano- or micrometer-scale openings of plants and are translocated within the plant body. Persistent NPs associated with plants enter the human food chain. In this Opinion, we document the occurrence and character of NPs in the environment and evaluate the need for future research on toxicological effects. Plant nanotoxicology is introduced as a discipline that explores the effects and toxicity mechanisms of NPs in plants, including transport, surface interactions and material-specific responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Wavelength Prograimable Spectrophotometer For Individual Plant Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brach, E. J.; Simmonds, J.; Poirier, P.

    1983-11-01

    Action spectra for a number of light-mediated physiological processes, (e.g. germination, flowering, elongation) indicated that the effective wavelength for induction was between 600-700 nm and for supression was between 700-760 nm, with maxima at 660 nm and 730 nm respectively (see Smith 1975 for review). These studies predicted the existence of the photoreversible pigment phytochrome (P) existing in two forms, interconvertible by red and far-red light. The photo-equilibrium of the red absorbing (Pr) and far-red absorbing (Pfr) forms is determined by the proportions of red and far-red light available. Most of the infornation cooes from studies on dark grown plants using narrow band or uonochromatic light and until recently very little work has been done on the role of phytochrome in the natural environment. Because changes in the distribution of this physiologically active light in nature will result in an altered photo-equilibrium of the two forms of phytochrome, a new quantity c (zeta) was defined, as the ratio of the quantum flux at 660 ni to the quantum flux at 730 nm (Holmes and McCartney 1976, Monteith 1976). This relationship of zeta to the photochrome photoequilibrium (% Pfr) was determined for a series of natural and artificial light sources (Smith and Holmes 1977). owever, radiation of shorter wavelengths also has an infuence on plant development through its action on phytochrome (Parker et al 1946, Bertsch 1963). The absorption spectra of the two forms of phytochrome show, in addition to the vajor absorption bands in the red and far-red regions, minor bands in the blue and near uv (Hendricks 1962, Siegelman and Fuer 1964). Also photochrome does undergo light-induced absorbance changes 'in vitro' in the blue region of the spectrum (Everett and Briggs 1970). A more accurate estimate of photochrome photoequilibria would

  15. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  16. Electronic plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  17. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  18. Plant Minders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Indoor plants are automatically watered by the Aqua Trends watering system. System draws water from building outlets or from pump/reservoir module and distributes it to the plants via a network of tubes and adjustable nozzles. Key element of system is electronic controller programmed to dispense water according to the needs of various plants in an installation. Adjustable nozzle meters out exactly right amount of water at proper time to the plant it's serving. More than 100 Aqua/Trends systems are in service in the USA, from a simple residential system to a large Mirage III system integrated to water all greenery in a large office or apartment building.

  19. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  20. Plant Immunity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants are faced with defending themselves against a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc. Immunity is multi-layered and complex. Plants can induce defenses when they recognize small peptides, proteins or double-stranded RNA associated with pathogens. Recognitio...

  1. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  2. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  3. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  4. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  5. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  6. Plant minichromosomes.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A; Graham, Nathaniel D; Swyers, Nathan C; Cody, Jon P; McCaw, Morgan E

    2016-02-01

    Plant minichromosomes have the potential for stacking multiple traits on a separate entity from the remainder of the genome. Transgenes carried on an independent chromosome would facilitate conferring many new properties to plants and using minichromosomes as genetic tools. The favored method for producing plant minichromosomes is telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation because the epigenetic nature of centromere function prevents using centromere sequences to confer the ability to organize a kinetochore when reintroduced into plant cells. Because haploid induction procedures are not always complete in eliminating one parental genome, chromosomes from the inducer lines are often present in plants that are otherwise haploid. This fact suggests that minichromosomes could be combined with doubled haploid breeding to transfer stacked traits more easily to multiple lines and to use minichromosomes for massive scale genome editing.

  7. Plant secretomics

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Tehreem; Shaheen, Kanwal; Parveen, Sajida; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2014-01-01

    Plant secretomes are the proteins secreted by the plant cells and are involved in the maintenance of cell wall structure, relationship between host and pathogen, communication between different cells in the plant, etc. Amalgamation of methodologies like bioinformatics, biochemical, and proteomics are used to separate, classify, and outline secretomes by means of harmonizing in planta systems and in vitro suspension cultured cell system (SSCs). We summed up and explained the meaning of secretome, methods used for the identification and isolation of secreted proteins from extracellular space and methods for the assessment of purity of secretome proteins in this review. Two D PAGE method and HPLC based methods for the analysis together with different bioinformatics tools used for the prediction of secretome proteins are also discussed. Biological significance of secretome proteins under different environmental stresses, i.e., salt stress, drought stress, oxidative stress, etc., defense responses and plant interactions with environment are also explained in detail. PMID:25763623

  8. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  9. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  10. Toxic plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproductive performance is the single most important economic animal trait to the livestock industry and is reported to be 5 and 10 times more significant than carcass quality and growth traits respectively. Poisonous plants impact livestock reproductive function in a major way and have been shown...

  11. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  12. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  13. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  14. I. Plants

    Treesearch

    Dean Pearson; Steve Sutherland; Jack Butler; Jane Smith; Carolyn Sieg

    2011-01-01

    Exotic plants dramatically impact natural communities and disrupt ecosystem services (Mack and others 2000). Although the bulk of current impacts are caused by relatively few exotic species, many additional exotics that are currently established at low levels are increasing in density and distribution and present substantial imminent threats. Additionally, new exotic...

  15. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  16. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  17. Plant Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Leather, Gerald R.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1978-01-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N2 gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O2 gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN3 and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence. It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  18. Plant adaptogens.

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Nörr, H; Winterhoff, H

    1994-06-01

    The term adaptogen has not yet been accepted in medicine. This is probably due to the difficulties in discriminating adaptogenic drugs from immunostimulators, anabolic drugs, nootropic drugs, and tonics. There can be not doubt, however, that, at least in animal experiments, there are plant drugs capable of modulating distinct phases of the adaptation syndrome as defined by Seyle. These drugs either reduce stress reactions in the alarm phase or retard / prevent the exhaustion phase and thus provide a certain degree of protection against long-term stress. The small number of drugs the antistress activity of which has been proven or reported includes, among others, the plant drugs Ginseng, Eleutherococcus, Withania, Ocimum, Rhodiola, and Codonopsis. This review summarizes the major findings of pharmacological tests and human studies carried out with these drugs. Currently used assay systems allowing detection of antistress activities are also reported. At present the most likely candidates responsible for the putative antistress activity of plant drugs are special steroids, phenylprogane compounds and lignanes, respectively. Apart from influencing activities of the pituitary-adrenal axis and inducing stress proteins, many adaptogens also possess immunomodulatory and / or anabolic activities. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  20. The Essence of "Plantness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, W. Marshall

    1990-01-01

    Major differences between plants and animals are presented. Discussed are autotrophs and heterotrophs, plant growth and development, gas exchange, the evolution of plants, ecosystem components, the alleged inferiority of plants, and fungi. (CW)

  1. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  2. The Essence of "Plantness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, W. Marshall

    1990-01-01

    Major differences between plants and animals are presented. Discussed are autotrophs and heterotrophs, plant growth and development, gas exchange, the evolution of plants, ecosystem components, the alleged inferiority of plants, and fungi. (CW)

  3. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  4. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  5. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-09-25

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours.

  6. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  7. Plants. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The study of plants is often limited to studying plant structure with little emphasis on the vital role plants play in our natural system and the variety of ways man uses plants. This unit, designed for intermediate level elementary students, reviews basic plant structure, discusses roles of plants in nature's system, illustrates plant…

  8. Plants on Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawniczak, Stefanie; Gerber, D. Timothy; Beck, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Food, medicine, clothing--much of what people encounter every day comes from plants or plant products. However, plants often do not get as much attention in the K-12 curriculum as they deserve. Because of the essential role plants play in peoples lives, it is important to include standards-based plant units in the elementary science curriculum.…

  9. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Treesearch

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  10. Plants on Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawniczak, Stefanie; Gerber, D. Timothy; Beck, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Food, medicine, clothing--much of what people encounter every day comes from plants or plant products. However, plants often do not get as much attention in the K-12 curriculum as they deserve. Because of the essential role plants play in peoples lives, it is important to include standards-based plant units in the elementary science curriculum.…

  11. The plant microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail. PMID:23805896

  12. Poinsettia plant exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  13. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  14. Plants in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This student plant growth investigation on the International Space Station compares plant growth on the ground with plant growth in space. Brassica rapa seeds, commonly known as a turnip mustard, w...

  15. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  16. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  17. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  18. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  19. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is a listing of 221 baseload power plant units currently in the planning stage. The list shows the plant owner, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, major equipment suppliers (steam generator, turbogenerator, and flue gas desulfurization system), partner, and date the plant is to be online. This data is a result of a survey by the journal of power plant owners.

  20. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOEpatents

    Srienc, Friedrich; Somers, David A.; Hahn, J. J.; Eschenlauer, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  1. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  2. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  3. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  4. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  5. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  6. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Mazarei, Mitra; Teplova, Irina; Hajimorad, M Reza; Stewart, C Neal

    2008-04-14

    Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or 'phytosensors', by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different pathogens with the regulation of detectable

  8. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast…

  9. Thrips management program for plants for planting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrips Management includes sanitation, exclusion, chemical control and biological control. Sanitation. Remove weeds, old plant debris, and growing medium from within and around the greenhouse. Eliminate old stock plants as these are a source of thrips and viruses. Removing old flowers may reduce the...

  10. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  11. Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Doehlemann, Gunther; Ökmen, Bilal; Zhu, Wenjun; Sharon, Amir

    2017-01-01

    Fungi are among the dominant causal agents of plant diseases. To colonize plants and cause disease, pathogenic fungi use diverse strategies. Some fungi kill their hosts and feed on dead material (necrotrophs), while others colonize the living tissue (biotrophs). For successful invasion of plant organs, pathogenic development is tightly regulated and specialized infection structures are formed. To further colonize hosts and establish disease, fungal pathogens deploy a plethora of virulence factors. Depending on the infection strategy, virulence factors perform different functions. While basically all pathogens interfere with primary plant defense, necrotrophs secrete toxins to kill plant tissue. In contrast, biotrophs utilize effector molecules to suppress plant cell death and manipulate plant metabolism in favor of the pathogen. This article provides an overview of plant pathogenic fungal species and the strategies they use to cause disease.

  12. Flooding and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    VISSER, E. J. W.; VOESENEK, L. A. C. J.; VARTAPETIAN, B. B.; JACKSON, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    This Special Issue is based on the 7th Conference of the International Society for Plant Anaerobiosis (ISPA), held in Nijmegen, The Netherlands, 12–16 June 2001. The papers describe and analyse many of the responses that plants display when subjected to waterlogging of the soil or deeper submergence. These responses may be injurious or adaptive, and are discussed at various levels of organizational complexity ranging from ecosystem processes, through individual plants to single cells. The research incorporates molecular biology and genetics, cell physiology, biochemistry, hormone physiology, whole plant physiology, plant demography and ecology. The study of the damage to young rice plants caused by submergence, especially as experienced in the rainfed lowlands of Asia, is comprehensively addressed. This work integrates various specialized approaches ranging from agronomy to molecular genetics, and demonstrates how plant biology can be harnessed to improve stress tolerance in an important crop species while simultaneously improving basic understanding of tolerance mechanisms and plant processes.

  13. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer M [Chicago, IL; Zieler, Helge [Del Mar, CA; Jin, RongGuan [Chesterfield, MO; Keith, Kevin [Three Forks, MT; Copenhaver, Gregory P [Chapel Hill, NC; Preuss, Daphne [Chicago, IL

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  14. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  15. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  16. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach,; Jennifer M. , Zieler; Helge, Jin [Del Mar, CA; RongGuan, Keith [Chesterfield, MO; Kevin, Copenhaver [Three Forks, MT; Gregory P. , Preuss; Daphne, [Chicago, IL

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  17. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  18. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  19. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  20. On Plant Names.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colton, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the scientific and common names of numerous plants and the satisfaction children derive from mastering them. Includes drawings which illustrate the connections between plant structures and their names. (MA)

  1. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  2. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  3. National Plant Genome Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    JAN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Plant Genome Initiative. Progress Report 5a...refl ected in future Administration budgets. Cover Photo: National Plant Genome Initiative Progress Report January 2005 National Science and...Technology Council Committee on Science Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes [Blank Page] Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes Committee on

  4. Plant design: Integrating Plant and Equipment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, David; Fiveland, Woody; Zitney, S.E.; Osawe, Maxwell

    2007-08-01

    Like power plant engineers, process plant engineers must design generating units to operate efficiently, cleanly, and profitably despite fluctuating costs for raw materials and fuels. To do so, they increasingly create virtual plants to enable evaluation of design concepts without the expense of building pilot-scale or demonstration facilities. Existing computational models describe an entire plant either as a network of simplified equipment models or as a single, very detailed equipment model. The Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) project (Figure 5) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) seeks to bridge the gap between models by integrating plant modeling and equipment modeling software. The goal of the effort is to provide greater insight into the performance of proposed plant designs. The software integration was done using the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (Computer Aided Process Engineering–Open), or CO interface. Several demonstration cases based on operating power plants confirm the viability of this co-simulation approach.

  5. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Living things respond to a stimulus, which is a change in the surroundings. Some common stimuli are noises, smells, and things the people see or feel, such as a change in temperature. Animals often respond to a stimulus by moving. Because plants can't move around in the same way animals do, plants have to respond in a different way. Plants can…

  6. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  7. Diagnosing plant problems

    Treesearch

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  8. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  9. Plants and people

    Treesearch

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  10. Cycling Through Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Children notice seeds and plants every day. But do they really understand what seeds are and how they are related to plants? Have they ever observed what is inside the seed? What happens to the "things" inside a seed when it grows? What do plants need to grow, and what do they need to stay healthy? Through a sequence of three related learning…

  11. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Living things respond to a stimulus, which is a change in the surroundings. Some common stimuli are noises, smells, and things the people see or feel, such as a change in temperature. Animals often respond to a stimulus by moving. Because plants can't move around in the same way animals do, plants have to respond in a different way. Plants can…

  12. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  13. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  14. Oak Tree Planting Project

    Treesearch

    Sherryl L. Nives; William D. Tietje; William H. Weitkamp

    1991-01-01

    An Oak Tree Planting Project was conducted during 1989/90 in San Luis Obispo County by the Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program (IHRMP)/Central Coast. The local media and an IHRMP workshop were used to publicize the Planting Project and give information on the status of oaks (Quercus spp.) in California and oak planting techniques. Outreach...

  15. Plant or Animal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  16. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants.

  17. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  18. Plants of the Bayshore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  19. Regional native plant strategies

    Treesearch

    Wendell G. Hassell

    1999-01-01

    Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...

  20. Iron stress in plants.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Erin L; Guerinot, Mary

    2002-07-30

    Although iron is an essential nutrient for plants, its accumulation within cells can be toxic. Plants, therefore, respond to both iron deficiency and iron excess by inducing expression of different gene sets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of iron homeostasis in plants gained through functional genomic approaches

  1. Statistically Valid Planting Trials

    Treesearch

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    More than 100 million tree seedlings are planted each year in Latin America, and at least ten time'that many should be planted Rational control and development of a program of such magnitude require establishing and interpreting carefully planned trial plantings which will yield statistically valid answers to real and important questions. Unfortunately, many...

  2. Cycling Through Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Children notice seeds and plants every day. But do they really understand what seeds are and how they are related to plants? Have they ever observed what is inside the seed? What happens to the "things" inside a seed when it grows? What do plants need to grow, and what do they need to stay healthy? Through a sequence of three related learning…

  3. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  4. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, scientists are preparing the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH). A growing substrate called arcillite has been packed down in the base and coverings are being secured to seal the base. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  5. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, scientists prepare Apogee wheat seeds for the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH). A growing substrate called arcillite was packed down in the base and coverings were secured on top of the base. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  6. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, scientists prepared the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH). A growing substrate called arcillite was packed down in the base and coverings were secured on top of the base. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  7. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Dr. Oscar Monje, a research scientist, pours a growing substrate called arcillite in the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  8. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Dr. Oscar Monje, a research scientist, packs a growing substrate called arcillite in the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  9. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Dr. Oscar Monje, a research scientist, packs a growing substrate called arcillite in the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Seated at right is Susan Manning-Roach, a quality assurance specialist on the Engineering Services Contract. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  10. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a scientist inserts Apogee wheat seeds into the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH). A growing substrate called arcillite was packed down in the base and coverings were secured on top of the base. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  11. Steroid plant hormones: effects outside plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Natalia B; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BS) are the first group of steroid-hormonal compounds isolated from and acting in plants. Among numerous physiological effects of BS growth stimulation and adaptogenic activities are especially remarkable. In this review, we provide evidence that BS possess similar types of activity also beyond plant kingdom at concentrations comparable with those for plants. This finding allows looking at steroids from a new point of view: how common are the mechanisms of steroid bioregulation in different types of organisms from protozoa to higher animals.

  12. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-16

    A test unit, or prototype, of NASA's Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) with its first initial grow test in the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The taller plants pictured are dwarf wheat and the smaller plants are Arabidopsis. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  14. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  15. Outsourcing meets expanded plant`s requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes a system provided and operated by outside contractor that converts treated sewage water to high-purity makeup for expanded gas-turbine plant with minimal environmental impact. Florida Power Corp. (FPC), St. Petersburg, Fla., faced various challenges when planning to expand the Intercession City gas-turbine plant located near Kissimmee, Fla. One challenge was dealing with water for NO{sub x} emissions reduction supplied from the Kissimmee sanitary sewage treatment plant. Another was to minimize or eliminate wastewater generated by chemical cleaning of the reverse-osmosis (RO) system envisioned for the plant. Because of the substantial capital investment needed to meet these challenges, FPC outsourced the design, construction, and operation of the water treatment system to Ecolochem Inc., Norfolk, VA. After three years of operation, the system is meeting all design requirements and is saving the utility about $250,000/yr.

  16. Quantitative plant proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Cramer, Rainer

    2011-02-01

    Quantitation is an inherent requirement in comparative proteomics and there is no exception to this for plant proteomics. Quantitative proteomics has high demands on the experimental workflow, requiring a thorough design and often a complex multi-step structure. It has to include sufficient numbers of biological and technical replicates and methods that are able to facilitate a quantitative signal read-out. Quantitative plant proteomics in particular poses many additional challenges but because of the nature of plants it also offers some potential advantages. In general, analysis of plants has been less prominent in proteomics. Low protein concentration, difficulties in protein extraction, genome multiploidy, high Rubisco abundance in green tissue, and an absence of well-annotated and completed genome sequences are some of the main challenges in plant proteomics. However, the latter is now changing with several genomes emerging for model plants and crops such as potato, tomato, soybean, rice, maize and barley. This review discusses the current status in quantitative plant proteomics (MS-based and non-MS-based) and its challenges and potentials. Both relative and absolute quantitation methods in plant proteomics from DIGE to MS-based analysis after isotope labeling and label-free quantitation are described and illustrated by published studies. In particular, we describe plant-specific quantitative methods such as metabolic labeling methods that can take full advantage of plant metabolism and culture practices, and discuss other potential advantages and challenges that may arise from the unique properties of plants.

  17. Histidine biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Stepansky, A; Leustek, T

    2006-03-01

    The study of histidine metabolism has never been at the forefront of interest in plant systems despite the significant role that the analysis of this pathway has played in development of the field of molecular genetics in microbes. With the advent of methods to analyze plant gene function by complementation of microbial auxotrophic mutants and the complete analysis of plant genome sequences, strides have been made in deciphering the histidine pathway in plants. The studies point to a complex evolutionary origin of genes for histidine biosynthesis. Gene regulation studies have indicated novel regulatory networks involving histidine. In addition, physiological studies have indicated novel functions for histidine in plants as chelators and transporters of metal ions. Recent investigations have revealed intriguing connections of histidine in plant reproduction. The exciting new information suggests that the study of plant histidine biosynthesis has finally begun to flower.

  18. Bumper transgenic plant crop

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1991-07-05

    Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

  19. Toxic proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  1. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  2. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  3. [Intoxications with plants].

    PubMed

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  4. Ecology of plant volatiles: taking a plant community perspective.

    PubMed

    Pierik, Ronald; Ballaré, Carlos L; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Although plants are sessile organisms, they can modulate their phenotype so as to cope with environmental stresses such as herbivore attack and competition with neighbouring plants. Plant-produced volatile compounds mediate various aspects of plant defence. The emission of volatiles has costs and benefits. Research on the role of plant volatiles in defence has focused primarily on the responses of individual plants. However, in nature, plants rarely occur as isolated individuals but are members of plant communities where they compete for resources and exchange information with other plants. In this review, we address the effects of neighbouring plants on plant volatile-mediated defences. We will outline the various roles of volatile compounds in the interactions between plants and other organisms, address the mechanisms of plant neighbour perception in plant communities, and discuss how neighbour detection and volatile signalling are interconnected. Finally, we will outline the most urgent questions to be addressed in the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Risk-taking plants

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Nir; Gebremedhin, Alem; Moshelion, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Water scarcity is a critical limitation for agricultural systems. Two different water management strategies have evolved in plants: an isohydric strategy and an anisohydric strategy. Isohydric plants maintain a constant midday leaf water potential (Ψleaf) when water is abundant, as well as under drought conditions, by reducing stomatal conductance as necessary to limit transpiration. Anisohydric plants have more variable Ψleaf and keep their stomata open and photosynthetic rates high for longer periods, even in the presence of decreasing leaf water potential. This risk-taking behavior of anisohydric plants might be beneficial when water is abundant, as well as under moderately stressful conditions. However, under conditions of intense drought, this behavior might endanger the plant. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these two water-usage strategies and their effects on the plant’s ability to tolerate abiotic and biotic stress. The involvement of plant tonoplast AQPs in this process will also be discussed. PMID:22751307

  6. [Plant-infecting reoviruses].

    PubMed

    Sasaya, Takahide

    2014-01-01

    The family Reoviridae separates two subfamilies and consists of 15 genera. Fourteen viruses in three genera (Phytoreovirus, Oryzavirus, and Fijivirus) infect plants. The outbreaks of the plant-infecting reoviruses cause sometime the serious yield loss of rice and maize, and are a menace to safe and efficient food production in the Southeast Asia. The plant-infecting reoviruses are double-shelled icosahedral particles, from 50 to 80nm in diameter, and include from 10 to 12 segmented double-stranded genomic RNAs depending on the viruses. These viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by the vector insects and replicated in both plants and in their vectors. This review provides a brief overview of the plant-infecting reoviruses and their recent research progresses including the strategy for viral controls using transgenic rice plants.

  7. Plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  9. Amistad Power Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Worh District AMISTAD POWEI PLANT DEL RIO, TEXAS DTICS LECTE DEC 2 11983 OCTOBER 1063 88 11 281 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved fca public relea...A I I I 1 1 ... CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT WORTH DISTRICT, TEXAS FINAL FOUNDATION REPORT AMISTAD POWER PLANT NTIS G- xi DTI’. T" Jus! if - Distr ’. Avai...Wayne E. McIntosh. Colonel Donald Palladino and Colonel Theodore Stroup served as District Engineers during construction of the Amistad Power Plant

  10. Replacing baseload power plants with wind plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Baseload nuclear power plants supply about 21 percent of the electricity consumed in the United States today, and as these plants are retired over the next 10 to 25 years, they will not be replicated. This will open a vast market for new generating facilities which should, if possible, be non-fossil fueled. Wind energy baseload systems are able to equal or exceed the technical performance of these nuclear plants at a delivered cost of energy of less than $0.05/kWh in wind class 4 regions. However, unless a new externality (the cost of maintaining the security of fossil fuel supply) is factored in to the extremely low market price of fossil fuels, wind and other renewable energy resources will not be able to compete with these fuels on the basis of simple economics over the next 20 to 30 years.

  11. Advanced Plant Habitat - Packing and Planting Seeds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    Dr. Oscar Monje, (far right) a research scientist, packs a growing substrate called arcillite in the science carrier, or base, of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) inside a laboratory at the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Assisting him is Jeffrey Richards, project science coordinator with SGT on the Engineering Services Contract (ESC). Seated in the foreground is Susan Manning-Roach, a quality assurance specialist, also with ESC. Developed by NASA and ORBITEC of Madison, Wisconsin, the APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It is a fully automated plant growth facility that will be used to conduct bioscience research on the International Space Station. The APH will be delivered to the space station aboard future Commercial Resupply Services missions.

  12. Recombinant cytokines from plants.

    PubMed

    Sirko, Agnieszka; Vaněk, Tomas; Góra-Sochacka, Anna; Redkiewicz, Patrycja

    2011-01-01

    Plant-based platforms have been successfully applied for the last two decades for the efficient production of pharmaceutical proteins. The number of commercialized products biomanufactured in plants is, however, rather discouraging. Cytokines are small glycosylated polypeptides used in the treatment of cancer, immune disorders and various other related diseases. Because the clinical use of cytokines is limited by high production costs they are good candidates for plant-made pharmaceuticals. Several research groups explored the possibilities of cost-effective production of animal cytokines in plant systems. This review summarizes recent advances in this field.

  13. Databases for plant phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Yao, Qiuming; Xu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most studied posttranslational modification involved in signal transduction in stress responses, development, and growth. In the recent years large-scale phosphoproteomic studies were carried out using various model plants and several growth and stress conditions. Here we present an overview of online resources for plant phosphoproteomic databases: PhosPhAt as a resource for Arabidopsis phosphoproteins, P3DB as a resource expanding to crop plants, and Medicago PhosphoProtein Database as a resource for the model plant Medicago trunculata.

  14. Phyllotactic Patterns on Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Patrick D.; Newell, Alan C.

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences.

  15. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009116 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  16. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009124 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  17. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009125 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  18. Plant intelligence and attention.

    PubMed

    Marder, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  19. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  20. Plant biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jikun; Rozelle, Scott; Pray, Carl; Wang, Qinfang

    2002-01-25

    A survey of China's plant biotechnologists shows that China is developing the largest plant biotechnology capacity outside of North America. The list of genetically modified plant technologies in trials, including rice, wheat, potatoes, and peanuts, is impressive and differs from those being worked on in other countries. Poor farmers in China are cultivating more area of genetically modified plants than are small farmers in any other developing country. A survey of agricultural producers in China demonstrates that Bacillus thuringiensis cotton adoption increases production efficiency and improves farmer health.

  1. Characterization of plant aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Bertl, Adam; Otto, Beate; Moshelion, Menachem; Uehlein, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    Plants have been reported to contain a large set of aquaporins (38 for Arabidopsis), which has been divided into four subfamilies on the basis of similarities in their amino acid sequences. They belong to the large superfamily of major intrinsic proteins (MIP), which was the basis for the nomenclature PIP, TIP, and NIP, also indicating the subcellular localization plasma membrane, tonoplast, and nodule of the respective founding member. The fourth subfamily of small and basic intrinsic proteins is not well characterized so far. The increasing number of reports dealing with various aspects of plant aquaporins is starting to advance our understanding of aquaporin biology in plants. Fundamental questions include: what is the basic function of the different plant aquaporins, what is their primary substrate, and what is the consequence of function/malfunction of a particular aquaporin for the overall function of the plant? Biochemical and biophysical techniques can be employed to get information on the basic functional characteristics of plant aquaporins. An impressive set of techniques has been used to study aquaporin function on molecular, subcellular, and cellular levels in plants, as well as in heterologous expression systems. The physiological role of aquaporins in plants is much less well understood, but reports unraveling the physiological role of aquaporins, mainly employing genetic techniques and functional measurement on the whole plant level, are emerging. The goal of this chapter is to give an overview on the applied methods, together with some exemplary findings.

  2. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  3. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-28

    GFP fluorescence was detectable in the lower leaves and especially in the roots of one transgenic plant compared to negative and positive control...mgfp5-er gene, lane 5 contains cDNA from a 35s-mgfp5-er transgenic plant , lanes 6-10 contain cDNAs from gn1/gfp plants. RNA extraction was performed 7...contains transgenic plant sprayed with water (negative control). Lanes 5-12 are independent gn1/gfp transgenic events sprayed with 5 mM BTH. Lanes

  4. Epigenetic Regulation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pikaard, Craig S.; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2014-01-01

    The study of epigenetics in plants has a long and rich history, from initial descriptions of non-Mendelian gene behaviors to seminal discoveries of chromatin-modifying proteins and RNAs that mediate gene silencing in most eukaryotes, including humans. Genetic screens in the model plant Arabidopsis have been particularly rewarding, identifying more than 130 epigenetic regulators thus far. The diversity of epigenetic pathways in plants is remarkable, presumably contributing to the phenotypic plasticity of plant postembryonic development and the ability to survive and reproduce in unpredictable environments. PMID:25452385

  5. Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed. PMID:19704553

  6. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  7. Plant antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Nawrot, Robert; Barylski, Jakub; Nowicki, Grzegorz; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Buchwald, Waldemar; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a component of barrier defense system of plants. They have been isolated from roots, seeds, flowers, stems, and leaves of a wide variety of species and have activities towards phytopathogens, as well as against bacteria pathogenic to humans. Thus, plant AMPs are considered as promising antibiotic compounds with important biotechnological applications. Plant AMPs are grouped into several families and share general features such as positive charge, the presence of disulfide bonds (which stabilize the structure), and the mechanism of action targeting outer membrane structures.

  8. Unifying plant molecular data and plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, N; Orgaard, M

    1996-01-01

    Located at a botanical department at an Agricultural University, our taxonomical and genetic research is mainly directed towards cultivated plants and their wild relatives. The investigations are usually under a common heading 'experimental taxonomy', and include basic systematics, cytogenetics, biodiversity, population dynamics, conservation and evolutionary questions correlating the wild species and the cultivated forms. Our point of initiation is the plants and questions/problems raised regarding these plants. Our way of approaching the problems is usually by applying different sets of data and testing them. Experimental taxonomy covers classical cytogenetics (chromosome counting and karyotyping) as well as molecular cytogenetic methods (RAPD, RFLP, in situ hybridization), and includes also chemical data on isoenzymes and anthocyanins. We have had good collaborations with other laboratories and found their expertise on the plants in question very helpful. The aim is always to unify various data on the same set of problems, in order to get a more complete understanding of the plants. At present the department is working on several, quite different plant genera, comprising herbs, aquatic plants, and trees. The methods vary, depending on the plants and the problems in question. Some of the current investigations concern the horticultural genera Lilium and Crocus, in which the main point of interest is the study of chromosome evolution using fluorescence in situ hybridization; preliminary investigations into the composition of anthocyanins in Crocus look very promising. In the tropical starch tuber crop Pachyrhizus (Fabaceae), molecular analyses of relationships between existing cultivars, landraces and wild material have been carried out. A genus which we, in cooperation with a number of other laboratories, have been working with for many years is Hordeum (Poaceae) with one cultivated species (barley) and 31 wild species. Here the main areas of investigation have

  9. Plants without arbuscular mycorrhizae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    P is second to N as the most limiting element for plant growth. Plants have evolved a number of effective strategies to acquire P and grow in a P-limited environment. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular studies of P-deficiency adaptations that occur in non-mycorrhizal species have provided str...

  10. Better Plants Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  11. Overview of plant pigments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  12. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  13. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  14. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  15. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations.

  16. Plant Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    Appropriate for secondary school botany instruction, this study guide focuses on the important roles of plants in human lives. Following a rationale for learning the basic skills of a botanist, separate sections discuss the process sunlight undergoes during photosynthesis, the flow of energy in the food chain, alternative plant lifestyles, plant…

  17. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  18. Invertebrates and Plants

    Treesearch

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D.. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  19. Plant transposable elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O. )

    1988-01-01

    This document presents 27 publications from a symposium on the transposable portions of various plant genomes. Topics include gene regulation, genetic analysis, recombinant technology, mutator functions, gene tagging, extrachromosomal elements, and gene activation in common laboratory plants like tobacco, maize, and alfalfa. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base. (TEM)

  20. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOEpatents

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  1. Plant names and classification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter updates one of the same title from Edition 12 of Stearn’s Introductory Biology published in 2011. It reviews binomial nomenclature, discusses three codes of plant nomenclature (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

  2. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  3. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  4. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  5. Kashaya Pomo Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Jennie; And Others

    The monograph describes more than 200 plants growing within the approximately 300 square miles of the original land of the Kashaya Pomo Indians, which lies along the coast of Sonoma County, California. An introduction provides information on the plant communities represented (redwood forest, mixed evergreen forest, oak woodland, Douglas fir…

  6. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  7. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    DOEpatents

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  8. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  9. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  10. Ocean thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient plant facilities in future.

  11. Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1982-01-01

    Some simple field investigations on plant water relations are described which demonstrate links between physiological and external environmental factors. In this way, a more complex picture of a plant and how it functions within its habitat and the effects the environment has on it can be built up. (Author/JN)

  12. Redox signaling in plants.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  14. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  15. Exotic invasive plants

    Treesearch

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  16. Plantings for wildlife

    Treesearch

    Samuel B. Kirby; Claude L. Ponder; Donald J. Smith

    1989-01-01

    Grains, forages, and other vegetation can be planted to provide critical habitat for desired wildlife species or to increase habitat diversity. Plantings may be in openings created in the forest (see Note 9.11 Wildlife Openings) or along the forest edge in cultivated or pastured fields if protected from domestic livestock. The first step in determining if and what type...

  17. Kashaya Pomo Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Jennie; And Others

    The monograph describes more than 200 plants growing within the approximately 300 square miles of the original land of the Kashaya Pomo Indians, which lies along the coast of Sonoma County, California. An introduction provides information on the plant communities represented (redwood forest, mixed evergreen forest, oak woodland, Douglas fir…

  18. Plants Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    This study quide is intended to provide students with information about the types and functions of plants, along with some individual learning activities. The guide contains sections about: (1) the contributions of plants to life on earth and the benefits they afford to humanity; (2) the processes of photosynthesis and respiration; (3) the flow of…

  19. Plants to Avoid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  20. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOEpatents

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  1. Ocean thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient plant facilities in future.

  2. Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1982-01-01

    Some simple field investigations on plant water relations are described which demonstrate links between physiological and external environmental factors. In this way, a more complex picture of a plant and how it functions within its habitat and the effects the environment has on it can be built up. (Author/JN)

  3. Planning School Plant Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    Steps in planning the school plant are outlined and described. Topics covered are--(1) the school plant program, (2) characteristics of a good school building, (3) financing and constructing the building, (4) the role of various state agencies, (5) Kentucky laws pertaining to planning, financing, and construction of school buildings, (6) Kentucky…

  4. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  5. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  6. Community Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Katie Himanga; Douglas Jones; Jean Miller; Janette Monear; Gail Steinman; Katherine Widin

    2001-01-01

    Tree Trust has been helping people plant trees in their communities since 1976. Our goal is to educate people about the importance of trees in their community and guide them through the process of successful tree-planting projects. Franklin Delano Roosevelt once said ?to exist as a nation, to prosper as a state, and to live as a people, we must have trees?....

  7. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  8. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  9. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  10. Hemipterans as plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Walling, Linda L

    2005-01-01

    Integration of the tools of genetics, genomics, and biochemistry has provided new approaches for identifying genes responding to herbivory. As a result, a picture of the complexity of plant-defense signaling to different herbivore feeding guilds is emerging. Plant responses to hemipteran insects have substantial overlap with responses mounted against microbial pathogens, as seen in changes in RNA profiles and emission of volatiles. Responses to known defense signals and characterization of the signaling pathways controlled by the first cloned insect R gene (Mi-1) indicate that perception and signal transduction leading to resistance may be similar to plant-pathogen interactions. Additionally, novel signaling pathways are emerging as important components of plant defense to insects. The availability of new tools and approaches will further enhance our understanding of the nature of defense in plant-hemipteran interactions.

  11. Cellulose metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Yoshida, Kouki; Park, Yong Woo; Konishi, Teruko; Baba, Kei'ichi

    2005-01-01

    Many bacterial genomes contain a cellulose synthase operon together with a cellulase gene, indicating that cellulase is required for cellulose biosynthesis. In higher plants, there is evidence that cell growth is enhanced by the overexpression of cellulase and prevented by its suppression. Cellulase overexpression could modify cell walls not only by trimming off the paracrystalline sites of cellulose microfibrils, but also by releasing xyloglucan tethers between the microfibrils. Mutants for membrane-anchored cellulase (Korrigan) also show a typical phenotype of prevention of cellulose biosynthesis in tissues. All plant cellulases belong to family 9, which endohydrolyzes cellulose, but are not strong enough to cause the bulk degradation of cellulose microfibrils in a plant body. It is hypothesized that cellulase participates primarily in repairing or arranging cellulose microfibrils during cellulose biosynthesis in plants. A scheme for the roles of plant cellulose and cellulases is proposed.

  12. Exploiting plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Schläger, Sabrina; Dräger, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants have been used for medicine since ancient times. Modern pharmaceuticals still rely on alkaloid extraction from plants, some of which grow slowly, are difficult to cultivate and produce low alkaloid yields. Microbial cells as alternative alkaloid production systems are emerging. Before industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts, several steps have to be taken. Original alkaloid-forming enzymes have to be elucidated from plants. Their activity in the heterologous host cells, however, may be low. The exchange of individual plant enzymes for alternative catalysts with better performance and optimal fermentation parameters appear promising. The overall aim is enhancement and stabilization of alkaloid yields from microbes in order to replace the tedious extraction of low alkaloid concentrations from intact plants.

  13. Plant plastid engineering.

    PubMed

    Wani, Shabir H; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B

    2010-11-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation.

  14. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  15. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  16. Plants on the move

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Livia Camilla Trevisan; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2011-01-01

    One may think that plants seem relatively immobile. Nevertheless, plants not only produce movement but these movements can be quite rapid such as the closing traps of carnivorous plants, the folding up of leaflets in some Leguminosae species and the movement of floral organs in order to increase cross pollination. We focus this review on thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements, both in vegetative and reproductive parts of higher plants. Ultrastructural studies revealed that most thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements are caused by differentially changing cell turgor within a given tissue. Auxin has emerged as a key molecule that modulates proton extrusion and thus causing changes in cell turgor by enhancing the activity of H+ATPase in cell membranes. Finding conserved molecules and/or operational molecular modules among diverse types of movements would help us to find universal mechanisms controlling movements in plants and thus improve our understanding about the evolution of such phenomena. PMID:22231201

  17. Plant Sex Determination.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R

    2017-03-06

    Sex determination is as important for the fitness of plants as it is for animals, but its mechanisms appear to vary much more among plants than among animals, and the expression of gender in plants differs in important respects from that in most animals. In this Minireview, I provide an overview of the broad variety of ways in which plants determine sex. I suggest that several important peculiarities of plant sex determination can be understood by recognising that: plants show an alternation of generations between sporophytic and gametophytic phases (either of which may take control of sex determination); plants are modular in structure and lack a germ line (allowing for a quantitative expression of gender that is not common in animals); and separate sexes in plants have ultimately evolved from hermaphroditic ancestors. Most theorising about sex determination in plants has focused on dioecious species, but we have much to learn from monecious or hermaphroditic species, where sex is determined at the level of modules, tissues or cells. Because of the fundamental modularity of plant development and potentially important evolutionary links between monoecy and dioecy, it may be useful to relax the distinction often made between 'developmental sex determination' (which underpins the development of male versus female flowers in monoecious species) and 'genetic sex determination' (which underpins the separation of males and females in dioecious species, often mediated by a genetic polymorphism and sex chromosomes). I also argue for relaxing the distinction between sex determination involving a genetic polymorphism and that involving responses to environmental or hormonal cues, because non-genetic cues might easily be converted into genetic switches.

  18. Shaping plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  19. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    PubMed

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  20. Plant nuclear envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    Compared to research in the animal field, the plant NE has been clearly under-investigated. The available data so far indicate similarities as well as striking differences that raise interesting questions about the function and evolution of the NE in different kingdoms. Despite a seemingly similar structure and organization of the NE, many of the proteins that are integral components of the animal NE appear to lack homologues in plant cells. The sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome has not led to the identification of homologues of animal NE components, but has indicated that the plant NE must have a distinct protein composition different from that found in metazoan cells. Besides providing a selective barrier between the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm, the plant NE functions as a scaffold for chromatin but the scaffolding components are not identical to those found in animal cells. The NE comprises an MTOC in higher plant cells, a striking difference to the organization of microtubule nucleation in other eukaryotic cells. Nuclear pores are present in the plant NE, but identifiable orthologues of most animal and yeast nucleoporins are presently lacking. The transport pathway through the nuclear pores via the action of karyopherins and the Ran cycle is conserved in plant cells. Interestingly, RanGAP is sequestered to the NE in plant cells and animal cells, yet the targeting domains and mechanisms of attachment are different between the two kingdoms. At present, only a few proteins localized at the plant NE have been identified molecularly. Future research will have to expand the list of known protein components involved in building a functional plant NE.

  1. Plant materials for riparian revegetation

    Treesearch

    J. Chris Hoag; Thomas D. Landis

    2002-01-01

    Increased public awareness and concern have prompted new efforts in riparian revegetation using streambank bioengineering techniques. Planting in a riparian zone is very different than planting on upland sites. Riparian planting zones should be used to ensure that the vegetation is planted in the appropriate location so that the planting does not create more problems...

  2. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  3. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  4. 76 FR 31171 - Importation of Plants for Planting; Establishing a Category of Plants for Planting Not Authorized...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... below as the regulations), restrict, among other things, the importation of living plants, plant parts... plants for planting regulations to include nonvascular green plants. We solicited comments concerning our... tested for the presence of endophytic organisms (i.e., organisms that live at least part of their...

  5. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  6. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Plant ABC Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung; Choi, Hyunju; Burla, Bo; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes and fulfill a multitude of functions. Originally identified as transporters involved in detoxification processes, they have later been shown to be required for organ growth, plant nutrition, plant development, response to abiotic stresses, pathogen resistance and the interaction of the plant with its environment. To fulfill these roles they exhibit different substrate specifies by e.g. depositing surface lipids, accumulating phytate in seeds, and transporting the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the functions of plant ABC transporters and to show their importance for plant development and survival. PMID:22303277

  8. Plants and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karminskiy, V.; Tarkhanovskiy, V.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of two plants, wall cress and short-day red goosefoot, was traced for their entire lifetime in weightlessness. In the beginning both plants grew normally: the seeds sprouted in the normal periods, and the shoots did not differ in any way from the control plants. It is true that certain roots lost their normal orientation and did not go deeper into the nutrient medium, but rather crept over its surface. But then both the wall cress and the goosefoot slowed down their normal rate of growth, which became noticeable from the rate of formation of new leaves in the wall cress and stem development in the goosefoot. Although no disorders were successfully found in the morphology of the two plants, almost half of the experimental cress and goosefoot plants ceased growth completely, yellowed and died. The other part continued to develop normally and by the end of vegetation, differed from the control plants only in a lower height. Not all were fertile since certain experimental plants, after losing spatial orientation, became twisted and produced sterile flowers.

  9. Plants as Environmental Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, Don Rufus A

    2006-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all plants to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, plants generate various types of intracellular and intercellular electrical signals mostly in the form of action and variation potentials in response to these environmental changes. However, over a long period, only certain plants with rapid and highly noticeable responses for environmental stresses have received much attention from plant scientists. Of particular interest to our recent studies on ultra fast action potential measurements in green plants, we discuss in this review the evidence supporting the foundation for utilizing green plants as fast biosensors for molecular recognition of the direction of light, monitoring the environment, and detecting the insect attacks as well as the effects of pesticides, defoliants, uncouplers, and heavy metal pollutants. PMID:19521490

  10. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  11. Cytoskeleton and plant organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Benedikt; Bao, Yi-Qun; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2002-01-01

    The functions of microtubules and actin filaments during various processes that are essential for the growth, reproduction and survival of single plant cells have been well characterized. A large number of plant structural cytoskeletal or cytoskeleton-associated proteins, as well as genes encoding such proteins, have been identified. Although many of these genes and proteins have been partially characterized with respect to their functions, a coherent picture of how they interact to execute cytoskeletal functions in plant cells has yet to emerge. Cytoskeleton-controlled cellular processes are expected to play crucial roles during plant cell differentiation and organogenesis, but what exactly these roles are has only been investigated in a limited number of studies in the whole plant context. The intent of this review is to discuss the results of these studies in the light of what is known about the cellular functions of the plant cytoskeleton, and about the proteins and genes that are required for them. Directions are outlined for future work to advance our understanding of how the cytoskeleton contributes to plant organogenesis and development. PMID:12079673

  12. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  13. TOR signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  14. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter N.; Casagranda, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  15. Cardioactive agents from plants.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Baez, Efren Garcia

    2009-06-01

    This review presents 201 compounds isolated and identified from plants that present cardioactive activity. These substances have been classified by chemical groups and each provides the most relevant information of its pharmacological activity, action mechanism, chemical structure, spectroscopic date and other properties. Chemical structures have been drawn to indicate the stereochemistry. In this review the summary of the scientific information of plants that present biological activity and the compounds responsible for this activity is presented, which introduces the reader to the study of medicinal plants and also provide bibliographic references, where a detailed study of pharmacology can be found.

  16. Selenium accumulation by plants

    PubMed Central

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated

  17. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate <100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter and cannot tolerate greater tissue Se concentrations. However, some plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins

  18. Plant genomics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Campos-de Quiroz, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to extract biological meaning from DNA data. Although genomic issuesare addressed from a plant perspective, this review provides insights into the genomic analyses of other organisms.

  19. Advanced Plant Habitat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    A test unit, or prototype, of NASA's Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) was delivered to the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. The unit is being prepared for engineering development tests to see how the science will integrate with the various systems of the plant habitat. It will have 180 sensors and four times the light output of Veggie. The APH will be delivered to the International Space Station in March 2017.

  20. Advanced Plant Habitat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    A test unit, or prototype, of NASA's Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) was delivered to the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. The base of the APH is being prepared for engineering development tests to see how the science will integrate with the various systems of the plant habitat. It will have 180 sensors and four times the light output of Veggie. The APH will be delivered to the International Space Station in March 2017.

  1. Advanced Plant Habitat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    A test unit, or prototype, of NASA's Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) was delivered to the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. Oscar Monje, a scientist on the Engineering Services Contract, prepares the base of the APH for engineering development tests to see how the science will integrate with the various systems of the plant habitat. The APH will have about 180 sensors and fourt times the light output of Veggie. The APH will be delivered to the International Space Station in March 2017.

  2. Reduce olefin plant fouling

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.F. )

    1988-11-01

    Process-side fouling reduces the overall operating efficiency of an olefin plant. The fouling is commonly caused by the formation of organic polymers which also can contain small amounts of inorganic constituents. The fouling is measured reduced if a properly selected antifoulant is used. Specific equipment and areas of the plant affected by process fouling are listed. The fouling tendency in each area is related to the pyrolysis furnace charge and unit operating conditions. To a lesser extent, the design of the plant will dictate which process equipment will experience fouling.

  3. Plant Genome Duplication Database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Junah; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Genome duplication, widespread in flowering plants, is a driving force in evolution. Genome alignments between/within genomes facilitate identification of homologous regions and individual genes to investigate evolutionary consequences of genome duplication. PGDD (the Plant Genome Duplication Database), a public web service database, provides intra- or interplant genome alignment information. At present, PGDD contains information for 47 plants whose genome sequences have been released. Here, we describe methods for identification and estimation of dates of genome duplication and speciation by functions of PGDD.The database is freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/.

  4. Planting sites in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    Northeastern Forest Experiment Station

    1961-01-01

    Tree planting involves many considerations - site classification, selection of species, planting practices, and protection from fire, insects, and diseases. The information about many of these aspects of planting is scattered and fragmentary.

  5. Our World: Plants in Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Find out how plants use light to make their own food in a process called photosynthesis. See how NASA uses LED lights to help grow plants in space. Design your own plant growth chamber like the one...

  6. Belowground microbes mitigate plant-plant competition.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Márcia Bacelar; Dias, Teresa; Carolino, Maria Manuela; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa; Cruz, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Dimorphandra wilsonii, a Cerrado endemic Fabaceae tree, is threatened by land-use changes. The few remaining individuals occur in areas dominated by alien grasses like Urochloa decumbens. We tested the impact of nitrogen (N) availability and symbionts' presence on mitigating the effects of competition from U. decumbens. Dimorphandra wilsonii seedlings were 50-week pot-cultivated under limiting (3mM) or non-limiting (10mM) N, with or without U. decumbens, and inoculated or not with a N-fixer (Bradyrhizobium sp.) and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF - Glomus etunicatum), both forming symbioses in the field. Since D. wilsonii seedlings grew more and 'lost' fewer nutrients under the symbionts' presence, symbionts mitigated plant-plant competition. Under limiting N, inoculated D. wilsonii seedlings grew more (despite no nodulation), but N fixation was only suggested when inoculated D. wilsonii seedlings competed with U. decumbens. D. wilsonii(13)C, and substrate's carbon and respiration suggest that only the microbes performing key functions received plant carbon. Under non-limiting N, inoculated D. wilsonii seedlings became enriched in (13)C, substrate accumulated carbon and microbial respiration increased, suggesting a more generalist microbial community. Data suggest inoculating D. wilsonii seeds/seedlings with AMF and N-fixers as a conservation measure. However, long-term field-studies need to confirm these conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced stellarator power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  8. Memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  9. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  10. Chitosan in plant protection.

    PubMed

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-03-30

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions.

  11. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  12. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    Commander Steve Swanson harvests plants for the VEG-01 investigation. He is harvesting them on the Maintenance Work Area (MWA) in the Node 2/Harmony. The Veg-01 hardware validation test investigation utilizes the Veggie facility on ISS. This investigation will assess on-orbit function and performance of the Veggie,and focus on the growth and development of Outredgeous Lettuce (Lactuca sativa ) seedlings in the spaceflight environment and the effects of the spaceflight environment on composition of microbial flora on the Veggie-grown plants and the Veggie facility. Lettuce plants are harvested on-orbit, frozen at <-80oC and returned to the ground for post-flight evaluation. Microbial sampling swabs will be taken of the Veggie facility and plant material, frozen and returned to the ground for environmental microbiological examination. Rooting pillows and water sample syringes will also be returned for microbial sampling and root analysis.

  13. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  14. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  15. Regulatory Peptides in Plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F; Ashapkin, V V; Aleksandrushkina, N I

    2017-02-01

    Many different peptides regulating cell differentiation, growth, and development are found in plants. Peptides participate in regulation of plant ontogenesis starting from pollination, pollen tube growth, and the very early stages of embryogenesis, including formation of embryo and endosperm. They direct differentiation of meristematic stem cells, formation of tissues and individual organs, take part in regulation of aging, fruit maturation, and abscission of plant parts associated with apoptosis. Biological activity of peptides is observed at very low concentrations, and it has mainly signal nature and hormonal character. "Mature" peptides appear mainly due to processing of protein precursors with (or without) additional enzymatic modifications. Plant peptides differ in origin, structure, and functional properties. Their specific action is due to binding with respective receptors and interactions with various proteins and other factors. Peptides can also regulate physiological functions by direct peptide-protein interactions. Peptide action is coordinated with the action of known phytohormones (auxins, cytokinins, and others); thus, peptides control phytohormonal signal pathways.

  16. Power plant profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Jakansi, J.

    1997-03-01

    The facilities described here represent the rich variety of technologies being applied at new and existing powerplants in the US. While new capacity additions are at an all-time low in this country, the plants and projects that are completed generally represent new highs in regulatory compliance, technical savvy, and management ingenuity. They range from a 4-MW landfill-gas-fired turbine to a 2,500-MW nuclear plant. Several gas-turbine projects are included, confirming the current dominance of this technology. The projects are: Fort St. Vrain, Pinon Pine, Cleburne cogeneration plant, Gilbert station, Hanes Mill Rd, El Dorado, Wolf Creek, South Texas Project, Stanton Energy Center Unit 2, Milliken station and Northampton plant.

  17. Education Highlights: Plant Health

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, Michelle; Cook, David

    2016-01-27

    Argonne intern Michelle Michaels from Oakland Community College worked with Argonne mentor David Cook in studying trends in plant health. This research will help farmers determine crop yield during the growing season.

  18. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  19. Plant Growth Facility (PGF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  20. The Plant Population Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Results achieved by researchers in the field of genetic plant engineering are described. However, it is believed that if their efforts were more decentralized, more farmers, especially in developing countries, could benefit and substantial advances made in production. (BL)

  1. Environments for Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

  2. Cyanogenesis in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen. PMID:16667728

  3. Aquaporins and plant transpiration.

    PubMed

    Maurel, Christophe; Verdoucq, Lionel; Rodrigues, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Although transpiration and aquaporins have long been identified as two key components influencing plant water status, it is only recently that their relations have been investigated in detail. The present review first examines the various facets of aquaporin function in stomatal guard cells and shows that it involves transport of water but also of other molecules such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide. At the whole plant level, changes in tissue hydraulics mediated by root and shoot aquaporins can indirectly impact plant transpiration. Recent studies also point to a feedback effect of transpiration on aquaporin function. These mechanisms may contribute to the difference between isohydric and anisohydric stomatal regulation of leaf water status. The contribution of aquaporins to transpiration control goes far beyond the issue of water transport during stomatal movements and involves emerging cellular and long-distance signalling mechanisms which ultimately act on plant growth.

  4. Vanadium and Plant Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ross M.; Huffman, Edward W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants were grown in purified nutrient solutions with and without the addition of 50 nanograms per milliliter V. These experiments showed that lettuce and tomato plants can be grown to maturity on nutrient solutions containing less than 0.04 nanogram per milliliter V with tissue concentrations of less than 2 to 18 nanograms per gram V. Growth and dry matter yield were comparable to those of plants grown on nutrient solutions containing 50 nanograms per milliliter with tissue levels of V from 117 to 418 nanograms per gram. Thus if V is an essential element for lettuce and tomato plants, the adequate tissue level would be less than 2 nanograms per gram V derivable from a growth medium containing less than 0.04 nanogram per milliliter V. PMID:16658525

  5. The dynamic plant chondriome.

    PubMed

    Logan, David C

    2010-08-01

    The higher plant chondriome is highly dynamic both in terms of the morphology and velocity of individual mitochondria within any given cell. Plant mitochondrial dynamics is a relatively new area of research, but one that has developed considerably over the early years of this century due to the generation of mitochondrially targeted fluorescent protein constructs and stably transformed lines. Several putative members of the plant mitochondrial division apparatus have been identified, but no genes have been identified as being involved in mitochondrial fusion. Despite the highly dynamic nature of plant mitochondria there is little specific scientific evidence linking mitochondrial dynamics to organelle and cell function. Two exceptions to this are the changes in mitochondrial dynamics that are early events during the induction of cell death programmes, and the extensive mitochondrial fusion that occurs before cytokinesis, although in both cases the role(s) of these events are a matter for conjecture.

  6. The Plant Population Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Results achieved by researchers in the field of genetic plant engineering are described. However, it is believed that if their efforts were more decentralized, more farmers, especially in developing countries, could benefit and substantial advances made in production. (BL)

  7. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  8. Plant Models for DEMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisonnier, David

    2008-03-01

    The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R&D activities as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first fusion power plant. An assessment of the PPCS models with limited extrapolations has led to the clarification of the objectives of DEMO. Many parameters will have to be controlled in DEMO in order (1) to control the machine, (2) to satisfy the testing requirements, (3) to satisfy regulatory requirements (primarily safety), and (4) to protect the investment. On the other, DEMO will ulilise one or two plasma scenarios only.

  9. Plant Models for DEMO

    SciTech Connect

    Maisonnier, David

    2008-03-12

    The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first fusion power plant. An assessment of the PPCS models with limited extrapolations has led to the clarification of the objectives of DEMO. Many parameters will have to be controlled in DEMO in order (1) to control the machine, (2) to satisfy the testing requirements, (3) to satisfy regulatory requirements (primarily safety), and (4) to protect the investment. On the other, DEMO will ulilise one or two plasma scenarios only.

  10. Memristors in plants.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component--a resistor with memory. This element was postulated recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks.

  11. Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  12. Education Highlights: Plant Health

    ScienceCinema

    Michaels, Michelle; Cook, David

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Michelle Michaels from Oakland Community College worked with Argonne mentor David Cook in studying trends in plant health. This research will help farmers determine crop yield during the growing season.

  13. Sulfation pathways in plants.

    PubMed

    Koprivova, Anna; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2016-11-25

    Plants take up sulfur in the form of sulfate. Sulfate is activated to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and reduced to sulfite and then to sulfide when it is assimilated into amino acid cysteine. Alternatively, APS is phosphorylated to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), and sulfate from PAPS is transferred onto diverse metabolites in its oxidized form. Traditionally, these pathways are referred to as primary and secondary sulfate metabolism, respectively. However, the synthesis of PAPS is essential for plants and even its reduced provision leads to dwarfism. Here the current knowledge of enzymes involved in sulfation pathways of plants will be summarized, the similarities and differences between different kingdoms will be highlighted, and major open questions in the research of plant sulfation will be formulated.

  14. Synthetic plant defense elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  15. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  16. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  17. Plant Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, C. A.; Patterson, B. D.; Graham, D.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts from 24 species of higher plants, two main forms of carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) were recognized; the “dicotyledon” type and the “monocotyledon” type. More than one band of enzyme was found on gels from most species, suggesting the possibility of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in higher plants. Images PMID:16658144

  18. Detecting Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through an exclusive patent license from NASA Stennis Space Center, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., has developed a hand-held tool that helps farmers, foresters and other growers detect unhealthy crops before the human eye can see the damage. Developed by two NASA researchers, the Observer,TM shows the viewer which plants are under stress through multispectral imaging, a process that uses specific wavelengths of the light spectrum to obtain information about objects-in this case, plants. With this device, several wavelengths of light collect information about the plant and results are immediately processed and displayed. NASA research found that previsible signs of stress, such as such as a lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease, or insect damage, can be detected by measuring the chlorophyll content based on light energy reflected from the plant. The Observer detects stress up to 16 days before deterioration is visible to the eye. Early detection provides an opportunity to reverse stress and save the plant. The hand-held, easily operated unit works in both natural and artificial light, making it suitable for outdoor or indoor planting.

  19. MRI of intact plants.

    PubMed

    Van As, Henk; Scheenen, Tom; Vergeldt, Frank J

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive and non-invasive technique that can be used to acquire two- or even three-dimensional images of intact plants. The information within the images can be manipulated and used to study the dynamics of plant water relations and water transport in the stem, e.g., as a function of environmental (stress) conditions. Non-spatially resolved portable NMR is becoming available to study leaf water content and distribution of water in different (sub-cellular) compartments. These parameters directly relate to stomatal water conductance, CO(2) uptake, and photosynthesis. MRI applied on plants is not a straight forward extension of the methods discussed for (bio)medical MRI. This educational review explains the basic physical principles of plant MRI, with a focus on the spatial resolution, factors that determine the spatial resolution, and its unique information for applications in plant water relations that directly relate to plant photosynthetic activity. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

  20. Logan generating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, M.V.

    1995-08-01

    The Logan Generating Plant is a $500 million, 202-megawatt (MW), pulverized-coal cogeneration facility. Its electricity output - enough for 270,000 homes - is sold to Atlantic Electric. It also supplies all of the steam (up to 50,000 pounds per hour) to a nearby Monsanto facility. The plant went into commercial service in September 1994. Currently, the facility employs 62 people. In addition to becoming an active, long-term employer in Logan Township, the plant will help stimulate the local economy for years to come as a consumer of goods and services. In addition, local and state revenues from the Logan plant provide a much needed economic boost. Cogeneration, which is the production of electric power and thermal energy (heat) from a single energy source, provides efficiency benefits in fuel consumption, capital investment and operating costs. Electricity and process steam from the Logan plant helps Monsanto control its energy costs, thus helping it remain competitive. The Logan Generating Plant plays an important role in the economic development of southern New Jersey by providing clean, dependable and competitively priced electricity to Atlantic Electric for resale to its utility customers. The environmental and economic benefits of the facility are discussed.

  1. Chromium toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Cervantes, Carlos; Loza-Tavera, Herminia; Avudainayagam, S

    2005-07-01

    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Toxicity of Cr to plants depends on its valence state: Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by carriers of essential ions such as sulfate or iron. Toxic effects of Cr on plant growth and development include alterations in the germination process as well as in the growth of roots, stems and leaves, which may affect total dry matter production and yield. Cr also causes deleterious effects on plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, water relations and mineral nutrition. Metabolic alterations by Cr exposure have also been described in plants either by a direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. The potential of plants with the capacity to accumulate or to stabilize Cr compounds for bioremediation of Cr contamination has gained interest in recent years.

  2. Variable plant spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a system for varying the spacings between soybean plants as they grow to maximize the number of plants grown in a given volume. The project was studied to aid in the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The resulting design consists of plant trays which are three dimensional trapezoids arranged into circles in a compact geometrical configuration. These circles are stacked together in back to back pairs to form a long cylinder. In each growth tray, plants will be housed in individual containers containing a nutrient delivery system and a plant support mechanism. Between the containers, a half trellis has been designed to space the plants for maximum space efficiency. The design allows for localized seeding and harvesting mechanisms due to the chambers' geometrical configuration. In addition, the components have been designed for ease of cleaning and minimal maintenance. Next semester, the individual components will be constructed and tested to determine the success of the design.

  3. Gravity Cancellation in Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Orvin

    2005-04-01

    I have measured a 22% reduction in gravity, at maximum sap flow, with an accelerometer placed in a small hole in a tree. Accelerometer manipulation indicates a possible reduction of 100% changing the geometry. This agrees with the author's related work indicating that plants are regulated by gravity related standing waves. There apparently are a limited set of plant internodal spacings (representing half wavelengths) and corresponding harmonically related frequencies. These repeat from plant to plant and from species to species. Measuring the angle of growth of a straight portion of a branch with respect to the horizontal or vertical most often yields an integral multiple of 5^o with respect to the horizontal or vertical. Plants are well known to grow correction tissue to correct artificially produced angle errors. The velocities of the waves in plants are integral multiples of a basic velocity like 48cm/s, much greater than ionic velocities. Disturbing the standing waves in one tree seems to disturb the standing waves in nearby trees. The waves causing the disturbance are found to travel at about 5m/s horizontally in air (and probably vacuum) thus they are not sound waves. See chatlink.com/˜oedphd.

  4. Pellet plant energy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  5. Firmly Planted, Always Moving.

    PubMed

    Raikhel, Natasha V

    2017-04-28

    I was a budding pianist immersed in music in Leningrad, in the Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), when I started over, giving up sheet music for the study of ciliates. In a second starting-over story, I emigrated to the United States, where I switched to studying carbohydrate-binding plant lectin proteins, dissecting plant vesicular trafficking, and isolating novel glycosyltransferases responsible for making cell wall polysaccharides. I track my journey as a plant biologist from student to principal investigator to founding director of the Center for Plant Cell Biology and then director of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology at the University of California, Riverside. I discuss implementing a new vision as the first and (so far) only female editor in chief of Plant Physiology, as well as how my laboratory helped develop chemical genomics tools to study the functions of essential plant proteins. Always wanting to give back what I received, I discuss my present efforts to develop female scientist leadership in Chinese universities and a constant theme throughout my life: a love of art and travel.

  6. Landscaping plant epigenetics.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of epigenetic mechanisms is necessary for assessing the potential impacts of epigenetics on plant growth, development and reproduction, and ultimately for the response of these factors to evolutionary pressures and crop breeding programs. This volume highlights the latest in laboratory and bioinformatic techniques used for the investigation of epigenetic phenomena in plants. Such techniques now allow genome-wide analyses of epigenetic regulation and help to advance our understanding of how epigenetic regulatory mechanisms affect cellular and genome function. To set the scene, we begin with a short background of how the field of epigenetics has evolved, with a particular focus on plant epigenetics. We consider what has historically been understood by the term "epigenetics" before turning to the advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetics which have led to current-day definitions of the term. Following this, we pay attention to key discoveries in the field of epigenetics that have emerged from the study of unusual and enigmatic phenomena in plants. Many of these phenomena have involved cases of non-Mendelian inheritance and have often been dismissed as mere curiosities prior to the elucidation of their molecular mechanisms. In the penultimate section, consideration is given to how advances in molecular techniques are opening the doors to a more comprehensive understanding of epigenetic phenomena in plants. We conclude by assessing some opportunities, challenges, and techniques for epigenetic research in both model and non-model plants, in particular for advancing understanding of the regulation of genome function by epigenetic mechanisms.

  7. Urea metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency.

  8. Molecular plant volatile communication.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2012-01-01

    Plants produce a wide array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which have multiple functions as internal plant hormones (e.g., ethylene, methyl jasmonate and methyl salicylate), in communication with conspecific and heterospecific plants and in communication with organisms of second (herbivores and pollinators) and third (enemies of herbivores) trophic levels. Species specific VOCs normally repel polyphagous herbivores and those specialised on other plant species, but may attract specialist herbivores and their natural enemies, which use VOCs as host location cues. Attraction of predators and parasitoids by VOCs is considered an evolved indirect defence, whereby plants are able to indirectly reduce biotic stress caused by damaging herbivores. In this chapter we review these interactions where VOCs are known to play a crucial role. We then discuss the importance of volatile communication in self and nonself detection. VOCs are suggested to appear in soil ecosystems where distinction of own roots from neighbours roots is essential to optimise root growth, but limited evidence of above-ground plant self-recognition is available.

  9. Coal processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  10. ETSI coal evaluation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Derammelaere, R.H.; Dina, M.L.; McEwan, P.F.

    1982-12-01

    ETSI Pipeline Project operated its Coal Evaluation Plant (CEP) from October 1981 to April 1982. The CEP facilities were located at the White Bluff Power Plant, Arkansas Power and Light's 1500 MW coal burning electric generating plant, thirty miles south of Little Rock. The Powder River coal fueling the White Bluff Power Plant comes from Kerr McGee's Jacobs Ranch mine in Wyoming, which is also the origin of the ETSI transportation system. Other coals transported by ETSI would come from ARCO's Black Thunder mine, Peabody's North Antelope mine and Carter's North Rawhide mine. Although the geographically dispersed coals are very similar, the sensitivity of grinding and dewatering processes to certain coal characteristics spurred ETSI's decision to evaluate the behavior of these coals in laboratory tests, pilot plant tests and finally, in full scale equipment tests at the CEP. The CEP throughput capacity was dictated by the largest commercially proven dewatering equipment, i.e., a 50 short ton per hour (TPH) 44-inch diameter by 132-inch long screenbowl centrifuge followed by a five-foot wide by forty-foot long vibrating bed dryer. This was to represent a typical module in the commercial dewatering plant. The upstream grinding circuit, slurry storage tanks and test loop, and the downstream secondary dewatering, water treatment and coal handling facilities were also sized for continuous production at 50 TPH.

  11. ARE PLANTS SENTIENT?

    PubMed

    Calvo, Paco; Sahi, Vaidurya; Trewavas, Anthony

    2017-09-06

    Feelings in humans are mental states representing groups of physiological functions that usually have defined behavioural purposes. Feelings, being evolutionarily ancient, are thought to be coordinated in the brain stem of animals. One function of the brain is to prioritise between competing mental states, and thus groups of physiological functions and in turn behaviour. Plants use groups of coordinated physiological activities to deal with defined environmental situations but currently have no known mental state to prioritise any order of response. Plants do have a nervous system based on action potentials transmitted along phloem conduits but which in addition, through anastomoses and other cross-links, forms a complex network. The emergent potential for this excitable network to form a mental state is unknown but it might be used to distinguish between different and even contradictory signals to the individual plant and thus determine a priority of response. This plant nervous system stretches throughout the whole plant providing the potential for assessment in all parts and commensurate with its self-organising, phenotypically plastic behaviour. Plasticity may, in turn, depend heavily on the instructive capabilities of local bioelectric fields enabling both a degree of behavioural independence but influenced by the condition of the whole plant. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  13. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  14. Chapter 15. Plant pathology and managing wildland plant disease systems

    Treesearch

    David L. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific, reliable knowledge on plant diseases is essential in wildland shrub resource management. However, plant disease is one of the most neglected areas of wildland resources experimental research. This section is a discussion of plant pathology and how to use it in managing plant disease systems.

  15. 78 FR 9851 - Importation of Plants for Planting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... certificate provided by the International Plant Protection Committee, of which the United States is a...., Leucanthemella serotina, and Nipponanthemum nipponicum into the United States is prohibited due to the presence... plants and plant products into the United States to prevent the introduction of quarantine plant...

  16. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

  17. Plant toxicity, adaptive herbivory, and plant community dynamics

    Treesearch

    Zhilan Feng; Rongsong Liu; Donald L. DeAngelis; John P. Bryant; Knut Kielland; F. Stuart Chapin; Robert K. Swihart

    2009-01-01

    We model effects of interspecific plant competition, herbivory, and a plant's toxic defenses against herbivores on vegetation dynamics. The model predicts that, when a generalist herbivore feeds in the absence of plant toxins, adaptive foraging generally increases the probability of coexistence of plant species populations, because the herbivore switches more of...

  18. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  19. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  20. Plants in alpine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  1. Electroanalysis of Plant Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Supalkova, Veronika; Huska, Dalibor; Diopan, Vaclav; Hanustiak, Pavel; Zitka, Ondrej; Stejskal, Karel; Baloun, Jiri; Pikula, Jiri; Havel, Ladislav; Zehnalek, Josef; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise wide group of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions of glutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of these compounds and their interactions with cadmium(II) ions and Murashige-Skoog medium is presented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealed the effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM) on cadmium uptake and thiols content in maize plants during 192 hours long experiments using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II) ions and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determine glutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the plants cultivated in nutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition and then the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μM Cd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize plant parts to 96 hours Cd exposition but subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination in treated maize plants after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one plant was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd) in comparison with non-treated plant (control) where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse plant thiols.

  2. Plant defense syndromes.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurag A; Fishbein, Mark

    2006-07-01

    Given that a plant's defensive strategy against herbivory is never likely to be a single trait, we develop the concept of plant defense syndromes, where association with specific ecological interactions can result in convergence on suites of covarying defensive traits. Defense syndromes can be studied within communities of diverse plant species as well as within clades of closely related species. In either case, theory predicts that plant defense traits can consistently covary across species, due to shared evolutionary ancestry or due to adaptive convergence. We examined potential defense syndromes in 24 species of milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) in a field experiment. Employing phylogenetically independent contrasts, we found few correlations between seven defensive traits, no bivariate trade-offs, and notable positive correlations between trichome density and latex production, and between C:N ratio and leaf toughness. We then used a hierarchical cluster analysis to produce a phenogram of defense trait similarity among the 24 species. This analysis revealed three distinct clusters of species. The defense syndromes of these species clusters are associated with either low nutritional quality or a balance of higher nutritional quality coupled with physical or chemical defenses. The phenogram based on defense traits was not congruent, however, with a molecular phylogeny of the group, suggesting convergence on defense syndromes. Finally, we examined the performance of monarch butterfly caterpillars on the 24 milkweed species in the field; monarch growth and survival did not differ on plants in the three syndromes, although multiple regression revealed that leaf trichomes and toughness significantly reduced caterpillar growth. The discovery of convergent plant defense syndromes can be used as a framework to ask questions about how abiotic environments, communities of herbivores, and biogeography are associated with particular defense strategies of plants.

  3. Speciation genes in plants

    PubMed Central

    Rieseberg, Loren H.; Blackman, Benjamin K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Analyses of speciation genes – genes that contribute to the cessation of gene flow between populations – can offer clues regarding the ecological settings, evolutionary forces and molecular mechanisms that drive the divergence of populations and species. This review discusses the identities and attributes of genes that contribute to reproductive isolation (RI) in plants, compares them with animal speciation genes and investigates what these genes can tell us about speciation. Scope Forty-one candidate speciation genes were identified in the plant literature. Of these, seven contributed to pre-pollination RI, one to post-pollination, prezygotic RI, eight to hybrid inviability, and 25 to hybrid sterility. Genes, gene families and genetic pathways that were frequently found to underlie the evolution of RI in different plant groups include the anthocyanin pathway and its regulators (pollinator isolation), S RNase-SI genes (unilateral incompatibility), disease resistance genes (hybrid necrosis), chimeric mitochondrial genes (cytoplasmic male sterility), and pentatricopeptide repeat family genes (cytoplasmic male sterility). Conclusions The most surprising conclusion from this review is that identities of genes underlying both prezygotic and postzygotic RI are often predictable in a broad sense from the phenotype of the reproductive barrier. Regulatory changes (both cis and trans) dominate the evolution of pre-pollination RI in plants, whereas a mix of regulatory mutations and changes in protein-coding genes underlie intrinsic postzygotic barriers. Also, loss-of-function mutations and copy number variation frequently contribute to RI. Although direct evidence of positive selection on speciation genes is surprisingly scarce in plants, analyses of gene family evolution, along with theoretical considerations, imply an important role for diversifying selection and genetic conflict in the evolution of RI. Unlike in animals, however, most candidate speciation

  4. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  5. Who Needs Plants? Science (Experimental).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropeik, Bernard H.; Kleinman, David Z.

    The basic elective course in introductory botany is designed for secondary students who probably will not continue study in plant science. The objectives of the course are to help the student 1) identify, compare and differentiate types of plants; 2) identify plant cell structures; 3) distinguish between helpful and harmful plants; 4) predict…

  6. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  7. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  8. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  9. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  10. Understanding plant reproductive diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology. PMID:20008389

  11. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  12. Engineered plant virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Galvez, Leny C; Banerjee, Joydeep; Pinar, Hasan; Mitra, Amitava

    2014-11-01

    Virus diseases are among the key limiting factors that cause significant yield loss and continuously threaten crop production. Resistant cultivars coupled with pesticide application are commonly used to circumvent these threats. One of the limitations of the reliance on resistant cultivars is the inevitable breakdown of resistance due to the multitude of variable virus populations. Similarly, chemical applications to control virus transmitting insect vectors are costly to the farmers, cause adverse health and environmental consequences, and often result in the emergence of resistant vector strains. Thus, exploiting strategies that provide durable and broad-spectrum resistance over diverse environments are of paramount importance. The development of plant gene transfer systems has allowed for the introgression of alien genes into plant genomes for novel disease control strategies, thus providing a mechanism for broadening the genetic resources available to plant breeders. Genetic engineering offers various options for introducing transgenic virus resistance into crop plants to provide a wide range of resistance to viral pathogens. This review examines the current strategies of developing virus resistant transgenic plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant critical concept

    SciTech Connect

    O`Regan, P.J.

    1995-12-31

    The achievement of operation and maintenance (O&M) cost reductions is a prime concern for plant operators. Initiatives by the nuclear industry to address this concern are under way and/or in development. These efforts include plant reliability studies, reliability-centered maintenance, risk ranking and testing philosophies, performance-based testing philosophies, graded quality assurance, and so forth. This paper presents the results of an effort to develop a methodology that integrates and applies the common data and analysis requirements for a number of risk-based and performance-based initiatives. This initial phase of the effort applied the methodology and its results to two initiatives. These were the procurement function and the preventive maintenance function. This effort integrated multiple programs and functions to identify those components that are truly critical from an integrated plant performance perspective. The paper describes the scope of the effort, the development of a methodology to identify plant critical components, and the application of these results to the maintenance rule compliance, preventive maintenance, and procurement functions at the candidate plant.

  14. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  15. Transgenic plants for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a green, sustainable and promising solution to problems of environmental contamination. It entails the use of plants for uptake, sequestration, detoxification or volatilization of inorganic and organic pollutants from soils, water, sediments and possibly air. Phytoremediation was born from the observation that plants possessed physiological properties useful for environmental remediation. This was shortly followed by the application of breeding techniques and artificial selection to genetically improve some of the more promising and interesting species. Now, after nearly 20 years of research, transgenic plants for phytoremediation have been produced, but none have reached commercial existence. Three main approaches have been developed: (1) transformation with genes from other organisms (mammals, bacteria, etc.); (2) transformation with genes from other plant species; and (3) overexpression of genes from the same plant species. Many encouraging results have been reported, even though in some instances results have been contrary to expectations. This review will illustrate the main examples with a critical discussion of what we have learnt from them.

  16. Plant arginyltransferases (ATEs).

    PubMed

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Fausto, Anna K; Silva, Tatiane da F; Romanel, Elisson; Vaslin, Maite F S

    2017-02-13

    Regulation of protein stability and/or degradation of misfolded and damaged proteins are essential cellular processes. A part of this regulation is mediated by the so-called N-end rule proteolytic pathway, which, in concert with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), drives protein degradation depending on the N-terminal amino acid sequence. One important enzyme involved in this process is arginyl-t-RNA transferase, known as ATE. This enzyme acts post-translationally by introducing an arginine residue at the N-terminus of specific protein targets to signal degradation via the UPS. However, the function of ATEs has only recently begun to be revealed. Nonetheless, the few studies to date investigating ATE activity in plants points to the great importance of the ATE/N-end rule pathway in regulating plant signaling. Plant development, seed germination, leaf morphology and responses to gas signaling in plants are among the processes affected by the ATE/N-end rule pathway. In this review, we present some of the known biological functions of plant ATE proteins, highlighting the need for more in-depth studies on this intriguing pathway.

  17. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  18. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  19. Plants, diet, and health.

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie; Zhang, Yang; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2013-01-01

    Chronic disease is a major social challenge of the twenty-first century. In this review, we examine the evidence for discordance between modern diets and those on which humankind evolved as the cause of the increasing incidence of chronic diseases, and the evidence supporting consumption of plant foods as a way to reduce the risk of chronic disease. We also examine the evidence for avoiding certain components of plant-based foods that are enriched in Western diets, and review the mechanisms by which different phytonutrients are thought to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This body of evidence strongly suggests that consuming more fruits and vegetables could contribute both to medical nutrition therapies, as part of a package of treatments for conditions like type 2 diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and obesity, and to the prevention of these diseases. Plant science should be directed toward improving the quality of plant-based foods by building on our improved understanding of the complex relationships between plants, our diet, and our health.

  20. Mammalian sex hormones in plants.

    PubMed

    Janeczko, Anna; Skoczowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of mammalian sex hormones and their physiological role in plants is reviewed. These hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, androsterone, testosterone or progesterone, were present in 60-80% of the plant species investigated. Enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis and conversion were also found in plants. Treatment of the plants with sex hormones or their precursors influenced plant development: cell divisions, root and shoot growth, embryo growth, flowering, pollen tube growth and callus proliferation. The regulatory abilities of mammalian sex hormones in plants makes possible their use in practice, especially in plant in vitro culture.

  1. Large advanced waste treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Eckmann, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced waste treatment plant at Roanoke, Virginia is described with attention given to the facilities, the activated sludge process, the nitrification process, the flocculation-coagulation process, filtration, disinfection, sludge, plant effluent, energy requirements, and costs. The Roanoke plant costs about 50% more to construct than a typical activated sludge plant and uses about 60% more energy but discharges an effluent that looks like drinking water and meets the stringent permit standards established for the plant.

  2. Calcium in Plants

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, PHILIP J.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter‐cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental challenges. This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of different plants for Ca, and how this impacts on natural flora and the Ca content of crops. It also reviews recent work on (a) the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across cellular membranes, (b) understanding the origins and specificity of [Ca2+]cyt signals and (c) characterizing the cellular [Ca2+]cyt‐sensors (such as calmodulin, calcineurin B‐like proteins and calcium‐dependent protein kinases) that allow plant cells to respond appropriately to [Ca2+]cyt signals. PMID:12933363

  3. Engineering of plant chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Mette, Michael Florian; Houben, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minimal chromosomes with sufficient mitotic and meiotic stability have an enormous potential as vectors for stacking multiple genes required for complex traits in plant biotechnology. Proof of principle for essential steps in chromosome engineering such as truncation of chromosomes by T-DNA-mediated telomere seeding and de novo formation of centromeres by cenH3 fusion protein tethering has been recently obtained. In order to generate robust protocols for application in plant biotechnology, these steps need to be combined and supplemented with additional methods such as site-specific recombination for the directed transfer of multiple genes of interest on the minichromosomes. At the same time, the development of these methods allows new insight into basic aspects of plant chromosome functions such as how centromeres assure proper distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells or how telomeres serve to cap the chromosome ends to prevent shortening of ends over DNA replication cycles and chromosome end fusion.

  4. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  5. Alkylresorcinol biosynthesis in plants

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Joachim; Cook, Daniel; Rimando, Agnes M; Pan, Zhiqiang; Dayan, Franck E; Noonan, Brice P; Duke, Stephen O

    2010-01-01

    Alkylresorcinols are members of an extensive family of bioactive compounds referred to as phenolic lipids, which occur primarily in plants, fungi and bacteria. In plants, alkylresorcinols and their derivatives are thought to serve important roles as phytoanticipins and allelochemicals, although direct evidence for this is still somewhat lacking. Specialized type III polyketide synthases (referred to as ‘alkylresorcinol synthases’), which catalyze the formation of 5-alkylresorcinols using fatty acyl-CoA starter units and malonyl-CoA extender units, have been characterized from several microbial species; however, until very recently little has been known concerning their plant counterparts. Through the use of sorghum and rice EST and genomic data sets, significant inroads have now been made in this regard. Here we provide additional information concerning our recent report on the identification and characterization of alkylresorcinol synthases from Sorghum bicolor and Oryza sativa, as well as a brief consideration of the emergence of this intriguing subfamily of enzymes. PMID:20861691

  6. The plant nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Rose, Annkatrin; Patel, Shalaka; Meier, Iris

    2004-01-01

    This review summarizes our present knowledge about the composition and function of the plant nuclear envelope. Compared with animals or yeast, our molecular understanding of the nuclear envelope in higher plants is in its infancy. However, fundamental differences in the structure and function of the plant and animal nuclear envelope have already been found. Here, we compare and contrast these differences with respect to nuclear pore complexes, targeting of Ran signaling to the nuclear envelope, inner nuclear envelope proteins, and the role and fate of the nuclear envelope during mitosis. Further investigation of the emerging fundamental differences as well as the similarities between kingdoms might illuminate why there appears to be more than one blueprint for building a nucleus.

  7. Plant adenylate cyclases.

    PubMed

    Lomovatskaya, Lidiya A; Romanenko, Anatoliy S; Filinova, Nadejda V

    2008-01-01

    Adenylate cyclase (AC) (ATP diphosphate-lyase cyclizing; EC 4.6.1.1) is a key component of the adenylate cyclase signaling system and catalyzes the generation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from ATP. This review summarizes data from the literature and the authors' laboratory on the investigation of plant transmembrane (tmAC) and soluble (sAC) adenylate cyclases, in comparison with some key characteristics of adenylate cyclases of animal cells. Plant sAC has been demonstrated to exhibit similarities with animal sAC with respect to certain characteristics. External factors, such as far-red and red light, temperature, exogenous phytohormones, as well as specific triggering compounds of fungal and bacterial origin exert a significant influence on the activity of plant tmAC and sAC.

  8. Plants under continuous light.

    PubMed

    Velez-Ramirez, Aaron I; van Ieperen, Wim; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Millenaar, Frank F

    2011-06-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments were performed under continuous light; consequently, interactions between the circadian clock and the light signaling pathway were overlooked. Furthermore, in some plant species continuous light induces severe injury, which is only poorly understood so far. In this review paper, we aim to combine the current knowledge with a modern conceptual framework. Modern genomic tools and rediscovered continuous light-tolerant tomato species (Solanum spp.) could boost the understanding of the physiology of plants under continuous light. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. TETRASPANINs in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Ronny; Kost, Benedikt; Dettmer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Tetraspanins are small transmembrane proteins that laterally associate with each other and cluster with numerous partner proteins as well as lipids. These interactions result in the formation of a distinct class of membrane domains, the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs), which influence numerous cellular processes such as cell adhesion and fusion, intracellular membrane trafficking, signaling, morphogenesis, motility as well as interaction with pathogens and cancer development. The majority of information available about tetraspanins is based on studies using animal models or cell lines, but tetraspanins are also present in fungi and plants. Recent studies indicate that tetraspanins have important functions in plant development, reproduction and stress responses. Here we provide a brief summary of the current state of tetraspanin research in plants. PMID:28458676

  10. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642

  11. Endoreduplication in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Joubès, J; Chevalier, C

    2000-08-01

    Cell polyploidisation can be achieved by endoreduplication, which consists of one or several rounds of DNA synthesis in the absence of mitosis. As a consequence, chromosomes with 2n chromatids are produced without change in the chromosome number. Endoreduplication is the most common mode of polyploidisation in plants and can be found in many cell types, especially in those undergoing differentiation and expansion. Although accumulating data reveal that this process is developmentally regulated, it is still poorly understood in plants. At the molecular level, the increasing knowledge on plant cell cycle regulators allows the acquisition of new tools and clues to understand the basis of endoreduplication control and, in particular, the switch between cell proliferation and cell differentiation.

  12. Plant defense after flooding

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fu-Chiun; Shih, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Since the first study of hypoxic response in plants with cDNA microarray in 2002, the number of hypoxia-responsive genes has grown to more than 2000. However, to date, only small numbers of hypoxia-responsive genes are known to confer hypoxic resistance. Most investigations in this area have focused on identifying which genes are responsive and then characterized how these genes are induced during hypoxia, but the roles of numerous genes in hypoxic response are still unknown. In our recent study, we demonstrated that a group of genes are induced by submergence to trigger plant immunity, which is a response to protect plants against a higher probability of pathogen infection during or after flooding. This work offered a brand new perspective, i.e., that hypoxia-responsive genes can be induced for reasons other than conferring hypoxic resistance. Possible reasons why these responses were triggered are discussed herein. PMID:24300693

  13. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  14. Landscape genetics of plants.

    PubMed

    Holderegger, Rolf; Buehler, Dominique; Gugerli, Felix; Manel, Stéphanie

    2010-12-01

    Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of landscape ecology and population genetics to help with understanding microevolutionary processes such as gene flow and adaptation. In this review, we examine why landscape genetics of plants lags behind that of animals, both in number of studies and consideration of landscape elements. The classical landscape distance/resistance approach to study gene flow is challenging in plants, whereas boundary detection and the assessment of contemporary gene flow are more feasible. By contrast, the new field of landscape genetics of adaptive genetic variation, establishing the relationship between adaptive genomic regions and environmental factors in natural populations, is prominent in plant studies. Landscape genetics is ideally suited to study processes such as migration and adaptation under global change.

  15. Plant extracts in BPH.

    PubMed

    Di Silverio, F; Flammia, G P; Sciarra, A; Caponera, M; Mauro, M; Buscarini, M; Tavani, M; D'Eramo, G

    1993-12-01

    In Italy plant extracts represent 8.6% of all pharmacological prescriptions for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (data from 1991). This review evaluates all the suggested mechanisms of action for plant extracts. Recently we demonstrated an antiestrogenic effect of Serenoa Repens in BPH patients. Clinical trials with plant extracts have yielded conflicting results. In a recent review by Dreikorn and Richter, only five placebo controlled studies were found. Moreover, as opposed to chemically defined drugs, it is possible that for these extracts the active ingredients are not known; consequently pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data are often missing. The International Consultation of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Paris, June 1991) concluded that, to date, phytotherapeutic agents must be considered as a symptomatic treatment. Now more adequate pharmacological and clinical studies, placebo controlled, should determine the exact role of these drugs in the treatment of BPH.

  16. Trehalose metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Lunn, John Edward; Delorge, Ines; Figueroa, Carlos María; Van Dijck, Patrick; Stitt, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Trehalose is a quantitatively important compatible solute and stress protectant in many organisms, including green algae and primitive plants. These functions have largely been replaced by sucrose in vascular plants, and trehalose metabolism has taken on new roles. Trehalose is a potential signal metabolite in plant interactions with pathogenic or symbiotic micro-organisms and herbivorous insects. It is also implicated in responses to cold and salinity, and in regulation of stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency. In plants, as in other eukaryotes and many prokaryotes, trehalose is synthesized via a phosphorylated intermediate, trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P). A meta-analysis revealed that the levels of Tre6P change in parallel with sucrose, which is the major product of photosynthesis and the main transport sugar in plants. We propose the existence of a bi-directional network, in which Tre6P is a signal of sucrose availability and acts to maintain sucrose concentrations within an appropriate range. Tre6P influences the relative amounts of sucrose and starch that accumulate in leaves during the day, and regulates the rate of starch degradation at night to match the demand for sucrose. Mutants in Tre6P metabolism have highly pleiotropic phenotypes, showing defects in embryogenesis, leaf growth, flowering, inflorescence branching and seed set. It has been proposed that Tre6P influences plant growth and development via inhibition of the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK1). However, current models conflict with some experimental data, and do not completely explain the pleiotropic phenotypes exhibited by mutants in Tre6P metabolism. Additional explanations for the diverse effects of alterations in Tre6P metabolism are discussed.

  17. DOES SECONDARY PLANT METABOLISM PROVIDE A MECHANISM FOR PLANT DEFENSES IN WEEDY NIGHTSHADE PLANTS?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant-mediated competition among insect herbivores occurs when one species induces changes in plant biochemistry that render plants resistant to attack by the same or other species. We explored plant-mediated interspecific and intraspecific interactions between the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) ...

  18. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    PubMed

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  19. Radial plant growth.

    PubMed

    Tonn, Nina; Greb, Thomas

    2017-09-11

    One of the extraordinary features of plants is their growth capacity. Depending on the species and the environment, body forms are manifold and, at the same time, constantly reshaped. An important basis of this plastic variation and life-long accumulation of biomass is radial growth. Here, we use this term to describe the ability to grow in girth by the formation of wood, bast and cork. The more technical term for radial growth is secondary growth, which distinguishes the process from primary growth taking place at the tips of stems and roots during plant elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Advanced Plant Habitat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-17

    A test unit, or prototype, of NASA's Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) was delivered to the Space Station Processing Facility at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Inside a laboratory, Engineering Services Contract engineers set up test parameters on computers. From left, are Glenn Washington, ESC quality engineer; Claton Grosse, ESC mechanical engineer; and Jeff Richards, ESC project scientist. The APH is the largest plant chamber built for the agency. It will have 180 sensors and four times the light output of Veggie. The APH will be delivered to the International Space Station in March 2017.

  1. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  2. Transient transformation of plants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw D; Doherty, Angela; Sparks, Caroline A

    2009-01-01

    Transient expression in plants is a valuable tool for many aspects of functional genomics and promoter testing. It can be used both to over-express and to silence candidate genes. It is also scaleable and provides a viable alternative to microbial fermentation and animal cell culture for the production of recombinant proteins. It does not depend on chromosomal integration of heterologous DNA so is a relatively facile procedure and can lead to high levels of transgene expression. Recombinant DNA can be introduced into plant cells via physical methods, via Agrobacterium or via viral vectors.

  3. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    PubMed

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  4. Orgenic plants: gene-manipulated plants compatible with organic farming.

    PubMed

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2012-11-01

    Based on recent advances in plant gene technology, I propose to develop a new category of GM plants, orgenic plants, that are compatible with organic farming. These orgenic plants do not contain herbicide resistance genes to avoid herbicide application in agriculture. Furthermore, they either contain genes that are naturally exchanged between species, or are sterile to avoid outcrossing if they received a transgene from a different species. These GM plants are likely to be acceptable to most skeptics of GM plants and facilitate the use of innovative new crops.

  5. Plant neurobiology: from sensory biology, via plant communication, to social plant behavior.

    PubMed

    Baluska, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2009-02-01

    In plants, numerous parameters of both biotic and abiotic environments are continuously monitored. Specialized cells are evolutionary-optimized for effective translation of sensory input into developmental and motoric output. Importantly, diverse physical forces, influences, and insults induce immediate electric responses in plants. Recent advances in plant cell biology, molecular biology, and sensory ecology will be discussed in the framework of recently initiated new discipline of plant sciences, namely plant neurobiology.

  6. Modeling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2004-02-01

    Computational plant models or 'virtual plants' are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form. The theory of L-systems, which was introduced by Lindemayer in 1968, has led to a well-established methodology for simulating the branching architecture of plants. Many current architectural models provide insights into the mechanisms of plant development by incorporating physiological processes, such as the transport and allocation of carbon. Other models aim at elucidating the geometry of plant organs, including flower petals and apical meristems, and are beginning to address the relationship between patterns of gene expression and the resulting plant form.

  7. Legacy effects of drought on plant-soil feedbacks and plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Kaisermann, Aurore; de Vries, Franciska T; Griffiths, Robert I; Bardgett, Richard D

    2017-09-01

    Interactions between aboveground and belowground biota have the potential to modify ecosystem responses to climate change, yet little is known about how drought influences plant-soil feedbacks with respect to microbial mediation of plant community dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that drought modifies plant-soil feedback with consequences for plant competition. We measured net pairwise plant-soil feedbacks for two grassland plant species grown in monoculture and competition in soils that had or had not been subjected to a previous drought; these were then exposed to a subsequent drought. To investigate the mechanisms involved, we assessed treatment responses of soil microbial communities and nutrient availability. We found that previous drought had a legacy effect on bacterial and fungal community composition that decreased plant growth in conspecific soils and had knock-on effects for plant competitive interactions. Moreover, plant and microbial responses to subsequent drought were dependent on a legacy effect of the previous drought on plant-soil interactions. We show that drought has lasting effects on belowground communities with consequences for plant-soil feedbacks and plant-plant interactions. This suggests that drought, which is predicted to increase in frequency with climate change, may change soil functioning and plant community composition via the modification of plant-soil feedbacks. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  9. Apical Dominance in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

  10. Plants and Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsell, Eric; Hug, J. William

    2007-01-01

    Investigations with Wisconsin Fast Plants can make the subject matter come alive...or dead, depending on the experimental treatment. This became apparent when a university-based teacher educator and a fifth-grade teacher collaborated on a professional development experience aimed at increasing understanding of how science inquiry could be used…

  11. Salinity and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsford, Simon; Meredith, Steve; Munday, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents science activities that mirror real life issues relating to plants and sustainability. Describes how to turn seed growing activities into an environmental simulation. Discusses the advantages of cross-curriculum learning opportunities. Includes student references and notes for teachers. (KHR)

  12. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  13. Rethinking Tree Planting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henry

    1994-01-01

    This author contends that observing and understanding natural succession is far more valuable to students than memories of planting lonely seedlings in a schoolyard. An approach that provides a richer experience using an holistic approach to habitat restoration is explored. (LZ)

  14. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  15. Planting for Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chad P.; Decker, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Songbirds and small mammals can be encouraged to visit and live in residential yards if structures such as bird feeders and birdbaths are provided and if vegetation is planted to provide basic requirements of wildlife habitat. Examples and instructions are provided. (RE)

  16. Wanted: Schoolyard Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for studying weeds in grades four through nine. "Wanted" posters are prepared with the scientific name of a common weed and a few identifying features. Students find the plant, give it an "alias" or common name, and then draw the "wanted" picture. Presents six wanted posters and describes expansion lessons and follow-up…

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  18. Gibberellic acid in plant

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ramwant; Chakrabarty, S K

    2013-01-01

    Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound. GAs stimulate seed germination, trigger transitions from meristem to shoot growth, juvenile to adult leaf stage, vegetative to flowering, determines sex expression and grain development along with an interaction of different environmental factors viz., light, temperature and water. The major site of bioactive GA is stamens that influence male flower production and pedicel growth. However, this opens up the question of how female flowers regulate growth and development, since regulatory mechanisms/organs other than those in male flowers are mandatory. Although GAs are thought to act occasionally like paracrine signals do, it is still a mystery to understand the GA biosynthesis and its movement. It has not yet confirmed the appropriate site of bioactive GA in plants or which tissues targeted by bioactive GAs to initiate their action. Presently, it is a great challenge for scientific community to understand the appropriate mechanism of GA movement in plant’s growth, floral development, sex expression, grain development and seed germination. The appropriate elucidation of GA transport mechanism is essential for the survival of plant species and successful crop production. PMID:23857350

  19. Plant salt tolerance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many factors have led to increased interest in using recycled wastewaters to irrigate agronomic and horticultural crops as well as plants in ornamental landscapes. One major driving force is the uncertainty of the allocation and dependability of good quality water in the future as competition among...

  20. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  1. Phenolics and plant allelopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An

    2010-12-07

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  2. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment.

  3. Engineered minichromosomes in plants.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2015-02-01

    Engineered minichromosomes have been produced in several plant species via telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation. This approach bypasses the complications of the epigenetic nature of centromere function in plants, which has to date precluded the production of minichromosomes by the re-introduction of centromere sequences to a plant cell. Genes to be added to a cleaved chromosome are joined together with telomere repeats on one side. When these constructs are introduced into plant cells, the genes are ligated to the broken chromosomes but the telomere repeats will catalyze the formation of a telomere on the other end cutting the chromosome at that point. Telomere-mediated chromosomal truncation is sufficiently efficient that very small chromosomes can be generated consisting of basically the endogenous centromere and the added transgenes. The added transgenes provide a platform onto which it should be possible to assemble a synthetic chromosome to specification. Combining engineered minichromosomes with doubled haploid breeding should greatly expedite the transfer of transgenes to new lines and to test the interaction of transgenes in new background genotypes. Potential basic and applied applications of synthetic chromosomes are discussed.

  4. Wanted: Schoolyard Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for studying weeds in grades four through nine. "Wanted" posters are prepared with the scientific name of a common weed and a few identifying features. Students find the plant, give it an "alias" or common name, and then draw the "wanted" picture. Presents six wanted posters and describes expansion lessons and follow-up…

  5. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling. PMID:27807442

  6. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  7. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  8. Salinity and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsford, Simon; Meredith, Steve; Munday, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents science activities that mirror real life issues relating to plants and sustainability. Describes how to turn seed growing activities into an environmental simulation. Discusses the advantages of cross-curriculum learning opportunities. Includes student references and notes for teachers. (KHR)

  9. Automated hydrotreating pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, S.J.; Graham, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    One of the major tasks facing catalyst supplies involved in hydrotreating/hydrogenation catalyst development work is proper catalyst evaluation. There are dozens of hydrotreating catalysts available to refiners, and selecting the optimum catalyst for a particular application is a challenging task. For fixed bed applications, the choice is especially difficult because, in addition to activity and selectivity, both catalyst life and pressure drop buildup are important considerations. Unfortunately, data on these latter effects are seldom available for new catalyst formulations. While pilot-plant data have been proven to be reliable indicators of the ultimate catalyst life achieved commercially, long-term catalyst aging data are expensive to gather, and proper pilot-plant design is mandatory to duplicate commercial results. Because the proper catalyst choice can earn millions of dollars per year for refiners in terms of enhanced downstream product values, it is justified to install top-quality pilot-plant facilities to demonstrate these benefits. This article describes an automated, minimum-attention set of five state-of-the-art hydrotreating pilot plants that are being completed for the Filtrol Catalyst Division of the Harshaw/Filtrol Partnership.

  10. Planting bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Karl Tennant

    1989-01-01

    Diverse problems confront the forest manager when planting bottomland hardwoods. Bottomland vegetation types and sites are complex and differ markedly from uplands. There are different and more numerous hardwood species that grow faster in denser stands. Sites are subject to varying intensities and duration of flooding and the action of overflow river currents that...

  11. Plant breeding and genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ultimate goal of plant breeding is to develop improved crops. Improvements can be made in crop productivity, crop processing and marketing, and/or consumer quality. The process of developing an improved cultivar begins with intercrossing lines with high performance for the traits of interest, th...

  12. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  13. Herbicides and plant hormesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Herbicide hormesis is commonly observed at sub-toxic doses of herbicides and other phytotoxins. The occurrence and magnitude of this phenomenon is influenced by plant growth stage and physiological status, environmental factors, the endpoint measured, and the timing between treatment and endpoint me...

  14. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  15. T Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-27

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  16. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  17. Plants of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on plants of the desert, including various adaptations for life with limited water supplies. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. A ready-to-copy student worksheet is included. (DH)

  18. Seeding and planting birch

    Treesearch

    John C. Bjorkbom

    1969-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of hardwoods does not have a very good reputation. Many of the early attempts to establish these species by seeding or planting resulted in failure. Then too, natural regeneration is usually adequate on cut over areas, so that there is little need for artificial regeneration on such areas. Nevertheless there are situations where artificial...

  19. Where to Plant Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    James B. Baker; Walter M. Broadfoot

    1978-01-01

    Before anyone invests in planting hardwoods, he wants to know that his trees are suited to the site and will grow well. That assurance is now available to those interested in green ash, cottonwood, sweetgum, sycamore, or Nuttall, water, willow or cherrybark oaks.

  20. Cadmium-accumulating plants.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Leitenmaier, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Plants are categorized in three groups concerning their uptake of heavy metals: indicator, excluder, and hyperaccumulator plants, which we explain in this chapter, the former two groups briefly and the hyperaccumulators in detail. The ecological role of hyperaccumulation, for example, the prevention of herbivore attacks and a possible substitution of Zn by Cd in an essential enzyme, is discussed. As the mechanisms of cadmium hyperaccumulation are a very interesting and challenging topic and many aspects are studied worldwide, we provide a broad overview over compartmentation strategies, expression and function of metal transporting proteins and the role of ligands for uptake, transport, and storage of cadmium. Hyperaccumulators are not without reason a topic of great interest, they can be used biotechnologically for two main purposes which we discuss here for Cd: phytoremediation, dealing with the cleaning of anthropogenically contaminated soils as well as phytomining, i.e., the use of plants for commercial metal extraction. Finally, the outlook deals with topics for future research in the fields of biochemistry/biophysics, molecular biology, and biotechnology. We discuss which knowledge is still missing to fully understand Cd hyperaccumulation by plants and to use that phenomenon even more successfully for both environmental and economical purposes.

  1. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  2. Peru, People and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  3. Planting for Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chad P.; Decker, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Songbirds and small mammals can be encouraged to visit and live in residential yards if structures such as bird feeders and birdbaths are provided and if vegetation is planted to provide basic requirements of wildlife habitat. Examples and instructions are provided. (RE)

  4. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Treesearch

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  5. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  6. Planted forests and biodiversity

    Treesearch

    Jean-Michel Carnus; John Parrotta; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Michel Arbez; Hervé Jactel; Antoine Kremer; David Lamb; Kevin O’Hara; Bradley. Walters

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of planted forests and intensification of their management has raised concerns among forest managers and the public over the implications of these trends for sustainable production and conservation of forest biological diversity. We review the current state of knowledge on the impacts of plantation forestry on genetic and species diversity at different...

  7. Plants and Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsell, Eric; Hug, J. William

    2007-01-01

    Investigations with Wisconsin Fast Plants can make the subject matter come alive...or dead, depending on the experimental treatment. This became apparent when a university-based teacher educator and a fifth-grade teacher collaborated on a professional development experience aimed at increasing understanding of how science inquiry could be used…

  8. [Amebicidal plants extracts].

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara; Sułek, Anna

    2004-01-01

    The free-living amoebae from genus Acanthamoeba are the causative agents of granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), a chronic progressive disease of the central nervous system; amebic keratitis (AK), a chronic eye infection; amebic pneumitis (AP), a chronic lung infection, and skin infection. Chemotherapy of Acanthamoeba infection is problematic. The majority of infections have been fatal. Only a few cases are reported to have been treated successfully with very highly toxic drugs. The therapy might be succeed, if the diagnosis and therapy is made at very early stage of infection. In our experiments we used the following plant extracts: Solidago virgaurea, Solidago graminifolia, Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, and natural plants products as ellagic acid and puerarin. Those therapeutic agents and plants extracts have been tested in vitro for amebicidal or amebostatic activity against pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. Our results showed that methanol extracts obtained from plants are active against axenic pathogenic Acanthamoeba sp. trophozoites in vitro at concentration below 0.1 mg/ml. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these extracts are also effective in vivo in animal model of infection with Acanthamoeba sp.

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  10. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  11. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  12. Microgravity Plant Growth Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two visitors watch a TV monitor showing plant growth inside a growth chamber designed for operation aboard the Space Shuttle as part of NASA's Space Product Development program. The exhibit, featuring work by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, was at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  13. Diagnosing Physical Plant Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, B. P.; Smith, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a survey designed to help administrators evaluate functional aspects, adequacy of employee work areas, quality of housekeeping methods, maintenance response, interior and exterior appearances, alteration and renovation satisfaction, employee feelings about parking adequacy, plant security, and attraction and function of roads and…

  14. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  15. Plant biochemistry course, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides a brief description of a summer lecture course on metabolic pathways and regulation of flow through these pathways in plants. Descriptions of the 1992 course held at La Jolla,Ca; 1993 course held in Madison, Wis, and plans for the 1994 course projected for East Lansing, MI.

  16. Peru, People and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  17. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant–parasite interactions. PMID:26322059

  18. Evolution of plant senescence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Howard; Huang, Lin; Young, Mike; Ougham, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic characteristics of senescence

  19. Plant functional genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  20. Indigenous plant remedies in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Chinemana, F; Drummond, R B; Mavi, S; de Zoysa, I

    1985-01-01

    Two household surveys undertaken in Zimbabwe between 1981 and 1983 revealed extensive use of indigenous plant remedies in the home-management of childhood diarrhoea and many adult illnesses. Names of the local plants, trees and shrubs are listed, together with the part of the plant used and the type of condition treated. The usage of medicinal plants underscores the need for further study of indigenous pharmacopoeias and the therapeutic properties of plants. The role of indigenous plant remedies within local health care systems is also worthy of closer investigation.

  1. Top 10 Plant Viruses in Molecular Plant Pathology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientific and economic importance were used to rank plant viruses to indicate the Top 10. Each virus is discussed to open debate and conversation within and beyond the plant virology community as new pathogens come and go in importance....

  2. Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  3. Curvilinear effects of invasive plants on plant diversity: plant community invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants.

  4. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  5. Plant blindness and the implications for plant conservation.

    PubMed

    Balding, Mung; Williams, Kathryn J H

    2016-12-01

    Plant conservation initiatives lag behind and receive considerably less funding than animal conservation projects. We explored a potential reason for this bias: a tendency among humans to neither notice nor value plants in the environment. Experimental research and surveys have demonstrated higher preference for, superior recall of, and better visual detection of animals compared with plants. This bias has been attributed to perceptual factors such as lack of motion by plants and the tendency of plants to visually blend together but also to cultural factors such as a greater focus on animals in formal biological education. In contrast, ethnographic research reveals that many social groups have strong bonds with plants, including nonhierarchical kinship relationships. We argue that plant blindness is common, but not inevitable. If immersed in a plant-affiliated culture, the individual will experience language and practices that enhance capacity to detect, recall, and value plants, something less likely to occur in zoocentric societies. Therefore, conservation programs can contribute to reducing this bias. We considered strategies that might reduce this bias and encourage plant conservation behavior. Psychological research demonstrates that people are more likely to support conservation of species that have human-like characteristics and that support for conservation can be increased by encouraging people to practice empathy and anthropomorphism of nonhuman species. We argue that support for plant conservation may be garnered through strategies that promote identification and empathy with plants.

  6. Plant hydraulics as a hub integrating plant and ecosystem function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant (i.e., “plant hydraulics”) affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits media...

  7. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  8. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  10. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  13. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  15. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  20. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  2. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  3. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  4. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h) of...

  5. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of this...

  6. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h) of...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h) of...

  8. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of this...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of this...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in...

  11. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at such...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h) of...

  13. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at such...

  14. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in...

  15. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of this...

  16. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  17. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  18. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Tsai, Fong-Ying

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  19. Teaching Tips: Plant Tissue Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Plant tissue testing can be done to monitor plant nutrition levels during the growing season and diagnose nutrient deficiency problems. They can provide feedback on crop conditions and fertility needs. (Author)

  20. Interactions between plants and microorganisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Allelopathic microorganisms comprise rhizobacteria and fungi that colonize the surfaces of plant roots, and produce and release phytotoxic metabolites, similar to allelochemicals, that detrimentally affect growth of their host plants. The allelopathic microorganisms are grouped separately from typic...

  1. Ecology of Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Termorshuizen, Aad J

    2016-12-01

    Fungal plant pathogens are ubiquitous and highly diverse. Key to their success is high host density, which notably is the case in agroecosystems. Several hypotheses related to the effects of plant pathogens on plant diversity (the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, the dilution effect hypothesis) and the phenomenon of higher biomass in plant mixtures (i.e., overyielding) can all be explained by the quantitative interplay between host and pathogen density. In many agroecosystems, fungal plant pathogens cause great losses, since in monocultures diseased plants cannot be replaced by healthy plants. On the other hand, in natural ecosystems fungal plant pathogens shape the succession of vegetation and enhance the biodiversity of forests and grasslands. When pathogens are introduced into areas outside their natural range, they may behave differently, causing severe damage. Once introduced, changes may occur such as hybridization with other closely related pathogens or host shifts, host jumps, or horizontal gene transfer. Such changes can be hazardous for both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  2. TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR

    PubMed Central

    Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807

  3. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  4. Plants Do the Weirdest Things!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Discusses some of the remarkable capabilities and fascinating behavior of plants. Describes several simple experiments that young scientists can accomplish with plants to demonstrate their ability to sense, react, and adapt to their environment. (JJK)

  5. Teaching Tips: Plant Tissue Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Plant tissue testing can be done to monitor plant nutrition levels during the growing season and diagnose nutrient deficiency problems. They can provide feedback on crop conditions and fertility needs. (Author)

  6. Nonstructural carbon in woody plants.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Michael C; Sala, Anna; Carbone, Mariah S; Czimczik, Claudia I; Mantooth, Joshua A; Richardson, Andrew D; Vargas, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural carbon (NSC) provides the carbon and energy for plant growth and survival. In woody plants, fundamental questions about NSC remain unresolved: Is NSC storage an active or passive process? Do older NSC reserves remain accessible to the plant? How is NSC depletion related to mortality risk? Herein we review conceptual and mathematical models of NSC dynamics, recent observations and experiments at the organismal scale, and advances in plant physiology that have provided a better understanding of the dynamics of woody plant NSC. Plants preferentially use new carbon but can access decade-old carbon when the plant is stressed or physically damaged. In addition to serving as a carbon and energy source, NSC plays important roles in phloem transport, osmoregulation, and cold tolerance, but how plants regulate these competing roles and NSC depletion remains elusive. Moving forward requires greater synthesis of models and data and integration across scales from -omics to ecology.

  7. Metal hyperaccumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Ute

    2010-01-01

    During the history of life on Earth, tectonic and climatic change repeatedly generated large territories that were virtually devoid of life and exhibited harsh environmental conditions. The ability of a few specialist pioneer plants to colonize such hostile environments was thus of paramount ecological importance for the continuous maintenance of primary production over time. Yet, we know very little about how extreme traits evolve and function in plants. Recent breakthroughs have given first insights into the molecular basis underlying the complex extreme model trait of metal hyperaccumulation and associated metal hypertolerance. This review gives an introduction into the hyperaccumulator research field and its history; provides an overview of hyperaccumulator germplasm; describes the state of the art of our understanding of the physiological, molecular, and genetic basis underlying metal hyperaccumulation and its evolution; and highlights future research needs and opportunities.

  8. Jennings Demonstration PLant

    SciTech Connect

    Russ Heissner

    2010-08-31

    Verenium operated a demonstration plant with a capacity to produce 1.4 million gallons of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural resiues for about two years. During this time, the plant was able to evaluate the technical issues in producing ethanol from three different cellulosic feedstocks, sugar cane bagasse, energy cane, and sorghum. The project was intended to develop a better understanding of the operating parameters that would inform a commercial sized operation. Issues related to feedstock variability, use of hydrolytic enzymes, and the viability of fermentative organisms were evaluated. Considerable success was achieved with pretreatment processes and use of enzymes but challenges were encountered with feedstock variability and fermentation systems. Limited amounts of cellulosic ethanol were produced.

  9. Lunar Influence On Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, Wolfgang

    Concerning lunar periodicity in biology, we summarized all what has been observationally and experimentally found and published in scientific literature till 1996. We summoned up as many as about 600 living species (mostly animals) with identified lunar periodicities, functioning in a more or less endogenous manner. Here we give a short review about the occurrence in the plant kingdom. In Thallophytes 45 species have been described as well as 40 species of Angiosperms. In Prokaryonts no lunar rhythms could be found. Their individual life cycles do not reach the time span of at least comparable parts of a lunar day. Thus as in all Eukaryonts the occurrence of the cell nucleus constitutes specifically ndogenous rhythms in plants as well as in the animal kingdom.

  10. Strigolactones: promising plant signals.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Roux, Christophe; Girard, Daniel; Bécard, Guillaume; Puech-Pagés, Virginie

    2007-05-01

    As obligate biotrophic symbionts, Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi must efficiently recognize their host plant to insure their survival and complete their life cycle. Recent works have shown that some root secreted molecules, the strigolactones, activate the presymbiotic growth of AM fungi at extremely low concentrations. These compounds, derived from carotenoid biosynthesis, induce the mitochondrial metabolism of the fungus. The hypothesis that strigolactones are important plant recognition signals for AM fungi was further supported in this study by using maize seedlings treated with fluridone, an upstream inhibitor of the carotenoid metabolism. We showed that mycorrhization of the treated seedlings was significantly reduced, but restored by the addition of GR24, a strigolactone analogue. Similar results were obtained with the y9 mutant of maize defective in an upstream step of carotenoid synthesis. These data provide additional evidence that strigolactones may be essential symbiotic signals for the establishment of AM symbiosis.

  11. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  12. Ocean thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A floating energy converter is described which uses large volumes of sea water to produce electrical power. In this plant, a fluid working medium is pumped to an evaporator where is is heated by a flow of warm surface sea water. The fluid in liquid form boils to a pressurized gas vapor which is routed to drive a turbine that, in turn, drives a generator for producing electricity. The gas vapor then enters a condenser immersed in cold sea water pumped from lower depths, condenses to its original liquid form, and then pumped to the evaporator to repeat the cycle. Modular components can be readily interchanged on the ocean thermal unit and inlet pipes for the sea water are provided with means for maintaining the pipes in alignment with the oncoming current. The modular construction allows for the testing of various components to provide a more rapid optimization of a standardized plant.

  13. Engineered minichromosomes in plants.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2014-06-01

    Platforms for the development of synthetic chromosomes in plants have been produced in several species using telomere mediated chromosomal truncation with the simultaneous inclusion of sites that facilitate further additions to the newly generated minichromosome. By utilizing truncated supernumerary or B chromosomes, the output of the genes on the minichromosome can be amplified. Proof of concept experiments have been successful illustrating that minichromosome platforms can be modified in vivo. Engineered minichromosomes can likely be combined with haploid breeding if they are incorporated into inducer lines given that the observations that basically inert chromosomes from haploid inducer lines can be recovered at workable frequencies in otherwise haploid plants. Future needs of synthetic chromosome development are discussed.

  14. RHO GTPase in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Plants possess a single subfamily of Rho GTPases, ROP, which does usual things as do Rho-family GTPases in animal and fungal systems, namely participating in the spatial control of cellular processes by signaling to the cytoskeleton and vesicular trafficking. As one would expect, ROPs are modulated by conserved regulators such as DHR2-type GEFs, RhoGAPs and Rho GDIs. What is surprising is that plants have invented new regulators such as PRONE-type GEFs (known as RopGEFs) and effectors such as RICs and ICRs/RIPs in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and vesicular trafficking. This review will discuss recent work on characterizing ROP regulators and effectors as well as addressing why and how a mixture of conserved and novel Rho signaling mechanisms is utilized to modulate fundamental cellular processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics/reorganization and vesicular trafficking. PMID:21686259

  15. Plant hydrocarbon recovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Dzadzic, P.M.; Price, M.C.; Shih, C.J.; Weil, T.A.

    1982-01-26

    A process for production and recovery of hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon-containing whole plants in a form suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon energy sources which process comprises: (A) pulverizing by grinding or chopping hydrocarbon-containing whole plants selected from the group consisting of euphorbiaceae, apocynaceae, asclepiadaceae, compositae, cactaceae and pinaceae families to a suitable particle size, (B) drying and preheating said particles in a reducing atmosphere under positive pressure (C) passing said particles through a thermal conversion zone containing a reducing atmosphere and with a residence time of 1 second to about 30 minutes at a temperature within the range of from about 200* C. To about 1000* C., (D) separately recovering the condensable vapors as liquids and the noncondensable gases in a condition suitable for use as chemical feedstocks or as hydrocarbon fuels.

  16. Fossil power plant rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the conference on the subject of fossil power plants management. Some of the topics discussed were: Creep cavitation assessment using field replication; a remnant life assessment technique based on local strain measurements; a new lease on life for turbine rotors subject to low-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature; creep-fatigue crack growth behaviour of a 1CrMoV Rotor steel; data collection and monitoring; detection of high temperature fossil boiler tube degradation; metallographic studies of degenerative mechanism in fossil fuel fired boiler tubes; eddy current inspection of ferromagnetic materials using pulsed magnetic saturation; cause and prevention of fatigue failures in boiler tubing; design/operator feedback; and on-line monitors for creep and fatigue damage in fossil power plants.

  17. Carotenoid metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Nazia; Li, Li; Lu, Shan; Khin, Nay Chi; Pogson, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. They are colorants and critical components of the human diet as antioxidants and provitamin A. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of the genes and enzymes involved in carotenoid metabolism and describe recent progress in understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying carotenoid accumulation. The importance of the specific location of carotenoid enzyme metabolons and plastid types as well as of carotenoid-derived signals is discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant TOR signaling components

    PubMed Central

    John, Florian; Roffler, Stefan; Wicker, Thomas; Ringli, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Cell growth is a process that needs to be tightly regulated. Cells must be able to sense environmental factors like nutrient abundance, the energy level or stress signals and coordinate growth accordingly. The Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major controller of growth-related processes in all eukaryotes. If environmental conditions are favorable, the TOR pathway promotes cell and organ growth and restrains catabolic processes like autophagy. Rapamycin is a specific inhibitor of the TOR kinase and acts as a potent inhibitor of TOR signaling. As a consequence, interfering with TOR signaling has a strong impact on plant development. This review summarizes the progress in the understanding of the biological significance and the functional analysis of the TOR pathway in plants. PMID:22057328

  19. Hallucinogenic plants of the Tarahumara.

    PubMed

    Bye, R A

    1979-01-01

    Plants used by the Mexican Tarahumara Indians to alter their perception are discussed from an ethnobotanical viewpoint. Reports from earlier workers are reviewed. Recent field work has corroborated many of the early observations. In addition, five Tarahumara plants are reported for the first time as hallucinogenic. They include species of Coryphantha, Echinocereus, Mammillaria, and Scirpus. Other plants are suspected of producing hallucinations or are associated with hallucinogenic plants.

  20. US prep plant census 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-10-15

    Each year Coal Age conducts a fairly comprehensive survey of the industry to produce the US coal preparation plant survey. This year's survey shows how many mergers and acquisitions have given coal operators more coal washing capacity. The plants are tabulated by state, giving basic details including company owner, plant name, raw feed, product ash %, quality, type of plant builder and year built. 1 tab., 1 photo.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  2. Nuclear Plant Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineers from the Power Authority of the State of New York use a Crack Growth Analysis Program supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center) in one stage of nuclear plant inspection. Welds of the nuclear steam supply system are checked for cracks; radiographs, dye penetration and visual inspections are performed to locate cracks in the metal structure and welds. The software package includes three separate crack growth analysis models and enables necessary repairs to be planned before serious problems develop.

  3. Epigenetic memory in plants.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-09-17

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable 'cellular memory'. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms.

  4. Planting Guidelines for Seagrasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    Shoalgrass and Manatee Grass in Lower Laguna Madre , Texas ," Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 32, No. 3, July 1968, pp. 501-506. MCMILLAN, C...Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and local U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Refuges, bait houses, or boat marinas. If unavailable, salinity should be...metal would not kill the plants. Phillips (1976) found that turtle grass and shoalgrass in Texas and eelgrass in Alaska were killed when metal anchors

  5. Power Plant Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation utilized TAP-A, a COSMIC program originally developed as part of a NASA investigation into the potential of nuclear power for space launch vehicles. It is useful in nuclear power plant design to qualify safety-related equipment at the temperatures it would experience should an accident occur. The program is easy to use, produces accurate results, and is inexpensive to run.

  6. Spin Glass Patch Planting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Wenlong; Mandra, Salvatore; Katzgraber, Helmut G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a patch planting method for creating arbitrarily large spin glass instances with known ground states. The scaling of the computational complexity of these instances with various block numbers and sizes is investigated and compared with random instances using population annealing Monte Carlo and the quantum annealing DW2X machine. The method can be useful for benchmarking tests for future generation quantum annealing machines, classical and quantum mechanical optimization algorithms.

  7. Epigenetic memory in plants

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Mayumi; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in patterns of gene expression that occur without alterations in DNA sequence. The epigenetic mechanisms involve covalent modifications of DNA and histones, which affect transcriptional activity of chromatin. Since chromatin states can be propagated through mitotic and meiotic divisions, epigenetic mechanisms are thought to provide heritable ‘cellular memory’. Here, we review selected examples of epigenetic memory in plants and briefly discuss underlying mechanisms. PMID:25104823

  8. Financing Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Lee

    1980-12-01

    The reservoir companies are risk takers. They will explore. They will test and measure. They will conduct reservoir engineering. They will conduct reservoir modeling. Their managements will commit funds to develop. Reservoir companies tend to be advocates of their product. They should be more candid. We have heard at this conference of hydrogen sulfide gas problems at The Geysers, injection system and injection well plugging at the SDG&E/DOE Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility, inadequate well production at the East Mesa Reservoir, high injection pressures at the Brawley Reservoir and other real reservoir difficulties. These must be addressed factually and solutions sought. The utilities and/or plant constructors and operators are not risk takers. Under current regulatory structure, they have no incentive to take any risk. They are troubled by perceived risks which may be real or imagined. To put these perceived risks into perspective, the utilities or plant constructors and operators should be involved in exploration and development at an early date. They need a better understanding of the downhole environment. Before they make significant investments on any reservoir, they want to see the reservoir work. To accomplish this, as we have heard at this conference, they are building 10 MW facilities and no one is taking the commercial size step without outside help. The utilities on the panel indicated they would buy geothermal heat if the reservoir operator would guarantee the reservoir for the life of the power plant. Some reservoir operators do not want to do this and those who will want the plant's operation guaranteed via fixed payments for heat or a long-term take-or-pay contract.

  9. Power plant emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  10. Immersion freezing by plant nanocelloluse and plant phytolith particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudich, Yinon; Reicher, Naama

    2017-04-01

    Using a new microfluidics setup (WISDOM), we examined the immersion freezing abilities of two types of airborne particles from biogenic sources: Plant nano crystalline cellulose particles and plant phytoliths. Plant opal phytoliths (POP) form in tissues of living plants during their growth, and can be found in soils following plants decay and in biomass burning plumes. Several measurements have identified these micro-sized particles in the atmosphere, but their ice nucleation properties have not yet been studied. We will present the new WISDOM device and first results on the efficiency of these biogenic particles to act as ice nuclei in the atmosphere under mixed clouds conditions.

  11. Plant intentionality and the phenomenological framework of plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to bridge phenomenology and the study of plant intelligence with the view to enriching both disciplines. Besides considering the world from the perspective of sessile organisms, it would be necessary, in keeping with the phenomenological framework, to rethink (1) the meaning of being-sessile and being-in-a-place; (2) the concepts of sentience and attention; (3) how aboveground and underground environments appear to plants; (4) the significance of modular development for our understanding of intelligence; and (5) the concept of communication within and between plants and plant tissues. What emerges from these discussions is the image of a mind embodied in plant life. PMID:22951403

  12. Toluene emissions from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

    The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since α-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and α-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and α-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

  13. Plant immunity to necrotrophs.

    PubMed

    Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2012-01-01

    Plants inhabit environments crowded with infectious microbes that pose constant threats to their survival. Necrotrophic pathogens are notorious for their aggressive and wide-ranging virulence strategies that promote host cell death and acquire nutrients for growth and reproduction from dead cells. This lifestyle constitutes the axis of their pathogenesis and virulence strategies and marks contrasting immune responses to biotrophic pathogens. The diversity of virulence strategies in necrotrophic species corresponds to multifaceted host immune response mechanisms. When effective, the plant immune system disarms the infectious necrotroph of its pathogenic arsenal or attenuates its effect, restricting further ingress and disease symptom development. Simply inherited resistance traits confer protection against host-specific necrotrophs (HSNs), whereas resistance to broad host-range necrotrophs (BHNs) is complex. Components of host genetic networks, as well as the molecular and cellular processes that mediate host immune responses to necrotrophs, are being identified. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of plant immune responses to necrotrophs and comparison with responses to biotrophic pathogens are summarized, highlighting common and contrasting mechanisms.

  14. Genetics and plant development.

    PubMed

    Prunet, Nathanaël; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2016-01-01

    There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants. The story of developmental biology is different - while the development of plants has long been studied, the experimental and genetic approaches to developmental mechanism were developed via experiments on animals, and the importance of genes in development (e.g., Waddington, 1940) and their use for understanding developmental mechanisms came to botanical science much later - as late as the 1980s. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Nickel in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cataldo, Dominic A.; Garland, Thomas R.; Wildung, Raymond E.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption of Ni2+ by 21-day-old soybean plants (Glycine max cv. Williams) was investigated with respect to its concentration dependence, transport kinetics, and interactions with various nutrient cations. Nickel absorption, measured as a function of concentration (0.02 to 100 μm), demonstrated the presence of multiple absorption isotherms. Each of the three isotherms conforms to Michaelis-Menten kinetics; kinetic constants are reported for uptake by the intact plant and for transfer from root to shoot tissues. The absorption of Ni2+ by the intact plant and its transfer from root to shoot were inhibited by the presence of Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, and Co2+. Competition kinetic studies showed Cu2+ and Zn2+ to inhibit Ni2+ absorption competitively, suggesting that Ni2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ are absorbed using the same carrier site. Calculated Km and Ki constants for Ni2+ in the presence and absence of Cu2+ were 6.1 and 9.2 μm, respectively, whereas Km and Ki constants were calculated to be 6.7 and 24.4 μm, respectively, for Ni2+ in the presence and absence of Zn2+. The mechanism of inhibition of Ni2+ in the presence of Fe2+ and Co2+ was not resolved by classical kinetic relationships. PMID:16660559

  16. Plant health sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manukian, Ara; Mckelvy, Colleen; Pearce, Michael; Syslo, Steph

    1988-01-01

    If plants are to be used as a food source for long term space missions, they must be grown in a stable environment where the health of the crops is continuously monitored. The sensor(s) to be used should detect any diseases or health problems before irreversible damage occurs. The method of analysis must be nondestructive and provide instantaneous information on the condition of the crop. In addition, the sensor(s) must be able to function in microgravity. This first semester, the plant health and disease sensing group concentrated on researching and consulting experts in many fields in attempts to find reliable plant health indicators. Once several indicators were found, technologies that could detect them were investigated. Eventually the three methods chosen to be implemented next semester were stimulus response monitoring, video image processing and chlorophyll level detection. Most of the other technologies investigated this semester are discussed here. They were rejected for various reasons but are included in the report because NASA may wish to consider pursuing them in the future.

  17. Plant Transgenerational Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Quadrana, Leandro; Colot, Vincent

    2016-11-23

    Transgenerational epigenetics is defined in opposition to developmental epigenetics and implies an absence of resetting of epigenetic states between generations. Unlike mammals, plants appear to be particularly prone to this type of inheritance. In this review, we summarize our knowledge about transgenerational epigenetics in plants, which entails heritable changes in DNA methylation. We emphasize the role of transposable elements and other repeat sequences in the creation of epimutable alleles. We also argue that because reprogramming of DNA methylation across generations seems limited in plants, the inheritance of DNA methylation defects results from the failure to reinforce rather than reset this modification during sexual reproduction. We compare genome-wide assessments of heritable DNA methylation variation and its phenotypic impact in natural populations to those made using near-isogenic populations derived from crosses between parents with experimentally induced DNA methylation differences. Finally, we question the role of the environment in inducing transgenerational epigenetic variation and briefly present theoretical models under which epimutability is expected to be selected for.

  18. Paramutation phenomena in plants.

    PubMed

    Pilu, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Paramutation is a particular epigenetic phenomenon discovered in Zea mays by Alexander Brink in the 1950s, and then also found in other plants and animals. Brink coined the term paramutation (from the Greek syllable "para" meaning beside, near, beyond, aside) in 1958, with the aim to differentiate paramutation from mutation. The peculiarity of paramutation with respect to other gene silencing phenomena consists in the ability of the silenced allele (named paramutagenic) to silence the other allele (paramutable) present in trans. The newly silenced (paramutated) allele remains stable in the next generations even after segregation from the paramutagenic allele and acquires paramutagenic ability itself. The inheritance behaviour of these epialleles permits a fast diffusion of a particular gene expression level/phenotype in a population even in the absence of other evolutionary influences, thus breaking the Hardy-Weinberg law. As with other gene silencing phenomena such as quelling in the fungus Neurospora crassa, transvection in Drosophila, co-suppression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) described in transgenic plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paramutation occurs without changes in the DNA sequence. So far the molecular basis of paramutation remains not fully understood, although many studies point to the involvement of RNA causing changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure of the silenced genes. In this review I summarize all paramutation phenomena described in plants, focusing on the similarities and differences between them.

  19. Plants, endosymbionts and parasites

    PubMed Central

    Nagamune, Kisaburo; Xiong, Liming; Chini, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    It was recently discovered that the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii produces and uses the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA), for communication. Following intracellular replication, ABA production influences the timing of parasite egress from the host cell. This density-dependent signal may serve to coordinate exit from the host cell in a synchronous manner by triggering calcium-dependent activation of motility. In the absence of ABA production, parasites undergo differentiation to the semidormant, tissue cyst. The pathway for ABA production in T. gondii may be derived from a relict endosymbiont, acquired by ingestion of a red algal cell. Although the parasite has lost the capacity for photosynthesis, the plant-like nature of this signaling pathway may be exploited to develop new drugs. In support of this idea, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis protected mice against lethal infection with T. gondii. Here, we compare the role of ABA in parasites to its activities in plants, where it is know to control development and stress responses. PMID:19513200

  20. Congress targets DOE plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    Calling the Department of Energy's management of the nation's crippled nuclear weapons production complex “a 35-year secret chemical war waged against people living near DOE's sites,” Representative Thomas Luken (D-OH) opened a congressional hearing on February 23 with an appeal to DOE Secretary-designate James Watkins to release secret health records of workers at the plants. In testimony that followed, Comptroller General Charles Bowsher told a subcommittee of the House Energy and Commerce Committee that President Bush's new budget does not go far enough on the long and costly road of cleaning up and modernizing the contaminated and aging facilities. The renovation is expected to cost up to $155 billion.By next month, 11 of the 17 installations that make up the DOE complex will be on the EPA's Superfund list of the nation's most contaminated waste sites. Some o f the DOE facilities, including the Rocky Flats plant in Denver, Colo., the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington, and the Savannah River plant in South Carolina, are among the most polluted sites ever identified by EPA. The principal function of the facilities, the production of tritium and plutonium for nuclear weapons, has stopped, creating what DOE has characterized as a looming national security crisis.

  1. Magnetoreception in plants.

    PubMed

    Galland, Paul; Pazur, Alexander

    2005-12-01

    This article reviews phenomena of magnetoreception in plants and provides a survey of the relevant literature over the past 80 years. Plants react in a multitude of ways to geomagnetic fields-strong continuous fields as well as alternating magnetic fields. In the past, physiological investigations were pursued in a somewhat unsystematic manner and no biological advantage of any magnetoresponse is immediately obvious. As a result, most studies remain largely on a phenomenological level and are in general characterised by a lack of mechanistic insight, despite the fact that physics provides several theories that serve as paradigms for magnetoreception. Beside ferrimagnetism, which is well proved for bacterial magnetotaxis and for some cases of animal navigation, two further mechanisms for magnetoreception are currently receiving major attention: (1) the "radical-pair mechanism" consisting of the modulation of singlet-triplet interconversion rates of a radical pair by weak magnetic fields, and (2) the "ion cyclotron resonance" mechanism. The latter mechanism centres around the fact that ions should circulate in a plane perpendicular to an external magnetic field with their Lamor frequencies, which can interfere with an alternating electromagnetic field. Both mechanisms provide a theoretical framework for future model-guided investigations in the realm of plant magnetoreception.

  2. [Functions of plant apyrases].

    PubMed

    Wujak, Magdalena; Komoszyński, Michał

    2011-01-01

    This publication presents results of the recent studies on plant NTPDases (apyrases). The structure and major physicochemical properties of this enzymes are reviewed. The attention has been paid to metabolic functions of apyrases from Solanum tuberosum and Arabidopsis thaliana. Apyrases constitute a family of proteins hydrolyzing phosphoanhydride bonds of nucleoside tri- and di-phosphates. They share common features like a similar structure, broad nucleotide substrate specificity and divalent cation requirement for their catalytic activity. The presence of plant NTPDases was detected in various cellular compartments. They are soluble or membrane-bound proteins. In hydrolytic processes catalyzed by activity of apoplastic apyrases and other ectoenzymes, adenine, ribose and orthophosphate are produced. These compounds are transported to the cell. Apyrases have been speculated to be involved in the regulation of starch synthesis and signal transmission. Their activity is necessary for development and growth of tubers and roots. Enzymes from leguminous plants activate the symbiosis with root nodule bacteria. Considering the fact, that NTPDases change the nucleotide concentration in cells and tissues, most of described functions may be related to the regulation of the energy charge of cell.

  3. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  4. Southeastern plants toxic to ruminants.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Steven S

    2011-07-01

    Selected toxic plants affecting cattle, sheep, and goats in the southeastern United States are presented. The author's intention is to provide veterinary practitioners and students with an overview of plant poisoning in the region. Plants are grouped by body system affected, based on clinical signs and/or lesions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  6. Plants and the changing environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this Special Issue of Plant Biology, current trends in research on plant responses to the changing environment are highlighted. Several studies consider plant responses to the mixture of interacting stresses that will accompany climate change, including drought, heat, high light and increased CO2...

  7. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  8. Seed Planting in Veggie Pillows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-08

    Seeds are secured in plant pillows for the Veggie plant growth system inside a laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The plant pillows, containing Outredgeous lettuce, Mizuna Mustard and Waldmann's green lettuce seeds, were packed for delivery to Veggie on SpaceX's 12th commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station.

  9. Seed Planting in Veggie Pillows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-08

    Seeds are secured in plant pillows for the Veggie plant growth system inside a laboratory in the Space Station Processing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The plant pillows, containing Outredgeous lettuce, Mizuna Mustard and Waldmann's green lettuce, were packed for delivery to Veggie on SpaceX's 12th commercial resupply services mission to the International Space Station.

  10. Plant Tissues. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant tissues. Presented first are an attention step and a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about plant tissues and the effect of water and minerals on them. The following topics are among those discussed: reasons why water is important to plants,…

  11. Selected Landscape Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Kevin

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important woody ornamental landscape plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 253 slides illustrating 92 different plants. Several slides are used to illustrate each plant: besides a view of…

  12. Herbaceous Ornamental Plants. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Steven

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with commercially important herbaceous ornamental plants. Included in the script are narrations for use with a total of 338 slides illustrating 150 different plants. Generally, two slides are used to illustrate each plant: one slide shows…

  13. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Treesearch

    Paul S. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  14. Simple tool for planting acorns

    Treesearch

    William R. Beaufait

    1957-01-01

    A handy, inexpensive tool for planting acorns has been developed at the Delta Research Center of the Southern Forest Experiment Station and used successfully in experimental plantings. One of its merits is that it ensures a planting hole of eactly the desired depth.

  15. Seed Planting in Veggie Pillows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-08

    Water and nutrients are being added to plants in the Veggie hardware in NASA Kennedy Space Center's ISS environment simulator chamber. Mizuna mustard, Outredgeous lettuce and Waldmann's green lettuce are growing in Veggie. Growth in the chamber mimics the growth of plant experiments in the Veggie plant growth system on the International Space Station.

  16. Seed Planting in Veggie Pillows

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-08

    NASA interns Jessica Scotten, left, and Ayla Grandpre water plants in the Veggie hardware in NASA Kennedy Space Center's ISS environment simulator chamber. Mizuna mustard, Outredgeous lettuce and Waldmann's green lettuce are growing in Veggie. Growth in the chamber mimics the growth of plant experiments in the Veggie plant growth system on the International Space Station.

  17. Measuring sap flow in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sap flow measurements provide a powerful tool for quantifying plant water use and monitoring qualitative physiological responses of plants to environmental conditions. As such, sap flow methods are widely employed to invesitgate the agronomic, ecological and hydrological outcomes of plant growth. T...

  18. Try This: Plant Leaf Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Plants are often overlooked in favour of animals when teaching about living things. Focusing on familiar animals that share human characteristics helps young children learn about similar features. Examining plants for their differences, though, helps foster wonder. In the author's experience, children find it intriguing that plants need…

  19. Protection Goals for Aquatic Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Someone once said plants are the ugly stepchildren of the toxicological world. This was not out of lack of respect for plants, but rather reflected the common assumption that aquatic plants were less sensitive than aquatic fauna to chemicals. We now know this is not a valid gener...

  20. PlantRGDB: A Database of Plant Retrocopied Genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    RNA-based gene duplication, known as retrocopy, plays important roles in gene origination and genome evolution. The genomes of many plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the retrocopies in plant genomes. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of retrocopies in these plants is still lacking. In this study I constructed the PlantRGDB (Plant Retrocopied Gene DataBase), the first database of plant retrocopies, to provide a putatively complete centralized list of retrocopies in plant genomes. The database is freely accessible at http://probes.pw.usda.gov/plantrgdb or http://aegilops.wheat.ucdavis.edu/plantrgdb. It currently integrates 49 plant species and 38,997 retrocopies along with characterization information. PlantRGDB provides a user-friendly web interface for searching, browsing and downloading the retrocopies in the database. PlantRGDB also offers graphical viewer-integrated sequence information for displaying the structure of each retrocopy. The attributes of the retrocopies of each species are reported using a browse function. In addition, useful tools, such as an advanced search and BLAST, are available to search the database more conveniently. In conclusion, the database will provide a web platform for obtaining valuable insight into the generation of retrocopies and will supplement research on gene duplication and genome evolution in plants.

  1. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis

    PubMed Central

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity. PMID:20562897

  2. Direct plant-plant facilitation in coastal wetlands: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Shao, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Coastal wetlands provide important ecosystem services to humanity, but human activity and climate change are rapidly degrading these ecosystems. Thus the conservation and restoration of coastal wetlands becomes an urgent issue. Species facilitation among plants has regained attention of ecologists recently. Many studies in coastal wetlands have revealed direct plant-plant facilitation influencing community structure and ecosystem function, thus improving our understanding of community organization and giving new directions for the restoration of degraded coastal wetlands. Our paper examines studies of direct plant-plant facilitation in coastal wetlands with an emphasis on tests of the stress gradient hypothesis and influences of species facilitation on species zonation, species diversity patterns, phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function. Investigating how plant-plant facilitation affects ecosystem function is an important future direction, which can provide basic knowledge applicable to the preservation and recovery of coastal wetlands in these times of rapid global change.

  3. Effects of plants and plant products on the testis.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, Shereen Cynthia; Vaithinathan, Selvaraju; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2010-07-01

    For centuries, plants and plant-based products have been used as a valuable and safe natural source of medicines for treating various ailments. The therapeutic potential of most of these plants could be ascribed to their anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antispasmodic, analgesic and various other pharmacological properties. However, several commonly used plants have been reported to adversely affect male reproductive functions in wildlife and humans. The effects observed with most of the plant and plant-based products have been attributed to the antispermatogenic and/or antisteroidogenic properties of one or more active ingredients. This review discusses the detrimental effects of some of the commonly used plants on various target cells in the testis. A deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of action of these natural compounds could pave the way for developing therapeutic strategies against their toxicity.

  4. Plant ecdysteroids: plant sterols with intriguing distributions, biological effects and relations to plant hormones.

    PubMed

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav

    2016-09-01

    The present review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones. Plant ecdysteroids (phytoecdysteroids) are natural polyhydroxylated compounds that have a four-ringed skeleton, usually composed of either 27 carbon atoms or 28-29 carbon atoms (biosynthetically derived from cholesterol or other plant sterols, respectively). Their physiological roles in plants have not yet been confirmed and their occurrence is not universal. Nevertheless, they are present at high concentrations in various plant species, including commonly consumed vegetables, and have a broad spectrum of pharmacological and medicinal properties in mammals, including hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic effects, and anabolic effects on skeletal muscle, without androgenic side-effects. Furthermore, phytoecdysteroids can enhance stress resistance by promoting vitality and enhancing physical performance; thus, they are considered adaptogens. This review summarises current knowledge of phytoecdysteroids' biosynthesis, distribution within plants, biological importance and relations to plant hormones.

  5. Mycorrhizal fungal identity and diversity relaxes plant-plant competition.

    PubMed

    Wagg, Cameron; Jansa, Jan; Stadler, Marina; Schmid, Bernhard; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2011-06-01

    There is a great interest in ecology in understanding the role of soil microbial diversity for plant productivity and coexistence. Recent research has shown increases in species richness of mutualistic soil fungi, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), to be related to increases in aboveground productivity of plant communities. However, the impact of AMF richness on plant-plant interactions has not been determined. Moreover, it is unknown whether species-rich AMF communities can act as insurance to maintain productivity in a fluctuating environment (e.g., upon changing soil conditions). We tested the impact of four different AMF taxa and of AMF diversity (no AMF, single AMF taxa, and all four together) on competitive interactions between the legume Trifolium pratense and the grass Lolium multiflorum grown under two different soil conditions of low and high sand content. We hypothesized that more diverse mutualistic interactions (e.g., when four AMF taxa are present) can ease competitive effects between plants, increase plant growth, and maintain plant productivity across different soil environments. We used quantitative PCR to verify that AMF taxa inoculated at the beginning of the experiment were still present at the end. The presence of AMF reduced the competitive inequality between the two plant species by reducing the growth suppression of the legume by the grass. High AMF richness enhanced the combined biomass production of the two plant species and the yield of the legume, particularly in the more productive soil with low sand content. In the less productive (high sand content) soil, the single most effective AMF had an equally beneficial effect on plant productivity as the mixture of four AMF. Since contributions of single AMF to plant productivity varied between both soils, higher AMF richness would be required to maintain plant productivity in heterogeneous environments. Overall this work shows that AMF diversity promotes plant productivity and that AMF

  6. Beaver herbivory on aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Parker, John D; Caudill, Christopher C; Hay, Mark E

    2007-04-01

    Herbivores have strong impacts on marine and terrestrial plant communities, but their impact is less well studied in benthic freshwater systems. For example, North American beavers (Castor canadensis) eat both woody and non-woody plants and focus almost exclusively on the latter in summer months, yet their impacts on non-woody plants are generally attributed to ecosystem engineering rather than herbivory. Here, we excluded beavers from areas of two beaver wetlands for over 2 years and demonstrated that beaver herbivory reduced aquatic plant biomass by 60%, plant litter by 75%, and dramatically shifted plant species composition. The perennial forb lizard's tail (Saururus cernuus) comprised less than 5% of plant biomass in areas open to beaver grazing but greater than 50% of plant biomass in beaver exclusions. This shift was likely due to direct herbivory, as beavers preferentially consumed lizard's tail over other plants in a field feeding assay. Beaver herbivory also reduced the abundance of the invasive aquatic plant Myriophyllum aquaticum by nearly 90%, consistent with recent evidence that native generalist herbivores provide biotic resistance against exotic plant invasions. Beaver herbivory also had indirect effects on plant interactions in this community. The palatable plant lizard's tail was 3 times more frequent and 10 times more abundant inside woolgrass (Scirpus cyperinus) tussocks than in spatially paired locations lacking tussocks. When the protective foliage of the woolgrass was removed without exclusion cages, beavers consumed nearly half of the lizard's tail leaves within 2 weeks. In contrast, leaf abundance increased by 73-93% in the treatments retaining woolgrass or protected by a cage. Thus, woolgrass tussocks were as effective as cages at excluding beaver foraging and provided lizard's tail plants an associational refuge from beaver herbivory. These results suggest that beaver herbivory has strong direct and indirect impacts on populations and

  7. Advanced Plant Habitat Test Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-24

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants are seen inside the growth chamber of the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) Flight Unit No. 1 prior to harvest of half the plants. The harvest is part of an ongoing verification test of the APH unit, which is located inside the International Space Station Environmental Simulator in NASA Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility. The APH undergoing testing at Kennedy is identical to one on the station and uses red, green and broad-spectrum white LED lights to grow plants in an environmentally controlled chamber. The seeds grown during the verification test will be grown on the station to help scientists understand how these plants adapt to spaceflight.

  8. B plant mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-05-24

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ``System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.`` The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline.

  9. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Allelopathic Aquatic Plants for Aquatic Plant Management: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Allelopathy "Bioassay . Growth inhibition. Aquatic macrophytes. Biocontrol Lena minor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...Bibliography of Aquatic Plant Allelopathy ........ Al 2 ALLELOPATHIC AQUATIC PLANTS FOR AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT; A FEASIBILITY STUDY Introduction Background 1...nutrients, water, and other biotic effects could have overriding effects that appear as competition or allelopathy . These biotic factors must be

  10. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  11. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  12. The year 2000 power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies.

  13. Antibiotic use in plant agriculture.

    PubMed

    McManus, Patricia S; Stockwell, Virginia O; Sundin, George W; Jones, Alan L

    2002-01-01

    Antibiotics have been used since the 1950s to control certain bacterial diseases of high-value fruit, vegetable, and ornamental plants. Today, the antibiotics most commonly used on plants are oxytetracycline and streptomycin. In the USA, antibiotics applied to plants account for less than 0.5% of total antibiotic use. Resistance of plant pathogens to oxytetracycline is rare, but the emergence of streptomycin-resistant strains of Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas campestris has impeded the control of several important diseases. A fraction of streptomycin-resistance genes in plant-associated bacteria are similar to those found in bacteria isolated from humans, animals, and soil, and are associated with transfer-proficient elements. However, the most common vehicles of streptomycin-resistance genes in human and plant pathogens are genetically distinct. Nonetheless, the role of antibiotic use on plants in the antibiotic-resistance crisis in human medicine is the subject of debate.

  14. Plant adaptation to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Kumar, Anuj; Pereira, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitats adapt to drought stress in the environment through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from transient responses to low soil moisture to major survival mechanisms of escape by early flowering in absence of seasonal rainfall. However, crop plants selected by humans to yield products such as grain, vegetable, or fruit in favorable environments with high inputs of water and fertilizer are expected to yield an economic product in response to inputs. Crop plants selected for their economic yield need to survive drought stress through mechanisms that maintain crop yield. Studies on model plants for their survival under stress do not, therefore, always translate to yield of crop plants under stress, and different aspects of drought stress response need to be emphasized. The crop plant model rice ( Oryza sativa) is used here as an example to highlight mechanisms and genes for adaptation of crop plants to drought stress.

  15. [Nitric oxide production in plants].

    PubMed

    Małolepsza, Urszula

    2007-01-01

    There are still many controversial observations and opinions on the cellular/subcellular localization and sources of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis in plant cells. NO can be produced in plants by non-enzymatic and enzymatic systems depending on plant species, organ or tissue as well as on physiological state of the plant and changing environmental conditions. The best documented reactions in plant that contribute to NO production are NO production from nitrite as a substrate by cytosolic (cNR) and membrane bound (PM-NR) nitrate reductases (NR), and NO production by several arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase-like activities (NOS). The latest papers indicate that mitochondria are an important source of arginine- and nitrite-dependent NO production in plants. There are other potential enzymatic sources of NO in plants including xanthine oxidoreductase, peroxidase, cytochrome P450.

  16. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  17. Plant adaptation to drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Supratim; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Kumar, Anuj; Pereira, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Plants in their natural habitats adapt to drought stress in the environment through a variety of mechanisms, ranging from transient responses to low soil moisture to major survival mechanisms of escape by early flowering in absence of seasonal rainfall. However, crop plants selected by humans to yield products such as grain, vegetable, or fruit in favorable environments with high inputs of water and fertilizer are expected to yield an economic product in response to inputs. Crop plants selected for their economic yield need to survive drought stress through mechanisms that maintain crop yield. Studies on model plants for their survival under stress do not, therefore, always translate to yield of crop plants under stress, and different aspects of drought stress response need to be emphasized. The crop plant model rice ( Oryza sativa) is used here as an example to highlight mechanisms and genes for adaptation of crop plants to drought stress. PMID:27441087

  18. Effects of Wind on Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Langre, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This review surveys the large variety of mechanical interactions between wind and plants, from plant organs to plant systems. These interactions range from leaf flutter to uprooting and seed dispersal, as well as indirect effects on photosynthesis or insect communication. I first estimate the relevant nondimensional parameters and then discuss turbulence, plant dynamics, and the mechanisms of interaction in this context. Some common features are identified and analyzed in relation to the wind engineering of manmade structures. Strong coupling between plants and wind exists, in which the plant motion modifies the wind dynamics. I also present some related biological issues in which the relation between plant life and wind environment is emphasized. [V]oici la lourde nappe/Et la profonde houle et l’océan des blés [Like a sheet/The deep swell on a sea of wheat] Charles Péguy (1873 1914)

  19. [Quality control of plant extract].

    PubMed

    Shao, Yun-dong; Gao, Wen-yuan; Liu, Dan; Jia, Wei; Duan, Hong-Quan; Zhang, Tie-jun

    2003-10-01

    The current situation of plant extract in domestic and international market was analyzed in the paper. The quality control of 20 plant extracts which have reasonably good sales in USA market was compared and analyzed. The analysis of the quality control of six plant extracts indicated that there were two main reasons leading to the varied quality specifications among different suppliers. One reason was that the plant species utilized by different companies were different. The other reason was that the extraction processes were different among different production plants. Comparing with the significant international suppliers of plant extracts, the product quality of Chinese companies were not satisfactory. It was suggested that chromatography and chromatographic fingerprint techniques should be applied to improve the quality control standard of plant extract in our country.

  20. Quo vadis plant hormone analysis?

    PubMed

    Tarkowská, Danuše; Novák, Ondřej; Floková, Kristýna; Tarkowski, Petr; Turečková, Veronika; Grúz, Jiří; Rolčík, Jakub; Strnad, Miroslav

    2014-07-01

    Plant hormones act as chemical messengers in the regulation of myriads of physiological processes that occur in plants. To date, nine groups of plant hormones have been identified and more will probably be discovered. Furthermore, members of each group may participate in the regulation of physiological responses in planta both alone and in concert with members of either the same group or other groups. The ideal way to study biochemical processes involving these signalling molecules is 'hormone profiling', i.e. quantification of not only the hormones themselves, but also their biosynthetic precursors and metabolites in plant tissues. However, this is highly challenging since trace amounts of all of these substances are present in highly complex plant matrices. Here, we review advances, current trends and future perspectives in the analysis of all currently known plant hormones and the associated problems of extracting them from plant tissues and separating them from the numerous potentially interfering compounds.