Science.gov

Sample records for plant facilities improvements

  1. Development of an improved ground-based prototype of space plant-growing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Liu, X.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Wei, M.; Qin, L.; Yang, Y.

    Based on a formerly developed ground-based prototype of space plant-growing facility, the development of its improved prototype has been finished, so as to make its operating principle better adapt to the space microgravity environment. According to the developing experience of its first generation prototype and detailed demonstration and design of technique plan, its blueprint design and machining of related components, whole facility installment, debugging and trial operations were all done gradually. Its growing chamber contains a volume of about 0.5 m3 and a growing area of approximate 0.5 m2; the atmospheric environmental parameters in the growing chamber and water content in the growing media were controlled totally and effectively; lighting source is a combination of both red and blue light emitting diodes (LED). The following demonstrating results showed that the entire system design of the prototype is reasonable and its operating principle can nearly meet the requirements of space microgravity environment. Therefore, our plant-growing technique in space was advanced further, which laid an important foundation for next development of the space plant-growing facility and plant-cultivating experimental research in space microgravity condition.

  2. Improvement of plant parameters of the ROBO gamma irradiation facility due to design modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, A.; Moussa, A.; Othman, I.; Del Valle Odar, C.; Seminario, A.; Linares, M.; Huamanlazo, P.; Aymar, J.; Chu, R.

    1998-06-01

    Two industrial scale, "ROBO" type 60Co gamma irradiation facilities have recently been put into operation in Syria and Peru, and the dosimetry commissioning of both plants have been carried out to determine dose distribution within products and to calculate plant parameters such as efficiency, dose uniformity ratio and throughput. There are some design modifications between the two plants in connection with the location of the carriers with respect to the source plaque and also to each other. The effect of these construction modifications on the plant parameters is discussed in the analysis of the dose distribution data measured in the carriers with depth and height among the four irradiation rows on both sides of the source plaque. The plant parameters were also calculated for different product densities using the technical data of the facilities, and the calculated and measured results were compared to each other.

  3. Plant Growth Facility (PGF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  4. The New Generation of Uranium In Situ Recovery Facilities: Design Improvements Should Reduce Radiological Impacts Relative to First Generation Uranium Solution Mining Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.H.

    2008-07-01

    In the last few years, there has been a significant increase in the demand for Uranium as historical inventories have been consumed and new reactor orders are being placed. Numerous mineralized properties around the world are being evaluated for Uranium recovery and new mining / milling projects are being evaluated and developed. Ore bodies which are considered uneconomical to mine by conventional methods such as tunneling or open pits, can be candidates for non-conventional recovery techniques, involving considerably less capital expenditure. Technologies such as Uranium In Situ Leaching / In Situ Recovery (ISL / ISR - also referred to as 'solution mining'), have enabled commercial scale mining and milling of relatively small ore pockets of lower grade, and are expected to make a significant contribution to overall world wide uranium supplies over the next ten years. Commercial size solution mining production facilities have operated in the US since the mid 1970's. However, current designs are expected to result in less radiological wastes and emissions relative to these 'first' generation plants (which were designed, constructed and operated through the 1980's). These early designs typically used alkaline leach chemistries in situ including use of ammonium carbonate which resulted in groundwater restoration challenges, open to air recovery vessels and high temperature calcining systems for final product drying vs the 'zero emissions' vacuum dryers as typically used today. Improved containment, automation and instrumentation control and use of vacuum dryers in the design of current generation plants are expected to reduce production of secondary waste byproduct material, reduce Radon emissions and reduce potential for employee exposure to uranium concentrate aerosols at the back end of the milling process. In Situ Recovery in the U.S. typically involves the circulation of groundwater, fortified with oxidizing (gaseous oxygen e.g) and complexing agents (carbon

  5. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) compiled from various EPA programs.

  6. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  7. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Generating plant facilities. 1726.125 Section 1726....125 Generating plant facilities. This section covers the construction of all portions of a generating plant, including plant buildings and the generator step-up transformer. Generally, the...

  8. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Generating plant facilities. 1726.125 Section 1726....125 Generating plant facilities. This section covers the construction of all portions of a generating plant, including plant buildings and the generator step-up transformer. Generally, the...

  9. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Generating plant facilities. 1726.125 Section 1726....125 Generating plant facilities. This section covers the construction of all portions of a generating plant, including plant buildings and the generator step-up transformer. Generally, the...

  10. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Generating plant facilities. 1726.125 Section 1726....125 Generating plant facilities. This section covers the construction of all portions of a generating plant, including plant buildings and the generator step-up transformer. Generally, the...

  11. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  12. Coupled Facility-Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center an analysis is performed to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combined dynamics of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.

  13. Coupled Facility/Payload Vibration Modeling Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kaiser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A major phase of aerospace hardware verification is vibration testing. The standard approach for such testing is to use a shaker to induce loads into the payload. In preparation for vibration testing at NASA/GSFC there is an analysis to assess the responses of the payload. A new method of modeling the test is presented that takes into account dynamic interactions between the facility and the payload. This dynamic interaction has affected testing in the past, but been ignored or adjusted for during testing. By modeling the combination of the facility and test article (payload) it is possible to improve the prediction of hardware responses. Many aerospace test facilities work in similar way to those at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Lessons learned here should be applicable to other test facilities with similar setups.

  14. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhar, M.; Ahsanulkhaliqin, A. W.

    2014-02-01

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, 60Co and 137Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for 60Co and 30.1 years for 137Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the gamma greenhouse mainly

  15. Gamma greenhouse: A chronic facility for crops improvement and agrobiotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Azhar, M. Ahsanulkhaliqin, A. W.

    2014-02-12

    Gamma irradiation is one of the most common procedures in plant mutagenesis and agrobiotechnology activities. The procedures consist of chronic and acute gamma radiation. Generally, {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are gamma radiation sources for radiation processing with relatively high energy (half-life 5.27 years for {sup 60}Co and 30.1 years for {sup 137}Cs). The energy associated with gamma radiation is high enough to break the molecular bonds and ionize atoms without affecting structure of the atomic nucleus (avoiding induction of radioactivity). The Gamma Green House (GGH) is the only chronic irradiation facility in Malaysia, located at Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia). GGH is used for induction of mutation in plants and other biological samples at low dose radiation over period of time depending on the nature and sensitivity of the plant species. The GGH consist of circular green house with 30 meters radius, control room and irradiator with interlock system. The irradiator produces low dose gamma radiation derived from Caesium-137 radioactive source. The biological samples can be exposed to low dose radiation in days, weeks, months or years. The current irradiation rate for GGH is 2.67 Gy/hr at 1 meter from the source. Chronic gamma irradiation produces a wider mutation spectrum and useful for minimizing radiation damages towards obtaining new improved traits for research and commercial values. The prospect of the gamma greenhouse is its uses in research, educations and services on induced mutation techniques for the improvement of plant varieties and microbes. In generating awareness and attract users to the facility, Nuclear Malaysia provides wide range of irradiation services for plant species and mutagenesis consultancies to academicians, students scientists, and plant breeders, from local universities, other research institutes, and growers. Charges for irradiation and consultancy services are at nominal rates. The utilization activities of the

  16. 125. NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY IN FOREGROUND AND ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY IN FOREGROUND AND ASSEMBLY PLANT/WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 1601/1606/1701) IN BACKGROUND. FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 126. DETAIL OF NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY, WITH ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. DETAIL OF NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY, WITH ASSEMBLY PLANT/WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 1601/1606/1701) IN BACKGROUND, FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The gasifier selected for development under this contract is an innovative and patented hybrid technology which combines the best features of both fixed-bed and fluidized-bed types. PyGas{trademark}, meaning Pyrolysis Gasification, is well suited for integration into advanced power cycles such as IGCC. It is also well matched to hot gas clean-up technologies currently in development. Unlike other gasification technologies, PyGas can be designed into both large and small scale systems. It is expected that partial repowering with PyGas could be done at a cost of electricity of only 2.78 cents/kWh, more economical than natural gas repowering. It is extremely unfortunate that Government funding for such a noble cause is becoming reduced to the point where current contracts must be canceled. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project was initiated to provide a test facility to support early commercialization of advanced fixed-bed coal gasification technology at a cost approaching $1,000 per kilowatt for electric power generation applications. The project was to include an innovative, advanced, air-blown, pressurized, fixed-bed, dry-bottom gasifier and a follow-on hot metal oxide gas desulfurization sub-system. To help defray the cost of testing materials, the facility was to be located at a nearby utility coal fired generating site. The patented PyGas{trademark} technology was selected via a competitive bidding process as the candidate which best fit overall DOE objectives. The paper describes the accomplishments to date.

  19. Facilities Management: A Manual for Plant Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Teresa Burnau, Ed.

    Major aspects of the management of the physical plant of campuses are considered in 42 chapters. The five major sections cover: personnel services; budgeting and accounting; maintenance management; plant operations; and planning, design, and construction. A conclusion describes proven methods and criteria for self-evaluation of the physical plant.…

  20. 8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH PLANT SHELL OIL COMPANY FACILITIES, WITH PIPELINE PEDESTALS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING VARIOUS LOADING STATIONS ON PRODUCTION LINE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. Environmental protection facilities safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this Safety Study is to examine the existing facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are dedicated to environmental protection. Seven separate, numbered facilities and five unnumbered continuous air sampling stations are identified as the fixed facilities to protect the environment. Each is examined from the standpoint of hazardous materials, monitoring and protection systems, confinement systems, ventilation systems, criticality control systems, fire protection systems, waste disposal systems, and safety systems.

  3. Strategic facility planning improves capital decision making.

    PubMed

    Reeve, J R

    2001-03-01

    A large, Midwestern IDS undertook a strategic facility-planning process to evaluate its facility portfolio and determine how best to allocate future investments in facility development. The IDS assembled a facility-planning team, which initiated the planning process with a market analysis to determine future market demands and identify service areas that warranted facility expansion. The team then analyzed each of the IDS's facilities from the perspective of uniform capacity measurements, highest and best use compared with needs, building condition and investment-worthiness, and facility growth and site development opportunities. Based on results of the analysis, the strategy adopted entailed, in part, shifting some space from inpatient care to ambulatory care services and demolishing and replacing the 11 percent of facilities deemed to be in the worst condition.

  4. The Facilities Audit. A Process for Improving Facilities Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Harvey H.

    The problems of deferred maintenance and decaying campus infrastructure have troubled higher education for the past two decades. This book, designed to be a tool for facilities managers, describes a process for inspecting and reporting conditions of buildings and infrastructure. The audit process is meant to be a routine part of maintenance…

  5. 135. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 136. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 117. NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY (BUILDING 1703) AT RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY (BUILDING 1703) AT RIGHT FOREGROUND AND GB MANUFACTURING PLANT (BUILDING 1501) AT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. Plant model of KIPT neutron source facility simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Yan; Wei, Thomas Y.; Grelle, Austin L.; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of the United States and Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) of Ukraine are collaborating on constructing a neutron source facility at KIPT, Kharkov, Ukraine. The facility has 100-kW electron beam driving a subcritical assembly (SCA). The electron beam interacts with a natural uranium target or a tungsten target to generate neutrons, and deposits its power in the target zone. The total fission power generated in SCA is about 300 kW. Two primary cooling loops are designed to remove 100-kW and 300-kW from the target zone and the SCA, respectively. A secondary cooling system is coupled with the primary cooling system to dispose of the generated heat outside the facility buildings to the atmosphere. In addition, the electron accelerator has a low efficiency for generating the electron beam, which uses another secondary cooling loop to remove the generated heat from the accelerator primary cooling loop. One of the main functions the KIPT neutron source facility is to train young nuclear specialists; therefore, ANL has developed the KIPT Neutron Source Facility Simulator for this function. In this simulator, a Plant Control System and a Plant Protection System were developed to perform proper control and to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper operation of the facility during the steady-state and the transient states using a facility plant model. This report focuses on describing the physics of the plant model and provides several test cases to demonstrate its capabilities. The plant facility model uses the PYTHON script language. It is consistent with the computer language of the plant control system. It is easy to integrate with the simulator without an additional interface, and it is able to simulate the transients of the cooling systems with system control variables changing on real-time.

  9. Compounds and methods for improving plant performance

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Knight, Thomas Joseph

    2016-09-20

    The invention is directed to methods and compositions for increasing a growth characteristic of a plant, increasing nutrient use efficiency of a plant, or improving a plant's ability to overcome stress comprising applying a composition comprising ketosuccinamate, a derivative thereof, or a salt thereof, to the plant or to a propagation material of the plant.

  10. Improving Healthcare Facility Locations in Bamyan, Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    including: diagnosis and treatment of malaria, diarrhea and acute respiratory infection; distribution of condoms and oral contraceptives ; and...operating cost, and accessibility of the existing and future healthcare facilities. We also look into the ethnicity problem that would affect the...cost, and accessibility of the existing and future healthcare facilities. We also look into the ethnicity problem that would affect the selection of

  11. Achieving and documenting closure in plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knott, W. M.; Sager, John C.; Wheeler, Ray

    1992-01-01

    As NASA proceeds with its effort to develop a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) that will provide life support to crews during long duration space missions, it must address the question of facility and system closure. The concept of closure as it pertains to CELSS and engineering specifications, construction problems and monitoring procedures used in the development and operation of a closed plant growth facility for the CELSS program are described. A plant growth facility is one of several modules required for a CELSS. A prototype of this module at Kennedy Space Center is the large (7m tall x 3.5m diameter) Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), the central facility of the CELSS Breadboard Project. The BPC is atmospherically sealed to a leak rate of approximately 5 percent of its total volume per 24 hours. This paper will discuss the requirements for atmospheric closure in the facility, present CO2 and trace gas data from initial tests of the BPC with and without plants, and describe how the chamber was sealed atmospherically. Implications that research conducted in this type of facility will have for the CELSS program are discussed.

  12. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M.Y.; Shields, K.D.

    1999-04-02

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R and D) facilities for the Department of Energy on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Three of the R and D facilities: the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling and thus individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed for them. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH-0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. The remainder of the DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R and D. R and D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in the FEMP.

  13. On Improving Urban School Facilities and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Thomas C.

    This study explores broad alternative policies on urban school facilities and education rather than attempting to design the "best" policy. The study also provides a broad perspective within which to place school construction decisions by analyzing goals, stakeholders' positions, and implementation actions. The main portion of the study highlights…

  14. Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Level area surrounding Facility 314 showing the planted ring that contains the radial ground wires, note the ring beneath the antenna circles is cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Radio Station, AF/FRD-10 Circularly Disposed Antenna Array, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  15. 23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTH DOWN CENTRAL CORRIDOR. NOTE BINS IN WALLS ON EITHER SIDE OF CORRIDOR, USED FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES AND LOADED ITEMS TO SIEVING ROOMS BEYOND WALLS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. 43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL OF EXPLOSION-PROOF ELECTRICAL SWITCH BOX (SWITCH GEAR INSIDE BOX SUBMERGED IN OIL TO QUENCH SPARKS), SWITCH EQUIPMENT MADE BY GENERAL ELECTRIC. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. 129. DETAIL OF NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY, SHOWING FREESTANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. DETAIL OF NORTH PLANT AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY, SHOWING FREE-STANDING SMOKESTACK (BUILDING 1504). VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. 25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), LOOKING AT EAST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING NO. 452-A, INERT STORAGE, VISIBLE ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2004-11-15

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are

  1. 78 FR 48029 - Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ..., chemical facility owners and operators, and local and tribal communities to work together to improve..., local, and tribal governments and private sector partners, where joint collaborative programs can be... information sharing and collaborative planning between chemical facility owners and operators, TEPCs,...

  2. 29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR, ROOM 12. SEWING ROOM WHERE BAGS LOADED WITH POWDER WERE SEWN CLOSED. MOTOR FOR SEWING MACHINE LOCATED OUTSIDE OF BUILDING. CLOSED AND UNCLOSED BAGS WERE PASSED THROUGH BINS IN WALL ON EITHER SIDE. ROOM IS SHEATHED WITH GALVANIZED STEEL PAINTED GRAY. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  3. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  4. Technology for subsystems of space-based plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Corey, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    Technologies for different subsystems of space-based plant growth facilities are being developed at the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space. The technologies include concepts for water and nutrient delivery, for nutrient composition control, and for irradiation. Effort is being concentrated on these subsystems because available technologies cannot be effectively utilized for space applications.

  5. Need for Improvement of Rural School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, V. Pauline

    The Government Accounting Agency estimates that one third of the nation's schools are in need of extensive repairs or replacement of one or more buildings. The condition of America's rural schools are at a crisis stage and need to be improved to continue to educate rural youth. This paper profiles the state of rural schools' infrastructure, rural…

  6. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  7. Conceptual design report -- Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; House, L.S.; Duck, R.R.; Lisauskas, R.A.; Dixit, V.J.; Morgan, M.E.; Johnson, S.A.; Boni, A.A.

    1994-09-01

    The problems heretofore with coal gasification and IGCC concepts have been their high cost and historical poor performance of fixed-bed gasifiers, particularly on caking coals. The Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) project is being developed to solve these problems through the development of a novel coal gasification invention which incorporates pyrolysis (carbonization) with gasification (fixed-bed). It employs a pyrolyzer (carbonizer) to avoid sticky coal agglomeration caused in the conventional process of gradually heating coal through the 400 F to 900 F range. In so doing, the coal is rapidly heated sufficiently such that the coal tar exists in gaseous form rather than as a liquid. Gaseous tars are then thermally cracked prior to the completion of the gasification process. During the subsequent endothermic gasification reactions, volatilized alkali can become chemically bound to aluminosilicates in (or added to) the ash. To reduce NH{sub 3} and HCN from fuel born nitrogen, steam injection is minimized, and residual nitrogen compounds are partially chemically reduced in the cracking stage in the upper gasifier region. Assuming testing confirms successful deployment of all these integrated processes, future IGCC applications will be much simplified, require significantly less mechanical components, and will likely achieve the $1,000/kWe commercialized system cost goal of the GPIF project. This report describes the process and its operation, design of the plant and equipment, site requirements, and the cost and schedule. 23 refs., 45 figs., 23 tabs.

  8. The development of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Brunet, Jean; Demey, Dries; Mas-Albaigès, Joan L.

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a closed artificial ecosystem intended as a tool for the development of a bio-regenerative life support system for longterm manned missions. The MELiSSA loop is formed by five interconnected compartments, organized in three different loops (solid, liquid and gas). This compartments are microbial bioreactors and higher plant chambers. The MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility has been designed to achieve the preliminary terrestrial demonstration of the MELiSSA concept at pilot scale, using animals as a model for the crew compartent. The experience gained in the operation of such a facility will be highly relevant for planning future life support systems in Space. In this communication, the latests developments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant will be reported. Particularly, the completion of the design phase and instalation of all the different compartments will be discussed in detail. Each of the compartments had to be designed and constructed according to very specific characteristics, associated to the biological systems to be cultured, as part of the complete MELiSSA loop (anerobic, oxygenic, thermophilic, heterotrophic, autotrophic, axenic, photosynthetic, etc.). Additionally, the sizing of each reactor (ranging from 8 to 100 Liters, depending of each particular compartment) should compile with the global integration scenario proposed, and with the final goal of connection of all compartments to provide a demonstration of the MELiSSA concept, and generate data for the design and operation of future biological life support systems.

  9. State-of-the-art commercial plant biotechnology facility (CPBF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weijia; Bula, R. J.; Duffie, N. A.; Yetka, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The demand for highly flexible manipulation of plant growth generations and modification of specific plant processes in a controlled environment has led to the development of a Commercial Plant Biotechnology Facility (CPBF) for the International Space Station. The CPBF integrates proven ASTROCULTURE™ technologies, state-of-the-art control software, and fault tolerance and recovery technologies together to increase overall system efficiency, reliability, robustness, and flexibility. An open and modular design architecture minimizes the design effort of reconfiguration/reconstruction of the facility with different dimensions and capacities. An autonomous control system with fault tolerance and recovery capability minimizes the on-orbit crew intervention which is particularly valuable for Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. A flexible user interface is provided for operators to select, define, and modify the tasks to be conducted. The CPBF consists of five major subsystems: the lighting control system; the temperature control system; the humidity control system; the fluid nutrient delivery system; and the atmosphere control system. This paper describes the general configuration of the CPBF, its capabilities, and its control architecture. It also describes its configuration for integration into an International Space Station Express Rack.

  10. Challenges of Fission Research at the Improved Igisol Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, Heikki; Eronen, Tommi; Dendooven, Peter; Hakala, Jani; Huang, Wenxue; Huikari, Jussi; Jokinen, Ari; Kankainen, Anu; Kolhinen, Veli; Kopecky, Stefan; Nieminen, Arto; Popov, Andrey; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Wang, Youbao; Äystö, Juha

    2003-10-01

    The new instrumentation for radioactive ion manipulation at the IGISOL facility has risen up a demand to improve the performance of the ion guide itself. The original gas cell technique IGISOL is shortly described and the current weaknesses pointed out. The program in progress to improve the ion guide performance is described. These improvements are expected to give the highest gain in the studies of fission fragments.

  11. 40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. BUILDING NO. 454, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHANGE FILLING PLANT), DETAIL SOUTHEAST SIDE OF EXTERIOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM, SHOWING DOOR TO SEWING ROOM NO. 3, VENTILATOR FAN (OVER DOOR), STEAM LINE (PIPE), SEWING MACHINE MOTOR IN OVERHEAD, ALARM BELL, EXPLOSION-PROOF SWITCH BOXES, GROUNDS ON DOORS, PULL ALARM HANDLE (EXTREME RIGHT; PULLEY CABLE CONDUCTED IN CONDUIT TO SWITCH INSIDE BUILDING. PULLEYS INSIDE ALL ELBOW JOINTS.) - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  12. The Planning and Implementation of Test Facility Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberlander, Larry

    2008-01-01

    As engineering programs develop, and product testing begins, ideas for process improvement soon become obvious. Engineers envision new holding and handling fixtures. Additional custom-made support equipment may be needed. Perhaps modifications to the building or modifications to facility hardware are the order of the day. This is where a flexible creative test organization is needed. We need not be content with the status quo. All of these desired test innovations can make the difficult easy and improve the work flow. At times, implementing these new ideas demands more time or specialized expertise than test team members have. Through the coordinated use of labor resources, the needed improvements can still be made and in a timely fashion that supports program schedules. This presentation provides practical advice and a method whereby test personnel can creatively develop facility improvements and manage them from start to finish. You can control just how much time you invest and what part of your concepts you will personally design. By wisely defining the requirements and presenting them to the appropriate help sources (vendors, contractors, coworkers, and support departments), you can get the help you need to bring the improvements you have conceived, into fruition. Aspects of this presentation include defining requirements for test facility improvements, choosing labor resources, writing a statement of work, determining cost and benefits, securing department approval, coordinating procurement, managing the project, and training the end users. The process of successfully implementing test facility improvements is thoroughly explained. It has been tried, proven and improved over nearly 25 years of use. Whether considering a $50 improvement or a $50 million dollar improvement, this discussion will provide helpful pointers. Examples of improvements made through this process and their illustration will be included.

  13. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  14. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  15. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  16. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  17. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating... Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. (a) The requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants shall be the applicable provisions...

  18. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkovich, Y. A.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    In designing innovative space plant growth facilities (SPGF) for long duration space flight, various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating on board resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M x (EBI)2/(V x E x T], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Recent Productivity Improvements to the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Sydnor, George H.

    1998-01-01

    Productivity gains have recently been made at the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A team was assigned to assess and set productivity goals to achieve the desired operating cost and output of the facility. Simulations have been developed to show the sensitivity of selected process productivity improvements in critical areas to reduce overall test cycle times. The improvements consist of an expanded liquid nitrogen storage system, a new fan drive, a new tunnel vent stack heater, replacement of programmable logic controllers, an increased data communications speed, automated test sequencing, and a faster model changeout system. Where possible, quantifiable results of these improvements are presented. Results show that in most cases, improvements meet the productivity gains predicted by the simulations.

  20. A fuel cell balance of plant test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, A. L.; Martin, P. A.

    Much attention is focused in the fuel cell community on the development of reliable stack technology, but to successfully exploit fuel cells, they must form part of integrated power generation systems. No universal test facilities exist to evaluate SOFC stacks and comparatively little research has been undertaken concerning the issues of the rest of the system, or balance of plant (BOP). BG, in collaboration with Eniricerche, has therefore recently designed and built a test facility to evaluate different configurations of the BOP equipment for a 1-5 kWe solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. Within this BOP project, integrated, dynamic models have been developed. These have shown that three characteristic response times exist when the stack load is changed and that three independent control loops are required to manage the almost instantaneous change in power output from an SOFC stack, maintain the fuel utilisation and control the stack temperature. Control strategies and plant simplifications, arising from the dynamic modelling, have also been implemented in the BOP test facility. An SOFC simulator was designed and integrated into the control system of the test rig to behave as a real SOFC stack, allowing the development of control strategies without the need for a real stack. A novel combustor has been specifically designed, built and demonstrated to be capable of burning the low calorific anode exhaust gas from an SOFC using the oxygen depleted cathode stream. High temperature, low cost, shell and tube heat exchangers have been shown to be suitable for SOFC systems. Sealing of high temperature anode recirculation fans has, however, been shown to be a major issue and identified as a key area for further investigation.

  1. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-02-26

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators.

  2. Evaluating and optimizing horticultural regimes in space plant growth facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Y.; Chetirkin, R.; Wheeler, R.; Sager, J.

    In designing innovative Space Plant Growth Facilities (SPGF) for long duration space f ightl various limitations must be addressed including onboard resources: volume, energy consumption, heat transfer and crew labor expenditure. The required accuracy in evaluating onboard resources by using the equivalent mass methodology and applying it to the design of such facilities is not precise. This is due to the uncertainty of the structure and not completely understanding of the properties of all associated hardware, including the technology in these systems. We present a simple criteria of optimization for horticultural regimes in SPGF: Qmax = max [M · (EBI) 2 / (V · E · T) ], where M is the crop harvest in terms of total dry biomass in the plant growth system; EBI is the edible biomass index (harvest index), V is a volume occupied by the crop; E is the crop light energy supply during growth; T is the crop growth duration. The criterion reflects directly on the consumption of onboard resources for crop production. We analyzed the efficiency of plant crops and the environmental parameters by examining the criteria for 15 salad and 12 wheat crops from the data in the ALS database at Kennedy Space Center. Some following conclusion have been established: 1. The technology involved in growing salad crops on a cylindrical type surface provides a more meaningful Q-criterion; 2. Wheat crops were less efficient than leafy greens (salad crops) when examining resource utilization; 3. By increasing light intensity of the crop the efficiency of the resource utilization could decrease. Using the existing databases and Q-criteria we have found that the criteria can be used in optimizing design and horticultural regimes in the SPGF.

  3. 78 FR 70934 - Trespassing on DOE Property: Kansas City Plant Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... National Nuclear Security Administration Trespassing on DOE Property: Kansas City Plant Facilities AGENCY... designation of Kansas City Plant Facilities as off- limit areas. SUMMARY: DOE hereby amends and adds to... of the Kansas City Plant of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear...

  4. Improved Economics of Nuclear Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Jarrell, Donald B.; Bond, Joseph W D.

    2007-07-31

    The adoption of new on-line monitoring, diagnostic and eventually prognostics technologies has the potential to impact the economics of the existing nuclear power plant fleet, new plants and future advanced designs. To move from periodic inspection to on-line monitoring for condition based maintenance and eventually prognostics will require advances in sensors, better understanding of what and how to measure within the plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new predictive models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real world deployments; quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems and integration of enhanced condition based maintenance/prognostics philosophies into new plant designs, operation and O&M approaches. The move to digital systems in petrochemical, process and fossil fuel power plants is enabling major advances to occur in the instrumentation, controls and monitoring systems and approaches employed. The adoption within the nuclear power community of advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics has the potential for the reduction in costly periodic surveillance that requires plant shut-down , more accurate cost-benefit analysis, “just-in-time” maintenance, pre-staging of maintenance tasks, move towards true “operation without failures” and a jump start on advanced technologies for new plant concepts, such as those under the International Gen IV Program. There are significant opportunities to adopt condition-based maintenance when upgrades are implemented at existing facilities. The economic benefit from a predictive maintenance program based upon advanced on-line monitoring and advanced diagnostics can be demonstrated from a cost/benefit analysis. An analysis of the 104 US legacy systems has indicated potential savings at over $1B per year when applied to all key equipment; a summary of the supporting analysis is provided in this paper.

  5. Foliage Plants for Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    NASA's research with foliage houseplants during the past 10 years has produced a new concept in indoor air quality improvement. This new and exciting technology is quite simple. Both plant leaves and roots are utilized in removing trace levels of toxic vapors from inside tightly sealed buildings. Low levels of chemicals such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde can be removed from indoor environments by plant leaves alone, while higher concentrations of numerous toxic chemicals can be removed by filtering indoor air through the plant roots surrounded by activated carbon. The activated carbon absorbs large quantities of the toxic chemicals and retains them until the plant roots and associated microorganisms degrade and assimilate these chemicals.

  6. Role of RNA interference in plant improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Umesh Balkrishna; Gurav, Ranjit Gajanan; Bapat, Vishwas Anant

    2011-06-01

    Research to alter crops for their better performance involving modern technology is underway in numerous plants, and achievements in transgenic plants are impacting crop improvements in unparalleled ways. Striking progress has been made using genetic engineering technology over the past two decades in manipulating genes from diverse and exotic sources, and inserting them into crop plants for inducing desirable characteristics. RNA interference (RNAi) has recently been identified as a natural mechanism for regulation of gene expression in all higher organisms from plants to humans and promises greater accuracy and precision to plant improvement. The expression of any gene can be down-regulated in a highly explicit manner exclusive of affecting the expression of any other gene by using RNAi technologies. Additional research in this field has been focused on a number of other areas including microRNAs, hairpin RNA, and promoter methylation. Manipulating new RNAi pathways, which generate small RNA molecules to amend gene expression in crops, can produce new quality traits and having better potentiality of protection against abiotic and biotic stresses. Nutritional improvement, change in morphology, or enhanced secondary metabolite synthesis are some of the other advantages of RNAi technology. In addition to its roles in regulating gene expression, RNAi is also used as a natural defense mechanism against molecular parasites such as jumping genes and viral genetic elements that affect genome stability. Even though much advancement has been made on the field of RNAi over the preceding few years, the full prospective of RNAi for crop improvement remains to be fully realized. The intricacy of RNAi pathway, the molecular machineries, and how it relates to plant development are still to be explained.

  7. Environmental report for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF)

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, R.S.; Skinner, W.H.; Norris, E.S.; Duck, R.R.; Hass, R.B.; Morgan, M.E.; Helble, J.J.; Johnson, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Fossil Energy Program has a mission to develop energy systems that utilize national coal resources in power systems with increased efficiency and environmental compatibility. Coal gasification technology is a versatile candidate that meets this goal. This two phased project consists primarily of the design, construction and operation of a 5-foot inside diameter (minimum) fixed-bed gasifier called PyGas{trademark} and supporting infrastructure (Phase I), and an additional follow on phase consisting of the design, construction and operation of a hot fuel gas cleanup unit (Phase II). Issues expected to be successfully overcome by PyGas{trademark} through its application in this test facility include the processing of high-swelling coals, which causes agglomeration in conventional fixed-bed gasifiers. Such coals comprise 87% of all eastern coals. Other issues expected to be eliminated or significantly reduced include: production of ash clinkers, production of ammonia, the presence of significant tars and fines, and the volatilization of alkalinity in the product fuel gas. A second portion of the NEPA report is concerned with the emission of toxic metal compounds by the gasification process improvement facility (GPIF). The GPIF facility will be located on site at the Fort Martin facility of Allegheny Power Company, and the energy produced (steam) will be directly used by Fort Martin to produce electricity. The coal used at the GPIF facility will be the same coal used by the utility. Therefore, the emissions of the GPIF will be put in context of the entire facility. The GPIF assessment will be divided into four sections: Estimation of the toxic metals content of the raw coal; calculation of the emissions from Fort Martin normally; an estimate of the emission from the GPIF; and a comparison of the two flows.

  8. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  9. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  10. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  11. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  12. 9 CFR 354.210 - Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum standards for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. 354.210 Section 354.210 Animals and Animal Products... sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants. The provisions of §§ 354.210 to...

  13. Microflora inside closed modules with plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyablova, Natalya V.; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Shanturin, Nikolai; Deshevaya, Elena; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.

    Currently, plant growth facility (PGF) is included in the LSS in many scenarios of Martian expedition. A number of investigators assume growing of crops can accelerate microflora re-production in closed ecological system. To estimate experimentally the change of density of microbiological community in the isolated module, Chinese cabbage Brassica hinensis L., cv. Vesnyanka, has been grown in the closed climatic chambers in volume 0.07 m3, 3 m3 and 250 m3 under continuous illumination in the range of values of temperature and relative humidity of air 23 -270 and 30 -60%, respectively. There were no differences in growth and develop-ment of plants grown during 30 days on the test-beds in the laboratory room (control) and in the closed chamber by 0.07 m3 volume (test). The microbiological analysis of root zone has revealed the presence of exclusively saprophytic species -the typical representatives of the soil microbiota. Then the plants were growing during 45 days in the prototype of the conveyor space PGF "Phytocycle LED" placed inside the chamber of 3 m3 volume. Every 3 days 50 -60 cm3 of liquid imitator of air condensate (IAC) from inhabited module had been injected to the chamber to simulate air pollution. The content of colony-forming units of the micromycetes in the air of the chamber, on the inner surfaces of the climate chamber, internal and external surfaces of the PGF and the leaves did not exceed the permissible values. When the PGF has been installed during 14 days inside the inhabited module with volume of 250 m3, the representatives of saprophytic and conditioned-pathogenic species of micromycetes (Trichethe-cium rozeum, Trichoderma sp., Fuzarrium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp.) have been found out exclusively on the open surfaces of artificial soil and water-saturated porous passage. The obtained data shows that PGF inside closed modules can assure microbiological safety when all wet surfaces are isolated from the gas environment.

  14. [Principle demonstration of nutrient delivery system in a space vegetable planting prototype facility].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Xu, B; Ai, W D; Wang, K; Liu, X Y; Wang, P X

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To develop a nutrient delivery system for space vegetable planting prototype facility to be used in future space station, and to preliminarily testify its feasibility through ground-based demonstration experiments. Method. A nutrient delivery system in a space vegetable planting prototype facility was designed and fabricated, and ground based demonstration experiments of plant cultivation were conducted. Result. Nutrient could be steadily delivered to plant cultivation matrixes through capillary action, water content of planting matrixes could be controlled automatically and maintained constant, and the planted material lettuce showed basically normal morphology and color. Conclusion. The nutrient delivery system in a space vegetable planting prototype facility could basically meet the requirements for plant nutrient delivery under space microgravity environmental condition.

  15. Development of an improved ground-based prototype of space vegetable-producing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Guo, S.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Ai, W.; Wei, M.; Qin, L.; Deng, Y.

    Based on the development of a ground-based prototype of space vegetable-producing facility development of its improved prototype has been finished so as to make its operating principle adapt to the space microgravity environment better According to the developing experience of first-generation prototype of the space vegetable-producing facility and detailed demonstration and design of technique plan its blueprint design and machining of related components whole facility installment debugging and trial operations were done Its growing chamber contains a volume of about 0 5m 3 and a growing area of approximate 0 5m 2 the atmospheric environmental parameters in the growing chamber and water content in the growing media were totally and effectively controlled lighting sources are the combinations of both red and blue light emitting diode LED The following demonstrating results showed that the entire system design of the facility is reasonable and its operating principle can meet nearly the requirements of space microgravity environment Therefore our plant growing technique in space was advanced greatly which laid an important foundation for next development of the space vegetable-producing facility to be tested and applied in space station

  16. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hourfar, D.

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  17. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  18. Improvements and Performance of the Fermilab Solenoid Test Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Orris, Darryl; Arnold, Don; Brandt, Jeffrey; ...

    2017-06-01

    Here, the Solenoid Test Facility at Fermilab was built using a large vacuum vessel for testing of conduction-cooled superconducting solenoid magnets, and was first used to determine the performance of the MICE Coupling Coil. The facility was modified recently to enable testing of solenoid magnets for the Mu2e experiment, which operate at much higher current than the Coupling Coil. One pair of low current conduction-cooled copper and NbTi leads was replaced with two pairs of 10 kA HTS leads cooled by heat exchange with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The new design, with additional control and monitoring capability, also providesmore » helium cooling of the superconducting magnet leads by conduction. A high current power supply with energy extraction was added, and several improvements to the quench protection and characterization system were made. Here we present details of these changes and report on performance results from a test of the Mu2e prototype Transport Solenoid (TS) module. Progress on additional improvements in preparation for production TS module testing will be presented.« less

  19. Improvements and performance of the Fermilab solenoid test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Orris, Darryl; Arnold, Don; Brandt, Jeffrey; Cheban, Sergey; Evbota, Daniel; Feher, Sandor; Galt, Artur; Hays, Steven; Hemmati, Ali; Hess, Charles; Hocker, James A.; Kim, Min Jeong; Kokoska, Lidija; Koshelev, Sergey; Kotelnikov, Sergey; Lamm, Michael; Lopes, Mauricio L.; Nogiec, Jerzy; Page, Thomas M.; Pilipenko, Roman; Rabehl, Roger; Sylvester, Cosmore; Tartaglia, Michael; Vouris, Antonios

    2016-12-15

    Here, the Solenoid Test Facility at Fermilab was built using a large vacuum vessel for testing of conduction-cooled superconducting solenoid magnets, and was first used to determine the performance of the MICE Coupling Coil. The facility was modified recently to enable testing of solenoid magnets for the Mu2e experiment, which operate at much higher current than the Coupling Coil. One pair of low current conduction-cooled copper and NbTi leads was replaced with two pairs of 10 kA HTS leads cooled by heat exchange with liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. The new design, with additional control and monitoring capability, also provides helium cooling of the superconducting magnet leads by conduction. A high current power supply with energy extraction was added, and several improvements to the quench protection and characterization system were made. Here we present details of these changes and report on performance results from a test of the Mu2e prototype Transport Solenoid (TS) module. Progress on additional improvements in preparation for production TS module testing will be presented.

  20. The practical problem of improving quality in multicenter dialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Balter, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Multifacility dialysis groups are frequently interested in improving overall quality and find that there are major differences between individual units. Upper management must consider what strategy is needed for the whole company and what strategy must be formulated by individual facilities. To make substantive changes, management must decide to adopt a new culture of true teamwork, drive out fear, and emphasize leadership and education both at the management level and in the individual unit. Both at the corporate and unit levels, leaders must be chosen who are able to recognize people who have the ability, the educational background, the enthusiasm, and the time to direct change. Empowering the individual units and individual employees to make changes and be enthusiastic about improvement is the key to success.

  1. 78 FR 65690 - Trees and Plantings Associated With Eligible Facilities, RP9524.5

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Trees and Plantings Associated With Eligible Facilities... provides notice of the availability of the final policy Trees and Plantings Associated with Eligible... guidance on eligible and ineligible work related to trees, shrubs, and other plantings, including...

  2. 30 CFR 947.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 947.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  3. 30 CFR 910.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 910.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  4. 30 CFR 922.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 922.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities not Located at or near...

  5. 30 CFR 921.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... MASSACHUSETTS § 921.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  6. 30 CFR 939.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... ISLAND § 939.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  7. 30 CFR 910.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 910.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  8. 30 CFR 941.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... DAKOTA § 941.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  9. 30 CFR 912.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 912.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  10. 30 CFR 933.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... CAROLINA § 933.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  11. 30 CFR 921.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... MASSACHUSETTS § 921.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located... Permanent Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or...

  12. 30 CFR 937.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 937.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  13. 30 CFR 922.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 922.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities not Located at or near...

  14. 30 CFR 912.827 - Special performance standards-coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... plants and support facilities not located at or near the minesite or not within the permit area for a... § 912.827 Special performance standards—coal processing plants and support facilities not located at or... Program Performance Standards—Coal Processing Plants and Support Facilities Not Located at or Near...

  15. Measurement Requirements for Improved Modeling of Arcjet Facility Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, Douglas G.

    2000-01-01

    Current efforts to develop new reusable launch vehicles and to pursue low-cost robotic planetary missions have led to a renewed interest in understanding arc-jet flows. Part of this renewed interest is concerned with improving the understanding of arc-jet test results and the potential use of available computational-fluid- dynamic (CFD) codes to aid in this effort. These CFD codes have been extensively developed and tested for application to nonequilibrium, hypersonic flow modeling. It is envisioned, perhaps naively, that the application of these CFD codes to the simulation of arc-jet flows would serve two purposes: first. the codes would help to characterize the nonequilibrium nature of the arc-jet flows; and second. arc-jet experiments could potentially be used to validate the flow models. These two objectives are, to some extent, mutually exclusive. However, the purpose of the present discussion is to address what role CFD codes can play in the current arc-jet flow characterization effort, and whether or not the simulation of arc-jet facility tests can be used to eva1uate some of the modeling that is used to formu1ate these codes. This presentation is organized into several sections. In the introductory section, the development of large-scale, constricted-arc test facilities within NASA is reviewed, and the current state of flow diagnostics using conventional instrumentation is summarized. The motivation for using CFD to simulate arc-jet flows is addressed in the next section, and the basic requirements for CFD models that would be used for these simulations are briefly discussed. This section is followed by a more detailed description of experimental measurements that are needed to initiate credible simulations and to evaluate their fidelity in the different flow regions of an arc-jet facility. Observations from a recent combined computational and experiment.al investigation of shock-layer flows in a large-scale arc-jet facility are then used to illustrate the

  16. 76 FR 9613 - USEC Inc. (American Centrifuge Lead Cascade Facility and American Centrifuge Plant); Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... use source and special nuclear material at the Lead Cascade at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant... operate a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility (the ACP) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion...

  17. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Two San Antonio facilities among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that two facilities in San Antonio-Toyota Motor Manufacturing Texas and Buzzi Unicem cement-are among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification.

  18. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  19. The Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility--description of equipment developed for biological research in Spacelab.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, D G; Chapman, D K; Brown, A H; Lewis, R F

    1994-09-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Shuttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future Spacelab missions.

  20. Basic Data Report -- Defense Waste Processing Facility Sludge Plant, Savannah River Plant 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Amerine, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    This Basic Data Report for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)--Sludge Plant was prepared to supplement the Technical Data Summary. Jointly, the two reports were intended to form the basis for the design and construction of the DWPF. To the extent that conflicting information may appear, the Basic Data Report takes precedence over the Technical Data Summary. It describes project objectives and design requirements. Pertinent data on the geology, hydrology, and climate of the site are included. Functions and requirements of the major structures are described to provide guidance in the design of the facilities. Revision 9 of the Basic Data Report was prepared to eliminate inconsistencies between the Technical Data Summary, Basic Data Report and Scopes of Work which were used to prepare the September, 1982 updated CAB. Concurrently, pertinent data (material balance, curie balance, etc.) have also been placed in the Basic Data Report. It is intended that these balances be used as a basis for the continuing design of the DWPF even though minor revisions may be made in these balances in future revisions to the Technical Data Summary.

  1. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Two Midlothian, TX, facilities among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that two facilities in Midlothian, TX-the Holcim and Martin Marietta Materials cement facilities-are among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that ach

  2. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.11086 - What requirements must I meet if my facility is a bulk gasoline plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facility is a bulk gasoline plant? 63.11086 Section 63.11086 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Source Category: Gasoline Distribution Bulk Terminals, Bulk Plants, and Pipeline Facilities Emission... gasoline plant? Each owner or operator of an affected bulk gasoline plant, as defined in § 63.11100,...

  6. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Y.C.

    1987-01-16

    Due to changing environmental regulations, the current practice of depleted uranium chip (machine turning) disposal via shallow land burial has become environmentally objectionable. The chips are pyrophoric and oxidize rapidly when exposed to air; therefore, long-term storage of the uranium chips presents a major fire hazard. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Development Division was contacted to devise a disposal method that would eliminate chip burial and minimize storage space requirements. The proposed method of accomplishing this task was oxidizing the uranium chips to uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) under controlled conditions. Pilot plant operation of the Uranium Chip Oxidation Facility (UCOF) was initiated on May 20, 1985, by the Y-12 Development Division. The purpose of this initial development testing was to evaluate the equipment, determine operating parameters, and provide on-the-job training for Waste Treatment Operations (WTO) personnel. Startup of the UCOF began with the check-out of the equipment using only the No. 1 oxidizer. Following the verification stage, the oxidizer was loaded with an initial charge of cold uranium oxide (U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) in preparation for test burning. Results of the test are given.

  7. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement results.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Austin L; Tkacik, Daniel S; Roscioli, Joseph R; Herndon, Scott C; Yacovitch, Tara I; Martinez, David M; Vaughn, Timothy L; Williams, Laurie L; Sullivan, Melissa R; Floerchinger, Cody; Omara, Mark; Subramanian, R; Zimmerle, Daniel; Marchese, Anthony J; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-03-03

    Facility-level methane emissions were measured at 114 gathering facilities and 16 processing plants in the United States natural gas system. At gathering facilities, the measured methane emission rates ranged from 0.7 to 700 kg per hour (kg/h) (0.6 to 600 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm)). Normalized emissions (as a % of total methane throughput) were less than 1% for 85 gathering facilities and 19 had normalized emissions less than 0.1%. The range of methane emissions rates for processing plants was 3 to 600 kg/h (3 to 524 scfm), corresponding to normalized methane emissions rates <1% in all cases. The distributions of methane emissions, particularly for gathering facilities, are skewed. For example, 30% of gathering facilities contribute 80% of the total emissions. Normalized emissions rates are negatively correlated with facility throughput. The variation in methane emissions also appears driven by differences between inlet and outlet pressure, as well as venting and leaking equipment. Substantial venting from liquids storage tanks was observed at 20% of gathering facilities. Emissions rates at these facilities were, on average, around four times the rates observed at similar facilities without substantial venting.

  8. Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project - Replacement of Current Mechanical Seal System with Rope Packing System

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Jessica D.

    2013-05-29

    On January 27, 2010 the City of North Little Rock, Arkansas received notification of the awarding of a Department of Energy (DOE) grant totaling $450,000 in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) under the Project Title: Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Improvement Project – Automated Intake Clearing Equipment and Materials Management. The purpose of the grant was for improvements to be made at the City’s hydroelectric generating facility located on the Arkansas River. Improvements were to be made through the installation of an intake maintenance device (IMD) and the purchase of a large capacity wood grinder. The wood grinder was purchased in order to receive the tree limbs, tree trunks, and other organic debris that collects at the intake of the plant during high flow. The wood grinder eliminates the periodic burning of the waste material that is cleared from the intake and reduces any additional air pollution to the area. The resulting organic mulch has been made available to the public at no charge. Design discussion and planning began immediately and the wood grinder was purchased in July of 2010 and immediately put to work mulching debris that was gathered regularly from the intake of the facility. The mulch is currently available to the public for free. A large majority of the design process was spent in discussion with the Corps of Engineers to obtain approval for drawings, documents, and permits that were required in order to make changes to the structure of the powerhouse. In April of 2011, the City’s Project Engineer, who had overseen the application, resigned and left the City’s employ. A new Systems Mechanical Engineer was hired and tasked with overseeing the project. The transfer of responsibility led to a re-examination of the original assumptions and research upon which the grant proposal was based. At that point, the project went under review and a trip was booked for July 2011 to visit facilities that currently

  9. Facile Synthesis of Natural Alkoxynaphthalene Analogues from Plant Alkoxybenzenes.

    PubMed

    Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Krayushkin, Mikhail M; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Strelenko, Yuri A; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V

    2016-04-22

    Analogues of the bioactive natural alkoxynaphthalene pycnanthulignene D were synthesized by an efficient method. The starting plant allylalkoxybenzenes (1) are easily available from the plant essential oils of sassafras, dill, and parsley. The target 1-arylalkoxynaphthalenes (5) exhibited antiproliferative activity in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay.

  10. UNDERSTANDING PLANT-SOIL RELATIONSHIPS USING CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although soil is a component of terrestrial ecosystems, it is comprised of a complex web of interacting organisms, and therefore, can be considered itself as an ecosystem. Soil microflora and fauna derive energy from plants and plant residues and serve important functions in mai...

  11. Commercial-scale biotherapeutics manufacturing facility for plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Barry R; Berquist, Brian R; Bennett, Lindsay D; Kommineni, Vally J M; Munigunti, Ranjith K; White, Earl L; Wilkerson, Don C; Wong, Kah-Yat I; Ly, Lan H; Marcel, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Rapid, large-scale manufacture of medical countermeasures can be uniquely met by the plant-made-pharmaceutical platform technology. As a participant in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Blue Angel project, the Caliber Biotherapeutics facility was designed, constructed, commissioned and released a therapeutic target (H1N1 influenza subunit vaccine) in <18 months from groundbreaking. As of 2015, this facility was one of the world's largest plant-based manufacturing facilities, with the capacity to process over 3500 kg of plant biomass per week in an automated multilevel growing environment using proprietary LED lighting. The facility can commission additional plant grow rooms that are already built to double this capacity. In addition to the commercial-scale manufacturing facility, a pilot production facility was designed based on the large-scale manufacturing specifications as a way to integrate product development and technology transfer. The primary research, development and manufacturing system employs vacuum-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana plants grown in a fully contained, hydroponic system for transient expression of recombinant proteins. This expression platform has been linked to a downstream process system, analytical characterization, and assessment of biological activity. This integrated approach has demonstrated rapid, high-quality production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody targets, including a panel of rituximab biosimilar/biobetter molecules and antiviral antibodies against influenza and dengue fever.

  12. Method to improve drought tolerance in plants

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Julian I.; Kwak, June Myoung

    2003-10-21

    A method to increase drought resistance in plants is provided. The method comprises inhibiting or disabling inward-rectifying K.sup.+ (K.sup.+.sub.in) channels in the stomatal guard cells of the plant.

  13. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located...

  14. Operation and Maintenance Manual for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Stanley

    2011-02-01

    This Operation and Maintenance Manual lists operator and management responsibilities, permit standards, general operating procedures, maintenance requirements and monitoring methods for the Sewage Treatment Plant at the Central Facilities Area at the Idaho National Laboratory. The manual is required by the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03) the sewage treatment plant.

  15. 10. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY SITE, SHOWING STEAM/DIESEL PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. AERIAL VIEW OF CROSSCUT FACILITY SITE, SHOWING STEAM/DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, RUNNING GENERALLY ACROSS PHOTO, AND INDIAN BEND POND IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER. November 7, 1955 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Acquisition Quality Improvement Within Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to identify and analyze Process Management and Audit Program (PMAP) results for Naval Facilities Command, Southwest...is to identify and analyze Process Management and Audit Program (PMAP) results for Naval Facilities Command, Southwest (NAVFAC SW). The goal is to...10 III. PROCESS MANAGEMENT AND AUDIT PROGRAM ......................................11 A. INTRODUCTION

  17. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  18. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  20. Safe Schools Facilities Planner. Improving School Climate and Order through Facilities Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Researchers, consulting professionals, and advocating agencies agree that school facility design is one essential component to a safe and successful school. This document addresses design-related concepts that can positively affect school climate and order. It describes and provides facility planning guidelines for crime prevention through…

  1. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  2. Effects of lighting and air movement on temperatures in reproductive organs of plants in a closed plant growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.

    Temperature increases in plant reproductive organs such as anthers and stigmas could cause fertility impediments and thus produce sterile seeds under artificial lighting conditions without adequately controlled environments in closed plant growth facilities. There is a possibility such a situation could occur in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems under microgravity conditions in space because there will be little natural convective or thermal mixing. This study was conducted to determine the temperature of the plant reproductive organs as affected by illumination and air movement under normal gravitational forces on the earth and to make an estimation of the temperature increase in reproductive organs in closed plant growth facilities under microgravity in space. Thermal images of reproductive organs of rice and strawberry were captured using infrared thermography at air temperatures of 10 11 °C. Compared to the air temperature, temperatures of petals, stigmas and anthers of strawberry increased by 24, 22 and 14 °C, respectively, after 5 min of lighting at an irradiance of 160 W m-2 from incandescent lamps. Temperatures of reproductive organs and leaves of strawberry were significantly higher than those of rice. The temperatures of petals, stigmas, anthers and leaves of strawberry decreased by 13, 12, 13 and 14 °C, respectively, when the air velocity was increased from 0.1 to 1.0 ms-1. These results show that air movement is necessary to reduce the temperatures of plant reproductive organs in plant growth facilities.

  3. Report of the Materials Irradiation Facilities Improvements Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.W.; Conlin, J.A.; Hurt, S.S. III; Moon, R.M. Jr.; Newman, E. Jr.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Thoms, K.R.; West, C.D.

    1985-10-01

    Engineering materials irradiations form a substantial program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), relying mainly on the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR). The HFIR neutron flux is high, but the reactor was not designed for materials irradiations; the lack of instrumented positions in the target region and the small size and limited number of positions in the high-flux region immediately outside the control plates pose particular disadvantages for this kind of research. Relatively minor modifications to the HFIR, at a cost of less than $2 million, would give it a first-class materials irradiation capability, capable of undertaking most of the experiments now performed at the ORR in one-half to one-third the time. The lack of comprehensive neutronics calculational capability at ORNL is a major drawback for experimenters and for the reactor operators, making it difficult to assess the feasibility of proposed new experiments or reactor improvements. The Operations Division should acquire the necessary computational capability, making use of new computational techniques and the newly available, more powerful computers as necessary. As a long-term prospect, when the proposed Center for Neutron Research (CNR) is build and the HFIR is no longer needed for neutron-scattering work and isotope production, the HFIR core could be replaced by a general purpose materials testing reactor core; the result would be the world's finest materials testing facility for less than one-tenth the cost of a new reactor. The value of such a scheme will depend on the national need for materials irradiation testing and isotope production at the time that the CNR is commissioned.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  7. Steam plant ash disposal facility and industrial landfill at the Y-12 Plant, Anderson County, Tennessee. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to install a wet ash handling system to dewater bottom ash from the coal-fired steam plant at its Y-12 Plant and to construct a new landfill for disposal of industrial wastes, including the dewatered bottom ash. The DOE operates three major facilities on its Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Operation of these facilities results in the production of a variety of nonhazardous, nonradioactive solid wastes (approximately 300 m{sup 3} per day, compacted) including sanitary wastes, common industrial wastes and construction debris. At the current rate of use, this existing landfill will be filled within approximately 18 months, and more space is urgently needed. In an effort to alleviate this problem, DOE and WMD management propose to create additional landfill facilities at a nearby site. The potential environmental impacts associated with this proposed action are the subject of this environmental assessment (EA).

  8. Introduction to the nuclear criticality safety evaluation of facility X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-08-16

    This report is the first in a series of documents that will evaluate nuclear criticality safety in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. It provides an overview of the facility, categorizes its functions for future analysis, reviews existing NCS documentation, and explains the follow-on effort planned for X-705. A detailed breakdown of systems, subsystems, and operational areas is presented and cross-referenced to existing NCS documentation.

  9. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  10. Project C-018H, 242-A Evaporator/PUREX Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility, functional design criteria. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.

    1995-05-02

    This document provides the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) for Project C-018H, the 242-A Evaporator and Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant Condensate Treatment Facility (Also referred to as the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility [ETF]). The project will provide the facilities to treat and dispose of the 242-A Evaporator process condensate (PC), the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process condensate (PDD), and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate (ASD).

  11. Audit of construction of protective force training facilities at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    A goal of the Department of Energy project management system is to ensure that projects are necessary to fulfill mission needs and are cost effective. This requires that the Department justify each project and explore competitive alternatives. The objective of this audit was to assess the need to construct protective force training facilities at the Department`s Pantex Plant. Our audit disclosed that (1) construction of a physical training facility was not necessary to fulfill mission needs, and (2) the Department did not consider all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility. These conditions occurred, in part, because a Justification for New Start was never prepared and approved for the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition, which included these two projects. We recommended that the Manager, Albuquerque Operations Office, cancel construction of the physical training facility, make needed repairs and upgrades to the existing facilities, and reduce the cost of the Security Enhancements Major System Acquisition accordingly. Implementation of this recommendation will save about $1.7 million. We also recommended that the Manager direct Mason & Hanger to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to constructing a weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction. Such analyses could lead to cancellation or rescoping of the proposed facility and result in savings to the Department. Albuquerque management did not agree to cancel construction of the physical training facility, but did agree to perform economic analyses of all viable alternatives to the proposed weapons tactics and training facility before proceeding with construction.

  12. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R.

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  13. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants

    PubMed Central

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion (O2⋅¯) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance. PMID:26789407

  14. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    PubMed

    An, Yuyan; Qi, Lin; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn.) plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC), and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text]) production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  15. Compositions and methods for improved plant feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Hui; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A

    2014-12-02

    The invention provides methods for modifying lignin content and composition in plants and achieving associated benefits therefrom involving altered expression of newly discovered MYB4 transcription factors. Nucleic acid constructs for modifying MYB4 transcription factor expression are described. By over-expressing the identified MYB4 transcription factors, for example, an accompanying decrease in lignin content may be achieved. Plants are provided by the invention comprising such modifications, as are methods for their preparation and use.

  16. Improving the efficacy of plant polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Biasutto, Lucia; Mattarei, Andrea; Sassi, Nicola; Azzolini, Michele; Romio, Matteo; Paradisi, Cristina; Zoratti, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Plant polyphenols exhibit potentially useful effects in a wide variety of pathophysiological settings. They interact with proteins such as signalling kinases, transcription factors and ion channels, and modulate redox processes, such as those taking place in mitochondria. Biomedical applications of these natural compounds are however severely hindered by their low bioavailability, rapid metabolism, and often by unfavourable physico-chemical properties, e.g. a generally low water solubility. Derivatives are under development with the aim of improving their bioavailability and/or bioefficacy. Various strategies can be adopted. An increase in circulating blood levels of non-metabolized natural compound may be attainable through prodrugs. In the ideal prodrug, phenolic hydroxyls are protected by capping groups which a) help or at least do not hinder permeation of epithelia; b) prevent conjugative modifications during absorption and first-pass through the liver; c) are eliminated with opportune kinetics to regenerate the parent compound. Moreover, prodrugs may be designed with the goals of modulating physical properties of the parent compound, and/or changing its distribution in the body. A more specific action may be achieved by concentrating the compounds at specific sites of action. An example of the second approach is represented by mitochondria-targeted redox-active polyphenol derivatives, designed to intervene on radical processes in these organelles and as a tool either to protect cells from oxidative insults or to precipitate their death. Mitochondrial targeting can be achieved through conjugation with a triphenylphosphonium lipophilic cation. Quercetin and resveratrol were chosen as model polyphenols for these proof-of-concept studies. Data available at the moment show that both quercetin and resveratrol mitochondria-targeted derivatives are pro-oxidant and cytotoxic in vitro, selectively killing fast-growing and tumoural cells when supplied in the low

  17. Total energy food plant 21 million gallon ethanol facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    The Phase I Engineering study includes the following: process description, waste water treatment plant, material summary, energy chart, capital cost estimate, equipment list, personnel requirements, drawings list, specifications list, and project schedule. The economic and financial feasibility of the technical process, and environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic assessments for the project are reported. The costs for extending the following utilities to the property line of the selected site are presented: potable water, sewer system, electricity, roads for truck traffic, and rail service.

  18. Utilisation of real-scale renewable energy test facility for validation of generic wind turbine and wind power plant controller models

    SciTech Connect

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Hesselbæk, Bo; Bech, John; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wallen, Robb

    2016-09-01

    This article presents an example of application of a modern test facility conceived for experiments regarding the integration of renewable energy in the power system. The capabilities of the test facility are used to validate dynamic simulation models of wind power plants and their controllers. The models are based on standard and generic blocks. The successful validation of events related to the control of active power (control phenomena in <10 Hz range, including frequency control and power oscillation damping) is described, demonstrating the capabilities of the test facility and drawing the track for future work and improvements.

  19. 75 FR 19428 - Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... COMMISSION Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U... significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code of...

  20. 75 FR 70708 - Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Palisades Nuclear Plant; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U... no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the Code...

  1. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, West Texas facility among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that Buzzi Unicem cement facility in Maryneal, TX, about 60 miles west of Abilene, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY ST

  2. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

  3. 10 day flight performance of the plant generic bioprocessing apparatus (PGBA) plant growth facility aboard STS-77

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehn, Alex; Chamberlain, Dale J.; Forsyth, Sasha W.; Hanna, David S.; Scovazzo, Paul; Horner, Michael B.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Todd, Paul; Heyenga, A. Gerard; Kliss, Mark H.; Bula, Raymond; Yetka, Robert

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for space flight biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants in a closed, multi-crop chamber for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77). Artemisia annua, Catharanthus roseus, Pinus taeda, Spinacia oleracea and Trifolium repens were the five species studied during this mission. The primary mission objectives were to study the effects of microgravity for commercial and pharmaceutical production purposes. PGBA is a payload that represents a consortium of interests including BioServe Space Technologies (payload sponsor), NASA Ames Research Center (Controlled Ecological Life Support System, CELSS, Flight Program), Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), and industrial affiliates (spaceflight effects on plants and formation of plant products such as pharmaceuticals). Although BioServe is responsible for the flight hardware development and integration of PGBA, NASA Ames, WSCAR and industrial affiliates provide significant hardware subsystems and technical biological expertise support.

  4. 10 day flight performance of the plant generic bioprocessing apparatus (PGBA) plant growth facility aboard STS-77

    SciTech Connect

    Hoehn, A.; Chamberlain, D.J.; Forsyth, S.W.; Hanna, D.S.; Scovazzo, P.; Horner, M.B.; Stodieck, L.S.; Todd, P.; Heyenga, A.G.; Kliss, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for space flight biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants in a closed, multi-crop chamber for 10 days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77). {ital Artemisia annua, Catharanthus roseus, Pinus taeda, Spinacia oleracea and Trifolium repens} were the five species studied during this mission. The primary mission objectives were to study the effects of microgravity for commercial and pharmaceutical production purposes. PGBA is a payload that represents a consortium of interests including BioServe Space Technologies (payload sponsor), NASA Ames Research Center (Controlled Ecological Life Support System, CELSS, Flight Program), Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), and industrial affiliates (spaceflight effects on plants and formation of plant products such as pharmaceuticals). Although BioServe is responsible for the flight hardware development and integration of PGBA, NASA Ames, WSCAR and industrial affiliates provide significant hardware subsystems and technical biological expertise support. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Computer control improves ethylene plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, B.D.; Parnis, M.

    1987-11-01

    ICIA Australia ordered a turnkey 250,000-tpy ethylene plant to be built at the Botany site, Sydney, Australia. Following a feasibility study, an additional order was placed for a process computer system for advanced process control and optimization. This article gives a broad outline of the process computer tasks, how the tasks were implemented, what problems were met, what lessons were learned and what results were achieved.

  6. New Prototype Safeguards Technology Offers Improved Confidence and Automation for Uranium Enrichment Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2013-04-01

    An important requirement for the international safeguards community is the ability to determine the enrichment level of uranium in gas centrifuge enrichment plants and nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. This is essential to ensure that countries with nuclear nonproliferation commitments, such as States Party to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, are adhering to their obligations. However, current technologies to verify the uranium enrichment level in gas centrifuge enrichment plants or nuclear fuel fabrication facilities are technically challenging and resource-intensive. NNSA’s Office of Nonproliferation and International Security (NIS) supports the development, testing, and evaluation of future systems that will strengthen and sustain U.S. safeguards and security capabilities—in this case, by automating the monitoring of uranium enrichment in the entire inventory of a fuel fabrication facility. One such system is HEVA—hybrid enrichment verification array. This prototype was developed to provide an automated, nondestructive assay verification technology for uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders at enrichment plants.

  7. Preserving Heritage While Restoring and Improving Facilities: A Rural Community's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Burton Edward

    In Waitsburg, Washington, the community was actively involved in a rural school facilities improvement project. The district serves approximately 410 students in three buildings on a single campus. Spurred by growing enrollment and aging facilities, the project included the complete renovation and restoration of a historic school building to serve…

  8. FY 2007 Educational Facilities Master Plan and the FY 2007-2012 Capital Improvements Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The FY 2007 Educational Facilities Master Plan (Master Plan) and FY 2007-2012 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) reflect the adopted actions of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Council and integrate the facilities planning process with the annual capital budget and the six-year CIP. The CIP is developed in accordance with the Board of Education…

  9. FY 2011 Educational Facilities Master Plan & the FY 2011-2016 Capital Improvements Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The FY 2011 Educational Facilities Master Plan (Master Plan) and FY 2011-2016 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) reflect the adopted actions of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Council and integrate the facilities planning process with the annual capital budget and the six-year CIP. The CIP is developed in accordance with the Board of Education…

  10. FY 2013 Educational Facilities Master Plan and the FY 2013-2018 Capital Improvements Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The FY 2013 Educational Facilities Master Plan (Master Plan) and the FY 2013-2018 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) reflect the adopted actions of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Council and integrate the facilities planning process with the annual capital budget and the six-year CIP. The CIP is developed in accordance with the Board of…

  11. FY 2012 Educational Facilities Master Plan and the Amended FY 2011-2016 Capital Improvements Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The FY 2012 Educational Facilities Master Plan (Master Plan) and Amendments to the FY 2011-2016 Capital Improvements Program (CIP) reflect the adopted actions of the Montgomery County (Maryland) Council and integrate the facilities planning process with the annual capital budget and the six-year CIP. The CIP is developed in accordance with the…

  12. Safeguards Guidance Document for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities: International Nuclear Safeguards Requirements and Practices For Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Casey Durst

    2009-10-01

    This report is the second in a series of guidelines on international safeguards requirements and practices, prepared expressly for the designers of nuclear facilities. The first document in this series is the description of generic international nuclear safeguards requirements pertaining to all types of facilities. These requirements should be understood and considered at the earliest stages of facility design as part of a new process called “Safeguards-by-Design.” This will help eliminate the costly retrofit of facilities that has occurred in the past to accommodate nuclear safeguards verification activities. The following summarizes the requirements for international nuclear safeguards implementation at enrichment plants, prepared under the Safeguards by Design project, and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of NA-243. The purpose of this is to provide designers of nuclear facilities around the world with a simplified set of design requirements and the most common practices for meeting them. The foundation for these requirements is the international safeguards agreement between the country and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Relevant safeguards requirements are also cited from the Safeguards Criteria for inspecting enrichment plants, found in the IAEA Safeguards Manual, Part SMC-8. IAEA definitions and terms are based on the IAEA Safeguards Glossary, published in 2002. The most current specification for safeguards measurement accuracy is found in the IAEA document STR-327, “International Target Values 2000 for Measurement Uncertainties in Safeguarding Nuclear Materials,” published in 2001. For this guide to be easier for the designer to use, the requirements have been restated in plainer language per expert interpretation using the source documents noted. The safeguards agreement is fundamentally a

  13. Mixed waste storage facility CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Solid waste landfill CDR review, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    This report consists of two papers reviewing the waste storage facility and the landfill projects proposed for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant complex. The first paper is a review of DOE`s conceptual design report for a mixed waste storage facility. This evaluation is to review the necessity of constructing a separate mixed waste storage facility. The structure is to be capable of receiving, weighing, sampling and the interim storage of wastes for a five year period beginning in 1996. The estimated cost is assessed at approximately $18 million. The review is to help comprehend and decide whether a new storage building is a feasible approach to the PGDP mixed waste storage problem or should some alternate approach be considered. The second paper reviews DOE`s conceptual design report for a solid waste landfill. This solid waste landfill evaluation is to compare costs and the necessity to provide a new landfill that would meet State of Kentucky regulations. The assessment considered funding for a ten year storage facility, but includes a review of other facility needs such as a radiation detection building, compactor/baler machinery, material handling equipment, along with other personnel and equipment storage buildings at a cost of approximately $4.1 million. The review is to help discern whether a landfill only or the addition of compaction equipment is prudent.

  14. Compressed Air System Optimization Project Improves Production at a Metal Forging Plant (Modern Forge, TN, Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    In 1995, Modern Forge of Tennessee implemented a compressed air system improvement project at its Piney Flats, Tennessee, forging plant. Due to the project’s implementation, the plant was able to operate with fewer compressors and improve its product quality, thus allowing it to increase productivity. The project also resulted in considerable energy and maintenance savings.

  15. RAMI modeling of plant systems for proposed tritium production and extraction facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-04-05

    The control of life-cycle cost is a primary concern during the development, construction, operation, and decommissioning of DOE systems and facilities. An effective tool that can be used to control these costs, beginning with the design stage, is called a reliability, availability, maintainability, and inspectability analysis or, simply, RAMI for short. In 1997, RAMI technology was introduced to the Savannah River Site with applications at the conceptual design stage beginning with the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) Project and later extended to the Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) Project. More recently it has been applied to the as-build Water Treatment Facilities designed for ground water environmental restoration. This new technology and database was applied to the assessment of balance-of-plant systems for the APT Conceptual Design Report. Initial results from the Heat Removal System Assessment revealed that the system conceptual design would cause the APT to fall short of its annual production goal. Using RAM technology to immediately assess this situation, it was demonstrated that the product loss could be gained back by upgrading the system's chiller unit capacity at a cost of less than $1.3 million. The reclaimed production is worth approximately $100 million. The RAM technology has now been extended to assess the conceptual design for the CLWR-TEF Project. More specifically, this technology and database is being used to translate high level availability goals into lower level system design requirements that will ensure the TEF meets its production goal. Results, from the limited number of system assessments performed to date, have already been used to modify the conceptual design for a remote handling system, improving its availability to the point that a redundant system, with its associated costs of installation and operation may no longer be required. RAMI results were also used to justify the elimination

  16. 78 FR 69433 - Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... SECURITY Executive Order 13650 Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security Listening Sessions AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public listening sessions. SUMMARY... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is announcing a series of public listening sessions and webinars...

  17. Feasibility study and verified design concept for new improved hot gas facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The MSFC Hot Gas Facility (HGF) was fabricated in 1975 as a temporary facility to provide immediate turnaround testing to support the SRB and ET TPS development. This facility proved to be very useful and was used to make more than 1300 runs, far more than ever intended in the original design. Therefore, it was in need of constant repair and needed to be replaced with a new improved design to support the continuing SRB/ET TPS product improvement and/or removal efforts. MSFC contracted with Lockheed-Huntsville to work on this improved design through contract NAS8-36304 Feasibility Study and Verified Design Concept for the New Improved Hot Gas Facility. The results of Lockheed-Huntsville's efforts under this contract are summarized.

  18. New wastewater treatment facility at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nodianos, M.J.; Goshe, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    With stricter wastewater regulatory limits on the horizon and a consent decree issued by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp. opted to upgrade the existing biological treatment plant and construct a terminal treatment plant for organic polishing at the Steubenville East Coke Plant. Prior to this project, three main sources were treated at the biological treatment plant prior to being discharged to the Ohio River, those being excess flushing liquor, benzol interceptor sump water from the light oil recovery plant and direct cooler condensate from the desulfurization facility. Additionally, storm water and other contaminated process waste streams are now treated at the plant along with the previously mentioned sources. Bio plant effluent is then treated at the newly constructed terminal treatment plant where it is passed through sand filters for solids removal and carbon filters where any remaining organic constituents are removed. The new system treats an average of 700,000 gal of wastewater per day, compared to 450,000 gal/day before modifications. As a result of the upgraded system, phenolic compounds and ammonias have been dramatically reduced in coke plant wastewater returning to the Ohio River.

  19. Use of process monitoring for verifying facility design of large-scale reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Zack, N.R. ); Ehinger, M.H. ); Franssen, F. )

    1991-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) faces the challenge of implementing safeguards in large, new reprocessing facilities. The Agency will be involved in the design, construction, checkout and initial operation of these new facilities to ensure effective safeguards are implemented. One aspect of the Agency involvement is in the area of design verification. The United States Support Program has initiated a task to develop methods for applying process data collection and validation during the cold commissioning phase of plant construction. This paper summarizes the results of this task. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Performance improvements resulting from implementation of an ISO 14001 environmental management system at a utility plant

    SciTech Connect

    Borofka, B.P.

    1999-07-01

    Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WE) has realized both internal performance improvements and received external recognition for its efforts in implementing an environmental management system (EMS) at its Presque Isle Power Plant in Marquette, Michigan. Located on the shores of Lake Superior and surrounded by water on three sides, the plant was acquired by WE in 1988. Operation of the plant was under contract with the previous owner, utilizing the existing plant staff. Beginning in 1995, WE embarked on a series of environmental audits followed by numerous environmental policy and practice improvements, coupled with an extensive training program. The activities eventually resulted in the core components of a formal environmental management system (EMS) modeled on ISO 14001. Implementation of the EMS components has resulted in the continued improvement of specific environmental performance parameters, several of which are part of an overall balanced business scorecard. The balanced business scorecard, a corporate performance metric, is directly linked to individual employee compensation. Specific improvements at the Presque Isle Power Plant include, (1) reduced number of exceedances, (2) reduced generation of hazardous wastes, (3) improved collection and reduction on non-hazardous solid wastes, (4) improved employee training rates and overall awareness, (5) improved pollution prevention and waste minimization program goals, and (6) reduced assistance from external staff. The plant has received a Clean Corporate Citizen (C3) designation from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, has become a member of the Michigan Business Pollution Prevention Program (MBP3), and has been recognized for its efforts by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality. The plant's activities are now used as an internal model by other facilities.

  1. Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    No. DODIG-2015-141 J U LY 2 , 2 0 1 5 Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration Mission Our...r a u d , W a s t e & A b u s e DODIG-2015-141 (Project No. D2014-D000RA-0116.000) │ i Results in Brief Naval Facilities Engineering Command Needs...to Improve Controls Over Task Order Administration Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our objective was to determine whether Naval Facilities

  2. Exploration of plant growth and development using the European Modular Cultivation System facility on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Kittang, A-I; Iversen, T-H; Fossum, K R; Mazars, C; Carnero-Diaz, E; Boucheron-Dubuisson, E; Le Disquet, I; Legué, V; Herranz, R; Pereda-Loth, V; Medina, F J

    2014-05-01

    Space experiments provide a unique opportunity to advance our knowledge of how plants respond to the space environment, and specifically to the absence of gravity. The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) has been designed as a dedicated facility to improve and standardise plant growth in the International Space Station (ISS). The EMCS is equipped with two centrifuges to perform experiments in microgravity and with variable gravity levels up to 2.0 g. Seven experiments have been performed since the EMCS was operational on the ISS. The objectives of these experiments aimed to elucidate phototropic responses (experiments TROPI-1 and -2), root gravitropic sensing (GRAVI-1), circumnutation (MULTIGEN-1), cell wall dynamics and gravity resistance (Cell wall/Resist wall), proteomic identification of signalling players (GENARA-A) and mechanism of InsP3 signalling (Plant signalling). The role of light in cell proliferation and plant development in the absence of gravity is being analysed in an on-going experiment (Seedling growth). Based on the lessons learned from the acquired experience, three preselected ISS experiments have been merged and implemented as a single project (Plant development) to study early phases of seedling development. A Topical Team initiated by European Space Agency (ESA), involving experienced scientists on Arabidopsis space research experiments, aims at establishing a coordinated, long-term scientific strategy to understand the role of gravity in Arabidopsis growth and development using already existing or planned new hardware.

  3. Facility optimization to improve activation rate distributions during IVNAA

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem

    2013-01-01

    Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the activation probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of activation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform activation probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase activation rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory distribution of activation rate in the body. PMID:23386375

  4. Facility optimization to improve activation rate distributions during IVNAA.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi Khankook, Atiyeh; Rafat Motavalli, Laleh; Miri Hakimabad, Hashem

    2013-05-01

    Currently, determination of body composition is the most useful method for distinguishing between certain diseases. The prompt-gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) facility for non-destructive elemental analysis of the human body is the gold standard method for this type of analysis. In order to obtain accurate measurements using the IVNAA system, the activation probability in the body must be uniform. This can be difficult to achieve, as body shape and body composition affect the rate of activation. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum pre-moderator, in terms of material for attaining uniform activation probability with a CV value of about 10% and changing the collimator role to increase activation rate within the body. Such uniformity was obtained with a high thickness of paraffin pre-moderator, however, because of increasing secondary photon flux received by the detectors it was not an appropriate choice. Our final calculations indicated that using two paraffin slabs with a thickness of 3 cm as a pre-moderator, in the presence of 2 cm Bi on the collimator, achieves a satisfactory distribution of activation rate in the body.

  5. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  6. The strategy on rehabilitation of the former uranium facilities at the 'Pridneprovsky chemical plant' in Ukraine

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovich, O.; Lavrova, T.; Skalskiy, A.S.; Ryazantsev, V.F.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes current status of the former Uranium Facilities at the Pridneprovsky Chemical Plant in Ukraine, which are currently under development of action plan for its territory rehabilitation. The monitoring data carried out during recent several years show its impact to the Environment and gives a basis for justification of the number of measures aiming to reduce radiological and ecological risks of the Uranium tailings situated at the territory of PChP. The monitoring data and strategy for its remediation are considered in the presentation. Uranium mining has been intensively conducted in Ukraine since the end of the 40-s. Most of the uranium deposits have been explored in the Dnieper river basin, while some smaller deposits can be found within the basins of the Southern Bug and Severskiy Donets rivers. There also several large Uranium Milling facilities were in operation since the end of the 40-s till 1991, when due to disintegration of the former Soviet Union system the own uranium production has been significantly declined. The Milling Plant and Uranium extraction Facilities in ZhevtiVody is still in operation with UkrAtomprom Industrial Consortium. Therefore rehabilitation programme for all Uranium facilities in this site are in duty of the East Mining Combine and the Consortium. The most difficult case is to provide rehabilitation Action Plan for Uranium tailings and number of other facilities situated in Dnieprodzerzhinsk town and which were in operation by the former State Industrial Enterprise Pridneprovskiy Chemical Plant (PChP). In past PChP was one of the largest Uranium Milling facilities of the Former Soviet Union and has been in operation since 1948 till 1991. During Soviet time the Uranium extraction at this legacy site has been carried out using the ore raw products delivered also from Central Asia, Germany and Checz Republic. After extraction the uranium residue has been putting to the nearest landscape depressions at the vicinity of

  7. Maintenance & Operations Solutions: Meeting the Challenge of Improving School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This paper examines the impact current maintenance and operations (M&O) practices have on U.S. school performance and offers possible opportunities for improvement through the judicious use of technology and methodology. The paper also presents a regional comparative analysis of M&O costs across the country. A list of equipment and their…

  8. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  9. Compressed Air System Overhaul Improves Production at a Powdered Metal Manufacturing Plant (GKN Sinter Metals in Salem, IN)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In 1998, GKN Sinter Metals completed a successful compressed air system improvement project at its Salem, Indiana manufacturing facility. The project was performed after GKN undertook a survey of its system in order to solve air quality problems and to evaluate whether the capacity of their compressed air system would meet their anticipated plant expansion. Once the project was implemented, the plant was able to increase production by 31% without having to add any additional compressor capacity.

  10. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendix 2 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, Laboratory permeability, and compaction characteristics representative of Kaolin clays from the aiken, South Carolina vicinity. Included in this report are daily field reports Nos. 1 to 54. (KJD)

  11. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Laboratory, Idaho National

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State ofldaho Division of Environmental Quality (DEQ) issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit (WLAP) for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL, now the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory [INEEL]) Central Facilities Area (CFA) Sewage Treatment Plant (STP). The permit expires August 7, 1999. In addition to the renewal application, this report was prepared to provide the following information as requested by DEQ.

  12. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  13. 2011 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michael G. Lewis

    2012-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. The report contains the following information: (1) Site description; (2) Facility and system description; (3) Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; (4) Status of special compliance conditions and activities; and (5) Discussion of the facility's environmental impacts. During the 2011 permit year, approximately 1.22 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  14. Facility-specific "house" microbiome drives microbial landscapes of artisan cheesemaking plants.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Mills, David A

    2013-09-01

    Cheese fermentations involve the growth of complex microbial consortia, which often originate in the processing environment and drive the development of regional product qualities. However, the microbial milieus of cheesemaking facilities are largely unexplored and the true nature of the fermentation-facility relationship remains nebulous. Thus, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate the microbial ecosystems of two artisanal cheesemaking plants, with the goal of elucidating how the processing environment influences microbial community assemblages. Results demonstrate that fermentation-associated microbes dominated most surfaces, primarily Debaryomyces and Lactococcus, indicating that establishment of these organisms on processing surfaces may play an important role in microbial transfer, beneficially directing the course of sequential fermentations. Environmental organisms detected in processing environments dominated the surface microbiota of washed-rind cheeses maturing in both facilities, demonstrating the importance of the processing environment for populating cheese microbial communities, even in inoculated cheeses. Spatial diversification within both facilities reflects the functional adaptations of microbial communities inhabiting different surfaces and the existence of facility-specific "house" microbiota, which may play a role in shaping site-specific product characteristics.

  15. Improved earthquake monitoring in the central and eastern United States in support of seismic assessments for critical facilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leith, William S.; Benz, Harley M.; Herrmann, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic monitoring capabilities in the central and eastern United States for critical facilities - including nuclear powerplants - focused on specific improvements to understand better the seismic hazards in the region. The report is not an assessment of seismic safety at nuclear plants. To accomplish the evaluation and to provide suggestions for improvements using funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey examined addition of new strong-motion seismic stations in areas of seismic activity and addition of new seismic stations near nuclear power-plant locations, along with integration of data from the Transportable Array of some 400 mobile seismic stations. Some 38 and 68 stations, respectively, were suggested for addition in active seismic zones and near-power-plant locations. Expansion of databases for strong-motion and other earthquake source-characterization data also was evaluated. Recognizing pragmatic limitations of station deployment, augmentation of existing deployments provides improvements in source characterization by quantification of near-source attenuation in regions where larger earthquakes are expected. That augmentation also supports systematic data collection from existing networks. The report further utilizes the application of modeling procedures and processing algorithms, with the additional stations and the improved seismic databases, to leverage the capabilities of existing and expanded seismic arrays.

  16. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  17. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  18. Facile synthesis of boron nitride nanotubes and improved electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongjun; Luo, Lijie; Zhou, Longchang; Mo, Libin; Tong, Zhangfa

    2010-02-01

    A layer of catalyst film on substrate is usually required during the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials. In this work, however, a novel approach for synthesizing high-purity bamboo-like boron nitride (BN) nanotubes directly on commercial stainless steel foils was demonstrated. Synthesis was realized by heating boron and zinc oxide (ZnO) powders at 1200 degrees C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen and hydrogen. The stainless steel foils played an additional role of catalyst besides the substrate during the VLS growth of the nanotubes. In addition, the electrical conductivity of the BN nanotubes was efficiently improved in a simple way by coating with Au and Pd nanoparticles. The decorated BN nanotubes may find potential applications in catalysts, sensors and nanoelectronics.

  19. Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were…

  20. The Microgravity Isolation Mount (MGIM): A Columbus facility for improving the microgravity quality of payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, R. G.; Jones, D. I.; Owens, A. R.; Roberts, G.; Hadfield, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Microgravity Isolation Mount (MGIM) is a facility for providing active vibration isolation for sensitive experiments on the Columbus Attached Laboratory and the Columbus Free-Flying Laboratory. The facility is designed to be accommodated in a standard Columbus rack, and it iterfaces with existing rack utility services. The design is based on a non-contact strategy, whereby the payload 'floats' inside the rack, and its position is controlled by a number of magnetic actuators. The main advantage of using this non-contact strategy is the improved microgravity quality available. The overall design of the facility and a description of its elements are given.

  1. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-15

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations.

  2. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IRR transportation facilities? 170.808 Section 170.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road Maintenance Program funds cannot be used to improve roads or other IRR transportation facilities to a...

  3. 25 CFR 170.808 - Can BIA Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... IRR transportation facilities? 170.808 Section 170.808 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF... Road Maintenance Program funds be used to improve IRR transportation facilities? No. BIA Road Maintenance Program funds cannot be used to improve roads or other IRR transportation facilities to a...

  4. Improving CMS data transfers among its distributed computing facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flix, J.; Magini, N.; Sartirana, A.

    2011-12-01

    CMS computing needs reliable, stable and fast connections among multi-tiered computing infrastructures. For data distribution, the CMS experiment relies on a data placement and transfer system, PhEDEx, managing replication operations at each site in the distribution network. PhEDEx uses the File Transfer Service (FTS), a low level data movement service responsible for moving sets of files from one site to another, while allowing participating sites to control the network resource usage. FTS servers are provided by Tier-0 and Tier-1 centres and are used by all computing sites in CMS, according to the established policy. FTS needs to be set up according to the Grid site's policies, and properly configured to satisfy the requirements of all Virtual Organizations making use of the Grid resources at the site. Managing the service efficiently requires good knowledge of the CMS needs for all kinds of transfer workflows. This contribution deals with a revision of FTS servers used by CMS, collecting statistics on their usage, customizing the topologies and improving their setup in order to keep CMS transferring data at the desired levels in a reliable and robust way.

  5. Opportunities for improving phosphorus-use efficiency in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Veneklaas, Erik J; Lambers, Hans; Bragg, Jason; Finnegan, Patrick M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Plaxton, William C; Price, Charles A; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Shane, Michael W; White, Philip J; Raven, John A

    2012-07-01

    Limitation of grain crop productivity by phosphorus (P) is widespread and will probably increase in the future. Enhanced P efficiency can be achieved by improved uptake of phosphate from soil (P-acquisition efficiency) and by improved productivity per unit P taken up (P-use efficiency). This review focuses on improved P-use efficiency, which can be achieved by plants that have overall lower P concentrations, and by optimal distribution and redistribution of P in the plant allowing maximum growth and biomass allocation to harvestable plant parts. Significant decreases in plant P pools may be possible, for example, through reductions of superfluous ribosomal RNA and replacement of phospholipids by sulfolipids and galactolipids. Improvements in P distribution within the plant may be possible by increased remobilization from tissues that no longer need it (e.g. senescing leaves) and reduced partitioning of P to developing grains. Such changes would prolong and enhance the productive use of P in photosynthesis and have nutritional and environmental benefits. Research considering physiological, metabolic, molecular biological, genetic and phylogenetic aspects of P-use efficiency is urgently needed to allow significant progress to be made in our understanding of this complex trait.

  6. Maize somatic embryogenesis: recent features to improve plant regeneration.

    PubMed

    Garrocho-Villegas, Verónica; de Jesús-Olivera, María Teresa; Quintanar, Estela Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Plant regeneration capacity is maintained through the life of a plant by the stem cell niche present in the meristems. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into any plant organ, allowing propagation of new plants by different techniques. Among them, somatic embryogenesis is a widely used technique characterized by a complex process that involves coordinated expression of genes, mediated by the influence of specific hormones, nutrients, stress, and/or environmental signals. This tool is particularly relevant in the propagation of genetically improved crops. The intrinsic embryogenic potential of the explant used as starting material for plant in vitro cultures varies depending on the genotype of each plant species. Particularly in maize, the regeneration capacity is lost during the course of tissue maturation, since embryogenic callus (E) is almost exclusively obtained from immature zygotic embryos. In this chapter, the latest advances in the literature for maize somatic embryogenesis process are reviewed. Further, a detailed procedure for maize plant regeneration from E callus is described. The callus obtained from immature zygotic embryos is capable to generate somatic embryos that germinate and develop into fertile normal plants.

  7. Confirmatory Survey Results for the Emergency Operations Facility (EOF) at the Connecticut Yankee Haddam Neck Plant, Haddam, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Adams

    2007-07-03

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested that the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) perform a confirmatory survey on the Emergency Operations Facility (EOF) at the Connecticut Yankee Haddam Neck Plant (HNP) in Haddam, Connecticut

  8. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Allergan Pharmaceuticals facility in Waco, TX, among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that the Allergan Pharmaceuticals facility in Waco, TX, is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification for their

  9. Adjustment of automatic control systems of production facilities at coal processing plants using multivariant physico- mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, V. F.; Myshlyaev, L. P.; Makarov, G. V.; Ivushkin, K. A.; Burkova, E. V.

    2016-10-01

    The structure of multi-variant physical and mathematical models of control system is offered as well as its application for adjustment of automatic control system (ACS) of production facilities on the example of coal processing plant.

  10. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  11. Auxins as one of the factors of plant growth improvement by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ambreen; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by various mechanisms such as phytohormone production, enhanced water and nutrient uptake, improved nitrogen availability in the soil, production of ACC-deaminase for ethylene breakdown, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production etc. Microbial auxin production is the major factor not only responsible for strengthening the plant-microbe relationship but it also promotes plant growth and development in a positive manner. Thus, bacterial auxin production potential can be exploited for plant growth improvement that may be effective in reducing the hazardous effects of chemical fertilizers on the ecosystem used to obtain higher yields. The present review gives a better understanding of various factors and mechanisms involved in auxin production by PGPR that may be helpful in proper exploitation of these natural resources in a beneficial way.

  12. Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An expansion of medical data collection facilities was necessary to implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The primary objective of the EDOMP was to ensure the capability of crew members to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, land, and egress safely following a 16-day flight. Therefore, access to crew members as soon as possible after landing was crucial for most data collection activities. Also, with the advent of EDOMP, the quantity of investigations increased such that the landing day maximum data collection time increased accordingly from two hours to four hours. The preflight and postflight testing facilities at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) required only some additional testing equipment and minor modifications to the existing laboratories in order to fulfill EDOMP requirements. Necessary modifications at the landing sites were much more extensive.

  13. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT PHASE 1 SLUDGE STORAGE OPTIONS ASSESSMENT OF T PLANT VERSUS ALTERNATE STORAGE FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD WW; GEUTHER WJ; STRANKMAN MR; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER DD; BLACK DM; POTTMEYER JA

    2009-04-29

    The CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has recommended to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) a two phase approach for removal and storage (Phase 1) and treatment and packaging for offsite shipment (Phase 2) of the sludge currently stored within the 105-K West Basin. This two phased strategy enables early removal of sludge from the 105-K West Basin by 2015, allowing remediation of historical unplanned releases of waste and closure of the 100-K Area. In Phase 1, the sludge currently stored in the Engineered Containers and Settler Tanks within the 105-K West Basin will be transferred into sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs). The STSCs will be transported to an interim storage facility. In Phase 2, sludge will be processed (treated) to meet shipping and disposal requirements and the sludge will be packaged for final disposal at a geologic repository. The purpose of this study is to evaluate two alternatives for interim Phase 1 storage of K Basin sludge. The cost, schedule, and risks for sludge storage at a newly-constructed Alternate Storage Facility (ASF) are compared to those at T Plant, which has been used previously for sludge storage. Based on the results of the assessment, T Plant is recommended for Phase 1 interim storage of sludge. Key elements that support this recommendation are the following: (1) T Plant has a proven process for storing sludge; (2) T Plant storage can be implemented at a lower incremental cost than the ASF; and (3) T Plant storage has a more favorable schedule profile, which provides more float, than the ASF. Underpinning the recommendation of T Plant for sludge storage is the assumption that T Plant has a durable, extended mission independent of the K Basin sludge interim storage mission. If this assumption cannot be validated and the operating costs of T Plant are borne by the Sludge Treatment Project, the conclusions and recommendations of this study would change. The following decision-making strategy, which is

  14. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL`s substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL.

  15. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  16. Dissolved air flotation primary clarifier improves performance of biological waste treatment at a latex manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.R.; Kerecz, B.J.; Davis, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. operates a chemical manufacturing facility in Piedmont, SC which generates a high strength COD emulsion wastewater from latex manufacturing. The on-site wastewater treatment facility consisted of flow equalization, activated sludge treatment and gravity clarification. The inability of the biological system to assimilate the high strength emulsion wastwater loadings led to incomplete conversion within the activated sludge process and poor settling waste sludge with turbid final effluent high in COD, BOD and TSS. The facility installed a dissolved air flotation (DAF) clarifier to effectively remove greater than 99 percent of the wastewater emulsion solids ahead of the activated sludge system. An organic coagulant is used for emulsion destabilization instead of iron or aluminum metal coagulants, improving DAF clarifier performance and minimizing operational cost and system complexity. An innovative DAF float solids collection and handling system produces disposal solids concentrations of 50 - 60% total solids resulting in further waste disposal cost savings. By removing more than 99 percent of the emulsion solids with the DAF clarifier ahead of the activated sludge process, the waste-water treatment facility now consistently produces a high quality effluent low in COD, BOD, TSS and turbidity. Wastewater treatment performance improved dramatically, as evident by the facility receiving the Western Carolina Regional Sewer Authority`s {open_quotes}Best Pollution Prevention Program{close_quotes} award. In addition, the wastewater treatment facility can now process three times the pre-DAF waste loads.

  17. Genomics Approaches For Improving Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nongpiur, Ramsong Chantre; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major factors which reduces crop production worldwide. Plant responses to salinity are highly complex and involve a plethora of genes. Due to its multigenicity, it has been difficult to attain a complete understanding of how plants respond to salinity. Genomics has progressed tremendously over the past decade and has played a crucial role towards providing necessary knowledge for crop improvement. Through genomics, we have been able to identify and characterize the genes involved in salinity stress response, map out signaling pathways and ultimately utilize this information for improving the salinity tolerance of existing crops. The use of new tools, such as gene pyramiding, in genetic engineering and marker assisted breeding has tremendously enhanced our ability to generate stress tolerant crops. Genome editing technologies such as Zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 also provide newer and faster avenues for plant biologists to generate precisely engineered crops. PMID:27499683

  18. Conservation and restoration of indigenous plants to improve community livelihoods: the Useful Plants Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulian, Tiziana; Sacandé, Moctar; Mattana, Efisio

    2014-05-01

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank partnership (MSBP) is one of the largest ex situ plant conservation initiatives, which is focused on saving plants in and from regions most at risk, particularly in drylands. Seeds are collected and stored in seed banks in the country of origin and duplicated in the Millennium Seed Bank in the UK. The MSBP also strengthens the capacity of local communities to successfully conserve and sustainably use indigenous plants, which are important for their wellbeing. Since 2007, high quality seed collections and research information have been gathered on ca. 700 useful indigenous plant species that were selected by communities in Botswana, Kenya, Mali, Mexico and South Africa through Project MGU - The Useful Plants Project. These communities range from various farmer's groups and organisations to traditional healers, organic cotton/crop producers and primary schools. The information on seed conservation and plant propagation was used to train communities and to propagate ca. 200 species that were then planted in local gardens, and as species reintroduced for reforestation programmes and enriching village forests. Experimental plots have also been established to further investigate the field performance (plant survival and growth rate) of indigenous species, using low cost procedures. In addition, the activities support revenue generation for local communities directly through the sustainable use of plant products or indirectly through wider environmental and cultural services. This project has confirmed the potential of biodiversity conservation to improve food security and human health, enhance community livelihoods and strengthen the resilience of land and people to the changing climate. This approach of using indigenous species and having local communities play a central role from the selection of species to their planting and establishment, supported by complementary research, may represent a model for other regions of the world, where

  19. 2012 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2013-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2011, through October 31, 2012. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2012 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant.

  20. 2010 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site's Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike lewis

    2011-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. The report contains the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of special compliance conditions • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2010 permit year, approximately 2.2 million gallons of treated wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area at Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment plant.

  1. Development of the Plant Growth Facility for Use in the Shuttle Middeck and Test Units for Ground-Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, David K.; Wells, H. William

    1996-01-01

    The plant growth facility (PGF), currently under development as a Space Shuttle middeck facility for the support of research on higher plants in microgravity, is presented. The PGF provides controlled fluorescent lighting and the active control of temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration. These parameters are designed to be centrally controlled by a dedicated microprocessor. The status of the experiment can be displayed for onboard analysis, and will be automatically archived for post-flight analysis. The facility is designed to operate for 15 days and will provide air filtration to remove ethylene and trace organics with replaceable potassium permanganate filters. Similar ground units will be available for pre-flight experimentation.

  2. Wastewater Land Application Permit LA-000141 Renewal Information for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    On July 25, 1994, the State of ldaho Division of Environmental Quality issued a Wastewater Land Application Permit, #LA-000141-01, for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant. The permit expires August 7, 1999. This report is being submitted with the renewal application and specifically addresses; Wastewater flow; Wastewater characteristics; Impacts to vegetation in irrigation area; Impacts to soil in irrigation area; Evaluation of groundwater monitoring wells for Wastewater Land Application Permit purposes; Summary of trends observed during the 5-year reporting period; and Projection of changes and new processes.

  3. Improving heart failure disease management in skilled nursing facilities: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Dolansky, Mary A; Hitch, Jeanne A; Piña, Ileana L; Boxer, Rebecca S

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to design and evaluate an improvement project that implemented HF management in four skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). Kotter's Change Management principles were used to guide the implementation. In addition, half of the facilities had an implementation coach who met with facility staff weekly for 4 months and monthly for 5 months. Weekly and monthly audits were performed that documented compliance with eight key aspects of the protocol. Contextual factors were captured using field notes. Adherence to the HF management protocols was variable ranging from 17% to 82%. Facilitators of implementation included staff who championed the project, an implementation coach, and physician involvement. Barriers were high staff turnover and a hierarchal culture. Opportunities exist to integrate HF management protocols to improve SNF care.

  4. Vortex research facility improvements and preliminary density stratification effects on vortex wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satran, D. R.; Holbrook, G. T.; Greene, G. C.; Neuhart, D.

    1985-01-01

    Recent modernization of NASA's Vortex Research Facility is described. The facility has a 300-ft test section, scheduled for a 300-ft extension, with constant test speeds of the model up to 100 ft/sec. The data acquisition hardware and software improvements included the installation of a 24-channel PCM system onboard the research vehicle, and a large dedicated 16-bit minicomputer. Flow visualization of the vortex wake in the test section is by particle seeding, and a thin sheet of argon laser light perpendicular to the line of flight; detailed flow field measurements are made with a laser velocimeter optics system. The improved experimental capabilities of the facility were used in a study of atmospheric stratification effects on wake vortex decay, showing that the effects of temperature gradient must be taken into account to avoid misleading conclusions in wake vortex research.

  5. Test Activities in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel and a Summary of Recent Facility Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R.; Johnson, R. Keith; Piatak, David J.; Florance, Jennifer P.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) has provided a unique capability for aeroelastic testing for over forty years. The facility has a rich history of significant contributions to the design of many United States commercial transports, military aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. The facility has many features that contribute to its uniqueness for aeroelasticity testing, perhaps the most important feature being the use of a heavy gas test medium to achieve higher test densities compared to testing in air. Higher test medium densities substantially improve model-building requirements and therefore simplify the fabrication process for building aeroelastically scaled wind tunnel models. This paper describes TDT capabilities that make it particularly suited for aeroelasticity testing. The paper also discusses the nature of recent test activities in the TDT, including summaries of several specific tests. Finally, the paper documents recent facility improvement projects and the continuous statistical quality assessment effort for the TDT.

  6. Improving plant bioaccumulation science through consistent reporting of experimental data.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Arnot, Jon A; Doucette, William J

    2016-10-01

    Experimental data and models for plant bioaccumulation of organic contaminants play a crucial role for assessing the potential human and ecological risks associated with chemical use. Plants are receptor organisms and direct or indirect vectors for chemical exposures to all other organisms. As new experimental data are generated they are used to improve our understanding of plant-chemical interactions that in turn allows for the development of better scientific knowledge and conceptual and predictive models. The interrelationship between experimental data and model development is an ongoing, never-ending process needed to advance our ability to provide reliable quality information that can be used in various contexts including regulatory risk assessment. However, relatively few standard experimental protocols for generating plant bioaccumulation data are currently available and because of inconsistent data collection and reporting requirements, the information generated is often less useful than it could be for direct applications in chemical assessments and for model development and refinement. We review existing testing guidelines, common data reporting practices, and provide recommendations for revising testing guidelines and reporting requirements to improve bioaccumulation knowledge and models. This analysis provides a list of experimental parameters that will help to develop high quality datasets and support modeling tools for assessing bioaccumulation of organic chemicals in plants and ultimately addressing uncertainty in ecological and human health risk assessments.

  7. Some issues in the seismic design of nuclear power-plant facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjian, A.H.; Iwan, W.D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper summarizes the major issues discussed by an international panel of experts during the post-SMIRT (Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology) Seminar on Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Power-Plant Facilities, which was held in Berlin, Aug. 20-21, 1979. The emphasis of the deliberations was on the state of the art of seismic-response calculations to predict the expected performance of structures and equipment during earthquakes. Four separate panels discussed issues on (1) soil-structure interaction and structural response, (2) modeling, materials, and boundary conditions, (3) damping in structures and equipment, and (4) fragility levels of equipment. The international character of the seminar was particularly helpful in the cross-pollination of ideas regarding the issues and the steps required to enhance the cause of safety of nuclear plants.

  8. Natural phenomena hazards evaluation of equipment and piping of Gaseous Diffusion Plant Uranium Enrichment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, M.K.; Kincaid, J.H.; Hammond, C.R.; Stockdale, B.I.; Walls, J.C.; Brock, W.R.; Denton, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In support of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade program (GDP SARUP), a natural phenomena hazards evaluation was performed for the main process equipment and piping in the uranium enrichment buildings at Paducah and Portsmouth gaseous diffusion plants. In order to reduce the cost of rigorous analyses, the evaluation methodology utilized a graded approach based on an experience data base collected by SQUG/EPRI that contains information on the performance of industrial equipment and piping during past earthquakes. This method consisted of a screening walkthrough of the facility in combination with the use of engineering judgment and simple calculations. By using these screenings combined with evaluations that contain decreasing conservatism, reductions in the time and cost of the analyses were significant. A team of experienced seismic engineers who were trained in the use of the DOE SQUG/EPRI Walkdown Screening Material was essential to the success of this natural phenomena hazards evaluation.

  9. High-power light-emitting diode based facility for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Duchovskis, P.; Bliznikas, Z.; Breive, K.; Ulinskaite, R.; Brazaityte, A.; Novickovas, A.; Zukauskas, A.

    2005-09-01

    Based on perspectives of the development of semiconductor materials systems for high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), an illumination facility for greenhouse plant cultivation was designed with the dominating 640 nm photosynthetically active component delivered by AlGaInP LEDs and supplementary components from AlGaN (photothropic action, 455 nm) and AlGaAs (photosynthetic 660 nm and photomorphogenetic 735 nm) LEDs. Photosynthesis intensity, photosynthetic productivity and growth morphology as well as chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations were investigated in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under the LED-based illuminators and under high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps with an equivalent photon flux density. Advantages of the high-power LED-based illuminators over conventional HPS lamps, applicability of AlGaInP LEDs for photosynthesis and control of plant growth by circadian manipulation of a relatively weak far-red component were demonstrated.

  10. Improving the environmental sustainability of a waste processing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Tom; Watson, Stuart

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes how the level of environmental sustainability at the Solid Waste Processing plant at Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) Harwell was measured and improved. It provides reasons to improve environmental performance in an organisation, states best practice on how improvement should be conducted, and gives first-hand experience on how changes were implemented. In this paper sustainability is defined as 'meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs'. A baseline for environmental sustainability was created, by looking at multiple attributes. From this, a matrix was created to show how the baseline environmental performance compared to best practice, and a gap analysis was performed. Results from this analysis showed areas for potential systematic improvement, and actions were created. Nearly all actions were implemented within one year, and environmental sustainability improved significantly. Most improvements cost no money to implement, and the few that did had to pass criteria in a business case. Results from a company-wide survey showed that the vast majority of employees felt that environmental issues were important, and that they were willing to help improve performance. Environmental awareness training was given to everyone in the department, and individuals were given measurable improvement targets. A focus group was set up and met regularly to agree improvements and monitor results. Environmental performance was publicised regularly to highlight successes and seek further engagement and improvement. Improvement ideas were encouraged and managed in a transparent way which showed clear prioritisation and accountability. The culture of environmental improvement changed visibly and results at the end of the first year showed that electricity consumption had reduced by 12.5%, and gas consumption had reduced by 7.3%. In less than two years over UK Pound 60,000 was saved on utility

  11. Do Facilities with Distant Headquarters Pollute More? How Civic Engagement Conditions the Environmental Performance of Absentee Managed Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Don; Jones, Andrew W.; Trautner, Mary Nell

    2004-01-01

    Scholars agree that due to advances in transportation and communication technologies, firms can extend their reach and more easily externalize their pollution by setting up plants in far-flung, less regulated areas. They also concur that absentee managed plants or facilities with remote headquarters are rapidly becoming the modal type of…

  12. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility... operate the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 (CR3), at 2609 megawatts thermal. The FPC... located near Crystal River, FL; the current operating license for the CR3 expires on December 3, 2016....

  13. 77 FR 11173 - Renewal of Facility Operating License No. NPF-30, Union Electric Company, Callaway Plant, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Renewal of Facility Operating License No. NPF-30, Union Electric Company, Callaway Plant, Unit 1... Electric Company to operate the Callaway Plant, Unit 1 (Callaway), at 3565 megawatts thermal. The renewed... specified in the current license. Callaway is located in Callaway County, Missouri and its current...

  14. Improving children's nutrition environments: A survey of adoption and implementation of nutrition guidelines in recreational facilities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the mandate of recreational facilities is to enhance well-being, many offer foods inconsistent with recommendations for healthy eating. Little is known regarding recreational facility food environments and how they might be improved, as few studies exist. The Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (ANGCY) are intended to ensure access to healthy food choices in schools, childcare and recreational facilities. This study investigated awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY among recreational facilities in Alberta, Canada, one year following their release. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted from June - December, 2009 (n = 151) with managers of publicly funded recreational facilities that served food. The questionnaire included 10 closed and 7 open ended questions to assess the organizational priority for healthy eating, awareness, adoption and implementation of the ANGCY. Chi-squared tests examined quantitative variables, while qualitative data were analysed using directed content analysis. Greenhalgh's model of diffusion of complex innovations within health service organizations constituted the theoretical framework for the study. Results One half of respondents had heard of the ANGCY, however their knowledge of them was limited. Although 51% of facilities had made changes to improve the nutritional quality of foods offered in the past year, only a small fraction (11%) of these changes were motivated by the ANGCY. At the time of the survey, 14% of facilities had adopted the ANGCY and 6% had implemented them. Barriers to adoption and implementation were primarily related to perceived negative attributes of the ANGCY, the inner (organizational) context, and negative feedback received during the implementation process. Managers strongly perceived that implementing nutrition guidelines would limit their profit-making ability. Conclusions If fully adopted and implemented, the ANGCY have the potential to

  15. Facile synthesis of Ag@Au core-sheath nanowires with greatly improved stability against oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miaoxin; Hood, Zachary D; Yang, Xuan; Chi, Miaofang; Xia, Younan

    2017-02-07

    We report a facile synthesis of Ag@Au core-sheath nanowires through the conformal deposition of Au atoms onto the surface of pre-synthesized Ag nanowires. The resulting Ag@Au nanowires showed morphology and optical properties almost identical to the pristine Ag nanowires, but with greatly improved stability under different corrosive environments.

  16. Phytochemicals in plants: genomics-assisted plant improvement for nutritional and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Grusak, Michael A

    2002-10-01

    Plants are an important source of essential nutrients and health-beneficial components that are crucial for human life. Because the intake of these phytochemicals is not always adequate, the resources of plant biotechnology are being used to enhance the nutritional quality of our plant-based food supply. Various improvement strategies are feasible, depending on whether the phytochemical target is a major or minor constituent. Recent efforts in gene discovery and functional genomics are providing the necessary understanding to develop and evaluate different approaches to manipulate phytochemical composition.

  17. Needs and opportunities for improving the health, safety, and productivity of medical research facilities.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, M; Brodt, W; Henderson, D; Loftness, V; Rosenfeld, A; Woods, J; Wright, R

    2000-01-01

    Medical research facilities, indeed all the nation's constructed facilities, must be designed, operated, and maintained in a manner that supports the health, safety, and productivity of the occupants. The National Construction Goals, established by the National Science and Technology Council, envision substantial improvements in occupant health and worker productivity. The existing research and best practices case studies support this conclusion, but too frequently building industry professionals lack the knowledge to design, construct, operate, and maintain facilities at these optimum levels. There is a need for more research and more collaborative efforts between medical and facilities engineering researchers and practitioners in order to attain the National Construction Goals. Such collaborative efforts will simultaneously support attainment of the National Health Goals. This article is the summary report of the Healthy Buildings Committee for the Leadership Conference: Biomedical Facilities and the Environment sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, the National Association of Physicians for the Environment, and the Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers on 1--2 November 1999 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA. PMID:11124125

  18. Progress and Status of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant's New Solid Waste Management and Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rausch, J.; Henderson, R.W.; Penkov, V.

    2008-07-01

    A considerable amount of dry radioactive waste from former NPP operation has accumulated up to date and is presently stored at the Ignalina NPP site, Lithuania. Current storage capacities are nearly exhausted and more waste is to come from future decommissioning of the two RMBKtype reactors. Additionally, the existing storage facilities does not comply to the state-of-the-art technology for handling and storage of radioactive waste. In 2005, INPP faced this situation of a need for waste processing and subsequent interim storage of these wastes by contracting NUKEM with the design, construction, installation and commissioning of new waste management and storage facilities. The subject of this paper is to describe the scope and the status of the new solid waste management and storage facilities at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant. In summary: The turnkey contract for the design, supply and commission of the SWMSF was awarded in December 2005. The realisation of the project was initially planned within 48 month. The basic design was finished in August 2007 and the Technical Design Documentation and Preliminary Safety Analyses Report was provided to Authorities in October 2007. The construction license is expected in July 2008. The procurement phase was started in August 2007, start of onsite activities is expected in November 2007. The start of operation of the SWMSF is scheduled for end of 2009. (authors)

  19. Environmental Assessment for Hazardous Waste Staging Facility, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared pursuant to the implementing regulations to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which require federal agencies to assess the environmental impacts of a proposed action to determine whether that action requires the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or if a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) can be issued. The Pantex Plant does not possess permanent containerized waste staging facilities with integral secondary containment or freeze protection. Additional deficiencies associated with some existing staging facilities include: no protection from precipitation running across the staging pads; lack of protection against weathering; and facility foundations not capable of containing leaks, spills or accumulated precipitation. These shortcomings have raised concerns with respect to requirements under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Deficiencies for these waste staging areas were also cited by a government audit team (Tiger Team) as Action Items. The provision for the staging of hazardous, mixed, and low level waste is part of the no-action altemative in the Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for the integrated ER/WM program. Construction of this proposed project will not prejudice whether or not this integration will occur, or how.

  20. Evaluation of beryllium exposure assessment and control programs at AWE, Cardiff Facility, Rocky Flats Plant, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Slawski, J.W.; Cogbill, G.

    1995-04-28

    Site visits were made to DOE beryllium handling facilities at the Rocky Flats Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, LLNL; as well as to the AWE Cardiff Facility. Available historical data from each facility describing its beryllium control program were obtained and summarized in this report. The AWE Cardiff Facility computerized Be personal and area air-sampling database was obtained and a preliminary evaluation was conducted. Further validation and documentation of this database will be very useful in estimating worker Be. exposure as well as in identifying the source potential for a variety of Be fabrication activities. Although all of the Be control programs recognized the toxicity of Be and its compounds, their established control procedures differed significantly. The Cardiff Facility, which was designed for only Be work, implemented a very strict Be control program that has essentially remained unchanged, even to today. LLNL and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant also implemented a strict Be control program, but personal sampling was not used until the mid 1980s to evaluate worker exposure. The Rocky Flats plant implemented significantly less controls on beryllium processing than the three previous facilities. In addition, records were less available, management and industrial hygiene staff turned over regularly, and less control was evident from a management perspective.

  1. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  2. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as as integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The MELISSA pilot plant facility as an integration test-bed for advanced life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gòdia, F.; Albiol, J.; Pérez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montràs, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2004-01-01

    The different advances in the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project (MELISSA), fostered and coordinated by the European Space Agency, as well as in other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated in the MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory. During the first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re-designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of biological systems such as MELISSA as life support systems. The facility will also serve as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological system. This includes testing of the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the system, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. The new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long-term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. This contribution summarizes the current status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  4. The Melissa Pilot Plant Facility as an Integration Test-bed for Advanced Life Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, F.; Albiol, J.; Perez, J.; Creus, N.; Cabello, F.; Montras, A.; Masot, A.; Lasseur, C.

    The MELISSA Pilot Plant laboratory provides the site where the different advances around the Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative project coordinated and fostered by the European Space Agency, as well as other associated technologies, are integrated and demonstrated. During its first period of operation, the definition of the different compartments at an individual basis has been achieved, and the complete facility is being re- designed to face a new period of integration of all these compartments. The final objective is to demonstrate the potentiality of MELISSA as life support system, and to use this facility as a test bed to study the robustness and stability of the continuous operation of a complex biological systems. This includes the testing the associated instrumentation and control for a safe operation, characterization of the chemical and microbial safety of the loop, as well as tracking the genetic stability of the microbial strains used. This new period is envisaged as a contribution to the further development of more complete biological life support systems for long term manned missions, that should be better defined from the knowledge to be gained from this integration phase. The presentation will summarize the present status of the Pilot Plant and the planned steps for the new period.

  5. Pharmaceutical Formulation Facilities as Sources of Opioids and Other Pharmaceuticals to Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Facilities involved in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products are an under-investigated source of pharmaceuticals to the environment. Between 2004 and 2009, 35 to 38 effluent samples were collected from each of three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York and analyzed for seven pharmaceuticals including opioids and muscle relaxants. Two WWTPs (NY2 and NY3) receive substantial flows (>20% of plant flow) from pharmaceutical formulation facilities (PFF) and one (NY1) receives no PFF flow. Samples of effluents from 23 WWTPs across the United States were analyzed once for these pharmaceuticals as part of a national survey. Maximum pharmaceutical effluent concentrations for the national survey and NY1 effluent samples were generally <1 μg/L. Four pharmaceuticals (methadone, oxycodone, butalbital, and metaxalone) in samples of NY3 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 3.4 to >400 μg/L. Maximum concentrations of oxycodone (1700 μg/L) and metaxalone (3800 μg/L) in samples from NY3 effluent exceeded 1000 μg/L. Three pharmaceuticals (butalbital, carisoprodol, and oxycodone) in samples of NY2 effluent had median concentrations ranging from 2 to 11 μg/L. These findings suggest that current manufacturing practices at these PFFs can result in pharmaceuticals concentrations from 10 to 1000 times higher than those typically found in WWTP effluents. PMID:20521847

  6. Darlington tritium removal facility and station upgrading plant dynamic process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Busigin, A.; Williams, G. I. D.; Wong, T. C. W.; Kulczynski, D.; Reid, A.

    2008-07-15

    Ontario Power Generation Nuclear (OPGN) has a 4 x 880 MWe CANDU nuclear station at its Darlington Nuclear Div. located in Bowmanville. The station has been operating a Tritium Removal Facility (TRF) and a D{sub 2}O station Upgrading Plant (SUP) since 1989. Both facilities were designed with a Distributed Control System (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC) for process control. This control system was replaced with a DCS only, in 1998. A dynamic plant simulator was developed for the Darlington TRF (DTRF) and the SUP, as part of the computer control system replacement. The simulator was used to test the new software, required to eliminate the PLCs. The simulator is now used for operator training and testing of process control software changes prior to field installation. Dynamic simulation will be essential for the ITER isotope separation system, where the process is more dynamic than the relatively steady-state DTRF process. This paper describes the development and application of the DTRF and SUP dynamic simulator, its benefits, architecture, and the operational experience with the simulator. (authors)

  7. Improving Compressed Air Energy Efficiency in Automotive Plants - Practical Examples and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Kissock, Professor Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The automotive industry is the largest industry in the United States in terms of the dollar value of production [1]. U.S. automakers face tremendous pressure from foreign competitors, which have an increasing manufacturing presence in this country. The Big Three North American Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler are reacting to declining sales figures and economic strain by working more efficiently and seeking out opportunities to reduce production costs without negatively affecting the production volume or the quality of the product. Successful, cost-effective investment and implementation of the energy efficiency technologies and practices meet the challenge of maintaining the output of high quality product with reduced production costs. Automotive stamping and assembly plants are typically large users of compressed air with annual compressed air utility bills in the range of $2M per year per plant. This paper focuses on practical methods that the authors have researched, analyzed and implemented to improve compressed air system efficiency in automobile manufacturing facilities. It describes typical compressed air systems in automotive stamping and assembly plants, and compares these systems to best practices. The paper then presents a series of examples, organized using the method of inside-out approach, which strategically identifies the energy savings in the compressed air system by first minimizing end-use demand, then minimizing distribution losses, and finally making improvements to primary energy conversion equipment, the air compressor plant.

  8. Improving animal research facility operations through the application of lean principles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nabeel; Umrysh, Brian M

    2008-06-01

    Animal research is a vital component of US research and well-functioning animal research facilities are critical both to the research itself and to the housing and feeding of the animals. The Office of Animal Care (OAC) at Seattle Children's Hospital Research Institute realized it had to improve the efficiency and safety of its animal research facility (ARF) to prepare for expansion and to advance the Institute's mission. The main areas for improvement concerned excessive turnaround time to process animal housing and feeding equipment; the movement and flow of equipment and inventory; and personnel safety. To address these problems, management held two process improvement workshops to educate employees about lean principles. In this article we discuss the application of these principles and corresponding methods to advance Children's Research Institute's mission of preventing, treating, and eliminating childhood diseases.

  9. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  10. Self-reported performance improvement strategies of highly successful Veterans Health Administration facilities.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas J; Perlin, Jonathan B; Fleming, Barbara B

    2007-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has achieved considerable success in improving health care through the use of clinical performance measures. This report examines the self-reported strategies used by the most successful facilities in the VHA system. For fiscal year 2002, facilities that scored the highest on any of 24 clinical performance measures were queried as to which strategies they used to achieve their level of performance. The most commonly cited strategies across all performance categories were organizational change (55.6%), clinical reminders (41.4%), audit and feedback to providers (39.6%), and staff education (32.5%). Certain strategies were more likely to be cited for 1 or more specific performance categories (eg, clinical reminders for immunization [61.1%], screening [60.6%]). These findings suggest that successful facilities are generally using evidence-based strategies to achieve high clinical performance. However, some evidence-based implementation strategies were rarely cited (eg, use of clinical champions).

  11. On-Orbit and Ground Performance of the PGBA Plant Growth Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehn, A.; Chamberlain, D. J.; Forsyth, S. W.; Hanna, D. S.; Scovazzo, P.; Stodieck, L. S.; Heyenga, G.; Kliss, Mark

    1997-01-01

    PGBA, a plant growth facility developed for commercial space biotechnology research, successfully grew a total of 30 plants (6 species) for 10 days on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-77) and is scheduled for reflight on board MSL-1 (STS-83) for a 16 day flight. The PGBA life support systems provide atmospheric, thermal, and humidity control as well as lighting and nutrient supply in a 23.6 liter chamber. Atmosphere treatment includes ethylene and other hydrocarbon removal, CO2 replenishment, and O2 control. The normally closed system uses controlled CO2 replenishment from the crew cabin as required by the plants. Temperature is controlled (1 C) at user-specified setpoints between 20-32 C, using water-filled coolant loops, solid state Peltier thermoelectric devices, and liquid heat exchangers. The thermoelectric cooling systems were optimized for low power consumption and high cooling efficiencies. Relative humidity is maintained between 60-100% using a cooled porous metal plate to remove water vapor from the air stream without cooling the bulk air below the dew point. The lighting system utilizes three compact fluorescent bi-axial lights with variable lighting control and light intensity (PAR) between 220 and 330 micromol/sq m/s at a distance of 20 cm in spaceflight configuration (on orbit power limited to 230 Watt for entire payload). A ground, up to 550 micromol/sq m/s light intensity can be achieved with 330 Watt payload power consumption. Plant water and nutrient support is sustained via the 'Nutrient Pack' system including the passive or active 'Water Replenishable Nutrient Pack.' The root matrix material (soil or Agar) and nutrient formulation of each pack is prepared according to plant species and experimental requirements. These systems were designed by NASA Ames personnel. Data acquisition and control systems provide 32 channels of environmental data as well as digitized or analog video signals for downlink.

  12. National Ignition Facility subsystem design requirements NIF site improvements SSDR 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Kempel, P.; Hands, J.

    1996-08-19

    This Subsystem Design Requirements (SSDR) document establishes the performance, design, and verification requirements associated with the NIF Project Site at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Livermore, California. It identifies generic design conditions for all NIF Project facilities, including siting requirements associated with natural phenomena, and contains specific requirements for furnishing site-related infrastructure utilities and services to the NIF Project conventional facilities and experimental hardware systems. Three candidate sites were identified as potential locations for the NIF Project. However, LLNL has been identified by DOE as the preferred site because of closely related laser experimentation underway at LLNL, the ability to use existing interrelated infrastructure, and other reasons. Selection of a site other than LLNL will entail the acquisition of site improvements and infrastructure additional to those described in this document. This SSDR addresses only the improvements associated with the NIF Project site located at LLNL, including new work and relocation or demolition of existing facilities that interfere with the construction of new facilities. If the Record of Decision for the PEIS on Stockpile Stewardship and Management were to select another site, this SSDR would be revised to reflect the characteristics of the selected site. Other facilities and infrastructure needed to support operation of the NIF, such as those listed below, are existing and available at the LLNL site, and are not included in this SSDR. Office Building. Target Receiving and Inspection. General Assembly Building. Electro- Mechanical Shop. Warehousing and General Storage. Shipping and Receiving. General Stores. Medical Facilities. Cafeteria services. Service Station and Garage. Fire Station. Security and Badging Services.

  13. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  14. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  15. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.34 - AEC licensees-AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contractors operating AEC plants and facilities-AEC agreement State licensees or registrants. 50-204.34... Radiation Standards § 50-204.34 AEC licensees—AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities—AEC... possession and use. (b) AEC contractors operating AEC plants and facilities: Any employer who possesses...

  17. Final report of the HFIR (High Flux Isotope Reactor) irradiation facilities improvement project

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, B.H.; Thoms, K.R.; West, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    The High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) has outstanding neutronics characteristics for materials irradiation, but some relatively minor aspects of its mechanical design severely limited its usefulness for that purpose. In particular, though the flux trap region in the center of the annular fuel elements has a very high neutron flux, it had no provision for instrumentation access to irradiation capsules. The irradiation positions in the beryllium reflector outside the fuel elements also have a high flux; however, although instrumented, they were too small and too few to replace the facilities of a materials testing reactor. To address these drawbacks, the HFIR Irradiation Facilities Improvement Project consisted of modifications to the reactor vessel cover, internal structures, and reflector. Two instrumented facilities were provided in the flux trap region, and the number of materials irradiation positions in the removable beryllium (RB) was increased from four to eight, each with almost twice the available experimental space of the previous ones. The instrumented target facilities were completed in August 1986, and the RB facilities were completed in June 1987.

  18. Compressed Air System Modifications Improve Efficiency at a Plastics Blow Molding Plant (Southeastern Container Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the plastics blow molding plant project.

  19. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  20. Guidelines for Planning in Colleges and Universities. Volume 4: Physical Plant Planning, Facilities Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinnell, Charles; Wacholder, Michael

    The fourth of a five-volume series concerned with higher educational planning provides techniques for the estimation of an institution's facility requirements. The facilities are discussed within the framework of two broad categories--(1) academic program facilities, and (2) residential housing facilities. The academic program facilities provide…

  1. Acclimation improves salt stress tolerance in Zea mays plants.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-08-20

    Plants exposure to low level salinity activates an array of processes leading to an improvement of plant stress tolerance. Although the beneficial effect of acclimation was demonstrated in many herbaceous species, underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. In the present study we have addressed this issue by investigating ionic mechanisms underlying the process of plant acclimation to salinity stress in Zea mays. Effect of acclimation were examined in two parallel sets of experiments: a growth experiment for agronomic assessments, sap analysis, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll content, and confocal laser scanning imaging; and a lab experiment for in vivo ion flux measurements from root tissues. Being exposed to salinity, acclimated plants (1) retain more K(+) but accumulate less Na(+) in roots; (2) have better vacuolar Na(+) sequestration ability in leaves and thus are capable of accumulating larger amounts of Na(+) in the shoot without having any detrimental effect on leaf photochemistry; and (3) rely more on Na(+) for osmotic adjustment in the shoot. At the same time, acclimation affect was not related in increased root Na(+) exclusion ability. It appears that even in a such salt-sensitive species as maize, Na(+) exclusion from uptake is of a much less importance compared with the efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration in the shoot.

  2. Improvements in plant growth rate using underwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, K.; Takahata, J.; Watanabe, S.; Satta, N.; Yamada, O.; Fujio, T.; Sasaki, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The drainage water from plant pots was irradiated by plasma and then recycled to irrigate plants for improving the growth rate by supplying nutrients to plants and inactivating the bacteria in the bed-soil. Brassica rapa var. perviridis (Chinese cabbage; Brassica campestris) plants were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included the use of chicken droppings as a fertiliser. The water was recycled once per day from a drainage water pool and added to the bed-soil in the pots. A magnetic compression type pulsed power generator was used to produce underwater discharge with repetition rate of 250 pps. The plasma irradiation times were set as 10 and 20 minutes per day over 28 days of cultivation. The experimental results showed that the growth rate increased significantly with plasma irradiation into the drainage water. The growth rate increased with the plasma irradiation time. The nitrogen concentration of the leaves increased as a result of plasma irradiation based on chlorophyll content analysis. The bacteria in the drainage water were inactivated by the plasma irradiation.

  3. Plant exomics: Concepts, applications and methodologies in crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Uzair; Shafqat, Samia; Khan, Faria; Majid, Misbah; Hussain, Harris; Kazi, Alvina Gul; John, Riffat; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Molecular breeding has a crucial role in improvement of crops. Conventional breeding techniques have failed to ameliorate food production. Next generation sequencing has established new concepts of molecular breeding. Exome sequencing has proven to be a significant tool for assessing natural evolution in plants, studying host pathogen interactions and betterment of crop production as exons assist in interpretation of allelic variation with respect to their phenotype. This review covers the platforms for exome sequencing, next generation sequencing technologies that have revolutionized exome sequencing and led toward development of third generation sequencing. Also discussed in this review are the uses of these sequencing technologies to improve wheat, rice and cotton yield and how these technologies are used in exploring the biodiversity of crops, providing better understanding of plant-host pathogen interaction and assessing the process of natural evolution in crops and it also covers how exome sequencing identifies the gene pool involved in symbiotic and other co-existential systems. Furthermore, we conclude how integration of other methodologies including whole genome sequencing, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics with plant exomics covers the areas which are left untouched with exomics alone and in the end how these integration will transform the future of crops. PMID:25482786

  4. Does Nursing Facility Use of Habilitation Therapy Improve Performance on Quality Measures?

    PubMed

    Fitzler, Sandra; Raia, Paul; Buckley, Fredrick O; Wang, Mei

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the project, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Innovation study, was to evaluate the impact on 12 quality measures including 10 Minimum Data Set (MDS) publicly reported measures and 2 nursing home process measures using habilitation therapy techniques and a behavior team to manage dementia-related behaviors. A prospective design was used to assess the changes in the measures. A total of 30 Massachusetts nursing homes participated in the project over a 12-month period. Project participation required the creation of an interdisciplinary behavior team, habilitation therapy training, facility visit by the program coordinator, attendance at bimonthly support and sharing calls, and monthly collection of process measure data. Participating facilities showed improvement in 9 of the 12 reported measures. Findings indicate potential quality improvement in having nursing homes learn habilitation therapy techniques and know how to use the interdisciplinary team to manage problem behaviors.

  5. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  6. A new thermal vacuum facility at the Martin Marietta Waterton plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Robert N.; Bonn, John W.

    1992-01-01

    A new thermal-vacuum facility has been recently completed at the Martin Marietta Waterton plant near Denver, Colorado. The facility was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested as a turn-key project by Pitt-Des Moines Inc. and CVI Inc. The chamber has a 5.49 M by 6.10 M (18 ft by 20 ft) flat floor and a half-cylindrical roof with a diameter of 5.49 M (18 ft). Both ends of the chamber have full cross section doors, with one equipped with translating motors for horizontal motion. The chamber is provided with four 0.91 M (36 inches) cryopumps to obtain an ultimate pressure of 9 x 10(exp -8) Torr (Clean-Dry-Empty). The thermal shroud is designed to operate at a maximum of -179 C (-290 F) with an internal heat input of 316 MJ/Hr (300,000 BTU/Hr) using liquid nitrogen. The shroud is also designed to operate at any temperature between -156 C (-250 F) and 121 C (+250 F) using gaseous nitrogen, and heat or cool at a rate of 1.1 C (2 F) per minute.

  7. Safeguards Guidance for Designers of Commercial Nuclear Facilities – International Safeguards Requirements for Uranium Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Casey Durst; Scott DeMuth; Brent McGinnis; Michael Whitaker; James Morgan

    2010-04-01

    For the past two years, the United States National Nuclear Security Administration, Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243), has sponsored the Safeguards-by-Design Project, through which it is hoped new nuclear facilities will be designed and constructed worldwide more amenable to nuclear safeguards. In the course of this project it was recognized that commercial designer/builders of nuclear facilities are not always aware of, or understand, the relevant domestic and international safeguards requirements, especially the latter as implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). To help commercial designer/builders better understand these requirements, a report was prepared by the Safeguards-by-Design Project Team that articulated and interpreted the international nuclear safeguards requirements for the initial case of uranium enrichment plants. The following paper summarizes the subject report, the specific requirements, where they originate, and the implications for design and construction. It also briefly summarizes the established best design and operating practices that designer/builder/operators have implemented for currently meeting these requirements. In preparing the subject report, it is recognized that the best practices are continually evolving as the designer/builder/operators and IAEA consider even more effective and efficient means for meeting the safeguards requirements and objectives.

  8. Improving Nutritional Quality of Plant Proteins Through Genetic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Le, Ngoc Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals are unable to synthesize essential amino acids such as branch chain amino acids methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and tryptophan (Trp). Therefore, these amino acids need to be supplied through the diets. Several essential amino acids are deficient or completely lacking among crops used for human food and animal feed. For example, soybean is deficient in Met; Lys and Trp are lacking in maize. In this mini review, we will first summarize the roles of essential amino acids in animal nutrition. Next, we will address the question: “What are the amino acids deficient in various plants and their biosynthesis pathways?” And: “What approaches are being used to improve the availability of essential amino acids in plants?” The potential targets for metabolic engineering will also be discussed, including what has already been done and what remains to be tested. PMID:27252589

  9. Foundational and translational research opportunities to improve plant health.

    PubMed

    Michelmore, Richard W; Coaker, Gitta; Bart, Rebecca; Beattie, Gwyn A; Bent, Andrew; Bruce, Toby; Cameron, Duncan; Dangl, Jeff; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma; Edwards, Robert; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Gassmann, Walter; Greenberg, Jean; Harrison, Richard; He, Ping; Harvey, Jagger; Huffaker, Alisa; Hulbert, Scot; Innes, Roger; Jones, Jonathan D; Kaloshian, Isgouhi; Kamoun, Sophien; Katagiri, Fumiaki; Leach, Jan E; Ma, Wenbo; McDowell, John M; Medford, June; Meyers, Blake; Nelson, Rebecca; Oliver, Richard Peter; Qi, Yiping; Saunders, Diane; Shaw, Michael; Subudhi, Prasanta; Torrance, Leslie; Tyler, Brett M; Walsh, John

    2017-04-11

    This whitepaper reports the deliberations of a workshop focused on biotic challenges to plant health held in Washington, D.C. in September 2016. Ensuring health of food plants is critical to maintaining the quality and productivity of crops and for sustenance of the rapidly growing human population. There is a close linkage between food security and societal stability; however, global food security is threatened by the vulnerability of our agricultural systems to numerous pests, pathogens, weeds, and environmental stresses. These threats are aggravated by climate change, the globalization of agriculture, and an over-reliance on non-sustainable inputs. New analytical and computational technologies are providing unprecedented resolution at a variety of molecular, cellular, organismal, and population scales for crop plants as well as pathogens, pests, beneficial microbes, and weeds. It is now possible to both characterize useful or deleterious variation as well as precisely manipulate it. Data-driven, informed decisions based on knowledge of the variation of biotic challenges and of natural and synthetic variation in crop plants will enable deployment of durable interventions throughout the world. These should be integral, dynamic components of agricultural strategies for sustainable agriculture. Specific findings: ● Genetic improvement of crops is the most reliable, least expensive management strategy when suitable genetic variation is available. Nonetheless, some interventions have not proved durable due to the evolution and global dispersal of virulent pathogens and pests as well as herbicide-resistant weeds. ● Additional strategies are becoming essential as multiple fungicides, nematicides, and herbicides become ineffective due to the evolution of resistance and/or are phased out due to registration withdrawals. ● Strategies are needed that maximize the evolutionary hurdles for pathogens, pests, and weeds to overcome control measures. Interventions need to

  10. Tritium dynamics in soils and plants grown under three irrigation regimes at a tritium processing facility in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mihok, S; Wilk, M; Lapp, A; St-Amant, N; Kwamena, N-O A; Clark, I D

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of tritium released from nuclear facilities as tritiated water (HTO) have been studied extensively with results incorporated into regulatory assessment models. These models typically estimate organically bound tritium (OBT) for calculating public dose as OBT itself is rarely measured. Higher than expected OBT/HTO ratios in plants and soils are an emerging issue that is not well understood. To support the improvement of models, an experimental garden was set up in 2012 at a tritium processing facility in Pembroke, Ontario to characterize the circumstances under which high OBT/HTO ratios may arise. Soils and plants were sampled weekly to coincide with detailed air and stack monitoring. The design included a plot of native grass/soil, contrasted with sod and vegetables grown in barrels with commercial topsoil under natural rain and either low or high tritium irrigation water. Air monitoring indicated that the plume was present infrequently at concentrations of up to about 100 Bq/m(3) (the garden was not in a major wind sector). Mean air concentrations during the day on workdays (HTO 10.3 Bq/m(3), HT 5.8 Bq/m(3)) were higher than at other times (0.7-2.6 Bq/m(3)). Mean Tissue Free Water Tritium (TFWT) in plants and soils and OBT/HTO ratios were only very weakly or not at all correlated with releases on a weekly basis. TFWT was equal in soils and plants and in above and below ground parts of vegetables. OBT/HTO ratios in above ground parts of vegetables were above one when the main source of tritium was from high tritium irrigation water (1.5-1.8). Ratios were below one in below ground parts of vegetables when irrigated with high tritium water (0.4-0.6) and above one in vegetables rain-fed or irrigated with low tritium water (1.3-2.8). In contrast, OBT/HTO ratios were very high (9.0-13.5) when the source of tritium was mainly from the atmosphere. TFWT varied considerably through time as a result of SRBT's operations; OBT/HTO ratios showed no clear temporal

  11. Wii-Fit for Improving Gait and Balance in an Assisted Living Facility: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Padala, Kalpana P.; Padala, Prasad R.; Malloy, Timothy R.; Geske, Jenenne A.; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Dennis, Richard A.; Garner, Kimberly K.; Bopp, Melinda M.; Burke, William J.; Sullivan, Dennis H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the effects on balance and gait of a Wii-Fit program compared to a walking program in subjects with mild Alzheimer's dementia (AD). Methods. A prospective randomized (1 : 1) pilot study with two intervention arms was conducted in an assisted living facility with twenty-two mild AD subjects. In both groups the intervention occurred under supervision for 30 minutes daily, five times a week for eight weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyze changes. Results. Both groups showed improvement in Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Tinetti Test (TT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) over 8 weeks. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups over time. Intragroup analysis in the Wii-Fit group showed significant improvement on BBS (P = 0.003), and TT (P = 0.013). The walking group showed a trend towards improvement on BBS (P = 0.06) and TUG (P = 0.07) and significant improvement in TT (P = 0.06). Conclusion. This pilot study demonstrates the safety and efficacy of Wii-Fit in an assisted living facility in subjects with mild AD. Use of Wii-Fit resulted in significant improvements in balance and gait comparable to those in the robust monitored walking program. These results need to be confirmed in a larger, methodologically sound study. PMID:22745909

  12. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  13. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them was reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates are presented, and the engineering issues that should be reexamined are identified. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program is integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant.

  14. DOE/Industrial Technologies Program DOE Award Number DE-FG36-05GO15099 Plant Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment Pilgrims Pride Corporation – Mt Pleasant Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paper, Riyaz; Dooley, Bill; Turpish, William J; Symonds, Mark; Carswell, Needham

    2007-04-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supporting plant wide energy efficiency assessments that will lead to substantial improvements in industrial efficiency, waste reduction, productivity, and global competitiveness in industries identified in ITP’s Industries of the Future. The stated goal of the assessments is to develop a comprehensive strategy at manufacturing locations that will significantly increase plant productivity, profitability, and energy efficiency, and reduce environmental emissions. ITP awarded a contract to Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation to conduct a plant wide energy efficiency assessment for their Mt Pleasant Facility in Mt Pleasant, Texas. Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation is the largest poultry company in the U.S. and Mexico producing nearly 9 billion pounds of poultry per year. Pilgrim's Pride products are sold to foodservice, retail and frozen entrée customers. Pilgrim's Pride owns and operates 37 chicken processing plants (34 in the U.S. and three in Mexico), 12 prepared foods plants and one turkey processing plant. Thirty-five feed mills and 49 hatcheries support these plants. Pilgrim's Pride is ranked number 382 on 2006's FORTUNE 500 list and net sales were $7.4 billion. In Mt. Pleasant, Texas, Pilgrim's Pride operates one of the largest prepared foods plants in the United States, with the capability of producing 2,000 different products and the capacity to turn out more than 7 million pounds of finished goods per week. The facility is divided into distinct departments: East Kill, West Kill, Prepared Foods, Protein Conversion, Wastewater Treatment, and Truck Shop. Facility processes include killing, eviscerating, refrigeration, baking, frying, and protein conversion. Pilgrim’s Pride formed a team to complete the plant wide energy efficiency assessment. The scope of work for this project was to: provide the analysis of departmental energy use, identify

  15. Improving hot gas filtration behavior in PFBC power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Gil, A.; Cortes, C.

    1999-07-01

    According to a previous paper, a laboratory-scale cold flow model of the hot gas filtration system in Escatron PFBC power plant has been built. The main objectives were to establish the validity of the scaling laws for cyclone separator systems (cyclone and dipleg) and to perform detailed room temperature studies in a rapid and cost effective manner. In Escatron PFBC power plant, the hot gas filtration equipment is a two-stage process performed in nine streams between the fluidized bed and the gas turbine. Due to the unsteadiness in the dipleg and the suction nozzle, and the effect of sintered deposit, the cyclone performance is modified. The performances of cyclone separator system and suction nozzle diplegs are scarcely reported in the open literature. This paper presents the results of a detailed research in which some important conclusions of well known studies about cyclones are verified. Also remarkable is the increase in cyclone efficiency and decrease in pressure drop when the solid load to the cyclone is increased. The possibility to check the fouling by means of pressure drop has not been previously addressed. Finally, the influences of gas input velocity to the cyclone, the transport gas to the ash conveying lines, the solid load and the cyclone fouling have been analyzed. This study has allowed characterizing the performance of the full-scale ash removal system, establishing safe limits of operation and testing design improvements as the two suction nozzle dipleg, pointing out important conclusions for the filtration process in PFBC power plants.

  16. On the potential for BECCS efficiency improvement through heat recovery from both post-combustion and oxy-combustion facilities.

    PubMed

    Dowell, N Mac; Fajardy, M

    2016-10-20

    In order to mitigate climate change to no more than 2 °C, it is well understood that it will be necessary to directly remove significant quantities of CO2, with bioenergy CCS (BECCS) regarded as a promising technology. However, BECCS will likely be more costly and less efficient at power generation than conventional CCS. Thus, approaches to improve BECCS performance and reduce costs are of importance to facilitate the deployment of this key technology. In this study, the impact of biomass co-firing rate and biomass moisture content on BECCS efficiency with both post- and oxy-combustion CO2 capture technologies was evaluated. It was found that post-combustion capture BECCS (PCC-BECCS) facilities will be appreciably less efficient than oxy-combustion capture BECCS (OCC-BECCS) facilities. Consequently, PCC-BECCS have the potential to be more carbon negative than OCC-BECCS per unit electricity generated. It was further observed that the biomass moisture content plays an important role in determining the BECCS facilities' efficiency. This will in turn affect the enthalpic content of the BECCS plant exhaust and implies that exhaust gas heat recovery may be an attractive option at higher rates of co-firing. It was found that there is the potential for the recovery of approximately 2.5 GJheat per tCO2 at a temperature of 100 °C from both PCC-BECCS and OCC-BECCS. On- and off-site applications for this recovered heat are discussed, considering boiler feedwater pre-heating, solvent regeneration and district heating cases.

  17. Recent Improvements in Semi-Span Testing at the National Transonic Facility (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Tomek, William G.; Payne, Francis M.; Griffiths, Robert C.

    2006-01-01

    Three wind tunnel investigations of a commercial transport, high-lift, semi-span configuration have recently been conducted in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. Throughout the course of these investigations multiple improvements have been developed in the facility semi-span test capability. The primary purpose of the investigations was to assess Reynolds number scale effects on a modern commercial transport configuration up to full-scale flight test conditions (Reynolds numbers on the order of 27 million). The tests included longitudinal aerodynamic studies at subsonic takeoff and landing conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels up to flight conditions. The purpose of this paper is to discuss lessons learned and improvements incorporated into the semi-span testing process. Topics addressed include enhanced thermal stabilization and moisture reduction procedures, assessments and improvements in model sealing techniques, compensation of model reference dimensions due to test temperature, significantly improved semi-span model access capability, and assessments of data repeatability.

  18. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  19. 2015 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Michael George

    2016-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2014, through October 31, 2015.

  20. 2013 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2012, through October 31, 2013. The report contains, as applicable, the following information: • Site description • Facility and system description • Permit required monitoring data and loading rates • Status of compliance conditions and activities • Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. During the 2013 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. However, soil samples were collected in October from soil monitoring unit SU-014101.

  1. New Architecture for Mental Health; New York State Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corporation - Report to the Governor, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corp., Albany.

    The accomplishments of The Health and Mental Hygiene Facilities Improvement Corporation during the past years in creating needed hospitals and health centers for the mentally disabled is documented. The new facilities show awareness of architectural trends and new objectives in design in order to better serve the needs of the patient. Pictures and…

  2. PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) 241-Z LIQUID WASTE TREATMENT FACILITY DEACTIVATION AND DEMOLITION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSTON GA

    2008-01-15

    Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) is proud to submit the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) 241-Z liquid Waste Treatment Facility Deactivation and Demolition (D&D) Project for consideration by the Project Management Institute as Project of the Year for 2008. The decommissioning of the 241-Z Facility presented numerous challenges, many of which were unique with in the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The majority of the project budget and schedule was allocated for cleaning out five below-grade tank vaults. These highly contaminated, confined spaces also presented significant industrial safety hazards that presented some of the most hazardous work environments on the Hanford Site. The 241-Z D&D Project encompassed diverse tasks: cleaning out and stabilizing five below-grade tank vaults (also called cells), manually size-reducing and removing over three tons of process piping from the vaults, permanently isolating service utilities, removing a large contaminated chemical supply tank, stabilizing and removing plutonium-contaminated ventilation ducts, demolishing three structures to grade, and installing an environmental barrier on the demolition site . All of this work was performed safely, on schedule, and under budget. During the deactivation phase of the project between November 2005 and February 2007, workers entered the highly contaminated confined-space tank vaults 428 times. Each entry (or 'dive') involved an average of three workers, thus equaling approximately 1,300 individual confined -space entries. Over the course of the entire deactivation and demolition period, there were no recordable injuries and only one minor reportable skin contamination. The 241-Z D&D Project was decommissioned under the provisions of the 'Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), the 'Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976' (RCRA), and the 'Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980' (CERCLA). The

  3. Evaporation Of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Effluent Management Facility Core Simulant

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, D.; Nash, C.; Mcclane, D.; McCabe, D.

    2016-09-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation, and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator, in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF), and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator, so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would reduce the need for closely integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Long-term implementation of this option after WTP start-up would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other operational complexities such a recycle stream presents. In order to accurately plan for the disposition path, it is key to experimentally determine the fate of contaminants. To do this, testing is needed to accurately account for the buffering chemistry of the components, determine the achievable evaporation end point, identify insoluble solids that form, and determine the distribution of key regulatory-impacting constituents. The LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures, have limited solubility in the glass waste form, and represent a materials corrosion concern, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components will accumulate in the Melter Condensate

  4. Modernization of Controls Improves Productivity and Reduces Energy Costs at a Large Steel Plant (Weirton Steel Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    In 1996 and 1997, Weirton Steel upgraded the utilities control systems at its main steel manufacturing plant in Weirton, WV. In response to increasing energy costs and the need to remain competitive in the steel industry, Weirton Steel commissioned a comprehensive energy management study of the facility, which provided the basis for an energy management control strategy.

  5. Feasibility studies to improve plant availability and reduce total installed cost in IGCC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Kevin; Anasti, William; Fang, Yichuan; Subramanyan, Karthik; Leininger, Tom; Zemsky, Christine

    2015-03-30

    The main purpose of this project is to look at technologies and philosophies that would help reduce the costs of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant, increase its availability or do both. GE’s approach to this problem is to consider options in three different areas: 1) technology evaluations and development; 2) constructability approaches; and 3) design and operation methodologies. Five separate tasks were identified that fall under the three areas: Task 2 – Integrated Operations Philosophy; Task 3 – Slip Forming of IGCC Components; Task 4 – Modularization of IGCC Components; Task 5 – Fouling Removal; and Task 6 – Improved Slag Handling. Overall, this project produced results on many fronts. Some of the ideas could be utilized immediately by those seeking to build an IGCC plant in the near future. These include the considerations from the Integrated Operations Philosophy task and the different construction techniques of Slip Forming and Modularization (especially if the proposed site is in a remote location or has a lack of a skilled workforce). Other results include ideas for promising technologies that require further development and testing to realize their full potential and be available for commercial operation. In both areas GE considers this project to be a success in identifying areas outside the core IGCC plant systems that are ripe for cost reduction and ity improvement opportunities.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  7. Energy audit of Army Industrial Facility (EEAP), Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant, Building 4, Warren, Michigan; executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1985-09-27

    The Detroit Arsenal Tank Plant is located in Warren, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The Detroit Arsenal, of which the tank plant is a part, is the headquarters for U.S. Army Tank Automotive Command (TACOM). The total facility has 105 buildings. The tank plant, Building 4, is the largest at 1,114,000 square feet. Since energy costs have risen dramatically from 1973 and future projections indicate that these costs will continue to rise, energy conservation measures need to be implemented to hold down the operating costs of the facility. Building 4 at the Detroit Arsenal has many varied environmental and process systems that offer the possibility of energy conservation opportunities to be identified, quantified and offered for consideration for implementation through an energy conservation analysis.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  9. Environmental consequences of uranium atmospheric releases from fuel cycle facility: II. The atmospheric deposition of uranium and thorium on plants.

    PubMed

    Pourcelot, L; Masson, O; Renaud, P; Cagnat, X; Boulet, B; Cariou, N; De Vismes-Ott, A

    2015-03-01

    Uranium and thorium isotopes were measured in cypress leaves, wheat grains and lettuce taken in the surroundings of the uranium conversion facility of Malvési (South of France). The comparison of activity levels and activity ratios (namely (238)U/(232)Th and (230)Th/(232)Th) in plants with those in aerosols taken at this site and plants taken far from it shows that aerosols emitted by the nuclear site (uranium releases in the atmosphere by stacks and (230)Th-rich particles emitted from artificial ponds collecting radioactive waste mud) accounts for the high activities recorded in the plant samples close to the site. The atmospheric deposition process onto the plants appears to be the dominant process in plant contamination. Dry deposition velocities of airborne uranium and thorium were measured as 4.6 × 10(-3) and 5.0 × 10(-3) m s(-1), respectively.

  10. Compressed Air System Renovation Project Improves Production at a Food Processing Facility (Mead-Johnson Nutritionals, Bristol-Myers Squib)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the food processing facility project.

  11. Report: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Site Visit of the Wastewater Treatment Facility Improvements Project, Perkins, Oklahoma

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-R-0214, May 2, 2011. We conducted an unannounced visit of the construction site of the Perkins Public Works Authority’s wastewater treatment facility improvements project in Perkins, Oklahoma, on April 19–22, 2010.

  12. The safety improvement of Romanian radioactive waste facilities as an example for human and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2013-07-01

    According to IAEA classification, Romania with two nuclear research centres, with 2 Nuclear Power Units in operation at Cernavoda Town and with 2 new Units envisaged to be in operation soon, can be considered as a country with an average nuclear activity. In Romania there was an extensive interest in management of radioactive wastes generated by the use of nuclear technology in industry and research. Using the most advanced technologies in the mentioned time periods, Romania successfully accomplished to solve all management issues related to radioactive wastes being addressed all safety concerns. Every step of nuclear activity development was accompanied by the suitable waste management facilities. So that, in order to improve the existing treatment and disposal capacities for institutional waste, the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility (STDR) and the National Repository Radioactive Wastes (DNDR) at Baita, Bihor, will be improved to actual requirements on the occasion of VVR-S Research Reactor decommissioning. This activity is in development into the frame of a National funded project related to disposal galleries filling improvement and repository closure for DNDR Baita, Bihor. All improvements will be approved by Environmental Protection Authority and Regulatory Body, being a guaranty of human and environmental protection. Also, in accordance with national specific and international policies and taking into account decommissioning activities related to the present operating NPPs, all necessary measures were considered in order to avoid unnecessary generation of radioactive wastes, to minimize, as much as possible, waste production and accumulation and the necessity to develop optimum solutions for a new repository with the assurance of improved nuclear safety. (authors)

  13. A Practice Improvement Education Program Using a Mentored Approach to Improve Nursing Facility Depression Care-Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Chodosh, Joshua; Price, Rachel M; Cadogan, Mary P; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Osterweil, Dan; Czerwinski, Alfredo; Tan, Zaldy S; Merkin, Sharon S; Gans, Daphna; Frank, Janet C

    2015-11-01

    Depression is common in nursing facility residents. Depression data obtained using the Minimum Data Set (MDS) 3.0 offer opportunities for improving diagnostic accuracy and care quality. How best to integrate MDS 3.0 and other data into quality improvement (QI) activity is untested. The objective was to increase nursing home (NH) capability in using QI processes and to improve depression assessment and management through focused mentorship and team building. This was a 6-month intervention with five components: facilitated collection of MDS 3.0 nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and medication data for diagnostic interpretation; education and modeling on QI approaches, team building, and nonpharmacological depression care; mentored team meetings; educational webinars; and technical assistance. PHQ-9 and medication data were collected at baseline and 6 and 9 months. Progress was measured using team participation measures, attitude and care process self-appraisal, mentor assessments, and resident depression outcomes. Five NHs established interprofessional teams that included nursing (44.1%), social work (20.6%), physicians (8.8%), and other disciplines (26.5%). Members participated in 61% of eight offered educational meetings (three onsite mentored team meetings and five webinars). Competency self-ratings improved on four depression care measures (P = .05 to <.001). Mentors observed improvement in team process and enthusiasm during team meetings. For 336 residents with PHQ-9 and medication data, depression scores did not change while medication use declined, from 37.2% of residents at baseline to 31.0% at 9 months (P < .001). This structured mentoring program improved care processes, achieved medication reductions, and was well received. Application to other NH-prevalent syndromes is possible.

  14. ARC: A compact, high-field, disassemblable fusion nuclear science facility and demonstration power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbom, Brandon; Ball, Justin; Palmer, Timothy; Mangiarotti, Franco; Sierchio, Jennifer; Bonoli, Paul; Kasten, Cale; Sutherland, Derek; Barnard, Harold; Haakonsen, Christian; Goh, Jon; Sung, Choongki; Whyte, Dennis

    2014-10-01

    The Affordable, Robust, Compact (ARC) reactor conceptual design aims to reduce the size, cost, and complexity of a combined Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) and demonstration fusion pilot power plant. ARC is a 270 MWe tokamak reactor with a major radius of 3.3 m, a minor radius of 1.1 m, and an on-axis magnetic field of 9.2 T. ARC has Rare Earth Barium Copper Oxide (REBCO) superconducting toroidal field coils with joints to allow disassembly, allowing for removal and replacement of the vacuum vessel as a single component. Inboard-launched current drive of 25 MW LHRF power and 13.6 MW ICRF power is used to provide a robust, steady state core plasma far from disruptive limits. ARC uses an all-liquid blanket, consisting of low pressure, slowly flowing Fluorine Lithium Beryllium (FLiBe) molten salt. The liquid blanket acts as a working fluid, coolant, and tritium breeder, and minimizes the solid material that can become activated. The large temperature range over which FLiBe is liquid permits blanket operation at 800-900 K with single phase fluid cooling and allows use of a high-efficiency Brayton cycle for electricity production in the secondary coolant loop.

  15. Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II

    2016-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Â F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Â F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.

  16. Continuous Improvement and the Safety Case for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geologic Repository - 13467

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Nelson, Roger; Leigh, Christi

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geologic repository 2150 feet (650 m) below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP permanently disposes of transuranic waste from national defense programs. Every five years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submits an application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to request regulatory-compliance re-certification of the facility for another five years. Every ten years, DOE submits an application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for the renewal of its hazardous waste disposal permit. The content of the applications made by DOE to the EPA for re-certification, and to the NMED for permit-renewal, reflect any optimization changes made to the facility, with regulatory concurrence if warranted by the nature of the change. DOE points to such changes as evidence for its having taken seriously its 'continuous improvement' operations and management philosophy. Another opportunity for continuous improvement is to look at any delta that may exist between the re-certification and re-permitting cases for system safety and the consensus advice on the nature and content of a safety case as being developed and published by the Nuclear Energy Agency's Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) expert group. DOE at WIPP, with the aid of its Science Advisor and teammate, Sandia National Laboratories, is in the process of discerning what can be done, in a reasonably paced and cost-conscious manner, to continually improve the case for repository safety that is being made to the two primary regulators on a recurring basis. This paper will discuss some aspects of that delta and potential paths forward to addressing them. (authors)

  17. RETRAN analyses for improving plant procedures and operator training

    SciTech Connect

    Broughton, T.G.; Trikouros, N.G.

    1983-05-01

    The technical quality of procedures governing integrated nuclear power plant operation is influenced by knowledge of system, component, and operator interactions. This knowledge includes, in part, operating plant data and realistic simulations of plant operation. This same information can be used to develop training materials for teaching plant dynamic response to plant operators and engineering staffs. Realistic simulations of plant performance have been used to supplement existing plant data or to provide data where none existed. The simulations may cover events with durations in hours and may be required to consider unique plant conditions including actual core physics conditions, valve leakage, and auxiliary steam loads. In addition, it should be possible for the simulation to account for operator interaction and to provide the information operators would have available through plant instrumentation. Simulations using the RETRAN computer code have been used in the development of procedures and training materials. Procedure applications have included development and validation of general control philosophy and establishment of specific test conditions and setpoints. Training applications include development of materials for teaching general plant response, specific plant response during tests, and analysis of plant performance.

  18. Improvement in Outflow Facility by Two Novel Microinvasive Glaucoma Surgery Implants

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Cassandra L.; Gulati, Vikas; Fan, Shan; Samuelson, Thomas W.; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K.; Toris, Carol B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine improvement in outflow facility (C) in human anterior segments implanted with a novel Schlemm's canal scaffold or two trabecular micro-bypasses. Methods. Human anterior segments were isolated from 12 pairs of eyes from donors with no history of ocular disease and then perfused at 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10 mm Hg pressures for 10 minutes each. Baseline C was calculated from perfusion pressures and flow rates. The scaffold was implanted into Schlemm's canal of one anterior segment, and two micro-bypasses were implanted three clock-hours apart in the contralateral anterior segment. Outflow facility and resistance were compared at various standardized perfusion pressures and between each device. Results. Compared to baseline, C increased by 0.16 ± 0.12 μL/min/mm Hg (74%) with the scaffold, and 0.08 ± 0.12 μL/min/mm Hg (34%) with two micro-bypasses. The scaffold increased C at perfusion pressures of 50, 40, 30, and 20 mm Hg (P < 0.005). Two micro-bypasses increased C at a perfusion pressure of 40 mm Hg (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Both implants effectively increased C in human eyes ex vivo. The scaffold increased C by a greater percentage (73% vs. 34%) and at a greater range of perfusion pressures (20 to 50 mm Hg vs. 40 mm Hg) than the two micro-bypasses, suggesting that the 8-mm dilation of Schlemm's canal by the scaffold may have additional benefits in lowering the outflow resistance. The Hydrus Microstent scaffold may be an effective therapy for increasing outflow facility and thus reducing the IOP in patients with glaucoma. PMID:24550367

  19. Facile surface modification of silicone rubber with zwitterionic polymers for improving blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingsheng; Chen, Qiang; Yuan, Bo; Chen, Mengzhou; Wu, Shishan; Lin, Sicong; Shen, Jian

    2013-10-01

    A facile approach to modify silicone rubber (SR) membrane for improving the blood compatibility was investigated. The hydrophobic SR surface was firstly activated by air plasma, after which an initiator was immobilized on the activated surface for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Three zwitterionic polymers were then grafted from SR membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The surface composition, wettability, and morphology of the membranes before and after modification were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static water contact angle (WCA) measurement, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed that zwitterionic polymers were successfully grafted from SR surfaces, which remarkably improved the wettability of the SR surface. The blood compatibility of the membranes was evaluated by protein adsorption and platelet adhesion tests in vitro. As observed, all the zwitterionic polymer modified surfaces have improved resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption and have excellent resistance to platelet adhesion, showing significantly improved blood compatibility. This work should inspire many creative uses of SR based materials for biomedical applications such as vessel, catheter, and microfluidics.

  20. 137Cs sorption into bentonite from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya as buffer material for disposal demonstration plant facility at Serpong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, B.; Sriwahyuni, H.; Ekaningrum, NE.; Sumantry, T.

    2014-03-01

    According to co-location principle, near surface disposal type the disposal demonstration plant facility will be build at Serpong nuclear area. The facility also for anticipation of future needs to provide national facility for the servicing of radwaste management of non-nuclear power plant activity in Serpong Nuclear Area. It is needs to study the material of buffer and backfill for the safety of demonstration plant facility. A local bentonite rock from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya was used as the buffer materials. Objective of experiment is to find out the specific data of sorption characteristic of Cidadap bentonite as buffer material in a radwaste disposal system. Experiments were performed in batch method, where bentonite samples were contacted with CsCl solution labeled with Cs-137 in 100 ml/g liquid:solid ratio. Initial Cs concentration was 10-8 M and to study the effects of ionic strength and Cs concentration in solution, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl also CsCl concentration ranging 10-8 - 10-4 M were added in solution. As the indicator of Cs saturated in bentonite samples, Kd value was applied. Affected parameters in the experiment were contact time, effects of ionic strength and concentration of CsCl. Results showed that sorption of Cs by bentonite reached constantly after 16 days contacted, and Kd value was 10.600 ml/g. Effect of CsCl concentration on Kd value may decreased in increased in CsCl concentration. Effect of ionic strength increased according to increased in concentration of background and would effect to Kd value due to competition of Na ions and Cs in solution interacts with bentonite. By obtaining the bentonite character data as buffer material, the results could be used as the basis for making of design and the basic of performance assessment the near surface disposal facility in terms of isolation capacity of radwaste later.

  1. {sup 137}Cs sorption into bentonite from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya as buffer material for disposal demonstration plant facility at Serpong

    SciTech Connect

    Setiawan, B. Sriwahyuni, H. Ekaningrum, NE. Sumantry, T.

    2014-03-24

    According to co-location principle, near surface disposal type the disposal demonstration plant facility will be build at Serpong nuclear area. The facility also for anticipation of future needs to provide national facility for the servicing of radwaste management of non-nuclear power plant activity in Serpong Nuclear Area. It is needs to study the material of buffer and backfill for the safety of demonstration plant facility. A local bentonite rock from Cidadap-Tasikmalaya was used as the buffer materials. Objective of experiment is to find out the specific data of sorption characteristic of Cidadap bentonite as buffer material in a radwaste disposal system. Experiments were performed in batch method, where bentonite samples were contacted with CsCl solution labeled with Cs-137 in 100 ml/g liquid:solid ratio. Initial Cs concentration was 10{sup −8} M and to study the effects of ionic strength and Cs concentration in solution, 0.1 and 1.0 M NaCl also CsCl concentration ranging 10{sup −8} - 10{sup −4} M were added in solution. As the indicator of Cs saturated in bentonite samples, Kd value was applied. Affected parameters in the experiment were contact time, effects of ionic strength and concentration of CsCl. Results showed that sorption of Cs by bentonite reached constantly after 16 days contacted, and Kd value was 10.600 ml/g. Effect of CsCl concentration on Kd value may decreased in increased in CsCl concentration. Effect of ionic strength increased according to increased in concentration of background and would effect to Kd value due to competition of Na ions and Cs in solution interacts with bentonite. By obtaining the bentonite character data as buffer material, the results could be used as the basis for making of design and the basic of performance assessment the near surface disposal facility in terms of isolation capacity of radwaste later.

  2. Recent Improvements In Interface Management For Hanfords Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Pell, Michael J.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S.; Duncan, Garth M.; Harrington, Christopher C.

    2012-11-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which comprises both the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number oftechnical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. The WTP interface management process has recently been improved through changes in organization and technical issue management documented in an Interface Management Plan. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents (ICDs) have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule.

  3. Facile mechanical shaking method is an improved isolation approach for islet preparation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Nina; Chen, Tao; Yu, Yuling; Han, Yongming; Yan, Fei; Zheng, Zhou; Chen, Zebin

    2016-01-01

    Successful islet isolation is crucial for islet transplantation and cell treatment for type 1 diabetes. Current isolation methods are able to obtain 500–1,000 islets per rat, which results in a waste of ≥50% of total islets. In the present study, a facile mechanical shaking method for improving islet yield (up to 1,500 per rat) was developed and summarized, which was demonstrated to be more effective than the existing well-established stationary method. The present results showed that isolated islets have a maximum yield of 1,326±152 when shaking for 15 min for the fully-cannulated pancreas. For both fully-cannulated and half-cannulated pancreas in the presence of rat DNAse inhibitor, the optimal shaking time was amended to 20 min with a further increased yield of 1,344±134 and 1,286±124 islets, respectively. Furthermore, the majority of the isolated islets were morphologically intact with a well-defined surface and almost no central necrotic zone, which suggested that the condition of islets obtained via the mechanical shaking method was consistent with the stationary method. Islet size distribution was also calculated and it was demonstrated that islets from the stationary method exhibited the same size distribution as the non-cannulated group, which had more larger islets than the fully-cannulated and half-cannulated groups isolated via the shaking method. In addition, the results of glucose challenge showed that the refraction index of each group was >2.5, which indicated the well-preserved function of isolated islets. Furthermore, the transplanted islets exhibited a therapeutic effect after 1 day of transplantation; however, they failed to control blood glucose levels after ~7 days of transplantation. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the facile mechanical shaking method may markedly improve the yield of rat islet isolation, and in vitro and in vivo investigation demonstrated the well-preserved function of isolated islets in the control of

  4. Routine operation of the University of Washington fast neutron therapy facility and plans for improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Risler, R.; Emery, R.; Laramore, G. E.

    1999-06-10

    The fast neutron therapy facility in Seattle is based on a cyclotron, which produces a 50.5 MeV proton beam. Neutrons are produced in a beryllium target installed in an isocentric gantry equipped with a multi-leaf collimator. The system has been in routine operation for 14 years and over 1800 patients have been treated. Downtime has been minimal, over the past 10 years less than 1.5% of the scheduled daily treatment sessions could not be delivered for equipment related reasons. Fast neutron therapy has been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of salivary gland tumors, sarcomas of bone and soft tissues and for certain prostate cancers. In addition there are situations such as non-small cell lung cancer, where results are promising, but success is limited by normal tissue complications. A relatively small selective increase in the tumor dose might lead to a significant clinical improvement in these situations. The use of a boron neutron capture (BNC) boost, utilizing the moderated slow neutrons naturally present in the tissue during fast neutron therapy, may be beneficial for such patients. Experimental work to adapt the facility for such a modified treatment modality is presently ongoing.

  5. Routine operation of the University of Washington fast neutron therapy facility and plans for improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risler, R.; Emery, R.; Laramore, G. E.

    1999-06-01

    The fast neutron therapy facility in Seattle is based on a cyclotron, which produces a 50.5 MeV proton beam. Neutrons are produced in a beryllium target installed in an isocentric gantry equipped with a multi-leaf collimator. The system has been in routine operation for 14 years and over 1800 patients have been treated. Downtime has been minimal, over the past 10 years less than 1.5% of the scheduled daily treatment sessions could not be delivered for equipment related reasons. Fast neutron therapy has been shown to be highly effective for the treatment of salivary gland tumors, sarcomas of bone and soft tissues and for certain prostate cancers. In addition there are situations such as non-small cell lung cancer, where results are promising, but success is limited by normal tissue complications. A relatively small selective increase in the tumor dose might lead to a significant clinical improvement in these situations. The use of a boron neutron capture (BNC) boost, utilizing the moderated slow neutrons naturally present in the tissue during fast neutron therapy, may be beneficial for such patients. Experimental work to adapt the facility for such a modified treatment modality is presently ongoing.

  6. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide (AERG): Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance; Healthcare Facilities (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Shekhar, D.; Pless, S.

    2013-09-01

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Healthcare Facilities is part of a series of retrofit guides commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as detailed descriptions and financial payback metrics for the most important and relevant energy efficiency measures (EEMs), the guides provide a practical roadmap for effectively planning and implementing performance improvements in existing buildings. The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides (AERGs) are intended to address key segments of the U.S. commercial building stock: retail stores, office buildings, K-12 schools, grocery stores, and healthcare facilities. The guides' general project planning considerations are applicable nationwide; the energy and cost savings estimates for recommended EEMs were developed based on energy simulations and cost estimates for an example hospital tailored to five distinct climate regions. These results can be extrapolated to other U.S. climate zones. Analysis is presented for individual EEMs, and for packages of recommended EEMs for two project types: existing building commissioning projects that apply low-cost and no-cost measures, and whole-building retrofits involving more capital-intensive measures.

  7. Solid-tumor mortality in the vicinity of uranium cycle facilities and nuclear power plants in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    López-Abente, G; Aragonés, N; Pollán, M

    2001-01-01

    To ascertain solid tumor mortality in towns near Spain's four nuclear power plants and four nuclear fuel facilities from 1975 to 1993, we conducted a mortality study based on 12,245 cancer deaths in 283 towns situated within a 30-km radius of the above installations. As nonexposed areas, we used 275 towns lying within a 50- to 100-km radius of each installation, matched by population size and sociodemographic characteristics (income level, proportion of active population engaged in farming, proportion of unemployed, percentage of illiteracy, and province). Using log-linear models, we examined relative risk for each area and trends in risk with increasing proximity to an installation. The results reveal a pattern of solid-tumor mortality in the vicinity of uranium cycle facilities, basically characterized by excess lung [relative risk (RR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.25] and renal cancer mortality (RR 1.37, 95% CI, 1.07-1.76). Besides the effects of natural radiation, these results could well be evincing the influence on public health exerted by the environmental impact of mining. No such well-defined pattern appeared in the vicinity of nuclear power plants. Monitoring of cancer incidence and mortality is recommended in areas surrounding nuclear fuel facilities and nuclear power plants, and more specific studies are called for in areas adjacent to installations that have been fully operational for longer periods. In this regard, it is important to use dosimetric information in all future studies. PMID:11485872

  8. Possibilities of restration in eutophic shallow lakes and ponds by artificial plants: A scenario of lake shore restration based on field experiments for water quality improvement using artificial plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Tetsuya; Onoda, Yukio; Kayaba, Yuichi

    Submerged plants have an important role of lake environments. However, autonomous growth of them is difficult in entropic shallow lakes and ponds because of loss of light condition or disturbance of bottom sediment. We should pursue the improvement of water quality to restore lake shores. The purpose of this paper was to examin the influence of water quality using filed experiments in the pond which is our facility and to propose how to conduct lake rastrations using artificail plants. As a result of experiments, we have shown that artificial plants may increase transparency better than submerged plants, and decreace phytoplankton by increasing of zooplankton and encourag ing growth of it. It is suggested that artificial plants should be used as first step in restration of submerged plants because it can encourage increace of transparcy at bottom areas and may be able to germinate soil seeds.

  9. Electrical noise reduction techniques contributing to improved data quality at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcphee, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    In initial use, the high-speed digital data acquisition systems at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility produced data containing unacceptably high noise levels. Described is a process whereby the contributing noise sources were identified and eliminated. The effects of 60 Hz power, system grounding, EMI/RFI, and other problems are discussed and the corrective action taken is outlined. The overall effort resulted in an improvement of greater than 5:1 in system performance. Although the report describes a system specifically used for wind tunnel data acquisition, the corrective techniques employed are generally applicable to large scale high-speed data systems where signal resolution in the low microvolts range is important.

  10. Facile surface modification of anion-exchange membranes for improvement of diffusion dialysis performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyeong; Park, Han-Sol; Seo, Seok-Jun; Park, Jin-Soo; Moon, Seung-Hyeon; Choi, Young-Woo; Jiong, Young Su; Kim, Dong Hee; Kang, Moon-Sung

    2014-02-15

    In this study, a facile membrane modification method by spin-coating of pyrrole (Py) monomers dissolved in a volatile solvent followed by an interfacial polymerization is proposed. The surface of a commercial anion-exchange membrane (i.e., Neosepta-AFX, Astom Corp., Japan) was successfully modified with polypyrrole (Ppy) to improve the acid recovery performance in diffusion dialysis (DD). The result of DD experiments revealed that both the acid and metal ion transports are significantly influenced by the surface modification. The metal crossover through the membranes was largely reduced while mostly maintaining the acid permeability by introducing a thin Ppy layer with excellent repelling property to cations on the membrane surface. As a result, the anion-exchange membrane modified with the optimum content of Py monomer (5 vol.%) exhibited excellent acid dialysis coefficient (KAcid) and selectivity (KAcid/KMetal) which is approximately twice as high as that of the pristine membrane.

  11. Electrical noise reduction techniques contributing to improved data quality at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, J. R.

    1988-11-01

    In initial use, the high-speed digital data acquisition systems at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility produced data containing unacceptably high noise levels. Described is a process whereby the contributing noise sources were identified and eliminated. The effects of 60 Hz power, system grounding, EMI/RFI, and other problems are discussed and the corrective action taken is outlined. The overall effort resulted in an improvement of greater than 5:1 in system performance. Although the report describes a system specifically used for wind tunnel data acquisition, the corrective techniques employed are generally applicable to large scale high-speed data systems where signal resolution in the low microvolts range is important.

  12. Compressed Air System Upgrade Improves Production at an Automotive Glass Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-02-01

    In 2000, The Visteon automotive glass plant improved its compressed air system at its automotive glass plant in Nashville, Tennessee. This improvement allowed Visteon to save $711,000 annually, reduce annual energy consumption by 7.9 million kilowatt-hours, reduce maintenance, improve system performance, and avoid $800,000 in asbestos abatement costs.

  13. Mach Stability Improvements Using an Existing Second Throat Capability at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Walker, Eric L.; Goodliff, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented and the correlation between Mach number and drag will also be examined. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.

  14. Mach Stability Improvements Using an Existing Second Throat Capability at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within unit vector A plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half of a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.

  15. Defense Infrastructure: More Accurate Data Would Allow DOD to Improve the Tracking, Management, and Security of Its Leased Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    DEFENSE INFRASTRUCTURE More Accurate Data Would Allow DOD to Improve the Tracking, Management , and Security of Its...Accurate Data Would Allow DOD to Improve the Tracking, Management , and Security of Its Leased Facilities Why GAO Did This Study Overreliance on... data were sufficiently reliable to provide a basis for managing leases and externally reporting information on leases. We drew a statistical random

  16. Genetic Modification for Improving Seed Vigor Is Transitioning from Model Plants to Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaolin; Ning, Fen; Hu, Xiuli; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Although seed vigor is a complex physiological trait controlled by quantitative trait loci, technological advances in the laboratory are being translated into applications for enhancing seed vigor in crop plants. In this article, we summarize and discuss pioneering work in the genetic modification of seed vigor, especially through the over-expression of protein L-isoaspartyl methyltransferase (PIMT, EC 2.1.1.77) in seeds. The impressive success in improving rice seed vigor through the over-expression of PIMT provides a valuable reference for engineering high-vigor seeds for crop production. In recent decades, numerous genes/proteins associated with seed vigor have been identified. It is hoped that such potential candidates may be used in the development of genetically edited crops for a high and stable yield potential in crop production. This possibility is very valuable in the context of a changing climate and increasing world population. PMID:28149305

  17. Exploring high throughput phenotyping, plant architecture and plant-boll distribution for improving drought tolerance in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a pressing need to identify and understand the effects of different irrigation regimes on plant-boll distribution, seed cotton yield, and plant architecture for improving yield and fiber quality under stress and/or drought tolerance of cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars. To identify the impa...

  18. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  19. Performance Improvements to the Neutron Imaging System at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Fittinghoff, D N; Bower, D E; Drury, O B; Dzenitis, J M; Hatarik, R; Merrill, F E; Grim, G P; Wilde, C H; Wilson, D C; Landoas, O; Caillaud, T; Bourgade, J; Buckles, R A; Lee, J; Weiss, P B

    2011-09-26

    A team headed by LANL and including many members from LLNL and NSTec LO and NSTec LAO fielded a neutron imaging system (NIS) at the National Ignition Facility at the start of 2011. The NIS consists of a pinhole array that is located 32.5 cm from the source and that creates an image of the source in a segmented scintillator 28 m from the source. The scintillator is viewed by two gated, optical imaging systems: one that is fiber coupled, and one that is lens coupled. While there are a number of other pieces to the system related to pinhole alignment, collimation, shielding and data acquisition, those pieces are discussed elsewhere and are not relevant here. The system is operational and has successfully obtained data on more that ten imaging shots. This remainder of this whitepaper is divided in five main sections. In Section II, we identify three critical areas of improvement that we believe should be pursued to improve the performance of the system for future experiments: spatial resolution, temporal response and signal-to-noise ratio. In Section III, we discuss technologies that could be used to improve these critical performance areas. In Section IV, we describe a path to evolve the current system to achieve improved performance with minimal impact on the ability of the system to operate on shots. In Section V, we discuss the abilities, scope and timescales of the current teams and the Commissariat energie atomique (CEA). In Section VI, we summarize and make specific recommendations for collaboration on improvements to the NIS.

  20. Micronutrient fortification of plants through plant breeding: can it improve nutrition in man at low cost?

    PubMed

    Bouis, Howarth E

    2003-05-01

    Can commonly-eaten food staple crops be developed that fortify their seeds with essential minerals and vitamins? Can farmers be induced to grow such varieties? If so, would this result in a marked improvement in human nutrition at a lower cost than existing nutrition interventions? An interdisciplinary international effort is underway to breed for mineral- and vitamin-dense varieties of rice, wheat, maize, beans and cassava for release to farmers in developing countries. The biofortification strategy seeks to take advantage of the consistent daily consumption of large amounts of food staples by all family members, including women and children as they are most at risk for micronutrient malnutrition. As a consequence of the predominance of food staples in the diets of the poor, this strategy implicitly targets low-income households. After the one-time investment is made to develop seeds that fortify themselves, recurrent costs are low and germplasm may be shared internationally. It is this multiplier aspect of plant breeding across time and distance that makes it so cost-effective. Once in place, the biofortified crop system is highly sustainable. Nutritionally-improved varieties will continue to be grown and consumed year after year, even if government attention and international funding for micronutrient issues fades. Biofortification provides a truly feasible means of reaching malnourished populations in relatively remote rural areas, delivering naturally-fortified foods to population groups with limited access to commercially-marketed fortified foods that are more readily available in urban areas. Biofortification and commercial fortification are, therefore, highly complementary. Breeding for higher trace mineral density in seeds will not incur a yield penalty. Mineral-packed seeds sell themselves to farmers because, as recent research has shown, these trace minerals are essential in helping plants resist disease and other environmental stresses. More seedlings

  1. Use of job aids to improve facility-based postnatal counseling and care in rural Benin.

    PubMed

    Jennings, L; Yebadokpo, A; Affo, J; Agbogbe, M

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a job aids-focused intervention on quality of facility-based postnatal counseling, and whether increased communication improved in-hospital newborn care and maternal knowledge of home practices and danger signs requiring urgent care. Ensuring mothers and newborns receive essential postnatal services, including health counseling, is integral to their survival. Yet, quality of clinic-based postnatal services is often low, and evidence on effective improvement strategies is scarce. Using a pre-post randomized design, data were drawn from direct observations and interviews with 411 mother-newborn pairs. Multi-level regression models with difference-in-differences analyses estimated the intervention's relative effect, adjusting for changes in the comparison arm. The mean percent of recommended messages provided to recently-delivered women significantly improved in the intervention arm as compared to the control (difference-in-differences [∆i - ∆c] +30.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 19.3, 42.5), and the proportion of newborns thermally protected within the first hour (∆i - ∆c +33.7, 95 % CI 19.0, 48.4) and delayed for bathing (∆i - ∆c +23.9, 95 % CI 9.4, 38.4) significantly increased. No significant changes were observed in early breastfeeding (∆i - ∆c +6.8, 95 % CI -2.8, 16.4) which was nearly universal. Omitting traditional umbilical cord substances rose slightly, but was insignificant (∆i - ∆c +8.5, 95 % CI -2.8, 19.9). The proportion of mothers with correct knowledge of maternal (∆i - ∆c +27.8, 95 % CI 11.0, 44.6) and newborn (∆i - ∆c +40.3, 95 % CI 22.2, 58.4) danger signs grew substantially, as did awareness of several home-care practices (∆i - ∆c +26.0, 95 % CI 7.7, 44.3). Counseling job aids can improve the quality of postnatal services. However, achieving reduction goals in maternal and neonatal mortality will likely require more comprehensive approaches to link enhanced facility services with

  2. Recent Improvements in Interface Management for Hanford's Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13263

    SciTech Connect

    Arm, Stuart T.; Van Meighem, Jeffery S.; Duncan, Garth M.; Pell, Michael J.; Harrington, Christopher C.

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for management and completion of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, which includes the Hanford Site tank farms operations and the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The RPP mission is to store, retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste; store and dispose of treated wastes; and close the tank farm waste management areas and treatment facilities by 2047. The WTP is currently being designed and constructed by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) for DOE-ORP. BNI relies on a number of technical services from other Hanford contractors for WTP's construction and commissioning. These same services will be required of the future WTP operations contractor. Partly in response to a DNFSB recommendation, the WTP interface management process managing these technical services has recently been improved through changes in organization and issue management. The changes are documented in an Interface Management Plan. The organizational improvement is embodied in the One System Integrated Project Team that was formed by integrating WTP and tank farms staff representing interfacing functional areas into a single organization. A number of improvements were made to the issue management process but most notable was the formal appointment of technical, regulatory and safety subject matter experts to ensure accurate identification of issues and open items. Ten of the thirteen active WTP Interface Control Documents have been revised in 2012 using the improved process with the remaining three in progress. The value of the process improvements is reflected by the ability to issue these documents on schedule and accurately identify technical, regulatory and safety issues and open items. (authors)

  3. Iodine-131 in sewage sludge from a small water pollution control plant serving a thyroid cancer treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paula S; Swanson, R Lawrence

    2013-08-01

    Iodine-131 (half-life = 8.04 d) is the most widely used radionuclide in medicine for therapeutic purposes. It is excreted by patients and is discharged directly to sewer systems. Despite considerable dilution in waste water and the relatively short half-life of I, it is readily measured in sewage. This work presents I concentrations in sewage sludge from three water pollution control plants (WPCPs) on Long Island, NY. Iodine-131 concentrations ranged from 0.027 ± 0.002 to 148 ± 4 Bq g dry weight. The highest concentrations were measured in the Stony Brook WPCP, a relatively small plant (average flow = 6.8 × 10 L d) serving a regional thyroid cancer treatment facility in Stony Brook, NY. Preliminary radiation dose calculations suggested further evaluation of dose to treatment plant workers in the Stony Brook WPCP based on the recommendations of the Interagency Steering Committee on Radiation Standards.

  4. Improved stereo matching applied to digitization of greenhouse plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Gu, Xiaomeng

    2015-03-01

    The digitization of greenhouse plants is an important aspect of digital agriculture. Its ultimate aim is to reconstruct a visible and interoperable virtual plant model on the computer by using state-of-the-art image process and computer graphics technologies. The most prominent difficulties of the digitization of greenhouse plants include how to acquire the three-dimensional shape data of greenhouse plants and how to carry out its realistic stereo reconstruction. Concerning these issues an effective method for the digitization of greenhouse plants is proposed by using a binocular stereo vision system in this paper. Stereo vision is a technique aiming at inferring depth information from two or more cameras; it consists of four parts: calibration of the cameras, stereo rectification, search of stereo correspondence and triangulation. Through the final triangulation procedure, the 3D point cloud of the plant can be achieved. The proposed stereo vision system can facilitate further segmentation of plant organs such as stems and leaves; moreover, it can provide reliable digital samples for the visualization of greenhouse tomato plants.

  5. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  6. When there's pride in a facility, productivity increases, managers become effective ''coaches,'' information flow improves, skill training goes up and ''turf'' issues diminish

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, D.E.; Christensen, G. )

    1994-12-01

    A culture shift in a refining facility can pay big dividends. It has done so at Mobil Oil Corp.'s Paulsboro plant. As a result of a program to build excellence into every facet of the facility's operations, all refining units have set record rates in the past year. Expenses continue to decrease. Old problems that were buried deep in silos have been bubbling to the surface and are being attacked. Real benefits are resulting from the companies culture change. The company is discussing terms like trust, customer focus and a vision for the refinery with management and hourly folks--together. More employees at all levels feel and act empowered. They company will soon kick off a special employee empowerment team to strengthen front-line supervisors so they can build improvement in additional areas of the organization. The company is close to its target of running 120,000 bpd of crude, and is on its way to produce 12,000 bpd of lubes. They are committed to change and to continuous improvement. The paper describes the history of the plant, the problem of the Eighties, the program, redesigning the organization, and the integrated approach.

  7. 77 FR 46767 - Plantings Associated with Eligible Facilities (RP9524.5)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ..., 500 C Street SW., Washington, DC 20472. II. Background Generally, plantings such as trees, shrubs, and...). FEMA acknowledges the economic and environmental benefits of replacing trees, shrubs, and other plantings, but has determined that replacement of trees, shrubs, and other plantings damaged or destroyed...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 2: Engineering. Volume 3: Costs and schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Engineering design details for the principal systems, system operating modes, site facilities, and structures of an engineering test facility (ETF) of a 200 MWE power plant are presented. The ETF resembles a coal-fired steam power plant in many ways. It is analogous to a conventional plant which has had the coal combustor replaced with the MHD power train. Most of the ETF components are conventional. They can, however, be sized or configured differently or perform additional functions from those in a conventional coal power plant. The boiler not only generates steam, but also performs the functions of heating the MHD oxidant, recovering seed, and controlling emissions.

  9. Crop Improvement through Modification of the Plant's Own Genome

    PubMed Central

    Rommens, Caius M.; Humara, Jaime M.; Ye, Jingsong; Yan, Hua; Richael, Craig; Zhang, Lynda; Perry, Rachel; Swords, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has, until now, relied on the incorporation of foreign DNA into plant genomes. Public concern about the extent to which transgenic crops differ from their traditionally bred counterparts has resulted in molecular strategies and gene choices that limit, but not eliminate, the introduction of foreign DNA. Here, we demonstrate that a plant-derived (P-) DNA fragment can be used to replace the universally employed Agrobacterium transfer (T-) DNA. Marker-free P-DNAs are transferred to plant cell nuclei together with conventional T-DNAs carrying a selectable marker gene. By subsequently linking a positive selection for temporary marker gene expression to a negative selection against marker gene integration, 29% of derived regeneration events contain P-DNA insertions but lack any copies of the T-DNA. Further refinements are accomplished by employing Ω-mutated virD2 and isopentenyl transferase cytokinin genes to impair T-DNA integration and select against backbone integration, respectively. The presented methods are used to produce hundreds of marker-free and backbone-free potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants displaying reduced expression of a tuber-specific polyphenol oxidase gene in potato. The modified plants represent the first example of genetically engineered plants that only contain native DNA. PMID:15133156

  10. 2014 Annual Wastewater Reuse Report for the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike

    2015-02-01

    This report describes conditions, as required by the state of Idaho Wastewater Reuse Permit (#LA-000141-03), for the wastewater land application site at the Idaho National Laboratory Site’s Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant from November 1, 2013, through October 31, 2014. The report contains, as applicable, the following information; Site description; Facility and system description; Permit required monitoring data and loading rates; Status of compliance conditions and activities; and Discussion of the facility’s environmental impacts. The current permit expires on March 16, 2015. A permit renewal application was submitted to Idaho Department of Environmental Quality on September 15, 2014. During the 2014 permit year, no wastewater was land-applied to the irrigation area of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant and therefore, no effluent flow volumes or samples were collected from wastewater sampling point WW-014102. Seepage testing of the three lagoons was performed between August 26, 2014 and September 22, 2014. Seepage rates from Lagoons 1 and 2 were below the 0.25 inches/day requirement; however, Lagoon 3 was above the 0.25 inches/day. Lagoon 3 has been isolated and is being evaluated for future use or permanent removal from service.

  11. Evidence from facility level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Most of the maternal and newborn deaths occur at birth or within 24 hours of birth. Therefore, essential lifesaving interventions need to be delivered at basic or comprehensive emergency obstetric care facilities. Facilities provide complex interventions including advice on referrals, post discharge care, long-term management of chronic conditions along with staff training, managerial and administrative support to other facilities. This paper reviews the effectiveness of facility level inputs for improving maternal and newborn health outcomes. We considered all available systematic reviews published before May 2013 on the pre-defined facility level interventions and included 32 systematic reviews. Findings suggest that additional social support during pregnancy and labour significantly decreased the risk of antenatal hospital admission, intrapartum analgesia, dissatisfaction, labour duration, cesarean delivery and instrumental vaginal birth. However, it did not have any impact on pregnancy outcomes. Continued midwifery care from early pregnancy to postpartum period was associated with reduced medical procedures during labour and shorter length of stay. Facility based stress training and management interventions to maintain well performing and motivated workforce, significantly reduced job stress and improved job satisfaction while the interventions tailored to address identified barriers to change improved the desired practice. We found limited and inconclusive evidence for the impacts of physical environment, exit interviews and organizational culture modifications. At the facility level, specialized midwifery teams and social support during pregnancy and labour have demonstrated conclusive benefits in improving maternal newborn health outcomes. However, the generalizability of these findings is limited to high income countries. Future programs in resource limited settings should utilize these findings to implement relevant interventions tailored to their needs

  12. Process Determination and Plant Layout for Western Demilitarization Facility Hawthorne, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    carts and driverless tow tractors which con- nected each primary structure, the off-loading dock, and the ready service magazines. b. Facility layout...indicate two related conveyance systems to be the most feasible for the facility. The driverless tractor/ component cart system is the better of the two... driverless configuration should be adopted. The system would require a pave- ment path between buildings and would be controlled by the latest 28

  13. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  14. Quality assurance procedures for environmental control and monitoring in plant growth facilities. Report of the North Central Regional 101 Committee on Growth Chamber Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    This report includes procedures for ensuring the quality of the environment provided for plant growth in controlled environment facilities. Biologists and engineers may use these procedures for ensuring quality control during experiments or for ensuring quality control in the design of plant growth facilities. Environmental monitoring prior to and during experiments is included in these procedures. Specific recommendations cover control, acquisition, and calibration for sensor types for the separate parameters of radiation (light), temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide, and air movement.

  15. A natural plant growth promoter calliterpenone from a plant Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl improves the plant growth promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs).

    PubMed

    Maji, Deepamala; Barnawal, Deepti; Gupta, Aakansha; King, Shikha; Singh, A K; Kalra, A

    2013-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calliterpenone, a natural plant growth promoter from a shrub Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., in enhancing the growth and yield promoting effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), in menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L).This study is based on our previous results indicating the microbial growth promotion by calliterpenone and assumption that application of calliterpenone along with PGPRs will improve the population of PGPRs resulting in higher impacts on plant growth and yield. Of the 15 PGPRs (identified as potent ones in our laboratory), 25 μl of 0.01 mM calliterpenone (8.0 μg/100 ml) was found to be useful in improving the population of nine PGPRs in culture media. The five selected strains of PGPRs exhibiting synergy with calliterpenone in enhancing growth of maize compared to PGPR or calliterpenone alone were selected and tested on two cultivars (cvs. Kosi and Kushal) of M. arvensis. Of the five strains, Bacillus subtilis P-20 (16S rDNA sequence homologous to Accession No NR027552) and B. subtilis Daz-26 (16SrDNA sequence homologuos to Accession No GU998816) were found to be highly effective in improving the herb and essential oil yield in the cultivars Kushal and Kosi respectively when co-treated with calliterpenone. The results open up the possibilities of using a natural growth promoter along with PGPRs as a bio-agri input for sustainable and organic agriculture.

  16. Development of an inventory and temporal allocation profiles of emissions from power plants and industrial facilities in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thi Bich Thao; Manomaiphiboon, Kasemsan; Vongmahadlek, Chatchawan

    2008-07-01

    An emission inventory (EI) of power plants and industrial (i.e., non-power plant) facilities in Thailand was developed. Emissions considered are those from fuel consumption (i.e., combustion) for power plants and those from both fuel consumption and industrial processes (i.e., non-combustion) for industrial facilities. For power plants, total annual emissions due to fuel consumption are 107.9 x 10(3) ton NOx (as NO2), 146.2 x 10(3) ton SO2, 6.1 x 10(3) ton NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds), 47.0 x 10(3) ton CO, 1.8 x 10(3) ton NH3, 1.5 x 10(3) ton OC (organic carbon), and 1.5 x 10(3) ton BC (black carbon). For industrial facilities, total annual emissions due to fuel consumption are 111.4 x 10(3) ton NOx (as NO2), 476.9 x 10(3) ton SO2, 33.4 x 10(3) ton NMVOC, 193.1 x 10(3) ton CO, 1.6 x 10(3) ton NH3, 8.5 x 10(3) ton OC, and 8.0 x 10(3) ton BC. Among various industrial types, Food and Beverage, Chemical, and Non-Metal industries are dominant emitters. Total annual emissions due to industrial processes are 79.2 x 10(3) ton SO2, 76.0 x 10(3) ton NMVOC, and 4.8 x 10(3) ton CO. The Central and Eastern regions combined contribute considerably to total emissions for most emission species. Emission estimates found here show fair agreement with those in some selected past studies. A crude estimation of potential fugitive NMVOC emissions specifically from petroleum industry was also made, and the estimates found could be considered significant (nearly half of NMVOC emissions from industrial processes). Several temporal allocation profiles of emissions were also developed and suggested for power plants and industrial facilities, including monthly, daily, and hourly profiles.

  17. Bromeliad-living spiders improve host plant nutrition and growth.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Mazzafera, Paulo; Vasconcellos-Neto, Joao; Trivelin, Paulo C O

    2006-04-01

    Although bromeliads are believed to obtain nutrients from debris deposited by animals in their rosettes, there is little evidence to support this assumption. Using stable isotope methods, we found that the Neotropical jumping spider Psecas chapoda (Salticidae), which lives strictly associated with the terrestrial bromeliad Bromelia balansae, contributed 18% of the total nitrogen of its host plant in a greenhouse experiment. In a one-year field experiment, plants with spiders produced leaves 15% longer than plants from which the spiders were excluded. This is the first study to show nutrient provisioning in a spider-plant system. Because several animal species live strictly associated with bromeliad rosettes, this type of facultative mutualism involving the Bromeliaceae may be more common than previously thought.

  18. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement.

    PubMed

    Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B; Monteros, Maria J

    2015-06-15

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs.

  19. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M.; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Monteros, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Roots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs. PMID:27135332

  20. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  1. Resveratrol biosynthesis: plant metabolic engineering for nutritional improvement of food.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Ingrosso, Ilaria; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Santino, Angelo

    2012-09-01

    The plant polyphenol trans-resveratrol (3, 5, 4'-trihydroxystilbene) mainly found in grape, peanut and other few plants, displays a wide range of biological effects. Numerous in vitro studies have described various biological effects of resveratrol. In order to provide more information regarding absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of resveratrol, various research approaches have been performed, including in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In recent years, the induction of resveratrol synthesis in plants which normally do not accumulate such polyphenol, has been successfully achieved by molecular engineering. In this context, the ectopic production of resveratrol has been reported to have positive effects both on plant resistance to biotic stress and the enhancement of the nutritional value of several widely consumed fruits and vegetables. The metabolic engineering of plants offers the opportunity to change the content of specific phytonutrients in plant - derived foods. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding on resveratrol bioproduction and its effects on the prevention of the major pathological conditions in man.

  2. Lab to Farm: Applying Research on Plant Genetics and Genomics to Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Pamela C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 300 years, plant science research has provided important knowledge and technologies for advancing the sustainability of agriculture. In this Essay, I describe how basic research advances have been translated into crop improvement, explore some lessons learned, and discuss the potential for current and future contribution of plant genetic improvement technologies to continue to enhance food security and agricultural sustainability. PMID:24915201

  3. Nitric Oxide Improves Internal Iron Availability in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Magdalena; Beligni, María Verónica; Lamattina, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Iron deficiency impairs chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development. In leaves, most of the iron must cross several biological membranes to reach the chloroplast. The components involved in the complex internal iron transport are largely unknown. Nitric oxide (NO), a bioactive free radical, can react with transition metals to form metal-nitrosyl complexes. Sodium nitroprusside, an NO donor, completely prevented leaf interveinal chlorosis in maize (Zea mays) plants growing with an iron concentration as low as 10 μm Fe-EDTA in the nutrient solution. S-Nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, another NO donor, as well as gaseous NO supply in a translucent chamber were also able to revert the iron deficiency symptoms. A specific NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide, blocked the effect of the NO donors. The effect of NO treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus of iron-deficient plants was also studied. Electron micrographs of mesophyll cells from iron-deficient maize plants revealed plastids with few photosynthetic lamellae and rudimentary grana. In contrast, in NO-treated maize plants, mesophyll chloroplast appeared completely developed. NO treatment did not increase iron content in plant organs, when expressed in a fresh matter basis, suggesting that root iron uptake was not enhanced. NO scavengers 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide and methylene blue promoted interveinal chlorosis in iron-replete maize plants (growing in 250 μm Fe-EDTA). Even though results support a role for endogenous NO in iron nutrition, experiments did not establish an essential role. NO was also able to revert the chlorotic phenotype of the iron-inefficient maize mutants yellow stripe1 and yellow stripe3, both impaired in the iron uptake mechanisms. All together, these results support a biological action of NO on the availability and/or delivery of metabolically active iron within the plant. PMID:12481068

  4. Reduced Wind Speed Improves Plant Growth in a Desert City

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Christofer; Sabo, John L.; Faeth, Stanley H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The often dramatic effects of urbanization on community and ecosystem properties, such as primary productivity, abundances, and diversity are now well-established. In most cities local primary productivity increases and this extra energy flows upwards to alter diversity and relative abundances in higher trophic levels. The abiotic mechanisms thought to be responsible for increases in urban productivity are altered temperatures and light regimes, and increased nutrient and water inputs. However, another abiotic factor, wind speed, is also influenced by urbanization and well known for altering primary productivity in agricultural systems. Wind effects on primary productivity have heretofore not been studied in the context of urbanization. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed a field experiment to test if increased plant growth often observed in cities is explained by the sheltering effects of built structures. Wind speed was reduced by protecting Encelia farinosa (brittlebush) plants in urban, desert remnant and outlying desert localities via windbreaks while controlling for water availability and nutrient content. In all three habitats, we compared E. farinosa growth when protected by experimental windbreaks and in the open. E. farinosa plants protected against ambient wind in the desert and remnant areas grew faster in terms of biomass and height than exposed plants. As predicted, sheltered plants did not differ from unprotected plants in urban areas where wind speed is already reduced. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that reductions in wind speed due to built structures in cities contribute to increased plant productivity and thus also to changes in abundances and diversity of higher trophic levels. Our study emphasizes the need to incorporate wind speed in future urban ecological studies, as well as in planning for green space and sustainable cities. PMID:20548790

  5. A brief history of the T Plant facility at the Hanford Site. Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-05-16

    T Plant (221-T) was the first and largest of the early chemical separations plants at the Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) (World War II name for the Hanford Site). Officially designated as a Cell Building by the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) of the Army Corps of Engineers (agency responsible for HEW), T Plant served as the headquarters of chemical processing operations at Hanford from its construction until the opening of the REDOX Plant in January 1952. Because it formed a crucial link in the first full-scale plutonium production operations in world history, it meets criteria established in the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 as a National Historic Structure.

  6. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2015-05-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission, and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual-tracer flux measurements and on-site observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with on-site tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  7. Measurements of methane emissions from natural gas gathering facilities and processing plants: measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Floerchinger, C.; Mitchell, A. L.; Tkacik, D. S.; Subramanian, R.; Martinez, D. M.; Vaughn, T. L.; Williams, L.; Zimmerle, D.; Robinson, A. L.; Herndon, S. C.; Marchese, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Increased natural gas production in recent years has spurred intense interest in methane (CH4) emissions associated with its production, gathering, processing, transmission and distribution. Gathering and processing facilities (G&P facilities) are unique in that the wide range of gas sources (shale, coal-bed, tight gas, conventional, etc.) results in a wide range of gas compositions, which in turn requires an array of technologies to prepare the gas for pipeline transmission and distribution. We present an overview and detailed description of the measurement method and analysis approach used during a 20-week field campaign studying CH4 emissions from the natural gas G&P facilities between October 2013 and April 2014. Dual tracer flux measurements and onsite observations were used to address the magnitude and origins of CH4 emissions from these facilities. The use of a second tracer as an internal standard revealed plume-specific uncertainties in the measured emission rates of 20-47%, depending upon plume classification. Combining downwind methane, ethane (C2H6), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and tracer gas measurements with onsite tracer gas release allows for quantification of facility emissions, and in some cases a more detailed picture of source locations.

  8. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  9. Plant uses closed-capture technology to improve air quality, reduce energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    Ford Motor Company`s Cleveland Engine Plant 2 is a 1.5 million ft{sup 2} (1.4 km{sup 2}) engine manufacturing facility in Brook Park, Ohio, that was built in phases starting in 1953. Forty years later a challenge was made to upgrade the plant into a world-class powertrain facility. This was part of a series of major plant modernizations. The success of the project allowed for the installation of the world`s largest engine test carousel (85 feet or 2,590 cm) and a complete upgrade of the mechanical systems. The existing machining operations generated oil mist that migrated throughout the facility, and with it, increased plant humidity levels. Even with high ventilation rates, this condition caused numerous employee complaints. The existing pneumatic control systems were not able to coordinate the operation of the building air handling system to meet process equipment exhaust requirements. This condition resulted in the facility operating at an extreme negative pressure. This article describes the design of the system which includes: a direct-fired, natural gas heating system for all air handling equipment to replace existing steam and condensate systems; chilled-water cooling coils in all air handling units serving manufacturing and assembly areas to reduce the supply air temperature; central chilled-water system including chilled-water thermal storage tanks to serve building air handling units, office areas, and process equipment; renovation of selected building exhaust fans to provide truss space heat relief and smoke evacuation; enclosure of machining equipment to prevent oil mist migration into the plant; and a programmable logic controller-based management system that interfaced to the client`s plant floor information system.

  10. Improved outage management techniques for better plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Bemer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    To maintain high availability of nuclear generating units is one of the most important management objectives. The duration of outages-whether planned or unplanned-is the main parameter impacting on plant availability, but the planned outages, and essentially the refueling outages, are the most important in this respect, and they also have a heavy impact on the economics of plant operation. The following factors influence the duration of the outages: (1) modifications; (2) preventive maintenance operations; and (3) corrective maintenance operations of generic faults. In this paper, the authors examine how the outage management organization of Electricite de France (EdF) plants is tending to optimize the solutions to the above-mentioned points.

  11. Jernberg Industries, Inc: Forging Facility Uses Plant-Wide Assessment to Aid Conversion to Lean Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    Jernberg Industries conducted a plant-wide assessment while converting to lean manufacturing at a forging plant. Seven projects were identified that could yield annual savings of $791,000, 64,000 MMBtu in fuel and 6 million kWh.

  12. Plants: Emerging as Nanofactories towards Facile Route in Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Kavitha, Kumara Shanthamma; Santosh, Parthasarathy; Kavitha, Holalu Umapathy; Rao, Yashavantha; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2013-01-01

    Plant mediated nanoparticles’ synthesis has led to a remarkable progress via unfolding a green synthesis protocol towards nanoparticles’ synthesis. It seems to have drawn quite an unequivocal attention with a view of reformulating the novel strategies as alternatives for popular conventional methods. Hence, the present review summarizes the literature reported thus far and envisions towards plants as emerging sources of nanofactories. PMID:24163802

  13. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  14. A Videotape-Based Training Method for Improving the Detection of Depression in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Stacey; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Schnelle, Betha; Stephens, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the effectiveness of a new training program for improving nursing staffs' detection of depression within long-term care facilities. The course was designed to increase recognition of the Minimal Data Set (MDS) Mood Trigger items, to be brief, and to rely on images rather than didactics. Design and Methods: This study…

  15. Schoolhouse in the Red: A Guidebook for Cutting Our Losses. Powerful Recommendations for Improving America's School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley J.

    Guidelines for improving the quality of school facilities in the United States are presented in this document. A national survey conducted by the Educational Research Service of 2,418 elementary and secondary administrators yielded 922 usable responses, which indicated that one building in every eight is an inadequate place for learning. Based on…

  16. The ASTROCULTURE Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Research with plants in microgravity offers many exciting opportunities to gain new insights and could improve products on Earth ranging from crop production to fragrances and food flavorings. The ASTROCULTURE facility is a lead commercial facility for plant growth and plant research in microgravity and was developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WSCAR), a NASA Commercial Space Center. On STS-95 it will support research that could help improve crop development leading to plants that are more disease resistant or have a higher yield and provide data on the production of plant essential oils---oils that contain the essence of the plant and provide both fragrance and flavoring. On STS-95, a flowering plant will be grown in ASTROCULTURE and samples taken using a method developed by the industry partner for this investigation. On Earth, the samples will be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the data used to evaluate both the production of fragrant oils in microgravity and in the development of one or more products. The ASTROCULTURE payload uses these pourous tubes with precise pressure sensing and control for fluid delivery to the plant root tray.

  17. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  18. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part A. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  19. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part C. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  20. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part B. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  1. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Hari S.; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Drobac, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. Design The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. Results We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use

  2. Texas plant retrofit improves throughput, C{sub 2} recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Pitman, R.N.

    1996-06-03

    GPM Gas Co.`s Goldsmith (Ector Co., Tex.) plant was recently converted from a nominal 90% ethane recovery and 86 MMscfd design capacity two-stage expansion process to a 95% ethane recovery and 135 MMscfd capacity. The project used the Gas Subcooled Process (GSP) design of Ortloff Engineers Ltd., Midland, Tex. The conversion required modification of existing expanders and chillers and addition of a plate-fin exchanger, an absorber column, and a set of pumps. Time from project approval through start-up was 5 months. NGL production was interrupted for 10 days while the plant was down for tie-ins and checkout. Plant throughput was compression-limited to operation at 130 MMscfd through late 1995. Compression to allow throughput of greater than 130 MMscfd was operational in late 1995. The demethanizer column and six of nine heat exchangers were reused in the Ortloff process retrofit. The demethanizer internals were changed out in 1995 in anticipation of higher throughput with the new compression. The two expanders were modified for parallel expander and booster compressor operation. Expander replacement was unnecessary. Similar retrofits of other GPM plants using GSP are currently under study.

  3. Using plant canopy temperature to improve irrigated crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remotely sensed plant canopy temperature has long been recognized as having potential as a tool for irrigation management. However, a number of barriers have prevented its routine use in practice, such as the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing platforms, limitations in computing capac...

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Therkelsen, Peter; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-12-28

    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  5. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  6. 7 CFR 70.110 - Requirements for sanitation, facilities, and operating procedures in official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY PRODUCTS AND RABBIT PRODUCTS Grading of Poultry Products and Rabbit Products Sanitary Requirements, Facilities, and Operating Procedures § 70.110... in 9 CFR part 381 for poultry, and for rabbits the requirements shall be the applicable...

  7. Understanding plant response to nitrogen limitation for the improvement of crop nitrogen use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2011-02-01

    Development of genetic varieties with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is essential for sustainable agriculture. Generally, NUE can be divided into two parts. First, assimilation efficiency involves nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation and second utilization efficiency involves N remobilization. Understanding the mechanisms regulating these processes is crucial for the improvement of NUE in crop plants. One important approach is to develop an understanding of the plant response to different N regimes, especially to N limitation, using various methods including transcription profiling, analysing mutants defective in their normal response to N limitation, and studying plants that show better growth under N-limiting conditions. One can then attempt to improve NUE in crop plants using the knowledge gained from these studies. There are several potential genetic and molecular approaches for the improvement of crop NUE discussed in this review. Increased knowledge of how plants respond to different N levels as well as to other environmental conditions is required to achieve this.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  9. The contribution of pharmaceutically active compounds from healthcare facilities to a receiving sewage treatment plant in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kleywegt, Sonya; Pileggi, Vince; Lam, Yuet Ming; Elises, Alan; Puddicomb, Aaron; Purba, Gurminder; Di Caro, Joanne; Fletcher, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations and percent loadings of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and other emerging contaminants released from healthcare facilities (2 hospitals and a long-term care facility) to a sewage treatment plant (STP) in a large urban sewershed were evaluated. An additional hospital outside the sewershed was also monitored. Fourteen of the 24 steroids/hormones and 88 of the 117 PhACs and emerging contaminants were detected at least once. Commonly used substances, including cotinine, caffeine and its metabolite 1,7-dimethylxanthine, ibuprofen and naproxen (analgesics), venlafaxine (antidepressant), and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (insect repellant), were detected in all samples at all sites. Concentrations detected in the large specialty hospital outside the sewershed were similar to those within the sewershed. Cytotoxic drugs (tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide) and x-ray contrast media (iopamidol and diatrizoic acid) were infrequently detected in hospital effluents. Analysis for antibiotics indicated that azithromycin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole were consistently detected in hospital wastewaters, as was triclosan (antibacterial agent). Fifteen compounds individually contributed greater than 1% to the total PhAC and emerging contaminant load to the STP from the 2 hospitals in the sewershed, and 9 compounds in the STP effluent exceeded ecotoxicological criteria. The present survey demonstrates that point source discharges from healthcare facilities in this sewershed make a small contribution to the overall PhAC and emerging contaminant loading compared with the total concentrations entering the receiving STP.

  10. Genetic improvement of plants for enhanced bio-ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sanghamitra; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    The present world energy situation urgently requires exploring and developing alternate, sustainable sources for fuel. Biofuels have proven to be an effective energy source but more needs to be produced to meet energy goals. Whereas first generation biofuels derived from mainly corn and sugarcane continue to be used and produced, the contentious debate between "feedstock versus foodstock" continues. The need for sources that can be grown under different environmental conditions has led to exploring newer sources. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive source for production of biofuel, but pretreatment costs to remove lignin are high and the process is time consuming. Genetically modified plants that have increased sugar or starch content, modified lignin content, or produce cellulose degrading enzymes are some options that are being explored and tested. This review focuses on current research on increasing production of biofuels by genetic engineering of plants to have desirable characteristics. Recent patents that have been filed in this area are also discussed.

  11. Innovation information seeking and innovation adoption: Facilities and plant managers' energy outlook comparing linear to nonlinear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Joseph J.

    One focal point of concern, policy and a new research will involve identifying individual and organizational facilitative and obstructive factors within the context of energy innovation diffusion in the U.S. This interdisciplinary intersection of people, technology and change is one of serious consequence and has broad implications that span national security, energy infrastructure, the economy, organizational change, education and the environment. This study investigates facilities and plant managers' energy innovation information seeking and energy adoption evolution. The participants are managers who consume more electrical energy than all other groups in the world and are among the top users of natural gas and oil in the United States. The research calls upon the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Diffusion of Innovations and nonlinear dynamics in a study of adoption patterns for 13 energy-related innovations. Cusp catastrophe models and power laws were compared to linear multiple regression to examine and characterize data. Findings reveal that innovation adoption and information seeking differences are slight between private and public sector facilities and plant managers and that the group as a whole may resist change. Of the 13 innovations, some exhibit very strong cusp catastrophe distributions while support for multiple linear regression and the power law were found.

  12. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies.

  13. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  14. Improving the regulation of safety at DOE nuclear facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report strongly recommends that, with the end of the Cold War, safety and health at DOE facilities should be regulated by outside agencies rather than by DOE itself. The three major recommendations are: under any regulatory scheme, DOE must maintain a strong internal safety management system; essentially all aspects of safety at DOE`s nuclear facilities should be externally regulated; and existing agencies rather than a new one should be responsible for external regulation.

  15. Formulation and preparation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant direct feed low activity waste Effluent Management Facility core simulant

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Nash, Charles A.

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  16. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station-The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions.

    PubMed

    Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang; Hoson, Takayuki; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    2015-01-20

    In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8-14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station.

  17. Design and control of rotating soil-like substrate plant-growing facility based on plant water requirement and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dawei; Li, Leyuan; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Houkai; Fu, Yuming; Sun, Yi; Li, Liang

    It is necessary to process inedible plant biomass into soil-like substrate (SLS) by bio-compost to realize biological resource sustainable utilization. Although similar to natural soil in structure and function, SLS often has uneven water distribution adversely affecting the plant growth due to unsatisfactory porosity, permeability and gravity distribution. In this article, SLS plant-growing facility (SLS-PGF) were therefore rotated properly for cultivating lettuce, and the Brinkman equations coupled with laminar flow equations were taken as governing equations, and boundary conditions were specified by actual operating characteristics of rotating SLS-PGF. Optimal open-control law of the angular and inflow velocity was determined by lettuce water requirement and CFD simulations. The experimental result clearly showed that water content was more uniformly distributed in SLS under the action of centrifugal and Coriolis force, rotating SLS-PGF with the optimal open-control law could meet lettuce water requirement at every growth stage and achieve precise irrigation.

  18. The Utilization of Plant Facilities on the International Space Station—The Composition, Growth, and Development of Plant Cell Walls under Microgravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jost, Ann-Iren Kittang; Hoson, Takayuki; Iversen, Tor-Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the preparation for missions to Mars, basic knowledge of the mechanisms of growth and development of living plants under microgravity (micro-g) conditions is essential. Focus has centered on the g-effects on rigidity, including mechanisms of signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. These components of gravity resistance are linked to the evolution and acquisition of responses to various mechanical stresses. An overview is given both on the basic effect of hypergravity as well as of micro-g conditions in the cell wall changes. The review includes plant experiments in the US Space Shuttle and the effect of short space stays (8–14 days) on single cells (plant protoplasts). Regeneration of protoplasts is dependent on cortical microtubules to orient the nascent cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall. The space protoplast experiments demonstrated that the regeneration capacity of protoplasts was retarded. Two critical factors are the basis for longer space experiments: a. the effects of gravity on the molecular mechanisms for cell wall development, b. the availability of facilities and hardware for performing cell wall experiments in space and return of RNA/DNA back to the Earth. Linked to these aspects is a description of existing hardware functioning on the International Space Station. PMID:27135317

  19. Plant Utility Improvements Increase Profits and Productivity at a Clothing Manufacturing Complex (MJ Soffee's Wastewater Heat Recovery System)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-01

    In response to increased marketplace competition and the need for expanded production capacity, MJ Soffee's manufacturing facility in Fayetteville, North Carolina implemented several energy improvement projects,

  20. The ASTROCULTURE Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Research with plants in microgravity offers many exciting opportunities to gain new insights and could improve products on Earth ranging from crop production to fragrances and food flavorings. The ASTROCULTURE facility is a lead commercial facility for plant growth and plant research in microgravity and was developed by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WSCAR), a NASA Commercial Space Center. On STS-95 it will support research that could help improve crop development leading to plants that are more disease resistant or have a higher yield and provide data on the production of plant essential oils---oils that contain the essence of the plant and provide both fragrance and flavoring. On STS-95, a flowering plant will be grown in ASTROCULTURE and samples taken using a method developed by the industry partner for this investigation. On Earth the samples will be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the data used to evaluate both the production of fragrant oils in microgravity and in the development of one or more products.

  1. Forward genetic screening for the improved production of fermentable sugars from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, George; Vidaurre, Danielle P; Shim, Isaac; Tang, Xurong; Moeder, Wolfgang; Bonetta, Dario; McCourt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    With their unique metabolism and the potential to produce large amounts of biomass, plants are an excellent bio-energy feedstock for a variety of industrial purposes. Here we developed a high-throughput strategy, using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, to identify mutants with improved sugar release from plant biomass. Molecular analysis indicates a variety of processes including starch degradation, cell wall composition and polar transport of the plant hormone auxin can contribute to this improved saccharification. To demonstrate translatability, polar auxin transport in maize was either genetically or chemical inhibited and this also resulted in increased sugar release from plant tissues. Our forward genetic approach using Arabidopsis not only uncovers new functions that contribute to cell wall integrity but also demonstrates that information gleaned from this genetic model can be directly translated to monocotyledonous crops such as maize to improve sugar extractability from biomass.

  2. Extraterrestrial fiberglass production using solar energy. [lunar plants or space manufacturing facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, D.; Sobon, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for fiberglass production systems in both lunar and space environments. The raw material, of lunar origin, will be plagioclase concentrate, high silica content slag, and calcium oxide. Glass will be melted by solar energy. The multifurnace in the lunar plant and the spinning cylinder in the space plant are unique design features. Furnace design appears to be the most critical element in optimizing system performance. A conservative estimate of the total power generated by solar concentrators is 1880 kW; the mass of both plants is 120 tons. The systems will reproduce about 90 times their total mass in fiberglass in 1 year. A new design concept would be necessary if glass rods were produced in space.

  3. W-007H B Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Rippy, G.L.

    1995-01-20

    B Plant Process Condensate (BCP) liquid effluent stream is the condensed vapors originating from the operation of the B Plant low-level liquid waste concentration system. In the past, the BCP stream was discharged into the soil column under a compliance plan which expired January 1, 1987. Currently, the BCP stream is inactive, awaiting restart of the E-23-3 Concentrator. B Plant Steam Condensate (BCS) liquid effluent stream is the spent steam condensate used to supply heat to the E-23-3 Concentrator. The tube bundles in the E-23-3 Concentrator discharge to the BCS. In the past, the BCS stream was discharged into the soil column. Currently, the BCS stream is inactive. This project shall provide liquid effluent systems (BCP/BCS/BCE) capable of operating for a minimum of 20 years, which does not include the anticipated decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) period.

  4. Plant plasma membrane proteomics for improving cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Li, Bin; Nakayama, Takato; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2013-01-01

    Plants are always exposed to various stresses. We have focused on freezing stress, which causes serious problems for agricultural management. When plants suffer freeze-induced damage, the plasma membrane is thought to be the primary site of injury because of its central role in regulation of various cellular processes. Cold tolerant species, however, adapt to such freezing conditions by modifying cellular components and functions (cold acclimation). One of the most important adaptation mechanisms to freezing is alteration of plasma membrane compositions and functions. Advanced proteomic technologies have succeeded in identification of many candidates that may play roles in adaptation of the plasma membrane to freezing stress. Proteomics results suggest that adaptations of plasma membrane functions to low temperature are associated with alterations of protein compositions during cold acclimation. Some of proteins identified by proteomic approaches have been verified their functional roles in freezing tolerance mechanisms further. Thus, accumulation of proteomic results in the plasma membrane is of importance for application to molecular breeding efforts to increase cold tolerance in crops.

  5. Application of microbial inoculants promote plant growth, increased nutrient uptake and improve root morphology of corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing fertilizers impacts from agriculture is a world-wide concern, both from an environmental and human health perspective. One way to reduce impacts of fertilizers is by enhancing plant uptake which improves nutrient use efficiency and also potentially reduce the amounts of fertilizer needed. ...

  6. Manipulating plant geometry to improve microclimate, grain yield, and harvest index in grain sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Bob A.; Xue, Qingwu; Chen, Yuanquan

    2017-01-01

    Cultivar selection, planting geometry, and plant population are the key factors determining grain sorghum yields in water deficit areas. The objective of this study was to investigate whether clump geometry (three plants clustered) improves microclimate within crop canopy when plants are grown under varying water levels. In a 2-yr sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) greenhouse study, plants were grown at two geometries (clump and conventional evenly spaced planting, ESP), two water levels (high and low, representing well-watered and water-limited condition, respectively), and three soil surface treatments (lid covered, straw-mulched, and bare). Air temperature and relative humidity (RH) within the plant canopy were measured every five minutes at different growth stages. Mean vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) within the clumps were consistently lower than those for ESPs, indicating that clumps improved the microclimate. Clumps had significantly higher harvest index (HI) compared to ESPs (0.48 vs. 0.43), which was largely due to clumps having an average of 0.4 tillers per plant compared to 1.2 tillers per plant for ESPs. Grain yield in the current study was similar between clumps and ESPs. However, our results suggest that improved microclimate was likely a reason for clumps producing significantly higher grain yields compared to ESPs in previous studies. PMID:28264051

  7. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds. Several new sensing

  8. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  9. ENGINEERED NEAR SURFACE DISPOSAL FACILITY OF THE INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX FOR SOLID RADWASTE MANAGEMENT AT CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ziehm, Ronny; Pichurin, Sergey Grigorevich

    2003-02-27

    As a part of the turnkey project ''Industrial Complex for Solid Radwaste Management (ICSRM) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP)'' an Engineered Near Surface Disposal Facility (ENSDF, LOT 3) will be built on the VEKTOR site within the 30 km Exclusion Zone of the ChNPP. This will be performed by RWE NUKEM GmbH, Germany, and it governs the design, licensing support, fabrication, assembly, testing, inspection, delivery, erection, installation and commissioning of the ENSDF. The ENSDF will receive low to intermediate level, short lived, processed/conditioned wastes from the ICSRM Solid Waste Processing Facility (SWPF, LOT 2), the ChNPP Liquid Radwaste Treatment Plant (LRTP) and the ChNPP Interim Storage Facility for RBMK Fuel Assemblies (ISF). The ENSDF has a capacity of 55,000 m{sup 3}. The primary functions of the ENSDF are: to receive, monitor and record waste packages, to load the waste packages into concrete disposal units, to enable capping and closure of the disposal unit s, to allow monitoring following closure. The ENSDF comprises the turnkey installation of a near surface repository in the form of an engineered facility for the final disposal of LILW-SL conditioned in the ICSRM SWPF and other sources of Chernobyl waste. The project has to deal with the challenges of the Chernobyl environment, the fulfillment of both Western and Ukrainian standards, and the installation and coordination of an international project team. It will be shown that proven technologies and processes can be assembled into a unique Management Concept dealing with all the necessary demands and requirements of a turnkey project. The paper emphasizes the proposed concepts for the ENSDF and their integration into existing infrastructure and installations of the VEKTOR site. Further, the paper will consider the integration of Western and Ukrainian Organizations into a cohesive project team and the requirement to guarantee the fulfillment of both Western standards and Ukrainian

  10. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  11. A new plant chamber facility, PLUS, coupled to the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been built and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow-through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees is mixed with synthetic air and transferred to the SAPHIR chamber, where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil relative humidity (RH)) are well controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leaves of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to only fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 light-emitting diode (LED) panels, which have an emission strength up to 800 µmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light- and temperature- dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental setup and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  12. Use of facility assessment data to improve reproductive health service delivery in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Prolonged exposure to war has severely impacted the provision of health services in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Health infrastructure has been destroyed, health workers have fled and government support to health care services has been made difficult by ongoing conflict. Poor reproductive health (RH) indicators illustrate the effect that the prolonged crisis in DRC has had on the on the reproductive health (RH) of Congolese women. In 2007, with support from the RAISE Initiative, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and CARE conducted baseline assessments of public hospitals to evaluate their capacities to meet the RH needs of the local populations and to determine availability, utilization and quality of RH services including emergency obstetric care (EmOC) and family planning (FP). Methods Data were collected from facility assessments at nine general referral hospitals in five provinces in the DRC during March, April and November 2007. Interviews, observation and clinical record review were used to assess the general infrastructure, EmOC and FP services provided, and the infection prevention environment in each of the facilities. Results None of the nine hospitals met the criteria for classification as an EmOC facility (either basic or comprehensive). Most facilities lacked any FP services. Shortage of trained staff, essential supplies and medicines and poor infection prevention practices were consistently documented. All facilities had poor systems for routine monitoring of RH services, especially with regard to EmOC. Conclusions Women's lives can be saved and their well-being improved with functioning RH services. As the DRC stabilizes, IRC and CARE in partnership with the local Ministry of Health and other service provision partners are improving RH services by: 1) providing necessary equipment and renovations to health facilities; 2) improving supply management systems; 3) providing comprehensive competency-based training for

  13. [Evaluation of the content of harmful substances in the air of sewage treatment facilities of Astrakhan gas processing plant].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V I; Dotsenko, Iu I; Boĭko, O V

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the progress in regard to the degree of processing of natural gas and condensate in the Astrakhan gas processing plant is significant, necessary hygienic normalization of working environment on the part of the content of harmful substances in the air of working areas is still unable. Harmful substances were detected in the breathing zone of workers of sewage treatment plant almost constantly. In this connection there is a need in the further joint work hygienists, designers and manufacturers for the development and justification of new, more effective decisions - both on the part of as well technology as hardware design - with the purpose of improvement of working conditions.

  14. Remote Sensing and Modeling for Improving Operational Aquatic Plant Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The California Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is the hub for California’s water supply, conveying water from Northern to Southern California agriculture and communities while supporting important ecosystem services, agriculture, and communities in the Delta. Changes in climate, long-term drought, water quality changes, and expansion of invasive aquatic plants threatens ecosystems, impedes ecosystem restoration, and is economically, environmentally, and sociologically detrimental to the San Francisco Bay/California Delta complex. NASA Ames Research Center and the USDA-ARS partnered with the State of California and local governments to develop science-based, adaptive-management strategies for the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The project combines science, operations, and economics related to integrated management scenarios for aquatic weeds to help land and waterway managers make science-informed decisions regarding management and outcomes. The team provides a comprehensive understanding of agricultural and urban land use in the Delta and the major water sheds (San Joaquin/Sacramento) supplying the Delta and interaction with drought and climate impacts on the environment, water quality, and weed growth. The team recommends conservation and modified land-use practices and aids local Delta stakeholders in developing management strategies. New remote sensing tools have been developed to enhance ability to assess conditions, inform decision support tools, and monitor management practices. Science gaps in understanding how native and invasive plants respond to altered environmental conditions are being filled and provide critical biological response parameters for Delta-SWAT simulation modeling. Operational agencies such as the California Department of Boating and Waterways provide testing and act as initial adopter of decision support tools. Methods developed by the project can become routine land and water management tools in complex river delta systems.

  15. An improved protocol to study the plant cell wall proteome

    PubMed Central

    Printz, Bruno; Dos Santos Morais, Raphaël; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Sergeant, Kjell; Lutts, Stanley; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Renaut, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cell wall proteins were extracted from alfalfa stems according to a three-steps extraction procedure using sequentially CaCl2, EGTA, and LiCl-complemented buffers. The efficiency of this protocol for extracting cell wall proteins was compared with the two previously published methods optimized for alfalfa stem cell wall protein analysis. Following LC-MS/MS analysis the three-steps extraction procedure resulted in the identification of the highest number of cell wall proteins (242 NCBInr identifiers) and gave the lowest percentage of non-cell wall proteins (about 30%). However, the three protocols are rather complementary than substitutive since 43% of the identified proteins were specific to one protocol. This three-step protocol was therefore selected for a more detailed proteomic characterization using 2D-gel electrophoresis. With this technique, 75% of the identified proteins were shown to be fraction-specific and 72.7% were predicted as belonging to the cell wall compartment. Although, being less sensitive than LC-MS/MS approaches in detecting and identifying low-abundant proteins, gel-based approaches are valuable tools for the differentiation and relative quantification of protein isoforms and/or modified proteins. In particular isoforms, having variations in their amino-acid sequence and/or carrying different N-linked glycan chains were detected and characterized. This study highlights how the extracting protocols as well as the analytical techniques devoted to the study of the plant cell wall proteome are complementary and how they may be combined to elucidate the dynamism of the plant cell wall proteome in biological studies. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001927. PMID:25914713

  16. Regulation of Na+ and K+ homeostasis in plants: towards improved salt stress tolerance in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Diego M; Oliveira, M Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J M

    2017-03-27

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that results in considerable crop yield losses worldwide. However, some plant genotypes show a high tolerance to soil salinity, as they manage to maintain a high K+/Na+ ratio in the cytosol, in contrast to salt stress susceptible genotypes. Although, different plant genotypes show different salt tolerance mechanisms, they all rely on the regulation and function of K+ and Na+ transporters and H+ pumps, which generate the driving force for K+ and Na+ transport. In this review we will introduce salt stress responses in plants and summarize the current knowledge about the most important ion transporters that facilitate intra- and intercellular K+ and Na+ homeostasis in these organisms. We will describe and discuss the regulation and function of the H+-ATPases, H+-PPases, SOS1, HKTs, and NHXs, including the specific tissues where they work and their response to salt stress.

  17. Socioeconomic assessment of defense waste processing facility impacts in the Savannah River Plant region

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Stevenson, R.H.

    1981-09-01

    The DWPF will immobilize highly radioactive defense wastes for storage on site until shipment to an approved federal repository for radioactive wastes. This document assesses the socioeconomic impacts of constructing and operating the proposed facility and presents the assessment methodology. Because various schedules and various ways of staging the construction of the DWPF are considered and because in some of these instances a large nearby construction project (the Vogtle Nuclear Power Station) may influence the socioeconomic impacts, four scenarios involving different facility options and schedules are assessed. In general, the impacts were found not to be large. In the scenario where the socioeconomic effects were the greatest, it was found that there are likely to be some impacts on schools in Barnwell County as well as a shortage of mobile homes in that county. Aiken, Allendale, and Bamberg counties are also likely to experience slight-to-moderate housing shortages. Minor impacts are anticipated for fire and police services, roads, traffic, and land use. There will be noticeable economic impact from the project. Other scenarios had fewer socioeconomic impacts.

  18. Improved worst-case and liely accident definition in complex facilities for 40 CFR 68 compliance

    SciTech Connect

    O`Kula, K.R., Taylor, Robert P., Jr; Hang, P.

    1997-04-01

    Many DOE facilities potentially subject to compliance with offsite consequence criteria under the 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program house significant inventories of toxic and flammable chemicals. The accident progression event tree methodology is suggested as a useful technical basis to define Worst-Case and Alternative Release Scenarios in facilities performing operations beyond simple storage and/or having several barriers between the chemical hazard and the environment. For multiple chemical release scenarios, a chemical mixture methodology should be applied to conservatively define concentration isopleths. In some instances, the region requiring emergency response planning is larger under this approach than if chemicals are treated individually.

  19. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in existing facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  20. Prestressed concrete barge with liquefaction plant and storage facility for l. n. g

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A prestressed concrete barge installed with a combination of liquefaction plant and storage tank has been developed which will operate in order to economically gather the natural gas available of small-scale offshore gas wells in the world. A full design of a prototype has been completed through systematic works, namely, structural analysis, stability analysis, experiments of materials and structural members. The engineering data developed here will also be applicable to a larger scale barge.

  1. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  2. Overexpression of monoubiquitin improves photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants following high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fengxia; Gong, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Yanan; Wang, Guokun; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (Ub/26S) is implicated in abiotic stress responses in plants. In this paper, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 from wheat were used to study the functions of Ub in the improvement of photosynthesis under high temperature (45°C) stress. We observed higher levels of Ub conjugates in transgenic plants under high temperature stress conditions compared to wild type (WT) as a result of the constitutive overexpression of Ta-Ub2, suggesting increased protein degradation by the 26S proteasome system under high temperature stress. Overexpressing Ub increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic tobacco plants, consistent with the improved ATPase activity in the thylakoid membrane and enhanced efficiency of PSII photochemistry. The higher D1 protein levels following high temperature stress in transgenic plants than WT were also observed. These findings imply that Ub may be involved in tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature stress in plants. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants showed lower protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature stress. These findings suggest that the improved antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants may be one of the most important mechanisms underlying Ub-regulated high temperature tolerance.

  3. Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

  4. Evaluation of iron in the steam plant wastewater treatment facility effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Wempner, P.J.; Prazniak, J.K.

    1994-12-01

    Elevated Fe concentrations in the Y-12 SPWTF effluent primarily result from carryover of solids from the clarifier to the F-2 tank, the F-2 tank to the effluent line, and possibly from solids that collect the effluent line. An upgrade involving filtration equipment will improve the reliability of control over Fe removal. Recommendations are given for improving operating efficiency.

  5. Improving Math Literacy for the Facilities Maintenance Industry: A Multimedia Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, John; Taylor, Don

    Texas State Technical College in Waco (TSTCW) entered into a partnership with ServiceMaster, one of the largest maintenance companies in the world, to develop a contextual-based videodisc curriculum for facility maintenance workers intended to increase math literacy. TSTCW developed a task analysis, a curriculum, and evaluation measures for the…

  6. Military Personnel: Enhanced Collaboration and Process Improvements Needed for Determining Military Treatment Facility Medical Personnel Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    dentists, medical service corps, and veterinarians , to name a few, at the work center level across Army fixed military treatment facilities. The model uses...1072 - 896 903 Hematology /Oncology 41 40 43 - 12 17 - 18 14 Infectious Disease 63 59 62 - 29 34 - 16 17 Internal Medicine 315 e 254 e 277 e

  7. Bureau of Indian Affairs Schools: New Facilities Management Information System Promising, but Improved Data Accuracy Needed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    A General Accounting Office (GAO) study evaluated the Bureau of Indian Affairs' (BIA) new facilities management information system (FMIS). Specifically, the study examined whether the new FMIS addresses the old system's weaknesses and meets BIA's management needs, whether BIA has finished validating the accuracy of data transferred from the old…

  8. Cleanliness improvements of NIF (National Ignition Facility) amplifiers as compared to previous large-scale lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, J

    2004-06-09

    Prior to the recent commissioning of the first NIF (National Ignition Facility) beamline, full-scale laser-amplifier-glass cleanliness experiments were performed. Aerosol measurements and obscuration data acquired using a modified flatbed scanner compare favorably to historical large-scale lasers and indicate that NIF is the cleanest large-scale laser built to date.

  9. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-26

    This report summarizes the information gathered in constructing the clay cap test section. The purpose of the test section was to determine compaction characteristics of four representative kaolin clays and demonstrate in-situ permeability for these clays of 1 {times} 10 {sup {minus}7} cm/sec or less. The final technical specifications with regard to maximum clod size, acceptable ranges of placement water content, lift thickness, and degree of compaction will be based on experience gained from the test section. The data derived from this study will also be used in the development of Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) methods to be used during actual cap construction of the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Closure project. 7 tabs.

  10. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility hot test report

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, R.L.

    1993-09-01

    Prior to initial operation with radioactive feed or ``hot`` operation, the Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal (LET&D) Facility underwent extensive testing. This report provides a detailed description and analysis of this testing. Testing has determined that LET&D is capable of processing radioactive solutions between the design flowrates of 275 gph to 550 gph. Modifications made to prevent condensation on the off-gas HEPA filters, to the process vacuum control, bottoms cooler rupture disks, and feed control system operation were successful. Unfortunately, two mixers failed prior to ``hot`` testing due to manufacturer`s error which limited operation of the PEW Evaporator System and sampling was not able to prove that design removal efficiencies for Mercury, Cadmium, Plutonium, and Non-Volatile Radionuclides.

  11. Aquatic plant debris improve phosphorus sorption into sediment under anoxic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chong-Wei; Du, Shao-Ting; Dong, Wu-Yuan; Wang, Jue-Hua; Shen, Cheng; Zhang, Yong-Song

    2013-11-01

    The effects of plant debris on phosphorus sorption by anoxic sediment were investigated. Addition of plant debris significantly enhanced the decrease of soluble relative phosphorus (SRP) in overlying water at both 10 and 30 °C during the 30-day investigation. Both cellulose and glucose, two typical plant components, also clearly enhanced the SRP decrease in anoxic overlying water. The measurement of phosphorus (P) fractions in sediment revealed that the levels of unstable P forms were decreased by plant debris addition, whereas the opposites were true for stable P forms. However, under sterilized condition, plant debris/glucose addition has no effect on the SRP decrease in overlying water. Overall, our results suggested that plant debris improve P sorption into sediment under anoxic condition through a microorganism-mediated mechanism.

  12. Improvement of plant abiotic stress tolerance through modulation of the polyamine pathway.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-02-01

    Polyamines (mainly putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), and spermine (Spm)) have been widely found in a range of physiological processes and in almost all diverse environmental stresses. In various plant species, abiotic stresses modulated the accumulation of polyamines and related gene expression. Studies using loss-of-function mutants and transgenic overexpression plants modulating polyamine metabolic pathways confirmed protective roles of polyamines during plant abiotic stress responses, and indicated the possibility to improve plant tolerance through genetic manipulation of the polyamine pathway. Additionally, putative mechanisms of polyamines involved in plant abiotic stress tolerance were thoroughly discussed and crosstalks among polyamine, abscisic acid, and nitric oxide in plant responses to abiotic stress were emphasized. Special attention was paid to the interaction between polyamine and reactive oxygen species, ion channels, amino acid and carbon metabolism, and other adaptive responses. Further studies are needed to elucidate the polyamine signaling pathway, especially polyamine-regulated downstream targets and the connections between polyamines and other stress responsive molecules.

  13. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  14. Model based predictive control of a high temperature gas cooled power plant coupled to a hydrogen production facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoads, Lloyd A.

    This thesis builds upon recent studies focusing on modeling, operation, and control of high temperature gas cooled reactors. A computer model was developed, based on mass, energy, and momentum balances of control volumes throughout the plant. Several simulations of the plant behavior were conducted and their results were compared with those from the literature. Proportional control was combined with optimal control to form a time varying, adjustable gain predictive controller which adjusts the proportional gains during transients. The controller was designed to utilize control rod motions and bypass control valves to maintain desired plant conditions. An optimization scheme was introduced to efficiently solve the optimization problem formulated as part of the predictive controller operation. Several additional transients were run to examine the full plant controller performance. Multiple predictive controllers were designed and their performance was compared with a proportional controller throughout each transient. The predictive controller results confirmed the importance of proper selection of the optimal controller parameters, in particular the controller time step size and the horizon time. The well-designed proportional controllers clearly demonstrated improvements in plant performance during short time scale transients, namely a loss of secondary heat transfer transient and a step change in desired power transient. Results from long time scale transients demonstrated the capabilities of the proposed bypass control system to control electrical power production without the need for storage vessels.

  15. Guidebook to excellence: A directory of federal facilities and other resources for mathematics and science education improvement. [Contains acronym list

    SciTech Connect

    Shipman, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Guidebook to Excellence is a State-by-State directory of Federal facilities and other resources for improving mathematics and science education. This directory, the first of its kind, is being published to assist educators, parents, and students across the country in attaining the National Education Goals, particularly Goal No. 4: By the year 2000, US students will be first in the world in science and mathematics achievement. Some of the larger research facilities in this directory, such as those of NASA, EPA and the Departments of Energy, Commerce, and the Interior, provide a wide range of education programs, and some offer students and teachers hands on experience with state-of-the-art research in world class facilities. Other sites, such as those of the Department of Transportation or Agriculture may be quite small, but can provide assistance in a single field of research or workforce expertise. Also listed are individuals responsible for State or regional coordination of major programs, such as the US Department of Education's Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Education Program, or the National Science Foundation's Statewide Systemic Initiative Program. In addition, each State listing includes facilities or coordinators providing regional assistance from neighboring States.

  16. Plutonium immobilization plant using glass in new facilities at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a glass immobilization process, converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors.

  17. Insect stings to change gear for healthy plant: Improving maize drought tolerance by whitefly infestation.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-05-03

    Since plants first appeared about 1.1 billion years ago, they have been faced with biotic and abiotic stresses in their environment. To overcome these stresses, plants developed defense strategies. Accumulating evidence suggests that the whitefly [Bemisia tabaci (Genn.)] affects the regulation of plant defenses and physiology. A recent study demonstrates that aboveground whitefly infestation positively modulates root biomass and anthocyanin pigmentation on brace roots of maize plants (Zea mays L.). In agreement with these observations, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA) contents and the expression of IAA- and JA-related genes are higher in whitefly-infested maize plants than in non-infected control plants. Interestingly, the fresh weight of whitefly-infested maize plants is approximately 20% higher than in non-infected control plants under water stress conditions. Further investigation has revealed that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulates in whitefly-infested maize plants after water stoppage. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of phytohormones- (i.e., IAA and JA) and H2O2-mediated maize signaling pathways triggered by aboveground whitefly infestation promotes drought resistance. They also provide an insight into how inter-kingdom interactions can improve drought tolerance in plants.

  18. Advanced nutrient root-feeding system for conveyor-type cylindrical plant growth facilities for microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Krivobok, N. M.; Krivobok, A. S.; Smolyanina, S. O.

    2016-02-01

    A compact and reliable automatic method for plant nutrition supply is needed to monitor and control space-based plant production systems. The authors of this study have designed a nutrient root-feeding system that minimizes and regulates nutrient and water supply without loss of crop yields in a space greenhouse. The system involves an ion-exchange fibrous artificial soil (AS) BIONA-V3TM as the root-inhabited medium; a pack with slow-release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and a cartridge with granular mineral-rich ionite (GMRI) as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. A controller equipped with an electrical conductivity meter controls the solution flow and concentration of the solution in the mixing tank at specified values. Experiments showed that the fibrous AS-stabilized pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0-6.6 is favorable to the majority of crops. The experimental data confirmed that this technique allowed solution preparation for crops in space greenhouses by means of pumping water through the cartridge and minimization of the AS stock onboard the space vehicle.

  19. Advanced nutrient root-feeding system for conveyor-type cylindrical plant growth facilities for microgravity.

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Yu A; Krivobok, N M; Krivobok, A S; Smolyanina, S O

    2016-02-01

    A compact and reliable automatic method for plant nutrition supply is needed to monitor and control space-based plant production systems. The authors of this study have designed a nutrient root-feeding system that minimizes and regulates nutrient and water supply without loss of crop yields in a space greenhouse. The system involves an ion-exchange fibrous artificial soil (AS) BIONA-V3(TM) as the root-inhabited medium; a pack with slow-release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and a cartridge with granular mineral-rich ionite (GMRI) as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. A controller equipped with an electrical conductivity meter controls the solution flow and concentration of the solution in the mixing tank at specified values. Experiments showed that the fibrous AS-stabilized pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0-6.6 is favorable to the majority of crops. The experimental data confirmed that this technique allowed solution preparation for crops in space greenhouses by means of pumping water through the cartridge and minimization of the AS stock onboard the space vehicle.

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  1. Addendum to the corrective action plan for Underground Storage Tanks 1219-U, 1222-U, 2082-U, 2068-U at the Rust Garage Facility, Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document represents an addendum to the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for underground storage tanks 1219-U, 2082-U, and 2068-U located at Buildings 9720-15 and 9754-1, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, TN. The site of the four underground storage tanks is commonly referred to as the Rust Garage Facility. The original CAP was submitted to the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) for review in May 1992. During the time period after submission of the original CAP for the Rust Garage Facility, Y-12 Plant Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program personnel continued to evaluate improvements that would optimize resources and expedite the activities schedule presented in the original CAP. Based on these determinations, several revisions to the original corrective action process options for remediation of contaminated soils are proposed. The revised approach will involve excavation of the soils from the impacted areas, on-site thermal desorption of soil contaminants, and final disposition of the treated soils by backfilling into the subject site excavations. Based on evaluation of the corrective actions with regard to groundwater, remediation of groundwater under the Y-12 Plant CERCLA Program is proposed for the facility.

  2. Using traffic light labels to improve food selection in recreation and sport facility eating environments.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Vermeer, Julianne; McCargar, Linda J; Prowse, Rachel J L; Raine, Kim D

    2015-08-01

    Many recreation and sports facilities have unhealthy food environments, however managers are reluctant to offer healthier foods because they perceive patrons will not purchase them. Preliminary evidence indicates that traffic light labeling (TLL) can increase purchase of healthy foods in away-from-home food retail settings. We examined the effectiveness of TLL of menus in promoting healthier food purchases by patrons of a recreation and sport facility concession, and among various sub-groups. TLL of all menu items was implemented for a 1-week period and sales were assessed for 1-week pre- and 1-week post-implementation of TLL (n = 2101 transactions). A subset of consumers completed a survey during the baseline (n = 322) and intervention (n = 313) periods. We assessed change in the proportion of patrons' purchases that were labeled with green, yellow and red lights from baseline to the TLL intervention, and association with demographic characteristics and other survey responses. Change in overall revenues was also assessed. There was an overall increase in sales of green (52.2% to 55.5%; p < 0.05) and a reduction in sales of red (30.4% to 27.2%; p < 0.05) light items from baseline to the TLL period. The effectiveness of TLL did not differ according to any of the demographic or other factors examined in the survey. Average daily revenues did not differ between the baseline and TLL periods. TLL of menus increased purchase of healthy, and reduced purchase of unhealthy foods in a publicly funded recreation and sport facility, with no loss of revenue. Policymakers should consider extending menu labeling laws to public buildings such as recreation and sports facilities to promote selection of healthier items.

  3. Defense Infrastructure: DOD Needs to Improve Its Efforts to Identify Unutilized and Underutilized Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    challenges. 2A linear structure is a facility whose function requires that it traverse land (e.g., runway, road, rail line, pipeline , fence, pavement...organization, such as with individual programs or initiatives. See GAO, Pipeline Safety: Management of the Office of Pipeline Safety’s Enforcement...Management and Operations Division, Virginia • Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota • Eglin Air Force Base, Florida • Vandenberg Air Force Base

  4. Defense Facility Condition: Revised Guidance Needed to Improve Oversight of Assessments and Ratings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    are to implement the standardized process in part by assessing the condition of buildings, pavement, and rail using the same set of software tools ...example, the services are to assess the condition of buildings, pavement, and rail using Sustainment Management System software tools developed by the...facilities that cannot be assessed with these software tools , the services are to determine existing physical deficiencies and estimate the cost of

  5. Genetic improvement of biofuel plants: recent progress and patents.

    PubMed

    Johnson, T Sudhakar; Badri, Jyothi; Sastry, R Kalpana; Shrivastava, Anshul; Kishor, P B Kavi; Sujatha, M

    2013-04-01

    Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels, political uncertainties, increase in demand of energy needs and growing concerns of environmental effects, bioenergy as an alternative source of energy needs had taken centre stage globally. In this report, we review the progress made in lignocellulose, cellulose and fermentation based biofuels in addition to tree borne oil seeds. Algae as a source of feedstock for the biofuel has also been reviewed. Recent efforts in genome sequencing of biofuel crops and molecular breeding approaches have increased our understanding towards crop improvement of major feedstocks. Besides, patenting trends in bioenergy sector were assessed by patent landscape analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in published patents during the last decade which is maximum during 2011. A conceptual framework of "transgenesis in biofuels to industrial application" was developed based on the patent analytics viz., International Patent Classification (IPC) analysis and Theme Maps. A detailed claim analysis based on the conceptual framework assessed the patenting trends that provided an exhaustive dimension of the technology. The study emphasizes the current thrust in bioenergy sector by various public and private institutions to expedite the process of biofuel production.

  6. MELiSSA Pilot Plant: A facility for ground demonstration of a closed life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godia, Francesc; Fossen, Arnaud; Peiro, Enrique; Gerbi, Olivier; Dussap, Gilles; Leys, Natalie; Arnau, Carolina; Milian, Ernest

    MELiSSA (Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is an international collaborative effort focused on the development of a Life Support System for long-term Space missions. The goals of the MELiSSA loop are the recovery of food, water and oxygen from wastes, i.e. CO2 and organic wastes, using light as a source of energy. It is conceived as a series of compartments, each one performing a specific function within this cycle, inspired in the terrestrial ecological systems. Each one of the compartments is colonized with specific bacteria or higher plants depending on its dedicated function. Therefore, its design and operational conditions should guarantee that only a given specific biological activity takes place in each compartment. Moreover, this has to be done in a controlled manner, both at the subsystems level (i.e., compartments) and at the overall system level (i.e., complete loop). In order to achieve the complete operation of such a Closed Ecological System, in a first step each compartment has to be developed at individual level, and its operation demonstrated under its associated control law. In a second step, the complete loop needs to be integrated by the connection of the different compartments in the gas, loop and solid phases. An extensive demonstration of MELiSSA loop under terrestrial conditions is a mandatory step in the process of its adaptation to space. This is the main goal of the MPP. The demonstration scenario for the MPP is the respiration equivalent of a human being, and production of 20 percent of the diet of one person. To serve this goal, the different compartments of the MELiSSA loop have been designed and sized at the pilot scale level, and further characterized. Nowadays, the focus of the MELiSSA Pilot Plant is on the integration of its compartments. To this end, the integration challenge is concentrated in three compartments devoted to the following functions: nitrification (Compartment 3, an axenic co-culture of Nitrosomonas

  7. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  8. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  9. Archimede solar energy molten salt parabolic trough demo plant: Improvements and second year of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccari, Augusto; Donnola, Sandro; Matino, Francesca; Tamano, Shiro

    2016-05-01

    Since July 2013, the first stand-alone Molten Salt Parabolic Trough (MSPT) demo plant, which was built in collaboration with Archimede Solar Energy and Chiyoda Corporation, is in operation, located adjacent to the Archimede Solar Energy (ASE) manufacturing plant in Massa Martana (Italy). During the two year's operating time frame, the management of the demo plant has shown that MSPT technology is a suitable and reliable option. Several O&M procedures and tests have been performed, as Heat Loss and Minimum Flow Test, with remarkable results confirming that this technology is ready to be extended to standard size CSP plant, if the plant design takes into account molten salt peculiarities. Additionally, the plant has been equipped on fall 2014 with a Steam Generator system by Chiyoda Corporation, in order to test even this important MSPT plant subsystem and to extend the solar field active time, overcoming the previous lack of an adequate thermal load. Here, a description of the plant improvements and the overall plant operation figures will be presented.

  10. Guidance for the design and management of a maintenance plan to assure safety and improve the predictability of a DOE nuclear irradiation facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, R.S.; Kryter, R.C.; Shepard, R.L.; Smith, O.L.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-10-01

    A program is recommended for planning the maintenance of DOE nuclear facilities that will help safety and enhance availability throughout a facility`s life cycle. While investigating the requirements for maintenance activities, a major difference was identified between the strategy suitable for a conventional power reactor and one for a research reactor facility: the latter should provide a high degree of predicted availability (referred to hereafter as ``predictability``) to its users, whereas the former should maximize total energy production. These differing operating goals necessitate different maintenance strategies. A strategy for scheduling research reactor facility operation and shutdown for maintenance must balance safety, reliability,and predicted availability. The approach developed here is based on three major elements: (1) a probabilistic risk analysis of the balance between assured reliability and predictability (presented in Appendix C), (2) an assessment of the safety and operational impact of maintenance activities applied to various components of the facility, and (3) a data base of historical and operational information on the performance and requirements for maintenance of various components. These factors are integrated into a set of guidelines for designing a new highly maintainable facility, for preparing flexible schedules for improved maintenance of existing facilities, and for anticipating the maintenance required to extend the life of an aging facility. Although tailored to research reactor facilities, the methodology has broader applicability and may therefore be used to improved the maintenance of power reactors, particularly in anticipation of peak load demands.

  11. Improved Construction and Project Management for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Westinghouse Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2002-07-01

    The economic competitiveness of future nuclear power plants is the key issue to the expansion of this vital technology. The challenge is greater today than it has been because of the worldwide trend of deregulation of the power market. Deregulation favors smaller investments with shorter payback times. However, the key economic parameter is the power generation cost and its competitiveness to other sources of electric generation, principally natural gas and coal. The relative competitiveness of these three fuel types today is largely dictated by the availability of domestic sources of both fuel and technology infrastructure. The competitiveness of new nuclear power plants can be improved in any power market environment first by the features of the design itself, second by the approach to construction, and finally by the project structure used to implement the plant, or more importantly, a series of plants. These three aspects form the cornerstone to a successful resurgence of new nuclear power plant construction. (author)

  12. Improvements to the muon veto of the Dortmund Low Background Facility.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, Christian; Gerhardt, Marcel; Gößling, Claus; Kröninger, Kevin

    2017-02-27

    The Dortmund Low Background Facility is a germanium gamma-ray spectrometry laboratory situated above ground. A massive artificial shielding, corresponding to 10m of water equivalent in combination with an active muon veto results in a background level comparable to laboratories situated underground. Due to the recent completion of the muon veto, the background is lowered by 20% compared to previously reported values (Gastrich et al., 2016). Additionally, Monte Carlo simulations of the cosmic muon induced components of the background spectrum are described.

  13. Reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility and vicinity, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennehy, K.F.; Prowell, D.C.; McMahon, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of the area around the Savannah River Plant, South Carolina consists of 2 to 3 separate water bearing units. In the northern half of the study area, the Barnwell and underlying McBean aquifers are considered one aquifer owing to the absence of the tan clay-confining unit between them. In the southern half of the study area they are separated by the tan clay into two aquifers. Underlying these aquifers, and separated from them by the green clay-confining unit, is the Congaree aquifer. Hydraulic conductivities of the aquifers range from 0.00000001 to 0.0001 ft/sec. Directions of groundwater flow in the Barnwell and McBean aquifers are to the north, with a component of flow directed downward across the green clay and into the Congaree aquifer. The direction of flow in the Congaree aquifer is to the northwest. Water in these aquifers evolves from an acidic (pH < 6.5) mixed-cation type in the Barnwell aquifer to an alkaline (pH > 8) calcium bicarbonate water in the Congaree aquifer. Laboratory experiments indicate that reactions between sediments of the Barnwell aquifer and a salt-solution waste to be stored at the study area would significantly reduce the permeability of the sediment, thereby limiting the movement of the waste in groundwater at the site. (USGS)

  14. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; Boyer, M.; Canik, J.; Colling, B.; Raman, R.; Wang, Z.; Zhai, Y.; Buxton, P.; Covele, B.; D’Angelo, C.; Davis, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gryaznevich, M.; Harb, M.; Hender, T. C.; Kaye, S.; Kingham, D.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Maingi, R.; Marriott, E.; Meier, E. T.; Mynsberge, L.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Park, J. -K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Valanju, P.; Woolley, R.

    2016-08-16

    Here, a fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR ≈ 1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m–2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR = 1 is ${{R}_{0}}\\geqslant 1.7$ m, and a smaller R 0 = 1 m ST device has TBR ≈ 0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A = 2, R = 3 m device incorporating high

  15. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; Boyer, M.; Canik, J.; Colling, B.; Raman, R.; Wang, Z.; Zhai, Y.; Buxton, P.; Covele, B.; D'Angelo, C.; Davis, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Gryaznevich, M.; Harb, M.; Hender, T. C.; Kaye, S.; Kingham, D.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Maingi, R.; Marriott, E.; Meier, E. T.; Mynsberge, L.; Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Valanju, P.; Woolley, R.

    2016-10-01

    A fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR  ≈  1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m-2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR  =  1 is {{R}0}≥slant 1.7 m, and a smaller R 0  =  1 m ST device has TBR  ≈  0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A  =  2, R 0

  16. Fusion nuclear science facilities and pilot plants based on the spherical tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Menard, J. E.; Brown, T.; El-Guebaly, L.; ...

    2016-08-16

    Here, a fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF) could play an important role in the development of fusion energy by providing the nuclear environment needed to develop fusion materials and components. The spherical torus/tokamak (ST) is a leading candidate for an FNSF due to its potentially high neutron wall loading and modular configuration. A key consideration for the choice of FNSF configuration is the range of achievable missions as a function of device size. Possible missions include: providing high neutron wall loading and fluence, demonstrating tritium self-sufficiency, and demonstrating electrical self-sufficiency. All of these missions must also be compatible with a viable divertor, first-wall, and blanket solution. ST-FNSF configurations have been developed simultaneously incorporating for the first time: (1) a blanket system capable of tritium breeding ratio TBR ≈ 1, (2) a poloidal field coil set supporting high elongation and triangularity for a range of internal inductance and normalized beta values consistent with NSTX/NSTX-U previous/planned operation, (3) a long-legged divertor analogous to the MAST-U divertor which substantially reduces projected peak divertor heat-flux and has all outboard poloidal field coils outside the vacuum chamber and superconducting to reduce power consumption, and (4) a vertical maintenance scheme in which blanket structures and the centerstack can be removed independently. Progress in these ST-FNSF missions versus configuration studies including dependence on plasma major radius R 0 for a range 1 m–2.2 m are described. In particular, it is found the threshold major radius for TBR = 1 ismore » $${{R}_{0}}\\geqslant 1.7$$ m, and a smaller R 0 = 1 m ST device has TBR ≈ 0.9 which is below unity but substantially reduces T consumption relative to not breeding. Calculations of neutral beam heating and current drive for non-inductive ramp-up and sustainment are described. An A = 2, R = 3 m device incorporating high

  17. Evolving Methanococcoides burtonii archaeal Rubisco for improved photosynthesis and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert H; Alonso, Hernan; Whitney, Spencer M

    2016-03-01

    In photosynthesis Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyses the often rate limiting CO2-fixation step in the Calvin cycle. This makes Rubisco both the gatekeeper for carbon entry into the biosphere and a target for functional improvement to enhance photosynthesis and plant growth. Encumbering the catalytic performance of Rubisco is its highly conserved, complex catalytic chemistry. Accordingly, traditional efforts to enhance Rubisco catalysis using protracted "trial and error" protein engineering approaches have met with limited success. Here we demonstrate the versatility of high throughput directed (laboratory) protein evolution for improving the carboxylation properties of a non-photosynthetic Rubisco from the archaea Methanococcoides burtonii. Using chloroplast transformation in the model plant Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) we confirm the improved forms of M. burtonii Rubisco increased photosynthesis and growth relative to tobacco controls producing wild-type M. burtonii Rubisco. Our findings indicate continued directed evolution of archaeal Rubisco offers new potential for enhancing leaf photosynthesis and plant growth.

  18. Improvement of the Computing - Related Procurement Process at a Government Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Gittins, C.

    2000-04-03

    The purpose of the project was to develop, implement, and market value-added services through the Computing Resource Center in an effort to streamline computing-related procurement processes across the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The power of the project was in focusing attention on and value of centralizing the delivery of computer related products and services to the institution. The project required a plan and marketing strategy that would drive attention to the facility's value-added offerings and services. A significant outcome of the project has been the change in the CRC internal organization. The realignment of internal policies and practices, together with additions to its product and service offerings has brought an increased focus to the facility. This movement from a small, fractious organization into one that is still small yet well organized and focused on its mission and goals has been a significant transition. Indicative of this turnaround was the sharing of information. One-on-one and small group meetings, together with statistics showing work activity was invaluable in gaining support for more equitable workload distribution, and the removal of blame and finger pointing. Sharing monthly reports on sales and operating costs also had a positive impact.

  19. Water stress preconditioning to improve drought resistance in young apricot plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez; Domingo; Torrecillas; Pérez-Pastor

    2000-07-28

    The effect of water stress preconditioning was studied in 1-year-old apricot plants (Prunus armeniaca L., cv. Búlida). Plants were submitted to different treatments, T-0 (control treatment) and T-1, drip irrigated daily; T-2 and T-3, irrigated daily at 50% and 25% of T-0, respectively; T-4 and T-5, irrigated to field capacity every 3 and 6 days, respectively. After 30 days, irrigation was withheld for 10 days, maintaining the T-0 treatment irrigated daily. After this period, the plants were re-irrigated to run-off and treated as control treatment. The stomatal closure and epinasty observed in response to water stress represented adaptive mechanisms to drought, allowing the plants to regulate water loss more effectively and prevent leaf heating. A substantial reduction in the irrigation water supplied combined with a high frequency of application (T-3 treatment) promoted plant hardening; the plants enduring drought better, due to their greater osmotic adjustment (0.77 MPa), which prevented severe plant dehydration and leaf abscission. Such a preconditioning treatment may be valuable for young apricot plants in the nursery stage in order to improve their subsequent resistance to drought. A 50% reduction in daily irrigation (T-2 treatment) did not significantly affect either gas exchange rates or leaf turgor, which suggests that water should be applied frequently if deficit irrigation is to be implemented.

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from New Caledonian ultramafic soils improve tolerance to nickel of endemic plant species.

    PubMed

    Amir, Hamid; Lagrange, Alexandre; Hassaïne, Nadine; Cavaloc, Yvon

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve knowledge about the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the tolerance to heavy metals in ultramafic soils, the present study investigated the influence of two Glomus etunicatum isolates from New Caledonian ultramafic maquis (shrubland), on nickel tolerance of a model plant species Sorghum vulgare, and of two ultramafic endemic plant species, Alphitonia neocaledonica and Cloezia artensis. In a first step, plants were grown in a greenhouse, on sand with defined concentrations of Ni, to appreciate the effects of the two isolates on the alleviation of Ni toxicity in controlled conditions. In a second step, the influence of the AMF on A. neocaledonica and C. artensis plants grown in a New Caledonian ultramafic soil rich in extractable nickel was investigated. Ni reduced mycorrhizal colonization and sporulation of the fungal isolates, but the symbionts increased plant growth and adaptation of endemic plant species to ultramafic conditions. One of the two G. etunicatum isolates showed a stronger positive effect on plant biomass and phosphorus uptake, and a greater reduction in toxicity symptoms and Ni concentration in roots and shoots. The symbionts seemed to act as a barrier to the absorption of Ni by the plant and reduced root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Results indicate the potential of selected native AMF isolates from ultramafic areas for ecological restoration of such degraded ecosystems.

  1. Technical Support for Improving the Licensing Regulatory Base for Selected Facilities Associated with the Front End of the Fuel Cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. G.; Schreiber, R. E.; Jamison, J. D.; Davenport, L. C.; Brite, D. W.

    1982-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards (NMSS) to determine the adequacy of its health, safety and environmental regulatory base as a guide to applicants for licenses to operate UF{sub 6} conversion facilities and fuel fabrication plants. The regulatory base was defined as the body of documented requirements and guidance to licensees, including laws passed by Congress, Federal Regulations developed by the NRC to implement the laws, license conditions added to each license to deal with special requirements for that specific license, and Regulatory Guides. The study concentrated on the renewal licensing accomplished in the last few years at five typical facilities, and included analyses of licensing documents and interviews with individuals involved with different aspects of the licensing process. Those interviewed included NMSS staff, Inspection and Enforcement (IE) officials, and selected licensees. From the results of the analyses and interviews, the PNL study team concludes that the regulatory base is adequate but should be codified for greater visibility. PNL recommends that NMSS clarify distinctions among legal requirements of the licensee, acceptance criteria employed by NMSS, and guidance used by all. In particular, a prelicensing conference among NMSS, IE and each licensee would be a practical means of setting license conditions acceptable to all parties.

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.310 - What measures must Federal agencies take to improve the utilization of parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities... employment of parking management contractors and concessionaires, where appropriate. Smoking...

  3. Opportunities for Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Phase II Report. San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Lisa; Lekov, Alex; McKane, Aimee; Piette, Mary Ann

    2010-08-20

    This case study enhances the understanding of open automated demand response opportunities in municipal wastewater treatment facilities. The report summarizes the findings of a 100 day submetering project at the San Luis Rey Wastewater Treatment Plant, a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Oceanside, California. The report reveals that key energy-intensive equipment such as pumps and centrifuges can be targeted for large load reductions. Demand response tests on the effluent pumps resulted a 300 kW load reduction and tests on centrifuges resulted in a 40 kW load reduction. Although tests on the facility?s blowers resulted in peak period load reductions of 78 kW sharp, short-lived increases in the turbidity of the wastewater effluent were experienced within 24 hours of the test. The results of these tests, which were conducted on blowers without variable speed drive capability, would not be acceptable and warrant further study. This study finds that wastewater treatment facilities have significant open automated demand response potential. However, limiting factors to implementing demand response are the reaction of effluent turbidity to reduced aeration load, along with the cogeneration capabilities of municipal facilities, including existing power purchase agreements and utility receptiveness to purchasing electricity from cogeneration facilities.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Adrian; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  5. 3 CFR 13650 - Executive Order 13650 of August 1, 2013. Improving Chemical Facility Safety and Security

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... shall develop an analysis, including recommendations, on the potential to improve information collection.... This analysis should consider ongoing data-sharing efforts, other federally collected information, and... improve the safe and secure storage, handling, and sale of ammonium nitrate and identify ways in...

  6. Webinar Presentation: Environmental Exposures and Health Risks in California Child Care Facilities: First Steps to Improve Environmental Health where Children Spend Time

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Environmental Exposures and Health Risks in California Child Care Facilities: First Steps to Improve Environmental Health where Children Spend Time, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome.

  7. Performance Based Testing in Use at Russian Facilities for System Improvement and Operations Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    W. J. Toth; Pavel Bondarev

    2001-07-11

    Integration of MPC and A systems at Russian facilities has moved beyond the project end dates and the systems have been operational for some time at a number of Russian sites. At some of these sites, system of performance testing is resulting in data that is being analyzed to determine the health and operability of the system. Naturally, as the systems are young, a number of operational problems are being discovered and solved by Russian scientists and technicians. This paper explains the performance testing program including the types of systems being analyzed. It also discusses the tools and process used to analyze the data and the actions taken. It will discuss the organizations that support this activity and their success in establishing this function at the referenced sites.

  8. Centralization of dairy farming facilities for improved economics and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Rokuta; Furuichi, Tohru; Komatsu, Toshihiro; Tanikawa, Noboru; Ishii, Kazuei

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, most farm animal excreta has been stored directly on farmland. Runoff from this storage has often caused water pollution. Biogasification is anticipated as an important technology to manage excreta properly, but complex problems hinder its introduction. Economic aspects of management have been especially difficult for dairy farmers. For this study, structural problems regarding introduction of biogasification into dairy farming were identified. Subsequently, a desirable system of dairy farming including biogasification was suggested, and an evaluation model of the financial balance was constructed. A case study using current financial balances of several systems of dairy farming was evaluated using the constructed model and actual data. The systems were based on several policy alternatives including the suggested system mentioned above. Results show that a farmer can obtain sufficient income from a system featuring centralization of dairy housing and biogasification facilities and coordinated management by over six farmers.

  9. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  10. HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.

    1990-06-01

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  11. Trends in plant virus epidemiology: opportunities from new or improved technologies.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A C

    2014-06-24

    This review focuses on new or improved technologies currently being applied, or likely to be applied in the future, to worldwide research on plant virus epidemiology. Recent technological advances and innovations provide many opportunities to improve understanding of the way diverse types of plant virus epidemics develop and how to manage them. The review starts at the macro level by considering how recent innovations in remote sensing and precision agriculture can provide valuable information about (i) virus epidemics occurring at continental, regional or district scales (via satellites) and within individual crops (mostly via lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles), and (ii) exactly where to target control measures. It then considers recent improvements in information systems and innovations in modelling that improve (i) understanding of virus epidemics and ability to predict them, and (ii) delivery to end-users of critical advice on control measures, such as Internet-based Decision Support Systems. The review goes on to discuss how advances in analysis of spatiotemporal virus spread patterns within crops can help to enhance understanding of how virus epidemics develop and validate potentially useful virus control measures. At the micro level, the review then considers the many insights that advances in molecular epidemiology can provide about genetic variation within plant virus populations involved in epidemics, and how this variation drives what occurs at the macro level. Next, it describes how recent innovations in virus detection technologies are providing many opportunities to collect and analyse new types, and ever increasing amounts, of data about virus epidemics, and the genetic variability of the virus populations involved. Finally, the implications for plant virus epidemiology of technologies likely to be important in the future are considered. To address looming world food insecurity and threats to plant biodiversity resulting from climate change and

  12. Total Soluble Protein Extraction for Improved Proteomic Analysis of Transgenic Rice Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Raorane, Manish L; Narciso, Joan O; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of high-throughput platforms, proteomics has become a powerful tool to search for plant gene products of agronomic relevance. Protein extractions using multistep protocols have been shown to be effective to achieve better proteome profiles than simple, single-step extractions. These protocols are generally efficient for above ground tissues such as leaves. However, each step leads to loss of some amount of proteins. Additionally, compounds such as proteases in the plant tissues lead to protein degradation. While protease inhibitor cocktails are available, these alone do not seem to suffice when roots are included in the plant sample. This is obvious given the lack of high molecular weight (HMW) proteins obtained from samples that include root tissue. For protein/proteome analysis of transgenic plant roots or of seedlings, which include root tissue, such pronounced protein degradation is especially undesirable. A facile protein extraction protocol is presented, which ensures that despite the inclusion of root tissues there is minimal loss in total protein components.

  13. Plants as Indicators of Past and Present Zones of Upwelling Soil CO2 at the ZERT Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, M. E.; Sharma, B.; Zhou, X.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Cunnningham, A.; Spangler, L.; ZERT Team

    2011-12-01

    By their very nature, photosynthetic plants are sensitive and responsive to CO2, which they fix during the Calvin-Benson cycle. Responses of plants to CO2 are valuable tools in the surface detection of upwelling and leaking CO2 from carbon sequestration fields. Plants exposed to upwelling CO2 rapidly exhibit signs of stress such as changes in stomatal conductance, hyperspectral signatures, pigmentation, and viability (Lakkaraju et al. 2010; Male et al. 2010). The Zero Emission Research and Technology (ZERT) site in Bozeman, MT is an experimental facility for surface detection of CO2 where 0.15 ton/day of CO2 was released (7/19- 8/15/2010, and 7/18 - 8/15/2011) from a 100m horizontal injection well, (HIW), 1.5 m underground with deliberate leaks of CO2 at intervals, and from a vertical injector, (VIW), (6/3-6/24/2010). Soil CO2 concentrations reached 16%. Plants at ZERT include Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion), Dactylis glomerata (Orchard Grass), Poa pratensis, (Kentucky Bluegrass), Phleum pratense (Timothy), Bromus japonicus (Japanese Brome), Medicago sativa (Alfalfa) and Cirsium arvense (Canadian Thistle). Dandelion leaves above the zones of upwelling CO2 at the HIW and the VIW changed color from green to reddish-purple (indicative of an increase in anthocyanins) to brown as they senesced within two weeks of CO2 injection. Their increased stomatal conductance along with their extensive surface area combined to make water loss occur quickly following injection of CO2. Xeromorphic grass leaves were not as profoundly affected, although they did exhibit changes in stomatal conductance, accelerated loss of chlorophyll beyond what would normally occur with seasonal senescence, and altered hyperspectral signatures. Within two weeks of CO2 injection at the HIW and the VIW, hot spots formed, which are circular zones of visible leaf senescence that appear at zones of upwelling CO2. The hot spots became more pronounced as the CO2 injection continued, and were detectable

  14. Hybrid-Cut: An Improved Sectioning Method for Recalcitrant Plant Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Su-Chiung; Lien, Yi-Chen; Yang, Ting-Ting; Ko, Swee-Suak

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals(calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants. Plant tissues were embedded in paraffin before sectioning in a cryostat at -16 °C. Sectioning under low temperature hardened the paraffin blocks, reduced tearing and scratching, and improved tissue integrity significantly. This protocol was successfully applied to calcium oxalate-rich Phalaenopsis orchid tissues as well as recalcitrant tissues such as reproductive organs and leaves of rice, maize, and wheat. In addition, the high quality of tissue sections from Hybrid-Cut could be used in combination with in situ hybridization (ISH) to provide spatial expression patterns of genes of interest. In conclusion, this protocol is particularly useful for recalcitrant plant tissue containing high crystal or silica content. Good quality tissue sections enable morphological and other biological studies. PMID:27911377

  15. Isopentenyl transferase gene (ipt) downstream transcriptionally fused with gene expression improves the growth of transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian-Chun; Duan, Rui-Jun; Hu, Xin-Wen; Li, Kai-Mian; Fu, Shao-Ping

    2010-04-01

    This research reports a promising approach to increase a plant's physiological cytokinin content. This approach also enables the increase to play a role in plant growth and development by introducing the ipt gene to downstream transcriptionally fuse with other genes under the control of a CaMV35S promoter, in which the ipt gene is far from the 35S promoter. According to Kozak's ribosome screening model, expression of the ipt gene is reduced by the terminal codon of the first gene and the internal untranslated nucleotides between the fused genes. In the transgenic plants pVKH35S-GUS-ipt, pVKH35S-AOC-ipt, and pVKH35S-AtGolS2-ipt, cytokinins were increased only two to threefold, and the plants grew more vigorously than the pVKH35S-AOC or pVKH35S-AtGolS2 transgenic plants lacking the ipt gene. The vigorous growth was reflected in rapid plant growth, a longer flowering period, a greater number of flowers, more seed product, and increased chlorophyll synthesis. The AOC and AtGolS2 genes play a role in a plant's tolerance of salt or cold, respectively. When the ipt gene transcriptionally fuses with AOC or AtGolS2 in the frame of AOC-ipt and AtGolS2-ipt, slight cytokinin increases were obtained in their transgenic plants; furthermore, those increases played a positive role in improvements of plant growth. Notably, an increased cytokinin volume at the physiological level, in concert with AtGolS2 expression, enhances a plant's tolerance to cold.

  16. Accurate Analysis and Evaluation of Acidic Plant Growth Regulators in Transgenic and Nontransgenic Edible Oils with Facile Microwave-Assisted Extraction-Derivatization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengge; Chen, Guang; Guo, Hailong; Fan, Baolei; Liu, Jianjun; Fu, Qiang; Li, Xiu; Lu, Xiaomin; Zhao, Xianen; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Xia, Lian; Zhu, Shuyun; Yang, Daoshan; Cao, Ziping; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2015-09-16

    Determination of plant growth regulators (PGRs) in a signal transduction system (STS) is significant for transgenic food safety, but may be challenged by poor accuracy and analyte instability. In this work, a microwave-assisted extraction-derivatization (MAED) method is developed for six acidic PGRs in oil samples, allowing an efficient (<1.5 h) and facile (one step) pretreatment. Accuracies are greatly improved, particularly for gibberellin A3 (-2.72 to -0.65%) as compared with those reported (-22 to -2%). Excellent selectivity and quite low detection limits (0.37-1.36 ng mL(-1)) are enabled by fluorescence detection-mass spectrum monitoring. Results show the significant differences in acidic PGRs between transgenic and nontransgenic oils, particularly 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA), implying the PGRs induced variations of components and genes. This study provides, for the first time, an accurate and efficient determination for labile PGRs involved in STS and a promising concept for objectively evaluating the safety of transgenic foods.

  17. Natural plant colonization improves the physical condition of bauxite residue over time.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Xiaofei; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Chuan; Han, Fusong

    2016-11-01

    Freshly stacked bauxite residue in Central China has little vegetative growth probably as a result of its poor physical condition and chemical properties which deter plant establishment. Over the last 20 years, spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits has revealed that natural weathering processes may improve bauxite residue to the extent that it can support vegetation. Bauxite residue samples were collected from a chronosequence and analyzed to determine the effect of natural processes over time. The freshly stacked residue showed considerable physical degradation, having a high bulk density, low porosity, and poor aggregate stability. Through natural processes over a 20-year period, the texture changed from a silty loam to a sandy loam, porosity was enhanced (43.88 to 58.24 %), while improvements in both aggregate stability (43.32 to 93.20 %) and structural stability (1.33 to 5.46 %) of the stacked residue were observed. Plant growth had a positive effect on pH, exchangeable sodium percentage, soil organic carbon, water-stable aggregation, and structural stability, probably due to the presence of plant roots and associated microbial activity. It was concluded that natural processes of regeneration, stabilization, and attenuation have improved the hostile physical environment of bauxite residue allowing plant establishment to take place.

  18. Source term evaluation for UF{sub 6} release event in feed facility at gaseous diffusion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1997-01-30

    An assessment of UF{sub 6} release accidents was conducted for the feed facility of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP). Release rates from pig-tail connections were estimated from CYLIND code predictions, whereas, MELCOR was utilized for simulating reactions of UF{sub 6} with moisture and consequent transport of UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and HF vapor through the building and to the environment. Two wind speeds were utilized. At the high end (Case 1) a wind speed of {approximately} 1 m/s (200 fpm) was assumed to flow parallel to the building length. At the low end (Case 2) to represent stagnant conditions a corresponding wind speed of 1 cm/s (2 fpm) was utilized. A further conservative assumption was made to specify no closure of crane and train doors at either end of the building. Relaxation of this assumption should provide for additional margins. Results indicated that, for the high (200 fpm) wind speed, close to 66% of the UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} aerosols and 100% of the HF gas get released to the environment over a 10-minute period. However, for the low (2 fpm) wind speed, negligible amount ({approximately} 1% UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) of aerosols get released even over a 2 hour period.

  19. Pretreatment Engineering Platform--Reducing Technical Risks for the Waste Treatment Plant Pretreatment Facility through Scaled Process Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Musick, Chris A.; Barnes, Steven M.; Huckaby, James L.; Josephson, Gary B.; Gilbert, Robert A.

    2008-02-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will separate and vitrify (immobilize in glass) millions of gallons of radioactive and chemical wastes stored at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of the waste by caustic and oxidative leaching processes will minimize the volume of high-level waste (HLW) to be vitrified, and cross-flow ultrafiltration will be used to remove liquids from the HLW solid slurry. An extensive and critical review of the WTP technical bases and design identified the need to demonstrate of the integrated leaching and ultrafiltration processes at greater than bench scale. To respond to this need, the WTP prime contractor, Bechtel National, Inc., and their principle subcontractor Washington Group International concluded a 1/4.5 scale facility to treat non-radioactive waste simulants was needed to demonstrate the process. This paper describes the technical bases and design of the scaled Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) and the strategy to develop waste simulants to be used in the PEP

  20. Application of plant growth regulators, a simple technique for improving the establishment success of plant cuttings in coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestri, Elena; Vallerini, Flavia; Castelli, Alberto; Lardicci, Claudio

    2012-03-01

    high survival potential and greater area cover. In contrast, a pre-treatment of cuttings of S. virginicus with Kinetin would achieve more acceptable plant survival rates. This easy and low cost-effective technique may be extended to other dune plant species and applied on a large scale to improve the chance of dune restoration success.

  1. Genetic Improvement of Switchgrass and Other Herbaceous Plants for Use as Biomass Fuel Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, K.P.

    2001-01-11

    It should be highly feasible to genetically modify the feedstock quality of switchgrass and other herbaceous plants using both conventional and molecular breeding techniques. Effectiveness of breeding to modify herbages of switchgrass and other perennial and annual herbaceous species has already been demonstrated. The use of molecular markers and transformation technology will greatly enhance the capability of breeders to modify the plant structure and cell walls of herbaceous plants. It will be necessary to monitor gene flow to remnant wild populations of plants and have strategies available to curtail gene flow if it becomes a potential problem. It also will be necessary to monitor plant survival and long-term productivity as affected by genetic changes that improve forage quality. Information on the conversion processes that will be used and the biomass characteristics that affect conversion efficiency and rate is absolutely essential as well as information on the relative economic value of specific traits. Because most forage or biomass quality characteristics are highly affected by plant maturity, it is suggested that plant material of specific maturity stages be used in research to determining desirable feedstock quality characteristics. Plant material could be collected at various stages of development from an array of environments and storage conditions that could be used in conversion research. The same plant material could be used to develop NIRS calibrations that could be used by breeders in their selection programs and also to develop criteria for a feedstock quality assessment program. Breeding for improved feedstock quality will likely affect the rate of improvement of biomass production per acre. If the same level of resources are used, multi-trait breeding simply reduces the selection pressure and hence the breeding progress that can be made for a single trait unless all the traits are highly correlated. Since desirable feedstock traits are likely

  2. Optimizing Facility Configurations and Operating Conditions for Improved Performance in the NASA Ames 24 Inch Shock Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cruden, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) is a shock tube wherein the driver gas can be heated by an electric arc discharge. The electrical energy is stored in a 1.2 MJ capacitor bank. Four inch and 24 inch diameter driven tubes are available. The facility is described and the need for testing in the 24 inch tube to better simulate low density NASA mission profiles is discussed. Three test entries, 53, 53B and 59, are discussed. Tests are done with air or Mars gas (95.7% CO2/2.7% N2/1.6% Ar) at pressures of 0.01 to 0.14 Torr. Velocities spanned 6.3-9.2 km/s, with a nominal center of 7 km/s. Many facility configurations are studied in an effort to improve data quality. Various driver and driven tube configurations and the use of a buffer section between the driver and the driven tube are studied. Diagnostics include test times, time histories of the shock light pulses and tilts of the shock wave off the plane normal to the tube axis. The report will detail the results of the various trials, give the best configuration/operating conditions found to date and provide recommendations for further improvements. Finally, diaphragm performance is discussed.

  3. Improved Method for HPLC Analysis of Polyamines, Agmatine and Aromatic Monoamines in Plant Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Robert D.; Flores, Hector E.; Galston, Arthur W.; Weinstein, Leonard H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucus carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:11537449

  4. Exploiting plant-microbe partnerships to improve biomass production and remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-10-01

    Although many plant-associated bacteria have beneficial effects on their host, their importance during plant growth and development is still underestimated. A better understanding of their plant growth-promoting mechanisms could be exploited for sustainable growth of food and feed crops, biomass for biofuel production and feedstocks for industrial processes. Such plant growth-promoting mechanisms might facilitate higher production of energy crops in a more sustainable manner, even on marginal land, and thus contribute to avoiding conflicts between food and energy production. Furthermore, because many bacteria show a natural capacity to cope with contaminants, they could be exploited to improve the efficiency of phytoremediation or to protect the food chain by reducing levels of agrochemicals in food crops.

  5. Improved method for HPLC analysis of polyamines, agmatine and aromatic monoamines in plant tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, R. D.; Flores, H. E.; Galston, A. W.; Weinstein, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method of Flores and Galston (1982 Plant Physiol 69: 701) for the separation and quantitation of benzoylated polyamines in plant tissues has been widely adopted by other workers. However, due to previously unrecognized problems associated with the derivatization of agmatine, this important intermediate in plant polyamine metabolism cannot be quantitated using this method. Also, two polyamines, putrescine and diaminopropane, also are not well resolved using this method. A simple modification of the original HPLC procedure greatly improves the separation and quantitation of these amines, and further allows the simulation analysis of phenethylamine and tyramine, which are major monoamine constituents of tobacco and other plant tissues. We have used this modified HPLC method to characterize amine titers in suspension cultured carrot (Daucas carota L.) cells and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaf tissues.

  6. Suggested improvements for the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants used in foods.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard E; Tetteh, Afua O

    2011-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants are increasingly used for food production and industrial applications. As the global population has surpassed 7 billion and per capita consumption rises, food production is challenged by loss of arable land, changing weather patterns, and evolving plant pests and disease. Previous gains in quantity and quality relied on natural or artificial breeding, random mutagenesis, increased pesticide and fertilizer use, and improved farming techniques, all without a formal safety evaluation. However, the direct introduction of novel genes raised questions regarding safety that are being addressed by an evaluation process that considers potential increases in the allergenicity, toxicity, and nutrient availability of foods derived from the GM plants. Opinions vary regarding the adequacy of the assessment, but there is no documented proof of an adverse effect resulting from foods produced from GM plants. This review and opinion discusses current practices and new regulatory demands related to food safety.

  7. Plant cell wall engineering: applications in biofuel production and improved human health.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel A; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2014-04-01

    Plant cell walls consist largely of cellulose, non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. Concerted attempts are underway to convert wall polysaccharides from crop plant residues into renewable transport fuels and other valuable products, and to exploit the dietary benefits of cereal grain wall polysaccharides in human health. Attempts to improve plant performance for these applications have involved the manipulation of the levels and structures of wall components. Some successes in altering non-cellulosic polysaccharides has been achieved, but it would appear that drastic changes in cellulose are more difficult to engineer. Nevertheless, future prospects for both genetically modified (GM) and non-GM technologies to modify plant cell wall composition and structure remain bright, and will undoubtedly find applications beyond the current focus on human health and biofuel production.

  8. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Enhanced IGCC regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control strategies for improving power ramp rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of ongoing R&D activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training & Research (AVESTAR™) Center, this paper highlights strategies for enhancing low-level regulatory control and system-wide coordinated control strategies implemented in a high-fidelity dynamic simulator for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon capture. The underlying IGCC plant dynamic model contains 20 major process areas, each of which is tightly integrated with the rest of the power plant, making individual functionally-independent processes prone to routine disturbances. Single-loop feedback control although adequate to meet the primary control objective for most processes, does not take into account in advance the effect of these disturbances, making the entire power plant undergo large offshoots and/or oscillations before the feedback action has an opportunity to impact control performance. In this paper, controller enhancements ranging from retuning feedback control loops, multiplicative feed-forward control and other control techniques such as split-range control, feedback trim and dynamic compensation, applicable on various subsections of the integrated IGCC plant, have been highlighted and improvements in control responses have been given. Compared to using classical feedback-based control structure, the enhanced IGCC regulatory control architecture reduces plant settling time and peak offshoots, achieves faster disturbance rejection, and promotes higher power ramp-rates. In addition, improvements in IGCC coordinated plant-wide control strategies for “Gasifier-Lead”, “GT-Lead” and “Plantwide” operation modes have been proposed and their responses compared. The paper is concluded with a brief discussion on the potential IGCC controller improvements resulting from using advanced process control, including model predictive control (MPC), as a supervisory control layer.

  10. Clean Air Act Settlement Reduces Air Emissions and Improves Chemical Safety at Rhode Island Biodiesel Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA & U.S. Department of Justice have settled an environmental enforcement case with Newport Biodiesel, Inc., resulting in reduced air emissions and improved safety controls at the company’s biodiesel manufacturing plant in Newport, Rhode Island.

  11. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  12. Amending metal contaminated mine soil with biochars to sequester metals and improve plant growth cover

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are numerous mine spoil sites in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that contain highly acidic, heavy metal-laden soils, which limits establishment of a soil-stabilizing plant cover. Biochars may be a suitable soil amendment to reduce toxic metals, improve soil fertility, soil wa...

  13. Practical aspects of running DOE for improving growth media for in vitro plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments using DOE software to improve plant tissue culture growth medium are complicated and require complex setups. Once the experimental design is set and the treatment points calculated, media sheets and mixing charts must be developed. Since these experiments require three passages on the sa...

  14. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 hierarchical microspheres with improved lithium storage performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Xiaojuan; He, Jian; An, Kun; Mu, Jiliang; Chou, Xiujian; Xue, Chenyang

    2016-10-01

    Porous nanosheets-assembled Co3O4 microspheres have been first successfully fabricated by a facile solvothermal method without any surfactant followed by a relatively low annealing temperature (400 °C) with a higher specific surface area compared to the annealing temperature of 600 °C. The nanosheets-assembled microspheres exhibit a high discharge capacity of 1000 mA h g-1 at a current density of 100 mA g-1 after 50 cycles and 850 mA h g-1 at a current density of 500 mA g-1 after 80 cycles, even at a high current density of 1.6 A g-1 the cycling reversible capacity can still keep 750 mA h g-1, the representative capacities are relatively higher than most of reports about pure Co3O4. We attribute the excellent electrochemical performances to the porous nanosheets structure and architectures, which can provide more effective electrode/electrolyte contact area and direct ion transmission path, then lead to faster lithium-ion diffusion, confirmed by EIS measurements. The high specific capacity, excellent cycling and rate performances demonstrate that the porous nanosheets assembled microspheres present promising application in lithium storage.

  16. Assess and improve the sustainability of water treatment facility using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-11-01

    Fluids problems in water treatment industry are often simplified or omitted since the focus is usually on chemical process only. However hydraulics also plays an important role in determining effluent water quality. Recent studies have demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the ability to simulate the physical and chemical processes in reactive flows in water treatment facilities, such as in chlorine and ozone disinfection tanks. This study presents the results from CFD simulations of reactive flow in an existing full-scale ozone disinfection tank and in potential designs. Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT (the product of disinfectant concentration and contact time) obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone disinfection tank designs and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability of ozone disinfection tank in technological, environmental and economic dimensions.

  17. Improved Sanitation Facilities are Associated with Higher Body Mass Index and Higher Hemoglobin Concentration Among Rural Cambodian Women in the First Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Janmohamed, Amynah; Karakochuk, Crystal D; McLean, Judy; Green, Timothy J

    2016-11-02

    Multiple factors contribute to undernutrition in Cambodian women. Our aim was to determine if type of household sanitation facility was associated with body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration among pregnant women. Women (N = 544) from 75 villages in Kampong Chhnang Province had their height, weight, and Hb measured (HemoCue Hb 201(+)) in the first trimester. Sociodemographic and household characteristics were collected. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used for analyses. Approximately 40% (N = 221) of women reported primarily using an 'improved' sanitation facility (closed pit latrine) and ∼60% (N = 323) used 'non-improved' facilities (open defecation). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) BMI was higher among women with improved versus non-improved facilities (19.9 ± 3.0 kg/m(2) versus 19.4 ± 2.3 kg/m(2); P = 0.01). Mean ± SD Hb concentration was also higher among women with improved versus non-improved facilities (118 ± 12 g/L versus 114 ± 14 g/L; P = 0.001). Anemia prevalence (Hb < 110 g/L) was higher among women with non-improved facilities (34% versus 25%; P = 0.04). An improved sanitation facility was a positive predictor of BMI (β = 0.57 kg/m(2); 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.10, 1.04) and Hb concentration (β = 2.94 g/L; 95% CI = 0.53, 5.35), adjusting for age, parity, household size, village, gestation week, source of drinking water, and iron folic acid supplementation. Poor sanitation was associated with lower BMI and Hb concentration among pregnant Cambodian women. This warrants multisectoral approaches involving the health, nutrition, water, and sanitation sectors to effectively improve maternal health in Cambodia.

  18. Development of Improved Radiation Drive Environment for High Foot Implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Döppner, T.; Goyon, C. S.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Schneider, M. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-11-01

    Analyses of high foot implosions show that performance is limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Reported here are significant improvements in the radiation environment, which result in an enhancement in implosion performance. Using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density improves the symmetry control of a high foot implosion. Moreover, for the first time, these hohlraums produce reduced levels of hot electrons, generated by laser-plasma interactions, which are at levels comparable to near-vacuum hohlraums, and well within specifications. Further, there is a noteworthy increase in laser energy coupling to the hohlraum, and discrepancies with simulated radiation production are markedly reduced. At fixed laser energy, high foot implosions driven with this improved hohlraum have achieved a 1.4 ×increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50% as compared to a reference experiment with the same laser energy.

  19. Productivity & Higher Education: Improving the Effectiveness of Faculty, Facilities, and Financial Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E., Ed.; Meyerson, Joel W., Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays from prominent administrators and influential thinkers in higher education who offer their prescriptions for responding to the challenges imposed by higher costs and reduced revenue expectations. Innovative improvements in the operating efficiency in such areas as administration and support services,…

  20. Evaluating Strategies to Improve Careprovider Performance on Health and Developmental Tasks in an Infant Care Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, George G. R.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two experiements evaluated a staff-managed feedback system to improve the hygiene and developmental skills of children in an infant/toddler center. The data supported the use of the new feedback system. Questionnaire data further supported the utility of the playchart system. (Author/CL)

  1. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  2. Advances in plant proteomics toward improvement of crop productivity and stress resistancex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junjie; Rampitsch, Christof; Bykova, Natalia V.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic and biotic stresses constrain plant growth and development negatively impacting crop production. Plants have developed stress-specific adaptations as well as simultaneous responses to a combination of various abiotic stresses with pathogen infection. The efficiency of stress-induced adaptive responses is dependent on activation of molecular signaling pathways and intracellular networks by modulating expression, or abundance, and/or post-translational modification (PTM) of proteins primarily associated with defense mechanisms. In this review, we summarize and evaluate the contribution of proteomic studies to our understanding of stress response mechanisms in different plant organs and tissues. Advanced quantitative proteomic techniques have improved the coverage of total proteomes and sub-proteomes from small amounts of starting material, and characterized PTMs as well as protein–protein interactions at the cellular level, providing detailed information on organ- and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms responding to a variety of individual stresses or stress combinations during plant life cycle. In particular, we address the tissue-specific signaling networks localized to various organelles that participate in stress-related physiological plasticity and adaptive mechanisms, such as photosynthetic efficiency, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, plant growth, tolerance and common responses to environmental stresses. We also provide an update on the progress of proteomics with major crop species and discuss the current challenges and limitations inherent to proteomics techniques and data interpretation for non-model organisms. Future directions in proteomics research toward crop improvement are further discussed. PMID:25926838

  3. Replace, reuse, recycle: improving the sustainable use of phosphorus by plants.

    PubMed

    Baker, Alison; Ceasar, S Antony; Palmer, Antony J; Paterson, Jaimie B; Qi, Wanjun; Muench, Stephen P; Baldwin, Stephen A

    2015-06-01

    The 'phosphorus problem' has recently received strong interest with two distinct strands of importance. The first is that too much phosphorus (P) is entering into waste water, creating a significant economic and ecological problem. Secondly, while agricultural demand for phosphate fertilizer is increasing to maintain crop yields, rock phosphate reserves are rapidly declining. Unravelling the mechanisms by which plants sense, respond to, and acquire phosphate can address both problems, allowing the development of crop plants that are more efficient at acquiring and using limited amounts of phosphate while at the same time improving the potential of plants and other photosynthetic organisms for nutrient recapture and recycling from waste water. In this review, we attempt to synthesize these important but often disparate parts of the debate in a holistic fashion, since solutions to such a complex problem require integrated and multidisciplinary approaches that address both P supply and demand. Rapid progress has been made recently in our understanding of local and systemic signalling mechanisms for phosphate, and of expression and regulation of membrane proteins that take phosphate up from the environment and transport it within the plant. We discuss the current state of understanding of such mechanisms involved in sensing and responding to phosphate stress. We also discuss approaches to improve the P-use efficiency of crop plants and future direction for sustainable use of P, including use of photosynthetic organisms for recapture of P from waste waters.

  4. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  5. Improved Wavelength Detuning Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Mitigation Strategy for Polar Direct Drive at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marozas, J. A.; Collins, T. J. B.; McKenty, P. W.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) reduces absorbed light and implosion velocity, alters time-resolved scattered-light spectra, and redistributes absorbed and scattered light. These effects reduce target performance in both symmetric direct-drive and polar-direct-drive (PDD) experiments on the OMEGA Laser System and the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The CBET package (Adaawam) incorporated into the 2-D hydrodynamics code DRACO is an integral part of the 3-D ray-trace package (Mazinisin). The CBET exchange occurs primarily over the equatorial region in PDD, where successful mitigation strategies concentrate. Detuning the initial laser wavelength (dλ0) reduces the CBET interaction volume, which can be combined with other mitigation domains (e.g., spatial and temporal). By judiciously selecting the ring and/or port +/-dλ0 in each hemisphere, using new DRACO diagnostic abilities, improved wavelength detuning strategies trade-off overall energy absorption for improved hemispherical energy balance control. These balanced-wavelength detuning strategies improve performance for high-convergence implosions. Simulations (2-D DRACO) predict improved implosion performance and control in both the shell trajectory and morphology for planned intermediate PDD experiments on the NIF. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Facile One-step Micropatterning Using Photodegradable Methacrylated Gelatin Hydrogels for Improved Cardiomyocyte Organization and Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Kelly M.C.; Annabi, Nasim; Ercole, Francesca; Zhou, Kun; Karst, Daniel; Li, Fanyi; Haynes, John M.; Evans, Richard A.; Thissen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogels are often employed as temporary platforms for cell proliferation and tissue organization in vitro. Researchers have incorporated photodegradable moieties into synthetic polymeric hydrogels as a means of achieving spatiotemporal control over material properties. In this study protein-based photodegradable hydrogels composed of methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) and a crosslinker containing o-nitrobenzyl ester groups have been developed. The hydrogels are able to degrade rapidly and specifically in response to UV light and can be photopatterned to a variety of shapes and dimensions in a one-step process. Micropatterned photodegradable hydrogels are shown to improve cell distribution, alignment and beating regularity of cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Overall this work introduces a new class of photodegradable hydrogel based on natural and biofunctional polymers as cell culture substrates for improving cellular organization and function. PMID:26327819

  7. Identification of Ways to Improve Military Construction for Energy-Efficient Facilities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    identify all processes of MCA that impact building energy efficiency and ways of improving them. ,,’, *% Executive Order 12003, Relating to the...process which ’" would increase building energy efficiency and (2) preliminary development of an accept- 0 ance testing program for ItVAC systems...unfamiliar with or confused about a building’s systems, they may disconnect or bypass components critical to building energy efficiency . Second, a full

  8. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian

    2010-06-01

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be ˜0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however.

  9. Expression of peanut Iron Regulated Transporter 1 in tobacco and rice plants confers improved iron nutrition.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hongchun; Guo, Xiaotong; Kobayashi, Takanori; Kakei, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nozoye, Tomoko; Zhang, Lixia; Shen, Hongyun; Qiu, Wei; Nishizawa, Naoko K; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-07-01

    Iron (Fe) limitation is a widespread agricultural problem in calcareous soils and severely limits crop production. Iron Regulated Transporter 1 (IRT1) is a key component for Fe uptake from the soil in dicot plants. In this study, the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) AhIRT1 was introduced into tobacco and rice plants using an Fe-deficiency-inducible artificial promoter. Induced expression of AhIRT1 in tobacco plants resulted in accumulation of Fe in young leaves under Fe deficient conditions. Even under Fe-excess conditions, the Fe concentration was also markedly enhanced, suggesting that the Fe status did not affect the uptake and translocation of Fe by AhIRT1 in the transgenic plants. Most importantly, the transgenic tobacco plants showed improved tolerance to Fe limitation in culture in two types of calcareous soils. Additionally, the induced expression of AhIRT1 in rice plants also resulted in high tolerance to low Fe availability in calcareous soils.

  10. Ethylene resistance in flowering ornamental plantsimprovements and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Andreas; Lütken, Henrik; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Müller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Various strategies of plant breeding have been attempted in order to improve the ethylene resistance of flowering ornamental plants. These approaches span from conventional techniques such as simple cross-pollination to new breeding techniques which modify the plants genetically such as precise genome-editing. The main strategies target the ethylene pathway directly; others focus on changing the ethylene pathway indirectly via pathways that are known to be antagonistic to the ethylene pathway, e.g. increasing cytokinin levels. Many of the known elements of the ethylene pathway have been addressed experimentally with the aim of modulating the overall response of the plant to ethylene. Elements of the ethylene pathway that appear particularly promising in this respect include ethylene receptors as ETR1, and transcription factors such as EIN3. Both direct and indirect approaches seem to be successful, nevertheless, although genetic transformation using recombinant DNA has the ability to save much time in the breeding process, they are not readily used by breeders yet. This is primarily due to legislative issues, economic issues, difficulties of implementing this technology in some ornamental plants, as well as how these techniques are publically perceived, particularly in Europe. Recently, newer and more precise genome-editing techniques have become available and they are already being implemented in some crops. New breeding techniques may help change the current situation and pave the way toward a legal and public acceptance if products of these technologies are indistinguishable from plants obtained by conventional techniques. PMID:26504580

  11. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  12. JOINT STUDY OF IMPROVED SAFEGUARDS METHODOLOGY USING NO-NOTICE RANDOMIZED INSPECTION AT JNC'S Pu HANDLING FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    LU,M.S.; SANBORN,J.B.

    2000-04-01

    After the Iraq war, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 93+2 Program was developed to strengthen and improve the cost-effectiveness of the existing safeguards system. In particular, the Program aims to enhance the IAEA ability to detect undeclared nuclear activities and materials. The IAEA 93+2 Program includes: (1) Increased access to information and its effective use; (2) Increased physical access; (3) Optimum use of the existing system. The measures considered are divided in two parts: measures in Part 1 are those, which may be implemented within the existing IAEA authority; Part 2 measures require complementary legal authority, in the form of an additional Protocol, INFCIRC/540. A description of the status of its implementation can be found in ``Implementation of the Additional Protocol'' (Cooley, 1999). In particular, increased physical access includes access beyond locations requiring additional authorities derived from the INFCIRC/540 and no-notice randomized inspections. No-notice randomized inspections could enhance the inspection effectiveness and efficiency by increasing the coverage of the material involved, providing better confirmation of the operational status of the facilities and higher degree of confidence that no undeclared activities or materials existed at the facilities--including the detection of possible measures to conceal diversions.

  13. A facile fabrication of nitrogen-doped electrospun In2O3 nanofibers with improved visible-light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Na; Shao, Changlu; Li, Xinghua; Miao, Fujun; Wang, Kexin; Liu, Yichun

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis demonstrates to be an effective approach for eliminating most types of environment contaminants and for producing hydrogen. Herein, a facile synthesis route combining electrospinning technique and thermal treatment method under NH3 atmosphere has been presented as a straightforward protocol for the fabrication of nitrogen-doped In2O3 (N-In2O3) nanofibers, the nitrogen content of which can be well controlled by adjusting the annealing temperature. Photocatalytic tests show that the N-In2O3 nanofibers demonstrate an improved degradation rate of Rhodamine B (RB) compared with pure In2O3 nanofibers under visible-light irradiation. This can be attributed to the nitrogen atom introducing at interstitial sites as well as the generation of oxygen vacancy on the surface of In2O3 nanofibers, resulting in the enhanced utilization of visible light for the N-In2O3 nanofibers. Furthermore, the obtained N-In2O3 nanofibers with the advantage of ultra-long one-dimensional nanostructures can be recycled several times by facile sedimentation and hence present almost no decrease in photocatalytic activity indicative of a well regeneration capability. Therefore, the as-fabricated nitrogen-doped In2O3 nanofibers as a promising photocatalyst present good photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant in waste water for practical application.

  14. Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on hemodialysis facilities: an evaluation of radioactive contaminants in water used for hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Daigo; Kuno, Tsutomu; Sato, Sumihiko; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2012-02-01

    Following the crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami, radioactive substances ((131) I, (134) Cs, (137) Cs) were detected in tap water throughout eastern Japan. There is now concern that internal exposure to radioactive substances in the dialysate could pose a danger to hemodialysis patients. Radioactive substances were measured in three hemodialysis facilities before and after purification of tap water for use in hemodialysis. Radioactive iodine was detected at levels between 13 and 15 Bq/kg in tap water from the three facilities, but was not detected by reverse osmosis membrane at any of the facilities. We confirmed that the amount of radioactive substances in dialysate fell below the limit of detection (7-8 Bq/kg) by reverse osmosis membrane. It is now necessary to clarify the maximum safe level of radiation in dialysate for chronic hemodialysis patients.

  15. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  16. Manipulating microRNAs for improved biomass and biofuels from plant feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Jennifer Lynn; Zhang, Baohong; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2015-04-01

    Petroleum-based fuels are nonrenewable and unsustainable. Renewable sources of energy, such as lignocellulosic biofuels and plant metabolite-based drop-in fuels, can offset fossil fuel use and reverse environmental degradation through carbon sequestration. Despite these benefits, the lignocellulosic biofuels industry still faces many challenges, including the availability of economically viable crop plants. Cell wall recalcitrance is a major economic barrier for lignocellulosic biofuels production from biomass crops. Sustainability and biomass yield are two additional, yet interrelated, foci for biomass crop improvement. Many scientists are searching for solutions to these problems within biomass crop genomes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in almost all biological and metabolic process in plants including plant development, cell wall biosynthesis and plant stress responses. Because of the broad functions of their targets (e.g. auxin response factors), the alteration of plant miRNA expression often results in pleiotropic effects. A specific miRNA usually regulates a biologically relevant bioenergy trait. For example, relatively low miR156 overexpression leads to a transgenic feedstock with enhanced biomass and decreased recalcitrance. miRNAs have been overexpressed in dedicated bioenergy feedstocks such as poplar and switchgrass yielding promising results for lignin reduction, increased plant biomass, the timing of flowering and response to harsh environments. In this review, we present the status of miRNA-related research in several major biofuel crops and relevant model plants. We critically assess published research and suggest next steps for miRNA manipulation in feedstocks for increased biomass and sustainability for biofuels and bioproducts.

  17. Intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Research manuscript series 172

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    An intensive archeological survey of the proposed Saltcrete (200-Z) area of the Defense Waste Processing Facility on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina was conducted. The purpose was to locate, describe and assess the archeological resources within the proposed construction area and to provide the Department of Energy with the recommendations as to the significance of the resources. This report presents a summary of the background, methods, results and recommendations resulting from the Saltcrete area intensive survey.

  18. Variation in infection prevention practices in dialysis facilities: results from the national opportunity to improve infection control in ESRD (End-Stage Renal Disease) project.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Hines, Stephen C; Hall, Kendall K; Saran, Rajiv; Kalbfleisch, John D; Spencer, Teri; Frank, Kelly M; Carlson, Diane; Deane, Jan; Roys, Erik; Scholz, Natalie; Parrotte, Casey; Messana, Joseph M

    2015-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe patient care across hemodialysis facilities enrolled in the National Opportunity to Improve Infection Control in ESRD (end-stage renal disease) (NOTICE) project in order to evaluate adherence to evidence-based practices aimed at prevention of infection. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Thirty-four hemodialysis facilities were randomly selected from among 772 facilities in 4 end-stage renal disease participating networks. Facility selection was stratified on dialysis organization affiliation, size, socioeconomic status, and urban/rural status. MEASUREMENTS Trained infection control evaluators used an infection control worksheet to observe 73 distinct infection control practices at the hemodialysis facilities, from October 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. RESULTS There was considerable variation in infection control practices across enrolled facilities. Overall adherence to recommended practices was 68% (range, 45%-92%) across all facilities. Overall adherence to expected hand hygiene practice was 72% (range, 10%-100%). Compliance to hand hygiene before and after procedures was high; however, during procedures hand hygiene compliance averaged 58%. Use of chlorhexidine as the specific agent for exit site care was 19% overall but varied from 0% to 35% by facility type. The 8 checklists varied in the frequency of perfect performance from 0% for meeting every item on the checklist for disinfection practices to 22% on the arteriovenous access practices at initiation. CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that there are many areas for improvement in hand hygiene and other infection prevention practices in end-stage renal disease. These NOTICE project findings will help inform the development of a larger quality improvement initiative at dialysis facilities.

  19. Supplemental blue LED lighting array to improve the signal quality in hyperspectral imaging of plants.

    PubMed

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hammersley, Simon; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Goldbach, Heiner; Grieve, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400-500 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak at 470 nm.

  20. Supplemental Blue LED Lighting Array to Improve the Signal Quality in Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hammersley, Simon; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Goldbach, Heiner; Grieve, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging systems used in plant science or agriculture often have suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio in the blue region (400–500 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Typically there are two principal reasons for this effect, the low sensitivity of the imaging sensor and the low amount of light available from the illuminating source. In plant science, the blue region contains relevant information about the physiology and the health status of a plant. We report on the improvement in sensitivity of a hyperspectral imaging system in the blue region of the spectrum by using supplemental illumination provided by an array of high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs) with an emission peak at 470 nm. PMID:26039423

  1. Improved Exact Enumerative Algorithms for the Planted (l, d)-Motif Search Problem.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shunji

    2014-01-01

    In this paper efficient exact algorithms are proposed for the planted ( l, d)-motif search problem. This problem is to find all motifs of length l that are planted in each input string with at most d mismatches. The "quorum" version of this problem is also treated in this paper to find motifs planted not in all input strings but in at least q input strings. The proposed algorithms are based on the previous algorithms called qPMSPruneI and qPMS7 that traverse a search tree starting from a l-length substring of an input string. To improve these previous algorithms, several techniques are introduced, which contribute to reducing the computation time for the traversal. In computational experiments, it will be shown that the proposed algorithms outperform the previous algorithms.

  2. Genetic selection and liquid medium conditions improve the yield of androgenetic plants from diploid potatoes.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, H

    1985-12-01

    Solatium tuberosum L. diploid strains with superior androgenetic capacity have been selected for from androgenetic progenies of unselected diploid material. The paper also demonstrates that the use of a liquid medium for culturing potato anthers, instead of the conventional solid agar plates, improves the yield of androgenetic embryoids. The new method, associated with two successive cycles of selection for superior androgenetic response, allows the induction and regeneration of microspore derived plants on a large scale. The best genotype (clone 21 in this paper) regenerates androgenetic plants with a frequency around 30 per each anther plated. Over 80% of the regenerated plants are diploid. It is suggested that the androgenetic embryoids mainly originate from unreduced microspores by a mechanism which maintains a heterozygous or a partly heterozygous genetic situation.

  3. Applying hyperspectral imaging to explore natural plant diversity towards improving salt stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sytar, Oksana; Brestic, Marian; Zivcak, Marek; Olsovska, Katarina; Kovar, Marek; Shao, Hongbo; He, Xiaolan

    2017-02-01

    Salinity represents an abiotic stress constraint affecting growth and productivity of plants in many regions of the world. One of the possible solutions is to improve the level of salt resistance using natural genetic variability within crop species. In the context of recent knowledge on salt stress effects and mechanisms of salt tolerance, this review present useful phenomic approach employing different non-invasive imaging systems for detection of quantitative and qualitative changes caused by salt stress at the plant and canopy level. The focus is put on hyperspectral imaging technique, which provides unique opportunities for fast and reliable estimate of numerous characteristics associated both with various structural, biochemical and physiological traits. The method also provides possibilities to combine plant and canopy analyses with a direct determination of salinity in soil. The future perspectives in salt stress applications as well as some limits of the method are also identified.

  4. Facile Electrochemical Method to Improve Surface Features of Pure Copper in Dilute Basic Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Imantalab, Omid; Attarzadeh, Farid Reza; Attarzadeh, Navid

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemical properties of coarse and nano-grained pure copper can be modified and improved effectively through applying cyclic potentiodynamic passivation (CPP) treatment. It is found that the success of this method depends up to a large extent on grain size. Eight passes of accumulative roll bonding processing are successfully used at room temperature to produce nano-grained pure copper. Transmission electron microscopy image and selected area diffraction pattern both attest to the occurrence of intense grain refinement under the influence of aforementioned process, in which an average grain size <100 nm is attainable. Using several electrochemical characterization methods reveals that CPP treatment fully exploits potentials of nano-grained samples to form a dense and thick protective passive film. It is speculated that high-quality passive layers relate to the presence of high-density structural defects on the surface of nano-grained samples.

  5. Paenibacillus polymyxa BFKC01 enhances plant iron absorption via improved root systems and activated iron acquisition mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cheng; Guo, Jiansheng; Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Xin; Xie, Yue; Zhu, Jian; Ma, Zhongyou; Wang, Jianfei

    2016-08-01

    Despite the high abundance of iron (Fe) in most earth's soils, Fe is the major limiting factor for plant growth and development due to its low bioavailability. With an increasing recognition that soil microbes play important roles in plant growth, several strains of beneficial rhizobactria have been applied to improve plant nutrient absorption, biomass, and abiotic or biotic stress tolerance. In this study, we report the mechanisms of microbe-induced plant Fe assimilation, in which the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Paenibacillus polymyxa BFKC01 stimulates plant's Fe acquisition machinery to enhance Fe uptake in Arabidopsis plants. Mechanistic studies show that BFKC01 transcriptionally activates the Fe-deficiency-induced transcription factor 1 (FIT1), thereby up-regulating the expression of IRT1 and FRO2. Furthermore, BFKC01 has been found to induce plant systemic responses with the increased transcription of MYB72, and the biosynthetic pathways of phenolic compounds are also activated. Our data reveal that abundant phenolic compounds are detected in root exudation of the BFKC01-inoculated plants, which efficiently facilitate Fe mobility under alkaline conditions. In addition, BFKC01 can secret auxin and further improved root systems, which enhances the ability of plants to acquire Fe from soils. As a result, BFKC01-inoculated plants have more endogenous Fe and increased photosynthetic capacity under alkaline conditions as compared to control plants. Our results demonstrate the potential roles of BFKC01 in promoting Fe acquisition in plants and underline the intricate integration of microbial signaling in controlling plant Fe acquisition.

  6. Improving neonatal care in district and community health facilities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Woods, David Lawrance

    2015-08-01

    A high standard of newborn care, especially at a primary level, is needed to address the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa. The current approach to continuing training of health-care workers uses traditional methods of centralised teaching by formal tutors away from the place of work. This is no longer affordable, achievable or desirable, particularly in rural areas. An innovative system of self-directed learning by groups of nurses caring for mothers and their newborn infants uses specially prepared course books without the need for trainers. Using self-study supported by peer discussion groups, nurses can take responsibility for their own professional growth. This builds competence, confidence and a sense of pride. Since 1993, the Perinatal Education Programme has provided continuing learning opportunities for thousands of nurses in Southern Africa. A number of prospective trials have demonstrated that study groups can significantly improve knowledge and understanding, attitudes, clinical skills and quality of care provided to mothers and infants. A recent review of 10,000 successful participants across a wide range of provinces, ages and home languages documented the success of the project. Using a question-and-answer format to promote problem-solving, case studies, simple skills workshops and multiple choice tests, each module addresses common conditions with appropriate care practices such as thorough drying at birth, delayed cord-clamping, skin-to-skin care, breast feeding, basic resuscitation, correct use of oxygen therapy, hand-washing, blood glucose monitoring and promotion of parental bonding. The training material is now also available free of charge on an on-line website as well as being presented as e-books which can be downloaded onto personal computers, tablet readers and smart phones. This is supplemented by regular SMS text messages providing nurses with relevant 'knowledge bites'. All nurses caring for newborn infants now have easy

  7. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8-60.0). Conclusions More efforts

  8. Opportunities for Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California - Southeast Water Pollution Control Plant Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank; Faulkner, David; McKane, Aimee

    2012-12-20

    This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demand at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge

  9. DoD Needs to Improve the Billing System for Health Care Provided to Contractors at Medical Treatment Facilities in Southwest Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-27

    Report No. DODIG-2012-106 June 27, 2012 DoD Needs to Improve the Billing System for Health Care Provided to Contractors at Medical Treatment ...Billing System for Health Care Provided to Contractors at Medical Treatment Facilities in Southwest Asia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...General MTF Medical Treatment Facility SPOT Synchronized Predeployment and Operational Tracker TMDS Theater Medical Data Store USD(AT&L) Under

  10. A Review on Plants Used for Improvement of Sexual Performance and Virility

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V. K.; Thakur, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction. PMID:25215296

  11. [Rhizospheria bacteria of Poplus euphratica improve resistance of wood plants to heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Ouyang, Li-ming; Kong, Pei-jun; Yang, Ze-yu; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Dong-lin; Zhang, Li-li

    2015-09-01

    Populus euphratica is a special kind of woody plant, which lives in desert area of northwestern China and is strongly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses. However, the knowledge about the ecology and physiological roles of microbes associated with P. euphratica is still not enough. In this paper, we isolated 72 strains resistant to heavy metals from rhizospheric soil of wild P. euphratica forest in Shaya County of Xinjiang. There were 50 strains conveying resistance to one of four heavy metals (Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ or Zn2+), and 9 strains were resistant to at least three kinds of these heavy metals. Five of the multi-heavy metal resistant bacteria were inoculated to bamboo willow and the growth inhibition of plant under stresses of Cu2+ or Zn2+ was found to be alleviated to different extent. Among the 5 strains, Pseudomonas sp. Z30 and Cupriavidus sp. N8 significantly improved the growth of plant under stresses of both zinc and copper when compared to the uninoculated controls. The results showed the diversity of heavy metal resistant bacteria associated with P. euphratica which lived in a non-heavy metal polluted area and some of the multi-heavy metal resistant bacteria may greatly improve the growth of host plant under heavy metal.stress. The PGPB associated with P. euphratica has potential application in the xylophyte-microbe remediation of environmental heavy metal pollution.

  12. High irradiance improves ammonium tolerance in wheat plants by increasing N assimilation.

    PubMed

    Setién, Igor; Fuertes-Mendizabal, Teresa; González, Azucena; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro Ma; González-Murua, Carmen; González-Moro, María Begoña; Estavillo, José María

    2013-05-15

    Ammonium is a paradoxical nutrient ion. Despite being a common intermediate in plant metabolism whose oxidation state eliminates the need for its reduction in the plant cell, as occurs with nitrate, it can also result in toxicity symptoms. Several authors have reported that carbon enrichment in the root zone enhances the synthesis of carbon skeletons and, accordingly, increases the capacity for ammonium assimilation. In this work, we examined the hypothesis that increasing the photosynthetic photon flux density is a way to increase plant ammonium tolerance. Wheat plants were grown in a hydroponic system with two different N sources (10mM nitrate or 10mM ammonium) and with two different light intensity conditions (300 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1) and 700 μmol photon m(-2)s(-1)). The results show that, with respect to biomass yield, photosynthetic rate, shoot:root ratio and the root N isotopic signature, wheat behaves as a sensitive species to ammonium nutrition at the low light intensity, while at the high intensity, its tolerance is improved. This improvement is a consequence of a higher ammonium assimilation rate, as reflected by the higher amounts of amino acids and protein accumulated mainly in the roots, which was supported by higher tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. Glutamate dehydrogenase was a key root enzyme involved in the tolerance to ammonium, while glutamine synthetase activity was low and might not be enough for its assimilation.

  13. A review on plants used for improvement of sexual performance and virility.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nagendra Singh; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, V K; Thakur, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    The use of plant or plant-based products to stimulate sexual desire and to enhance performance and enjoyment is almost as old as the human race itself. The present paper reviews the active, natural principles, and crude extracts of plants, which have been useful in sexual disorders, have potential for improving sexual behaviour and performance, and are helpful in spermatogenesis and reproduction. Review of refereed journals and scientific literature available in electronic databases and traditional literature available in India was extensively performed. The work reviews correlation of the evidence with traditional claims, elucidation, and evaluation of a plausible concept governing the usage of plants as aphrodisiac in total. Phytoconstituents with known structures have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and the active crude extracts have been tabulated. Data on their pharmacological activity, mechanism of action, and toxicity are reported. The present review provides an overview of the herbs and their active molecule with claims for improvement of sexual behaviour. A number of herbal drugs have been validated for their effect on sexual behavior and fertility and can therefore serve as basis for the identification of new chemical leads useful in sexual and erectile dysfunction.

  14. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-07-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ``like for like`` replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants.

  15. Improved estimates of separation distances to prevent unacceptable damage to nuclear power plant structures from hydrogen detonation for gaseous hydrogen storage. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report provides new estimates of separation distances for nuclear power plant gaseous hydrogen storage facilities. Unacceptable damage to plant structures from hydrogen detonations will be prevented by having hydrogen storage facilities meet separation distance criteria recommended in this report. The revised standoff distances are based on improved calculations on hydrogen gas cloud detonations and structural analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Also, the results presented in this study do not depend upon equivalencing a hydrogen detonation to an equivalent TNT detonation. The static and stagnation pressures, wave velocity, and the shock wave impulse delivered to wall surfaces were computed for several different size hydrogen explosions. Separation distance equations were developed and were used to compute the minimum separation distance for six different wall cases and for seven detonating volumes (from 1.59 to 79.67 lbm of hydrogen). These improved calculation results were compared to previous calculations. The ratio between the separation distance predicted in this report versus that predicted for hydrogen detonation in previous calculations varies from 0 to approximately 4. Thus, the separation distances results from the previous calculations can be either overconservative or unconservative depending upon the set of hydrogen detonation parameters that are used. Consequently, it is concluded that the hydrogen-to-TNT detonation equivalency utilized in previous calculations should no longer be used.

  16. Towards an Enhanced Understanding of Plant-Microbiome Interactions to Improve Phytoremediation: Engineering the Metaorganism.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Sofie; Sillen, Wouter; Rineau, Francois; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising technology to clean-up contaminated soils based on the synergistic actions of plants and microorganisms. However, to become a widely accepted, and predictable remediation alternative, a deeper understanding of the plant-microbe interactions is needed. A number of studies link the success of phytoremediation to the plant-associated microbiome functioning, though whether the microbiome can exist in alternative, functional states for soil remediation, is incompletely understood. Moreover, current approaches that target the plant host, and environment separately to improve phytoremediation, potentially overlook microbial functions and properties that are part of the multiscale complexity of the plant-environment wherein biodegradation takes place. In contrast, in situ studies of phytoremediation research at the metaorganism level (host and microbiome together) are lacking. Here, we discuss a competition-driven model, based on recent evidence from the metagenomics level, and hypotheses generated by microbial community ecology, to explain the establishment of a catabolic rhizosphere microbiome in a contaminated soil. There is evidence to ground that if the host provides the right level and mix of resources (exudates) over which the microbes can compete, then a competitive catabolic and plant-growth promoting (PGP) microbiome can be selected for as long as it provides a competitive superiority in the niche. The competition-driven model indicates four strategies to interfere with the microbiome. Specifically, the rhizosphere microbiome community can be shifted using treatments that alter the host, resources, environment, and that take advantage of prioritization in inoculation. Our model and suggestions, considering the metaorganism in its natural context, would allow to gain further knowledge on the plant-microbial functions, and facilitate translation to more effective, and predictable phytotechnologies.

  17. Evaluation and improvement of wastewater treatment plant performance using BioWin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleyiblo, Oloche James; Cao, Jiashun; Feng, Qian; Wang, Gan; Xue, Zhaoxia; Fang, Fang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the activated sludge model implemented in the BioWin® software was validated against full-scale wastewater treatment plant data. Only two stoichiometric parameters ( Y p/acetic and the heterotrophic yield ( Y H)) required calibration. The value 0.42 was used for Y p/acetic in this study, while the default value of the BioWin® software is 0.49, making it comparable with the default values of the corresponding parameter (yield of phosphorus release to substrate uptake ) used in ASM2, ASM2d, and ASM3P, respectively. Three scenarios were evaluated to improve the performance of the wastewater treatment plant, the possibility of wasting sludge from either the aeration tank or the secondary clarifier, the construction of a new oxidation ditch, and the construction of an equalization tank. The results suggest that construction of a new oxidation ditch or an equalization tank for the wastewater treatment plant is not necessary. However, sludge should be wasted from the aeration tank during wet weather to reduce the solids loading of the clarifiers and avoid effluent violations. Therefore, it is recommended that the design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should include flexibility to operate the plants in various modes. This is helpful in selection of the appropriate operating mode when necessary, resulting in substantial reductions in operating costs.

  18. A facile method for improving the covalent crosslinking adsorption process of catalase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jingyu; Jia, Shaoyi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Songhai; Pan, Xiaolei

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we introduced a polydiol (mixture of 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol) to improve the covalent crosslinking adsorption process of immobilized catalase onto chitosan beads. The adsorption behavior was investigated by means of adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm. The protein content in crosslinking agent required for approximately 45 min to reach the relative equilibrium, and the protein content in solution of the control group and the pretreated group were 6.63 microg/mL and 6.20 microg/mL, respectively. The maximum catalase adsorption capacity of the control group and the pretreated group were observed as 23.118 microg/g and 25.688 microg/g at pH 7.0, respectively. Temperature profiles showed that 40 degrees C was the ideal temperature for active domain of catalase, and the relative activity of pretreated group was 1.12 times higher than that of the control group. The K(m) value of the control group (67 mM) was higher than that of the pretreated group (54 mM). Thermal stability, operational stability, and the effect of surfactant on catalase adsorption were also explored in this study.

  19. Microwave-assisted facile synthesis of a new tri-block chitosan conjugate with improved mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Nanda, Rabindra K; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2015-10-05

    A new chitosan-based tri-block conjugate, O-PEG-chitosan-N-cysteine was synthesized using microwave irradiation. For synthesis of this derivative, chitosan was modified to a PEG-chitosan conjugate followed by PEG-chitosan-cysteine using 6-O PEGylation and 2-N-thiolation, respectively. The synthesized derivative was characterized using various analytical techniques such as FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The conjugate was also analyzed for its biochemical, biodegradation and mucoadhesive properties. The modified chitosan conjugate exhibited improved mucoadhesion behavior (14.0 h) with greater biodegradation compared to the parent polymer (6.3h). The in silico modeling corroborated with the in vitro study demonstrating a stable complex between mucin and O-PEG-chitosan-N-cysteine conjugate (ΔE=-60.100 kcal/mol) compared to mucin and chitosan conjugate. The synthesis proposed herein, involves the use of microwave irradiation which causes a substantial reduction in the reaction time (approximately 2.30 h) compared to conventional method (35 h).

  20. 41 CFR 102-74.310 - What measures must Federal agencies take to improve the utilization of parking facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Parking Facilities... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What measures...