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Sample records for plant genome horizons

  1. DNAism: exploring genomic datasets on the web with Horizon Charts.

    PubMed

    Rio Deiros, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2016-01-27

    Computational biologists daily face the need to explore massive amounts of genomic data. New visualization techniques can help researchers navigate and understand these big data. Horizon Charts are a relatively new visualization method that, under the right circumstances, maximizes data density without losing graphical perception. Horizon Charts have been successfully applied to understand multi-metric time series data. We have adapted an existing JavaScript library (Cubism) that implements Horizon Charts for the time series domain so that it works effectively with genomic datasets. We call this new library DNAism. Horizon Charts can be an effective visual tool to explore complex and large genomic datasets. Researchers can use our library to leverage these techniques to extract additional insights from their own datasets.

  2. Birth of plant proteomics in India: a new horizon.

    PubMed

    Narula, Kanika; Pandey, Aarti; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra

    2015-09-08

    In the post-genomic era, proteomics is acknowledged as the next frontier for biological research. Although India has a long and distinguished tradition in protein research, the initiation of proteomics studies was a new horizon. Protein research witnessed enormous progress in protein separation, high-resolution refinements, biochemical identification of the proteins, protein-protein interaction, and structure-function analysis. Plant proteomics research, in India, began its journey on investigation of the proteome profiling, complexity analysis, protein trafficking, and biochemical modeling. The research article by Bhushan et al. in 2006 marked the birth of the plant proteomics research in India. Since then plant proteomics studies expanded progressively and are now being carried out in various institutions spread across the country. The compilation presented here seeks to trace the history of development in the area during the past decade based on publications till date. In this review, we emphasize on outcomes of the field providing prospects on proteomic pathway analyses. Finally, we discuss the connotation of strategies and the potential that would provide the framework of plant proteome research. The past decades have seen rapidly growing number of sequenced plant genomes and associated genomic resources. To keep pace with this increasing body of data, India is in the provisional phase of proteomics research to develop a comparative hub for plant proteomes and protein families, but it requires a strong impetus from intellectuals, entrepreneurs, and government agencies. Here, we aim to provide an overview of past, present and future of Indian plant proteomics, which would serve as an evaluation platform for those seeking to incorporate proteomics into their research programs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Plant Genome Duplication Database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Junah; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Genome duplication, widespread in flowering plants, is a driving force in evolution. Genome alignments between/within genomes facilitate identification of homologous regions and individual genes to investigate evolutionary consequences of genome duplication. PGDD (the Plant Genome Duplication Database), a public web service database, provides intra- or interplant genome alignment information. At present, PGDD contains information for 47 plants whose genome sequences have been released. Here, we describe methods for identification and estimation of dates of genome duplication and speciation by functions of PGDD.The database is freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/.

  4. National Plant Genome Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    JAN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Plant Genome Initiative. Progress Report 5a...refl ected in future Administration budgets. Cover Photo: National Plant Genome Initiative Progress Report January 2005 National Science and...Technology Council Committee on Science Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes [Blank Page] Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes Committee on

  5. Plant genomics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Campos-de Quiroz, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to extract biological meaning from DNA data. Although genomic issuesare addressed from a plant perspective, this review provides insights into the genomic analyses of other organisms.

  6. Phytozome Comparative Plant Genomics Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Goodstein, David; Batra, Sajeev; Carlson, Joseph; Hayes, Richard; Phillips, Jeremy; Shu, Shengqiang; Schmutz, Jeremy; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-09-09

    The Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Institute is a genomics user facility supporting DOE mission science in the areas of Bioenergy, Carbon Cycling, and Biogeochemistry. The Plant Program at the JGI applies genomic, analytical, computational and informatics platforms and methods to: 1. Understand and accelerate the improvement (domestication) of bioenergy crops 2. Characterize and moderate plant response to climate change 3. Use comparative genomics to identify constrained elements and infer gene function 4. Build high quality genomic resource platforms of JGI Plant Flagship genomes for functional and experimental work 5. Expand functional genomic resources for Plant Flagship genomes

  7. Plant functional genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  8. MIPS plant genome information resources.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Ernst, Rebecca; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2007-01-01

    The Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) has been involved in maintaining plant genome databases since the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable data sets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, for example from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and evaluated. In addition, model genomes also form a scaffold for comparative genomics, and much can be learned from genome-wide evolutionary studies.

  9. Advances in plant chromosome genomics.

    PubMed

    Doležel, Jaroslav; Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Kubaláková, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Simková, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is revolutionizing genomics and is providing novel insights into genome organization, evolution and function. The number of plant genomes targeted for sequencing is rising. For the moment, however, the acquisition of full genome sequences in large genome species remains difficult, largely because the short reads produced by NGS platforms are inadequate to cope with repeat-rich DNA, which forms a large part of these genomes. The problem of sequence redundancy is compounded in polyploids, which dominate the plant kingdom. An approach to overcoming some of these difficulties is to reduce the full nuclear genome to its individual chromosomes using flow-sorting. The DNA acquired in this way has proven to be suitable for many applications, including PCR-based physical mapping, in situ hybridization, forming DNA arrays, the development of DNA markers, the construction of BAC libraries and positional cloning. Coupling chromosome sorting with NGS offers opportunities for the study of genome organization at the single chromosomal level, for comparative analyses between related species and for the validation of whole genome assemblies. Apart from the primary aim of reducing the complexity of the template, taking a chromosome-based approach enables independent teams to work in parallel, each tasked with the analysis of a different chromosome(s). Given that the number of plant species tractable for chromosome sorting is increasing, the likelihood is that chromosome genomics - the marriage of cytology and genomics - will make a significant contribution to the field of plant genetics.

  10. Prioritizing genomic applications for action by level of evidence: a horizon-scanning method.

    PubMed

    Dotson, W D; Douglas, M P; Kolor, K; Stewart, A C; Bowen, M S; Gwinn, M; Wulf, A; Anders, H M; Chang, C Q; Clyne, M; Lam, T K; Schully, S D; Marrone, M; Feero, W G; Khoury, M J

    2014-04-01

    As evidence accumulates on the use of genomic tests and other health-related applications of genomic technologies, decision makers may increasingly seek support in identifying which applications have sufficiently robust evidence to suggest they might be considered for action. As an interim working process to provide such support, we developed a horizon-scanning method that assigns genomic applications to tiers defined by availability of synthesized evidence. We illustrate an application of the method to pharmacogenomics tests.

  11. Exploring Horizons for Domestic Animal Genomics: Workshop Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Board on Life Sciences, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council by Robert Pool and Kim Waddell

    2002-09-03

    Recognizing the important contributions that genomics analysis can make to agriculture,production and companion animal science, evolutionary biology and human health with respect to the creation of models for genetic disorders, the National Academies convened a group of individuals to plan a public workshop that would (1) assess these contributions; (2) identify potential research directions for existing genomics programs; and (3) highlight the opportunities of a coordinated, multi-species genomics effort for the science and policymaking communities. Their efforts culminated in a workshop the goal of which was to focus on domestic animal genomics and its integration with other genomics and functional genomics projects. A summary and synthesis of the discussion was produced and is a factual account of what occurred at the workshop.

  12. [Plant rhabdoviruses with bipartite genomes].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae (order Mononegavirales) have a broad range of hosts, including humans, livestock, fish, plants, and invertebrates. They have a nonsegmented negative-sense RNA as the genome. Orchid fleck virus (OFV) is distributed world-wide on several orchid plants and transmitted by the false spider mite, Brevipalpus californicus. Based on its virions morphology and cytopathic effects in the infected cells, OFV was tentatively placed as unassigned plant rhabdoviruses in the sixth ICTV Report. However, the molecular studies reveled that OFV has a unique two-segmented negative-sense RNA genome that resembles monopartite genomes of plant nucleorhabdoviruses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the genome structure and gene expression strategy of OFV, the possible mechanism of nuclear viroplasm formation, and the taxonomical consideration of the virus as well.

  13. Structural variations in plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, David; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Differences between plant genomes range from single nucleotide polymorphisms to large-scale duplications, deletions and rearrangements. The large polymorphisms are termed structural variants (SVs). SVs have received significant attention in human genetics and were found to be responsible for various chronic diseases. However, little effort has been directed towards understanding the role of SVs in plants. Many recent advances in plant genetics have resulted from improvements in high-resolution technologies for measuring SVs, including microarray-based techniques, and more recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing. In this review we describe recent reports of SV in plants and describe the genomic technologies currently used to measure these SVs. PMID:24907366

  14. Plant Comparative and Functional Genomics

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Xiaohan; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Chen, Feng; ...

    2015-01-01

    Plants form the foundation for our global ecosystem and are essential for environmental and human health. An increasing number of available plant genomes and tractable experimental systems, comparative and functional plant genomics research is greatly expanding our knowledge of the molecular basis of economically and nutritionally important traits in crop plants. Inferences drawn from comparative genomics are motivating experimental investigations of gene function and gene interactions. In this special issue aims to highlight recent advances made in comparative and functional genomics research in plants. Nine original research articles in this special issue cover five important topics: (1) transcription factor genemore » families relevant to abiotic stress tolerance; (2) plant secondary metabolism; (3) transcriptomebased markers for quantitative trait locus; (4) epigenetic modifications in plant-microbe interactions; and (5) computational prediction of protein-protein interactions. Finally, we studied the plant species in these articles which include model species as well as nonmodel plant species of economic importance (e.g., food crops and medicinal plants).« less

  15. Chemical genomics in plant biology.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Ayan; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Panda, Sanjib Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Chemical genomics is a newly emerged and rapidly progressing field in biology, where small chemical molecules bind specifically and reversibly to protein(s) to modulate their function(s), leading to the delineation and subsequent unravelling of biological processes. This approach overcomes problems like lethality and redundancy of classical genetics. Armed with the powerful techniques of combinatorial synthesis, high-throughput screening and target discovery chemical genomics expands its scope to diverse areas in biology. The well-established genetic system of Arabidopsis model allows chemical genomics to enter into the realm of plant biology exploring signaling pathways of growth regulators, endomembrane signaling cascades, plant defense mechanisms and many more events.

  16. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2011-01-01

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  17. Gramene database: navigating plant comparative genomics resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online, open source, curated resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis designed to support researchers working in plant genomics, breeding, evolutionary biology, system biology, and metabolic engineering. It exploits phylogenetic relationship...

  18. Genomic and physiological footprint of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident marsh fishes.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Dubansky, Benjamin; Bodinier, Charlotte; Garcia, Tzintzuni I; Miles, Scott; Pilley, Chet; Raghunathan, Vandana; Roach, Jennifer L; Walker, Nan; Walter, Ronald B; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2012-12-11

    The biological consequences of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are unknown, especially for resident organisms. Here, we report results from a field study tracking the effects of contaminating oil across space and time in resident killifish during the first 4 mo of the spill event. Remote sensing and analytical chemistry identified exposures, which were linked to effects in fish characterized by genome expression and associated gill immunohistochemistry, despite very low concentrations of hydrocarbons remaining in water and tissues. Divergence in genome expression coincides with contaminating oil and is consistent with genome responses that are predictive of exposure to hydrocarbon-like chemicals and indicative of physiological and reproductive impairment. Oil-contaminated waters are also associated with aberrant protein expression in gill tissues of larval and adult fish. These data suggest that heavily weathered crude oil from the spill imparts significant biological impacts in sensitive Louisiana marshes, some of which remain for over 2 mo following initial exposures.

  19. Translational genomics for plant breeding with the genome sequence explosion.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Jeong, Haneul; Satyawan, Dani; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2016-04-01

    The use of next-generation sequencers and advanced genotyping technologies has propelled the field of plant genomics in model crops and plants and enhanced the discovery of hidden bridges between genotypes and phenotypes. The newly generated reference sequences of unstudied minor plants can be annotated by the knowledge of model plants via translational genomics approaches. Here, we reviewed the strategies of translational genomics and suggested perspectives on the current databases of genomic resources and the database structures of translated information on the new genome. As a draft picture of phenotypic annotation, translational genomics on newly sequenced plants will provide valuable assistance for breeders and researchers who are interested in genetic studies. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes of plants and organic horizons in tundra and taiga soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrova, M. S.; Zenova, G. M.; Yakushev, A. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Makarova, E. P.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    It has been revealed that in organic horizons and plants of the tundra and taiga ecosystems under low temperatures, actinomycetal complexes form. The population density of psychrotolerant actinomycetes in organic horizons and plants reaches tens and hundreds of thousands CFU/g of substrate or soil, and decreases in the sequence litters > plants > soils > undecomposed plant remains > moss growths. The mycelium length of psychrotolerant actinomycetes reaches 220 m/g of substrate. Application of the FISH method has demonstrated that metabolically active psychrotolerant bacteria of the phylum Actinobacteria constitute 30% of all metabolically active psychrotolerant representatives of the Bacterià domain of the prokaryotic microbial community of soils and plants. Psychrotolerant actinomycetes in tundra and taiga ecosystems possess antimicrobial properties.

  1. Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants.

    PubMed

    Soltis, Pamela S; Marchant, D Blaine; Van de Peer, Yves; Soltis, Douglas E

    2015-12-01

    Plant genomes vary in size and complexity, fueled in part by processes of whole-genome duplication (WGD; polyploidy) and subsequent genome evolution. Despite repeated episodes of WGD throughout the evolutionary history of angiosperms in particular, the genomes are not uniformly large, and even plants with very small genomes carry the signatures of ancient duplication events. The processes governing the evolution of plant genomes following these ancient events are largely unknown. Here, we consider mechanisms of diploidization, evidence of genome reorganization in recently formed polyploid species, and macroevolutionary patterns of WGD in plant genomes and propose that the ongoing genomic changes observed in recent polyploids may illustrate the diploidization processes that result in ancient signatures of WGD over geological timescales. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Aquatic Plant Genomics: Advances, Applications, and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gaojie; Yang, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    Genomics is a discipline in genetics that studies the genome composition of organisms and the precise structure of genes and their expression and regulation. Genomics research has resolved many problems where other biological methods have failed. Here, we summarize advances in aquatic plant genomics with a focus on molecular markers, the genes related to photosynthesis and stress tolerance, comparative study of genomes and genome/transcriptome sequencing technology. PMID:28900619

  3. Plant genomics: homoplasy heaven in a lycophyte genome.

    PubMed

    Friedman, William E

    2011-07-26

    The recent genomic sequencing of Selaginella, a member of the lycophyte lineage of vascular plants, opens up all kinds of new opportunities to examine the patterns of evolutionary innovation and the creation of the basic bauplan of plants.

  4. Bioinformatics Approach in Plant Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Quang; Nguyen, Phuc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Le, Ly

    2016-01-01

    The advance in genomics technology leads to the dramatic change in plant biology research. Plant biologists now easily access to enormous genomic data to deeply study plant high-density genetic variation at molecular level. Therefore, fully understanding and well manipulating bioinformatics tools to manage and analyze these data are essential in current plant genome research. Many plant genome databases have been established and continued expanding recently. Meanwhile, analytical methods based on bioinformatics are also well developed in many aspects of plant genomic research including comparative genomic analysis, phylogenomics and evolutionary analysis, and genome-wide association study. However, constantly upgrading in computational infrastructures, such as high capacity data storage and high performing analysis software, is the real challenge for plant genome research. This review paper focuses on challenges and opportunities which knowledge and skills in bioinformatics can bring to plant scientists in present plant genomics era as well as future aspects in critical need for effective tools to facilitate the translation of knowledge from new sequencing data to enhancement of plant productivity. PMID:27499685

  5. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuejun; Xie, Chuanxiao; Si, Huaijun; Yang, Jinxiao

    2017-05-15

    The increasing burden of the world's population on agriculture necessitates the development of more robust crops. As the amount of information from sequenced crop genomes increases, technology can be used to investigate the function of genes in detail and to design improved crops at the molecular level. Recently, an RNA-programmed genome-editing system composed of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-encoded guide RNA and the nuclease Cas9 has provided a powerful platform to achieve these goals. By combining versatile tools to study and modify plants at different molecular levels, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is paving the way towards a new horizon for basic research and crop development. In this review, the accomplishments, problems and improvements of this technology in plants, including target sequence cleavage, knock-in/gene replacement, transcriptional regulation, epigenetic modification, off-target effects, delivery system and potential applications, will be highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research. PMID:22943138

  7. Andrographolide: A New Plant-Derived Antineoplastic Entity on Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Astha; Padh, Harish; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2011-01-01

    Plant-derived natural products occupy an important position in the area of cancer chemotherapy. Molecules such as vincristine, vinblastine, paclitaxel, camptothecin derivatives, epipodophyllotoxin, and so forth, are invaluable contributions of nature to modern medicine. However, the quest to find out novel therapeutic compounds for cancer treatment and management is a never-ending venture; and diverse plant species are persistently being studied for identification of prospective anticancer agents. In this regard, Andrographis paniculata Nees, a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. Andrographolide, the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer potential in various investigations around the globe. In vitro studies demonstrate the capability of the compound of inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells at different concentrations. Andrographolide also shows potent immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic activities in tumorous tissues. Synthetic analogues of the compound have also been created and analyzed, which have also shown similar activities. Although it is too early to predict its future in cancer chemotherapy, the prologue strongly recommends further research on this molecule to assess its potential as a prospective anticancer agent. PMID:19752167

  8. Computational Tools for Genomic Studies in Plants.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the genomic sequence of numerous plant species including the main crop species has been determined. Computational tools have been developed to deal with the issue of which plant has been sequenced and where is the sequence hosted. In this mini-review, the databases for genome projects, the databases created to host species/clade projects and the databases developed to perform plant comparative genomics are revised. Because of their importance in modern research, an in-depth analysis of the plant comparative genomics databases has been performed. This comparative analysis is focused in the common and specific computational tools developed to achieve the particular objectives of each database. Besides, emerging high-performance bioinformatics tools specific for plant research are commented. What kind of computational approaches should be implemented in next years to efficiently analyze plant genomes is discussed.

  9. Intron size and genome size in plants.

    Treesearch

    J. Wendel; R. Cronn; I. Alvarez; B. Liu; R. Small; D. Senchina

    2002-01-01

    It has long been known that genomes vary over a remarkable range of sizes in both plants (Bennett, Cox, and Leitch 1997) and animals (Gregory 2001). It also has become evident that across the broad phylogenetic sweep, genome size may be correlated with intron size (Deutsch and Long 1999; Vinogradov 1999; McLysaght et al. 2000), suggesting that some component of genome...

  10. Food for thought from plant and animal genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A report on the Plant and Animal Genome XXI meeting, held in San Diego, USA, January 12-16, 2013. Meeting Report On 12 January, on a morning full of blue sky and cold sunshine, the Plant and Animal Genome XXI meeting opened its doors for the 21st time at the Town and Country Hotel in San Diego. I arrived a couple of hours late, a newbie toting a roller suitcase, a little unprepared for the sheer scope of the meeting I was about to attend. The diversity of topics and attendees at the meeting, 'The Largest Ag-Genomics Meeting in the World', was stunning. Within my first hour, I would wind up eating my boxed lunch with a member of the transitional government of Egypt, who moonlights as a grad student in Colorado; and within my first afternoon, I would hear talks about drought resistance in rice, marker-assisted breeding in sweet cherry and transgressive segregation in cotton, not to mention the 12 concurrent sessions on topics from citrus genomes to swine breeding. As a plant developmental biologist interested in international agriculture, I chose talks with an eye towards the border between basic and applied research, the brackish zone where molecular biological innovations find their way into research centers, field trials, and ultimately, farmers' fields. In this report, I will present examples of the diverse and exciting work being done at this intersection, and will conclude by highlighting some emerging trends and challenges on the horizon. PMID:23445623

  11. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  12. Gene enrichment in plant genomic shotgun libraries.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, Pablo D; McCombie, W Richard; Martienssen, Robert A

    2003-04-01

    The Arabidopsis genome (about 130 Mbp) has been completely sequenced; whereas a draft sequence of the rice genome (about 430 Mbp) is now available and the sequencing of this genome will be completed in the near future. The much larger genomes of several important crop species, such as wheat (about 16,000 Mbp) or maize (about 2500 Mbp), may not be fully sequenced with current technology. Instead, sequencing-analysis strategies are being developed to obtain sequencing and mapping information selectively for the genic fraction (gene space) of complex plant genomes.

  13. PGP repository: a plant phenomics and genomics data publication infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Arend, Daniel; Junker, Astrid; Scholz, Uwe; Schüler, Danuta; Wylie, Juliane; Lange, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomics and phenomics represents the most promising tools for accelerating yield gains and overcoming emerging crop productivity bottlenecks. However, accessing this wealth of plant diversity requires the characterization of this material using state-of-the-art genomic, phenomic and molecular technologies and the release of subsequent research data via a long-term stable, open-access portal. Although several international consortia and public resource centres offer services for plant research data management, valuable digital assets remains unpublished and thus inaccessible to the scientific community. Recently, the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research and the German Plant Phenotyping Network have jointly initiated the Plant Genomics and Phenomics Research Data Repository (PGP) as infrastructure to comprehensively publish plant research data. This covers in particular cross-domain datasets that are not being published in central repositories because of its volume or unsupported data scope, like image collections from plant phenotyping and microscopy, unfinished genomes, genotyping data, visualizations of morphological plant models, data from mass spectrometry as well as software and documents. The repository is hosted at Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research using e!DAL as software infrastructure and a Hierarchical Storage Management System as data archival backend. A novel developed data submission tool was made available for the consortium that features a high level of automation to lower the barriers of data publication. After an internal review process, data are published as citable digital object identifiers and a core set of technical metadata is registered at DataCite. The used e!DAL-embedded Web frontend generates for each dataset a landing page and supports an interactive exploration. PGP is registered as research data repository at BioSharing.org, re3data.org and OpenAIRE as valid EU Horizon 2020 open

  14. PGP repository: a plant phenomics and genomics data publication infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Arend, Daniel; Junker, Astrid; Scholz, Uwe; Schüler, Danuta; Wylie, Juliane; Lange, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Plant genomics and phenomics represents the most promising tools for accelerating yield gains and overcoming emerging crop productivity bottlenecks. However, accessing this wealth of plant diversity requires the characterization of this material using state-of-the-art genomic, phenomic and molecular technologies and the release of subsequent research data via a long-term stable, open-access portal. Although several international consortia and public resource centres offer services for plant research data management, valuable digital assets remains unpublished and thus inaccessible to the scientific community. Recently, the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research and the German Plant Phenotyping Network have jointly initiated the Plant Genomics and Phenomics Research Data Repository (PGP) as infrastructure to comprehensively publish plant research data. This covers in particular cross-domain datasets that are not being published in central repositories because of its volume or unsupported data scope, like image collections from plant phenotyping and microscopy, unfinished genomes, genotyping data, visualizations of morphological plant models, data from mass spectrometry as well as software and documents.The repository is hosted at Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research using e!DAL as software infrastructure and a Hierarchical Storage Management System as data archival backend. A novel developed data submission tool was made available for the consortium that features a high level of automation to lower the barriers of data publication. After an internal review process, data are published as citable digital object identifiers and a core set of technical metadata is registered at DataCite. The used e!DAL-embedded Web frontend generates for each dataset a landing page and supports an interactive exploration. PGP is registered as research data repository at BioSharing.org, re3data.org and OpenAIRE as valid EU Horizon 2020 open

  15. Feast and famine in plant genomes.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan F. Wendel; Richard C. Cronn; J. Spencer Jonhston; H. James. Price

    2002-01-01

    Plant genomes vary over several orders of magnitude in size, even among closely related species, yet the origin, genesis and significance of this variation are not clear. Because DNA content varies over a sevenfold range among diploid species in the cotton genus (Gossypium) and its allies, this group offers opportunities for exploring patterns and mechanisms of genome...

  16. Gramene 2013: Comparative plant genomics resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a curated online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species, currently hosting 27 fully and 10 partially sequenced reference genomes in its build number 38. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework fo...

  17. Gramene: a growing plant comparative genomics resource

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (www.gramene.org) is a curated genetic, genomic and comparative genome analysis resource for the major crop species, such as rice, maize, wheat and many other plant (mainly grass) species. Gramene is an open-source project, with all data and software freely downloadable through the ftp site ...

  18. A Plant-Associated Microbe Genome Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Jan E. Leach; Scott Gold; Sue Tolin; Kellye Eversole

    2003-03-06

    Plant-associated microorganisms are critical to agricultural and food security and are key components in maintaining the balance of our ecosystems. Some of these diverse microbes, which include viruses, bacteria, oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes, cause plant diseases, whereas others prevent diseases or enhance plant growth. Despite their importance, we know little about them on a genomic level. To intervene in disease and understand the basis of biological control or symbiotic relationships, a concerted and coordinated genomic analysis of these microbes is essential. Genome analysis, in this context, refers to the structural and functional analysis of the microbe DNA including the genes, the proteins encoded by those genes, as well as noncoding sequences involved in genome dynamics and function. The ultimate emphasis is on understanding genomic functions involved in plant associations. Members of The American Phytopathological Society (APS) developed a prioritized list of plant-associated microbes for genome analysis. With this list as a foundation for discussions, a Workshop on Genomic Analysis of Plant-Associated Microorganisms was held in Washington, D.C., on 9 to 11 April 2002. The workshop was organized by the Public Policy Board of APS, and was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), and USDA-National Research Initiatives (USDA-NRI). The workshop included academic, industrial, and governmental experts from the genomics and microbial research communities and observers from the federal funding agencies. After reviewing current and near-term technologies, workshop participants proposed a comprehensive, international initiative to obtain the genomic information needed to understand these important microbes and their interactions with host plants and the environment. Specifically, the recommendations call for a 5-year, $500 million international public

  19. Genome-wide association mapping in plants.

    PubMed

    George, Andrew W; Cavanagh, Colin

    2015-06-01

    We present new association mapping methods which address the unique challenges of analyzing genome-wide data from multi-environment plant studies. Association studies on a genome-wide scale are being performed in plants. Unlike human studies, plant studies contain replicates whose data may be recorded across different environments. Plant studies also often employ elaborate experimental designs for controlling extraneous phenotypic variation. As a result, the genome-wide analysis of data from plant studies can be challenging. In this paper, we present QK-based association mapping for the analysis of data from plant association studies. In doing so, we have developed: (a) a general multivariate QK framework for association mapping in plant studies of arbitrary complexity; (b) a new weighted two-stage analysis approach for QK-based association mapping; (c) a heuristic procedure for determining when two-stage analysis is appropriate; and (d) a Monte Carlo sampling procedure for controlling the genome-wide type I error rate. We conduct a simulation study to evaluate the performance of our genome-wide mapping technique. We also analyze data from a multi-environment association study in wheat.

  20. Gramene 2013: comparative plant genomics resources

    PubMed Central

    Monaco, Marcela K.; Stein, Joshua; Naithani, Sushma; Wei, Sharon; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Kumari, Sunita; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Youens-Clark, Ken; Thomason, James; Preece, Justin; Pasternak, Shiran; Olson, Andrew; Jiao, Yinping; Lu, Zhenyuan; Bolser, Dan; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Staines, Dan; Walts, Brandon; Wu, Guanming; D’Eustachio, Peter; Haw, Robin; Croft, David; Kersey, Paul J.; Stein, Lincoln; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is a curated online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species, currently hosting 27 fully and 10 partially sequenced reference genomes in its build number 38. Its strength derives from the application of a phylogenetic framework for genome comparison and the use of ontologies to integrate structural and functional annotation data. Whole-genome alignments complemented by phylogenetic gene family trees help infer syntenic and orthologous relationships. Genetic variation data, sequences and genome mappings available for 10 species, including Arabidopsis, rice and maize, help infer putative variant effects on genes and transcripts. The pathways section also hosts 10 species-specific metabolic pathways databases developed in-house or by our collaborators using Pathway Tools software, which facilitates searches for pathway, reaction and metabolite annotations, and allows analyses of user-defined expression datasets. Recently, we released a Plant Reactome portal featuring 133 curated rice pathways. This portal will be expanded for Arabidopsis, maize and other plant species. We continue to provide genetic and QTL maps and marker datasets developed by crop researchers. The project provides a unique community platform to support scientific research in plant genomics including studies in evolution, genetics, plant breeding, molecular biology, biochemistry and systems biology. PMID:24217918

  1. Why Assembling Plant Genome Sequences Is So Challenging

    PubMed Central

    Claros, Manuel Gonzalo; Bautista, Rocío; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Benzerki, Hicham; Seoane, Pedro; Fernández-Pozo, Noé

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the biological and economic importance of plants, relatively few plant species have been sequenced. Only the genome sequence of plants with relatively small genomes, most of them angiosperms, in particular eudicots, has been determined. The arrival of next-generation sequencing technologies has allowed the rapid and efficient development of new genomic resources for non-model or orphan plant species. But the sequencing pace of plants is far from that of animals and microorganisms. This review focuses on the typical challenges of plant genomes that can explain why plant genomics is less developed than animal genomics. Explanations about the impact of some confounding factors emerging from the nature of plant genomes are given. As a result of these challenges and confounding factors, the correct assembly and annotation of plant genomes is hindered, genome drafts are produced, and advances in plant genomics are delayed. PMID:24832233

  2. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  3. Genome editing with engineered nucleases in plants.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi

    2015-03-01

    Numerous examples of successful 'genome editing' now exist. Genome editing uses engineered nucleases as powerful tools to target specific DNA sequences to edit genes precisely in the genomes of both model and crop plants, as well as a variety of other organisms. The DNA-binding domains of zinc finger (ZF) proteins were the first to be used as genome editing tools, in the form of designed ZF nucleases (ZFNs). More recently, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), as well as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system, which utilizes RNA-DNA interactions, have proved useful. A key step in genome editing is the generation of a double-stranded DNA break that is specific to the target gene. This is achieved by custom-designed endonucleases, which enable site-directed mutagenesis via a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair pathway and/or gene targeting via homologous recombination (HR) to occur efficiently at specific sites in the genome. This review provides an overview of recent advances in genome editing technologies in plants, and discusses how these can provide insights into current plant molecular biology research and molecular breeding technology.

  4. Genome-enabled plant metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Tohge, Takayuki; de Souza, Leonardo Perez; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2014-09-01

    The grand challenge currently facing metabolomics is that of comprehensitivity whilst next generation sequencing and advanced proteomics methods now allow almost complete and at least 50% coverage of their respective target molecules, metabolomics platforms at best offer coverage of just 10% of the small molecule complement of the cell. Here we discuss the use of genome sequence information as an enabling tool for peak identity and for translational metabolomics. Whilst we argue that genome information is not sufficient to compute the size of a species metabolome it is highly useful in predicting the occurrence of a wide range of common metabolites. Furthermore, we describe how via gene functional analysis in model species the identity of unknown metabolite peaks can be resolved. Taken together these examples suggest that genome sequence information is current (and likely will remain), a highly effective tool in peak elucidation in mass spectral metabolomics strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted sequencing of plant genomes

    Treesearch

    Mark D. Huynh

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of genetics by providing a means for fast and relatively affordable sequencing. With the advancement of NGS, wholegenome sequencing (WGS) has become more commonplace. However, sequencing an entire genome is still not cost effective or even beneficial in all cases. In studies that do not require a whole-...

  6. Widespread mitovirus sequences in plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Benjamin E.; Yerramsetty, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of the evolution of RNA viruses has been aided recently by the discovery of copies of fragments or complete genomes of non-retroviral RNA viruses (Non-retroviral Endogenous RNA Viral Elements, or NERVEs) in many eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Among the most prominent NERVEs are partial copies of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) of the mitoviruses in plant mitochondrial genomes. Mitoviruses are in the family Narnaviridae, which are the simplest viruses, encoding only a single protein (the RdRP) in their unencapsidated viral plus strand. Narnaviruses are known only in fungi, and the origin of plant mitochondrial mitovirus NERVEs appears to be horizontal transfer from plant pathogenic fungi. At least one mitochondrial mitovirus NERVE, but not its nuclear copy, is expressed. PMID:25870770

  7. Application of Genomic Tools in Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-de-Castro, A.M.; Vilanova, S.; Cañizares, J.; Pascual, L.; Blanca, J.M.; Díez, M.J.; Prohens, J.; Picó, B.

    2012-01-01

    Plant breeding has been very successful in developing improved varieties using conventional tools and methodologies. Nowadays, the availability of genomic tools and resources is leading to a new revolution of plant breeding, as they facilitate the study of the genotype and its relationship with the phenotype, in particular for complex traits. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies are allowing the mass sequencing of genomes and transcriptomes, which is producing a vast array of genomic information. The analysis of NGS data by means of bioinformatics developments allows discovering new genes and regulatory sequences and their positions, and makes available large collections of molecular markers. Genome-wide expression studies provide breeders with an understanding of the molecular basis of complex traits. Genomic approaches include TILLING and EcoTILLING, which make possible to screen mutant and germplasm collections for allelic variants in target genes. Re-sequencing of genomes is very useful for the genome-wide discovery of markers amenable for high-throughput genotyping platforms, like SSRs and SNPs, or the construction of high density genetic maps. All these tools and resources facilitate studying the genetic diversity, which is important for germplasm management, enhancement and use. Also, they allow the identification of markers linked to genes and QTLs, using a diversity of techniques like bulked segregant analysis (BSA), fine genetic mapping, or association mapping. These new markers are used for marker assisted selection, including marker assisted backcross selection, ‘breeding by design’, or new strategies, like genomic selection. In conclusion, advances in genomics are providing breeders with new tools and methodologies that allow a great leap forward in plant breeding, including the ‘superdomestication’ of crops and the genetic dissection and breeding for complex traits. PMID:23115520

  8. CRISPR/Cas9 for plant genome editing: accomplishments, problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Paul, Joseph W; Qi, Yiping

    2016-07-01

    The increasing burden of the world population on agriculture requires the development of more robust crops. Dissecting the basic biology that underlies plant development and stress responses will inform the design of better crops. One powerful tool for studying plants at the molecular level is the RNA-programmed genome editing system composed of a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-encoded guide RNA and the nuclease Cas9. Here, some of the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology that have profound implications for improving the study of plant biology are described. These tools are also paving the way towards new horizons for biotechnologies and crop development.

  9. Antiviral Defenses in Plants through Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Romay, Gustavo; Bragard, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Plant–virus interactions based-studies have contributed to increase our understanding on plant resistance mechanisms, providing new tools for crop improvement. In the last two decades, RNA interference, a post-transcriptional gene silencing approach, has been used to induce antiviral defenses in plants with the help of genetic engineering technologies. More recently, the new genome editing systems (GES) are revolutionizing the scope of tools available to confer virus resistance in plants. The most explored GES are zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 endonuclease. GES are engineered to target and introduce mutations, which can be deleterious, via double-strand breaks at specific DNA sequences by the error-prone non-homologous recombination end-joining pathway. Although GES have been engineered to target DNA, recent discoveries of GES targeting ssRNA molecules, including virus genomes, pave the way for further studies programming plant defense against RNA viruses. Most of plant virus species have an RNA genome and at least 784 species have positive ssRNA. Here, we provide a summary of the latest progress in plant antiviral defenses mediated by GES. In addition, we also discuss briefly the GES perspectives in light of the rebooted debate on genetic modified organisms (GMOs) and the current regulatory frame for agricultural products involving the use of such engineering technologies. PMID:28167937

  10. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Plant chemical genomics: gravity sensing and response.

    PubMed

    Surpin, Marci

    2014-01-01

    The gene families that encode the vesicle trafficking machinery in plants are highly expanded compared to those from protists and animals. As such, classical genetic screens for mutants with lesions in these genes are fraught with issues of redundancy and lethality. A chemical genomics approach can, in theory, circumvent these issues because inhibitory or stimulatory molecules may be applied at any point in development at sublethal concentrations. This chapter describes the protocols for a chemical genomics screen designed to identify components of the plant cell vesicle trafficking machinery. A two-tiered screen was designed where the primary screen assayed for chemicals that modified the gravitropic response, a process that in plant cells is intimately tied to vesicle trafficking; the secondary screen employed fluorescent marker lines that were treated with gravitropic inhibitors or inducers to assay for changes in endomembrane system morphology. We thus identified four compounds by which we can further explore the relationship between gravitropic signal transduction and vesicle trafficking.

  12. Seed development and genomic imprinting in plants.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Claudia; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2005-01-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to an epigenetic phenomenon where the activity of an allele depends on its parental origin. Imprinting at individual genes has only been described in mammals and seed plants. We will discuss the role imprinted genes play in seed development and compare the situation in plants with that in mammals. Interestingly, many imprinted genes appear to control cell proliferation and growth in both groups of organisms although imprinting in plants may also be involved in the cellular differentiation of the two pairs of gametes involved in double fertilization. DNA methylation plays some role in the control of parent-of-origin-specific expression in both mammals and plants. Thus, although imprinting evolved independently in mammals and plants, there are striking similarities at the phenotypic and possibly also mechanistic level.

  13. Plant genome engineering in full bloom.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Cutler, Sean R

    2014-05-01

    The recent development of tools for precise editing of user-specified sequences is rapidly changing the landscape for plant genetics and biotechnology. It is now possible to target mutations and regulatory proteins to specific sites in a genome using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs), or the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system. Here we provide an update of recent developments in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and highlight online resources that will help biologists adopt new genome-editing tools. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. RNAi for functional genomics in plants.

    PubMed

    McGinnis, Karen M

    2010-03-01

    RNAi refers to several different types of gene silencing mediated by small, dsRNA molecules. Over the course of 20 years, the scientific understanding of RNAi has developed from the initial observation of unexpected expression patterns to a sophisticated understanding of a multi-faceted, evolutionarily conserved network of mechanisms that regulate gene expression in many organisms. It has also been developed as a genetic tool that can be exploited in a wide range of species. Because transgene-induced RNAi has been effective at silencing one or more genes in a wide range of plants, this technology also bears potential as a powerful functional genomics tool across the plant kingdom. Transgene-induced RNAi has indeed been shown to be an effective mechanism for silencing many genes in many organisms, but the results from multiple projects which attempted to exploit RNAi on a genome-wide scale suggest that there is a great deal of variation in the silencing efficacy between transgenic events, silencing targets and silencing-induced phenotype. The results from these projects indicate several important variables that should be considered in experimental design prior to the initiation of functional genomics efforts based on RNAi silencing. In recent years, alternative strategies have been developed for targeted gene silencing, and a combination of approaches may also enhance the use of targeted gene silencing for functional genomics.

  15. An introduction to the medicinal plant genome project.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shilin; Xiang, Li; Guo, Xu; Li, Qiushi

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, genomics has developed rapidly with the application of next-generation sequencing technology. However, very few studies have been carried out on genomics for medicinal plants. This paper introduces the genome research of medicinal plants, including genome sequencing, assembly, annotation, and functional genomics, to set up the foundation for the development of natural medicines and the selection of cultivars with good agricultural traits. This study places the study on traditional Chinese medicine into the frontier field of life science.

  16. The Plant Ontology: A Tool for Plant Genomics.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Laurel; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    The use of controlled, structured vocabularies (ontologies) has become a critical tool for scientists in the post-genomic era of massive datasets. Adoption and integration of common vocabularies and annotation practices enables cross-species comparative analyses and increases data sharing and reusability. The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/ ) describes plant anatomy, morphology, and the stages of plant development, and offers a database of plant genomics annotations associated to the PO terms. The scope of the PO has grown from its original design covering only rice, maize, and Arabidopsis, and now includes terms to describe all green plants from angiosperms to green algae.This chapter introduces how the PO and other related ontologies are constructed and organized, including languages and software used for ontology development, and provides an overview of the key features. Detailed instructions illustrate how to search and browse the PO database and access the associated annotation data. Users are encouraged to provide input on the ontology through the online term request form and contribute datasets for integration in the PO database.

  17. Viral sequences integrated into plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Harper, Glyn; Hull, Roger; Lockhart, Ben; Olszewski, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Sequences of various DNA plant viruses have been found integrated into the host genome. There are two forms of integrant, those that can form episomal viral infections and those that cannot. Integrants of three pararetroviruses, Banana streak virus (BSV), Tobacco vein clearing virus (TVCV), and Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), can generate episomal infections in certain hybrid plant hosts in response to stress. In the case of BSV and TVCV, one of the parents contains the integrant but is has not been seen to be activated in that parent; the other parent does not contain the integrant. The number of integrant loci is low for BSV and PVCV and high in TVCV. The structure of the integrants is complex, and it is thought that episomal virus is released by recombination and/or reverse transcription. Geminiviral and pararetroviral sequences are found in plant genomes although not so far associated with a virus disease. It appears that integration of viral sequences is widespread in the plant kingdom and has been occurring for a long period of time.

  18. Plant genome size variation: bloating and purging DNA.

    PubMed

    Michael, Todd P

    2014-07-01

    Plant genome size variation is a dynamic process of bloating and purging DNA. While it was thought plants were on a path to obesity through continual DNA bloating, recent research supports that most plants activity purge DNA. Plant genome size research has greatly benefited from the cataloguing of genome size estimates at the Kew Plant DNA C-values Database, and the recent availability of over 50 fully sequenced and published plant genomes. The emerging trend is that plant genomes bloat due to the copy-and-paste proliferation of a few long terminal repeat retrotransposons (LTRs) and aggressively purge these proliferating LTRs through several mechanisms including illegitimate and incomplete recombination, and double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining. However, ultra-small genomes such as Utricularia gibba (Bladderwort), which is 82 megabases (Mb), purge excess DNA through genome fractionation and neofunctionalization during multiple rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD). In contrast, the largest published genome, Picea abies (Norway Spruce) at 19 800 Mb, has no detectable WGD but has bloated with diverse and diverged LTRs that either have evaded purging mechanisms or these purging mechanism are absent in gymnosperms. Finally, advances in DNA methylation studies suggest that smaller genomes have a more aggressive epigenomic surveillance system to purge young LTR retrotransposons, which is less active or missing in larger genomes like the bloated gymnosperms. While genome size may not reflect genome complexity, evidence is mounting that genome size may reflect evolutionary status.

  19. Genomic signatures of specialized metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Chae, Lee; Kim, Taehyong; Nilo-Poyanco, Ricardo; Rhee, Seung Y

    2014-05-02

    All plants synthesize basic metabolites needed for survival (primary metabolism), but different taxa produce distinct metabolites that are specialized for specific environmental interactions (specialized metabolism). Because evolutionary pressures on primary and specialized metabolism differ, we investigated differences in the emergence and maintenance of these processes across 16 species encompassing major plant lineages from algae to angiosperms. We found that, relative to their primary metabolic counterparts, genes coding for specialized metabolic functions have proliferated to a much greater degree and by different mechanisms and display lineage-specific patterns of physical clustering within the genome and coexpression. These properties illustrate the differential evolution of specialized metabolism in plants, and collectively they provide unique signatures for the potential discovery of novel specialized metabolic processes.

  20. CRISPR/Cas9-Based Genome Editing in Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaling; Ma, Xingliang; Xie, Xianrong; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Recently, genome editing technologies have shown great potential in plants. The newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system is a new generation of genome editing tool rapidly replacing the earlier zinc finger nucleases and transcription activator-like effector nucleases systems. Indeed, due to its advantages of simplicity and high efficiency, the CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing system is becoming a powerful tool in plant science research. Here, we introduce the technical features of the plant CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing system and its applications in plant functional genomics studies and genetic improvement. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The plastid genomes of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Ruhlman, Tracey A; Jansen, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) has proved a valuable source of data for evaluating evolutionary relationships among angiosperms. Through basic and applied approaches, plastid transformation technology offers the potential to understand and improve plant productivity, providing food, fiber, energy and medicines to meet the needs of a burgeoning global population. The growing genomic resources available to both phylogenetic and biotechnological investigations are allowing novel insights and expanding the scope of plastome research to encompass new species. In this chapter we present an overview of some of the seminal and contemporary research that has contributed to our current understanding of plastome evolution and attempt to highlight the relationship between evolutionary mechanisms and tools of plastid genetic engineering.

  2. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification in life-cycle assessment based on forest plant species occurrence in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Rosalie van Zelm; Mark A.J. Huijbregts; Hans A. van Jaarsveld; Gert Jan Reinds; Dick de Zwart; Jaap Struijs; Dik van de Meent

    2007-02-15

    This paper describes a new approach in life-cycle impact assessment to derive characterization factors for acidification in European forests. Time horizon dependent characterization factors for acidification were calculated, whereas before only steady-state factors were available. The characterization factors indicate the change in the potential occurrence of plant species due to a change in emission, and they consist of a fate and an effect factor. The fate factor combines the results of an atmospheric deposition model and a dynamic soil acidification model. The change in base saturation in soil due to an atmospheric emission change was derived for 20, 50, 100, and 500 year time horizons. The effect factor was based on a dose-response curve of the potential occurrence of plant species, derived from multiple regression equations per plant species. The results showed that characterization factors for acidification increase up to a factor of 13 from a 20 years to a 500 years time horizon. Characterization factors for ammonia are 4.0-4.3 times greater than those for nitrogen oxides (NOx), and characterization factors for sulfur dioxide are 1.4-2.0 times greater than those for NOx. Aggregation of damage due to acidification with other impact categories on the European scale becomes feasible with the applied approach. 45 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the data...

  4. Plant database resources at The Institute for Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Chan, Agnes P; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Quackenbush, John; Buell, C Robin; Town, Chris D

    2007-01-01

    With the completion of the genome sequences of the model plants Arabidopsis and rice, and the continuing sequencing efforts of other economically important crop plants, an unprecedented amount of genome sequence data is now available for large-scale genomics studies and analyses, such as the identification and discovery of novel genes, comparative genomics, and functional genomics. Efficient utilization of these large data sets is critically dependent on the ease of access and organization of the data. The plant databases at The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) have been set up to maintain various data types including genomic sequence, annotation and analyses, expressed transcript assemblies and analyses, and gene expression profiles from microarray studies. We present here an overview of the TIGR database resources for plant genomics and describe methods to access the data.

  5. Summary of 1988 WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) Facility horizon gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.

    1990-11-01

    Numerous gas flow measurements have been made at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Facility horizon during 1988. All tests have been pressure decay or constant pressure tests from single boreholes drilled from the underground excavations. The test fluid has been nitrogen. The data have been interpreted as permeabilities and porosities by means of a transient numerical solution method. A closed-form steady-state approximation provides a reasonable order-of-magnitude permeability estimate. The effective resolution of the measurement system is less than 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2}. Results indicate that beyond 1 to 5 m from an excavation, the gas flow is very small and the corresponding permeability is below the system resolution. Within the first meter of an excavation, the interpreted permeabilities can be 5 orders of magnitude greater than the undisturbed or far-field permeability. The interpreted permeabilities in the region between the undisturbed region and the first meter from an excavation are in the range of 10{sup {minus}16} to 10{sup {minus}20} m{sup 2}. Measurable gas flow occurs to a greater depth into the roof above WIPP excavations of different sizes and ages than into the ribs and floor. The gas flows into the formation surrounding the smallest excavation tested are consistently lower than those at similar locations surrounding larger excavations of comparable age. Gas flow measured in the interbed layers near the WIPP excavations is highly variable. Generally, immediately above and below excavations, relatively large gas flow is measured in the interbed layers. These results are consistent with previous measurements and indicate a limited disturbed zone surrounding WIPP excavations. 31 refs., 99 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Evolution and function of genomic imprinting in plants

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Jessica A.; Zilberman, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genomic imprinting, an inherently epigenetic phenomenon defined by parent of origin-dependent gene expression, is observed in mammals and flowering plants. Genome-scale surveys of imprinted expression and the underlying differential epigenetic marks have led to the discovery of hundreds of imprinted plant genes and confirmed DNA and histone methylation as key regulators of plant imprinting. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of imprinted plant genes are unknown, and the evolutionary forces shaping plant imprinting remain rather opaque. Here, we review the mechanisms of plant genomic imprinting and discuss theories of imprinting evolution and biological significance in light of recent findings. PMID:26680300

  7. The genomics of plant sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vyskot, Boris; Hobza, Roman

    2015-07-01

    Around six percent of flowering species are dioecious, with separate female and male individuals. Sex determination is mostly based on genetics, but morphologically distinct sex chromosomes have only evolved in a few species. Of these, heteromorphic sex chromosomes have been most clearly described in the two model species - Silene latifolia and Rumex acetosa. In both species, the sex chromosomes are the largest chromosomes in the genome. They are hence easily distinguished, can be physically separated and analyzed. This review discusses some recent experimental data on selected model dioecious species, with a focus on S. latifolia. Phylogenetic analyses show that dioecy in plants originated independently and repeatedly even within individual genera. A cogent question is whether there is genetic degeneration of the non-recombining part of the plant Y chromosome, as in mammals, and, if so, whether reduced levels of gene expression in the heterogametic sex are equalized by dosage compensation. Current data provide no clear conclusion. We speculate that although some transcriptome analyses indicate the first signs of degeneration, especially in S. latifolia, the evolutionary processes forming plant sex chromosomes in plants may, to some extent, differ from those in animals.

  8. From plant genomes to protein families: computational tools

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The development of new high-throughput sequencing technologies has increased dramatically the number of successful genomic projects. Thus, draft genomic sequences of more than 60 plant species are currently available. Suitable bioinformatics tools are being developed to assemble, annotate and analyze the enormous number of sequences produced. In this context, specific plant comparative genomic databases are become powerful tools for gene family annotation in plant clades. In this mini-review, the current state-of-art of genomic projects is glossed. Besides, the computational tools developed to compare genomic data are compiled. PMID:24688740

  9. Genomes of planktonic Acidimicrobiales: widening horizons for marine Actinobacteria by metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Ghai, Rohit

    2015-02-10

    The genomes of four novel marine Actinobacteria have been assembled from large metagenomic data sets derived from the Mediterranean deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). These are the first marine representatives belonging to the order Acidimicrobiales and only the second group of planktonic marine Actinobacteria to be described. Their streamlined genomes and photoheterotrophic lifestyle suggest that they are planktonic, free-living microbes. A novel rhodopsin clade, acidirhodopsins, related to freshwater actinorhodopsins, was found in these organisms. Their genomes suggest a capacity to assimilate C2 compounds, some using the glyoxylate bypass and others with the ethylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pathway. They are also able to derive energy from dimethylsulfopropionate (DMSP), sulfonate, and carbon monoxide oxidation, all commonly available in the marine habitat. These organisms appear to be prevalent in the deep photic zone at or around the DCM. The presence of sister clades to the marine Acidimicrobiales in freshwater aquatic habitats provides a new example of marine-freshwater transitions with potential evolutionary insights. Despite several studies showing the importance and abundance of planktonic Actinobacteria in the marine habitat, a representative genome was only recently described. In order to expand the genomic repertoire of marine Actinobacteria, we describe here the first Acidimicrobidae genomes of marine origin and provide insights about their ecology. They display metabolic versatility in the acquisition of carbon and appear capable of utilizing diverse sources of energy. One of the genomes harbors a new kind of rhodopsin related to the actinorhodopsin clade of freshwater origin that is widespread in the oceans. Our data also support their preference to inhabit the deep chlorophyll maximum and the deep photic zone. This work contributes to the perception of marine actinobacterial groups as important players in the marine environment with distinct and

  10. An online database for genome information of agricultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Yoon, UngHan; Lee, GangSeob; Hahn, JangHo

    2012-01-01

    The integration-based genome database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that allows analysis of comparative genome for agricultural plants. We have concentrated on the functional bioinformatics of major agricultural resources, such as rice, Chinese cabbage, rice mutant lines, and microorganisms. The major functions are focused on functional genome analysis, including genome projects, gene expression analysis, gene markers with genetic map, analysis tools for comparative genome structure, and genome annotation in agricultural plants. Availability The database is available for free at http://nabic.naas.go.kr/ PMID:23275706

  11. Single-cell genomics reveals features of a Colwellia species that was dominant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Olivia U.; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Jansson, Janet K.

    2014-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume developed resulting in a rapid succession of bacteria. Colwellia eventually supplanted Oceanospirillales, which dominated the plume early in the spill. These successional changes may have resulted, in part, from the changing composition and abundance of hydrocarbons over time. Colwellia abundance peaked when gaseous and simple aromatic hydrocarbons increased, yet the metabolic pathway used by Colwellia in hydrocarbon disposition is unknown. Here we used single-cell genomics to gain insights into the genome properties of a Colwellia enriched during the DWH deep-sea plume. A single amplified genome (SAG) of a Colwellia cell isolated from a DWH plume, closely related (avg. 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity) to other plume Colwellia, was sequenced and annotated. The SAG was similar to the sequenced isolate Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H (84% avg. nucleotide identity). Both had genes for denitrification, chemotaxis, and motility, adaptations to cold environments and a suite of nutrient acquisition genes. The Colwellia SAG may be capable of gaseous and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, which contrasts with a DWH plume Oceanospirillales SAG which encoded non-gaseous n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation pathways. The disparate hydrocarbon degradation pathways are consistent with hydrocarbons that were abundant at different times in the deep-sea plume; first, non-gaseous n-alkanes and cycloalkanes that could be degraded by Oceanospirillales, followed by gaseous, and simple aromatic hydrocarbons that may have been degraded by Colwellia. These insights into the genomic properties of a Colwellia species, which were supported by existing metagenomic sequence data from the plume and DWH contaminated sediments, help further our understanding of the successional changes in the dominant microbial players in the plume over the course of the DWH spill. PMID:25071745

  12. Single-cell genomics reveals features of a Colwellia species that was dominant during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mason, Olivia U; Han, James; Woyke, Tanja; Jansson, Janet K

    2014-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume developed resulting in a rapid succession of bacteria. Colwellia eventually supplanted Oceanospirillales, which dominated the plume early in the spill. These successional changes may have resulted, in part, from the changing composition and abundance of hydrocarbons over time. Colwellia abundance peaked when gaseous and simple aromatic hydrocarbons increased, yet the metabolic pathway used by Colwellia in hydrocarbon disposition is unknown. Here we used single-cell genomics to gain insights into the genome properties of a Colwellia enriched during the DWH deep-sea plume. A single amplified genome (SAG) of a Colwellia cell isolated from a DWH plume, closely related (avg. 98% 16S rRNA gene similarity) to other plume Colwellia, was sequenced and annotated. The SAG was similar to the sequenced isolate Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H (84% avg. nucleotide identity). Both had genes for denitrification, chemotaxis, and motility, adaptations to cold environments and a suite of nutrient acquisition genes. The Colwellia SAG may be capable of gaseous and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, which contrasts with a DWH plume Oceanospirillales SAG which encoded non-gaseous n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation pathways. The disparate hydrocarbon degradation pathways are consistent with hydrocarbons that were abundant at different times in the deep-sea plume; first, non-gaseous n-alkanes and cycloalkanes that could be degraded by Oceanospirillales, followed by gaseous, and simple aromatic hydrocarbons that may have been degraded by Colwellia. These insights into the genomic properties of a Colwellia species, which were supported by existing metagenomic sequence data from the plume and DWH contaminated sediments, help further our understanding of the successional changes in the dominant microbial players in the plume over the course of the DWH spill.

  13. Phytozome: a comparative platform for green plant genomics.

    PubMed

    Goodstein, David M; Shu, Shengqiang; Howson, Russell; Neupane, Rochak; Hayes, Richard D; Fazo, Joni; Mitros, Therese; Dirks, William; Hellsten, Uffe; Putnam, Nicholas; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    The number of sequenced plant genomes and associated genomic resources is growing rapidly with the advent of both an increased focus on plant genomics from funding agencies, and the application of inexpensive next generation sequencing. To interact with this increasing body of data, we have developed Phytozome (http://www.phytozome.net), a comparative hub for plant genome and gene family data and analysis. Phytozome provides a view of the evolutionary history of every plant gene at the level of sequence, gene structure, gene family and genome organization, while at the same time providing access to the sequences and functional annotations of a growing number (currently 25) of complete plant genomes, including all the land plants and selected algae sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute, as well as selected species sequenced elsewhere. Through a comprehensive plant genome database and web portal, these data and analyses are available to the broader plant science research community, providing powerful comparative genomics tools that help to link model systems with other plants of economic and ecological importance.

  14. Architecture and evolution of a minute plant genome

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Lyons, Eric; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; Pérez-Torres, Claudia Anahí; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Lan, Tianying; Welch, Andreanna J.; Juárez, María Jazmín Abraham; Simpson, June; Fernández-Cortés, Araceli; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo; Schuster, Stephan C.; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Minoche, André E.; Xu, Sen; Lynch, Michael; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cervantes-Pérez, Sergio Alan; de Jesús Ortega-Estrada, María; Cervantes-Luevano, Jacob Israel; Michael, Todd P.; Mockler, Todd; Bryant, Douglas; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Albert, Victor A.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that the evolution of plant genome size is principally unidirectional and increasing owing to the varied action of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) and mobile element proliferation1. However, extreme genome size reductions have been reported in the angiosperm family tree. Here we report the sequence of the 82-megabase genome of the carnivorous bladderwort plant Utricularia gibba. Despite its tiny size, the U. gibba genome accommodates a typical number of genes for a plant, with the main difference from other plant genomes arising from a drastic reduction in non-genic DNA. Unexpectedly, we identified at least three rounds of WGD in U. gibba since common ancestry with tomato (Solanum) and grape (Vitis). The compressed architecture of the U. gibba genome indicates that a small fraction of intergenic DNA, with few or no active retrotransposons, is sufficient to regulate and integrate all the processes required for the development and reproduction of a complex organism. PMID:23665961

  15. Sputnik: a database platform for comparative plant genomics.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Stephen; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2003-01-01

    Two million plant ESTs, from 20 different plant species, and totalling more than one 1000 Mbp of DNA sequence, represents a formidable transcriptomic resource. Sputnik uses the potential of this sequence resource to fill some of the information gap in the un-sequenced plant genomes and to serve as the foundation for in silicio comparative plant genomics. The complexity of the individual EST collections has been reduced using optimised EST clustering techniques. Annotation of cluster sequences is performed by exploiting and transferring information from the comprehensive knowledgebase already produced for the completed model plant genome (Arabidopsis thaliana) and by performing additional state of-the-art sequence analyses relevant to today's plant biologist. Functional predictions, comparative analyses and associative annotations for 500 000 plant EST derived peptides make Sputnik (http://mips.gsf.de/proj/sputnik/) a valid platform for contemporary plant genomics.

  16. Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

  17. Sputnik: a database platform for comparative plant genomics

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Stephen; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2003-01-01

    Two million plant ESTs, from 20 different plant species, and totalling more than one 1000 Mbp of DNA sequence, represents a formidable transcriptomic resource. Sputnik uses the potential of this sequence resource to fill some of the information gap in the un-sequenced plant genomes and to serve as the foundation for in silicio comparative plant genomics. The complexity of the individual EST collections has been reduced using optimised EST clustering techniques. Annotation of cluster sequences is performed by exploiting and transferring information from the comprehensive knowledgebase already produced for the completed model plant genome (Arabidopsis thaliana) and by performing additional state of-the-art sequence analyses relevant to today's plant biologist. Functional predictions, comparative analyses and associative annotations for 500 000 plant EST derived peptides make Sputnik (http://mips.gsf.de/proj/sputnik/) a valid platform for contemporary plant genomics. PMID:12519965

  18. Gene duplication and transfer events in plant mitochondria genome

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Aisheng Peng Rihe; Zhuang Jing; Gao Feng; Zhu Bo; Fu Xiaoyan; Xue Yong; Jin Xiaofen; Tian Yongsheng; Zhao Wei; Yao Quanhong

    2008-11-07

    Gene or genome duplication events increase the amount of genetic material available to increase the genomic, and thereby phenotypic, complexity of organisms during evolution. Gene duplication and transfer events have been important to molecular evolution in all three domains of life, and may be the first step in the emergence of new gene functions. Gene transfer events have been proposed as another accelerator of evolution. The duplicated gene or genome, mainly nuclear, has been the subject of several recent reviews. In addition to the nuclear genome, organisms have organelle genomes, including mitochondrial genome. In this review, we briefly summarize gene duplication and transfer events in the plant mitochondrial genome.

  19. From pathogen genomes to host plant processes: the power of plant parasitic oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Pais, Marina; Win, Joe; Yoshida, Kentaro; Etherington, Graham J; Cano, Liliana M; Raffaele, Sylvain; Banfield, Mark J; Jones, Alex; Kamoun, Sophien; Saunders, Diane G O

    2013-06-28

    Recent pathogenomic research on plant parasitic oomycete effector function and plant host responses has resulted in major conceptual advances in plant pathology, which has been possible thanks to the availability of genome sequences.

  20. From pathogen genomes to host plant processes: the power of plant parasitic oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recent pathogenomic research on plant parasitic oomycete effector function and plant host responses has resulted in major conceptual advances in plant pathology, which has been possible thanks to the availability of genome sequences. PMID:23809564

  1. PGSB/MIPS Plant Genome Information Resources and Concepts for the Analysis of Complex Grass Genomes.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Bader, Kai; Pfeifer, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology; formerly MIPS-Munich Institute for Protein Sequences) has been involved in developing, implementing and maintaining plant genome databases for more than a decade. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable datasets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, e.g., from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and analyzed. In addition, genomes from both model and crop plants form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny) between related species on macro- and micro-levels.The genomes of many economically important Triticeae plants such as wheat, barley, and rye present a great challenge for sequence assembly and bioinformatic analysis due to their enormous complexity and large genome size. Novel concepts and strategies have been developed to deal with these difficulties and have been applied to the genomes of wheat, barley, rye, and other cereals. This includes the GenomeZipper concept, reference-guided exome assembly, and "chromosome genomics" based on flow cytometry sorted chromosomes.

  2. Genomes of Planktonic Acidimicrobiales: Widening Horizons for Marine Actinobacteria by Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ghai, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomes of four novel marine Actinobacteria have been assembled from large metagenomic data sets derived from the Mediterranean deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). These are the first marine representatives belonging to the order Acidimicrobiales and only the second group of planktonic marine Actinobacteria to be described. Their streamlined genomes and photoheterotrophic lifestyle suggest that they are planktonic, free-living microbes. A novel rhodopsin clade, acidirhodopsins, related to freshwater actinorhodopsins, was found in these organisms. Their genomes suggest a capacity to assimilate C2 compounds, some using the glyoxylate bypass and others with the ethylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pathway. They are also able to derive energy from dimethylsulfopropionate (DMSP), sulfonate, and carbon monoxide oxidation, all commonly available in the marine habitat. These organisms appear to be prevalent in the deep photic zone at or around the DCM. The presence of sister clades to the marine Acidimicrobiales in freshwater aquatic habitats provides a new example of marine-freshwater transitions with potential evolutionary insights. PMID:25670777

  3. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Gossypium hirsutum and Evolutionary Analysis of Higher Plant Mitochondrial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Su, Aiguo; Geng, Jianing; Grover, Corrinne E.; Hu, Songnian; Hua, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondria are the main manufacturers of cellular ATP in eukaryotes. The plant mitochondrial genome contains large number of foreign DNA and repeated sequences undergone frequently intramolecular recombination. Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is one of the main natural fiber crops and also an important oil-producing plant in the world. Sequencing of the cotton mitochondrial (mt) genome could be helpful for the evolution research of plant mt genomes. Methodology/Principal Findings We utilized 454 technology for sequencing and combined with Fosmid library of the Gossypium hirsutum mt genome screening and positive clones sequencing and conducted a series of evolutionary analysis on Cycas taitungensis and 24 angiosperms mt genomes. After data assembling and contigs joining, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of G. hirsutum was obtained. The completed G.hirsutum mt genome is 621,884 bp in length, and contained 68 genes, including 35 protein genes, four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Five gene clusters are found conserved in all plant mt genomes; one and four clusters are specifically conserved in monocots and dicots, respectively. Homologous sequences are distributed along the plant mt genomes and species closely related share the most homologous sequences. For species that have both mt and chloroplast genome sequences available, we checked the location of cp-like migration and found several fragments closely linked with mitochondrial genes. Conclusion The G. hirsutum mt genome possesses most of the common characters of higher plant mt genomes. The existence of syntenic gene clusters, as well as the conservation of some intergenic sequences and genic content among the plant mt genomes suggest that evolution of mt genomes is consistent with plant taxonomy but independent among different species. PMID:23940520

  4. Evolution Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeats in Plant Genome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zhen; Wang, Yanping; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Aixian; Hou, Fuyun; Zhang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are widespread units on genome sequences, and play many important roles in plants. In order to reveal the evolution of plant genomes, we investigated the evolutionary regularities of SSRs during the evolution of plant species and the plant kingdom by analysis of twelve sequenced plant genome sequences. First, in the twelve studied plant genomes, the main SSRs were those which contain repeats of 1-3 nucleotides combination. Second, in mononucleotide SSRs, the A/T percentage gradually increased along with the evolution of plants (except for P. patens). With the increase of SSRs repeat number the percentage of A/T in C. reinhardtii had no significant change, while the percentage of A/T in terrestrial plants species gradually declined. Third, in dinucleotide SSRs, the percentage of AT/TA increased along with the evolution of plant kingdom and the repeat number increased in terrestrial plants species. This trend was more obvious in dicotyledon than monocotyledon. The percentage of CG/GC showed the opposite pattern to the AT/TA. Forth, in trinucleotide SSRs, the percentages of combinations including two or three A/T were in a rising trend along with the evolution of plant kingdom; meanwhile with the increase of SSRs repeat number in plants species, different species chose different combinations as dominant SSRs. SSRs in C. reinhardtii, P. patens, Z. mays and A. thaliana showed their specific patterns related to evolutionary position or specific changes of genome sequences. The results showed that, SSRs not only had the general pattern in the evolution of plant kingdom, but also were associated with the evolution of the specific genome sequence. The study of the evolutionary regularities of SSRs provided new insights for the analysis of the plant genome evolution.

  5. Comparative genomic paleontology across plant kingdom reveals the dynamics of TE-driven genome evolution.

    PubMed

    El Baidouri, Moaine; Panaud, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function, and evolution of their host genome, and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in eight plant genomes for which a high-quality sequence is available (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum, and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these eight plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size, and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in the recent past, and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage specific. These new findings lead us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants.

  6. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-08-07

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  7. An Era of CRISPR/ Cas9 Mediated Plant Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Haris; Jan, Sohail Ahmad; Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Jamal, Muhammad; Shah, Sabir Hussain

    2017-09-07

    Recently the engineered nucleases have revolutionized genome editing to perturb gene expression at specific sites in complex eukaryotic genomes. Three important classes of these genome editing tools are Moreover, the more recent type II Clustered Regularly Inter-spaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Crispr associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) system has become the most favorite plant genome editing tool for its precision and RNA based specificity unlike its counterparts which rely on protein based specificity. Plasmid-mediated co-delivery of multiple sgRNAs and Cas9 to the Plant cell can simultaneously alter more than one target loci which enable multiplex genome editing. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in the CRISPR/ Cas9 technology mechanism, theory and its applications in plants and agriculture. We also suggest that the CRISPR/ Cas9 as an effective genome editing tool, has vast potential for crop improvement and studying gene regulation mechanism and chromatin remodeling.

  8. Control of meiotic recombination frequency in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Ian R

    2012-11-01

    Sexual eukaryotes reproduce via the meiotic cell division, where ploidy is halved and homologous chromosomes undergo reciprocal genetic exchange, termed crossover (CO). CO frequency has a profound effect on patterns of genetic variation and species evolution. Relative CO rates vary extensively both within and between plant genomes. Plant genome size varies by over 1000-fold, largely due to differential expansion of repetitive sequences, and increased genome size is associated with reduced CO frequency. Gene versus repeat sequences associate with distinct chromatin modifications, and evidence from plant genomes indicates that this epigenetic information influences CO patterns. This is consistent with data from diverse eukaryotes that demonstrate the importance of chromatin structure for control of meiotic recombination. In this review I will discuss CO frequency patterns in plant genomes and recent advances in understanding recombination distributions.

  9. PGSB PlantsDB: updates to the database framework for comparative plant genome research

    PubMed Central

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai C.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Seidel, Michael; Kugler, Karl G.; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology: formerly MIPS) PlantsDB (http://pgsb.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/index.jsp) is a database framework for the comparative analysis and visualization of plant genome data. The resource has been updated with new data sets and types as well as specialized tools and interfaces to address user demands for intuitive access to complex plant genome data. In its latest incarnation, we have re-worked both the layout and navigation structure and implemented new keyword search options and a new BLAST sequence search functionality. Actively involved in corresponding sequencing consortia, PlantsDB has dedicated special efforts to the integration and visualization of complex triticeae genome data, especially for barley, wheat and rye. We enhanced CrowsNest, a tool to visualize syntenic relationships between genomes, with data from the wheat sub-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii and added functionality to the PGSB RNASeqExpressionBrowser. GenomeZipper results were integrated for the genomes of barley, rye, wheat and perennial ryegrass and interactive access is granted through PlantsDB interfaces. Data exchange and cross-linking between PlantsDB and other plant genome databases is stimulated by the transPLANT project (http://transplantdb.eu/). PMID:26527721

  10. Exploration of plant genomes in the FLAGdb++ environment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the contexts of genomics, post-genomics and systems biology approaches, data integration presents a major concern. Databases provide crucial solutions: they store, organize and allow information to be queried, they enhance the visibility of newly produced data by comparing them with previously published results, and facilitate the exploration and development of both existing hypotheses and new ideas. Results The FLAGdb++ information system was developed with the aim of using whole plant genomes as physical references in order to gather and merge available genomic data from in silico or experimental approaches. Available through a JAVA application, original interfaces and tools assist the functional study of plant genes by considering them in their specific context: chromosome, gene family, orthology group, co-expression cluster and functional network. FLAGdb++ is mainly dedicated to the exploration of large gene groups in order to decipher functional connections, to highlight shared or specific structural or functional features, and to facilitate translational tasks between plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera). Conclusion Combining original data with the output of experts and graphical displays that differ from classical plant genome browsers, FLAGdb++ presents a powerful complementary tool for exploring plant genomes and exploiting structural and functional resources, without the need for computer programming knowledge. First launched in 2002, a 15th version of FLAGdb++ is now available and comprises four model plant genomes and over eight million genomic features. PMID:21447150

  11. Klebsormidium flaccidum genome reveals primary factors for plant terrestrial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Maruyama, Fumito; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Togashi, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Seo, Mitsunori; Sato, Syusei; Yamada, Takuji; Mori, Hiroshi; Tajima, Naoyuki; Moriyama, Takashi; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Watanabe, Mai; Wada, Hajime; Kobayashi, Koichi; Saito, Masakazu; Masuda, Tatsuru; Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Mashiguchi, Kiyoshi; Awai, Koichiro; Shimojima, Mie; Masuda, Shinji; Iwai, Masako; Nobusawa, Takashi; Narise, Takafumi; Kondo, Satoshi; Saito, Hikaru; Sato, Ryoichi; Murakawa, Masato; Ihara, Yuta; Oshima-Yamada, Yui; Ohtaka, Kinuka; Satoh, Masanori; Sonobe, Kohei; Ishii, Midori; Ohtani, Ryosuke; Kanamori-Sato, Miyu; Honoki, Rina; Miyazaki, Daichi; Mochizuki, Hitoshi; Umetsu, Jumpei; Higashi, Kouichi; Shibata, Daisuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Sato, Naoki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Ida, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Ken; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-28

    The colonization of land by plants was a key event in the evolution of life. Here we report the draft genome sequence of the filamentous terrestrial alga Klebsormidium flaccidum (Division Charophyta, Order Klebsormidiales) to elucidate the early transition step from aquatic algae to land plants. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of other algae and land plants demonstrate that K. flaccidum acquired many genes specific to land plants. We demonstrate that K. flaccidum indeed produces several plant hormones and homologues of some of the signalling intermediates required for hormone actions in higher plants. The K. flaccidum genome also encodes a primitive system to protect against the harmful effects of high-intensity light. The presence of these plant-related systems in K. flaccidum suggests that, during evolution, this alga acquired the fundamental machinery required for adaptation to terrestrial environments.

  12. Comparative genomics of the liberibacteral plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comparative analyses of multiple Liberibacter genomes provide significant insights into the evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and phylogenetic and metabolomic capacities among pathogenic bacteria that have caused tremendous economic losses to agricultural crops. In addition, genomic analyses ...

  13. Plant Genome Resources at the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Smith-White, Brian; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Resenchuk, Sergei; Dombrowski, Susan M.; Pechous, Steven W.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ostell, James

    2005-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) integrates data from more than 20 biological databases through a flexible search and retrieval system called Entrez. A core Entrez database, Entrez Nucleotide, includes GenBank and is tightly linked to the NCBI Taxonomy database, the Entrez Protein database, and the scientific literature in PubMed. A suite of more specialized databases for genomes, genes, gene families, gene expression, gene variation, and protein domains dovetails with the core databases to make Entrez a powerful system for genomic research. Linked to the full range of Entrez databases is the NCBI Map Viewer, which displays aligned genetic, physical, and sequence maps for eukaryotic genomes including those of many plants. A specialized plant query page allow maps from all plant genomes covered by the Map Viewer to be searched in tandem to produce a display of aligned maps from several species. PlantBLAST searches against the sequences shown in the Map Viewer allow BLAST alignments to be viewed within a genomic context. In addition, precomputed sequence similarities, such as those for proteins offered by BLAST Link, enable fluid navigation from unannotated to annotated sequences, quickening the pace of discovery. NCBI Web pages for plants, such as Plant Genome Central, complete the system by providing centralized access to NCBI's genomic resources as well as links to organism-specific Web pages beyond NCBI. PMID:16010002

  14. Evolution and function of genomic imprinting in plants.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jessica A; Zilberman, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    Genomic imprinting, an inherently epigenetic phenomenon defined by parent of origin-dependent gene expression, is observed in mammals and flowering plants. Genome-scale surveys of imprinted expression and the underlying differential epigenetic marks have led to the discovery of hundreds of imprinted plant genes and confirmed DNA and histone methylation as key regulators of plant imprinting. However, the biological roles of the vast majority of imprinted plant genes are unknown, and the evolutionary forces shaping plant imprinting remain rather opaque. Here, we review the mechanisms of plant genomic imprinting and discuss theories of imprinting evolution and biological significance in light of recent findings. © 2015 Rodrigues and Zilberman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources.

    PubMed

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Preece, Justin; Olson, Andrew; Naithani, Sushma; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jiao, Yinping; Mulvaney, Joseph; Kumari, Sunita; Chougule, Kapeel; Elser, Justin; Wang, Bo; Thomason, James; Bolser, Daniel M; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Walts, Brandon; Fonseca, Nuno A; Huerta, Laura; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y Amy; Parkinson, Helen; Fabregat, Antonio; McKay, Sheldon; Weiser, Joel; D'Eustachio, Peter; Stein, Lincoln; Petryszak, Robert; Kersey, Paul J; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-04

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the database website adopted a new Drupal management platform. The genomes section features 39 fully assembled reference genomes that are integrated using ontology-based annotation and comparative analyses, and accessed through both visual and programmatic interfaces. Additional community data, such as genetic variation, expression and methylation, are also mapped for a subset of genomes. The Plant Reactome pathway portal (http://plantreactome.gramene.org) provides a reference resource for analyzing plant metabolic and regulatory pathways. In addition to ∼ 200 curated rice reference pathways, the portal hosts gene homology-based pathway projections for 33 plant species. Both the genome and pathway browsers interface with the EMBL-EBI's Expression Atlas to enable the projection of baseline and differential expression data from curated expression studies in plants. Gramene's archive website (http://archive.gramene.org) continues to provide previously reported resources on comparative maps, markers and QTL. To further aid our users, we have also introduced a live monthly educational webinar series and a Gramene YouTube channel carrying video tutorials. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Gramene 2016: comparative plant genomics and pathway resources

    PubMed Central

    Tello-Ruiz, Marcela K.; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Preece, Justin; Olson, Andrew; Naithani, Sushma; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Jiao, Yinping; Mulvaney, Joseph; Kumari, Sunita; Chougule, Kapeel; Elser, Justin; Wang, Bo; Thomason, James; Bolser, Daniel M.; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Walts, Brandon; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Huerta, Laura; Keays, Maria; Tang, Y. Amy; Parkinson, Helen; Fabregat, Antonio; McKay, Sheldon; Weiser, Joel; D'Eustachio, Peter; Stein, Lincoln; Petryszak, Robert; Kersey, Paul J.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Ware, Doreen

    2016-01-01

    Gramene (http://www.gramene.org) is an online resource for comparative functional genomics in crops and model plant species. Its two main frameworks are genomes (collaboration with Ensembl Plants) and pathways (The Plant Reactome and archival BioCyc databases). Since our last NAR update, the database website adopted a new Drupal management platform. The genomes section features 39 fully assembled reference genomes that are integrated using ontology-based annotation and comparative analyses, and accessed through both visual and programmatic interfaces. Additional community data, such as genetic variation, expression and methylation, are also mapped for a subset of genomes. The Plant Reactome pathway portal (http://plantreactome.gramene.org) provides a reference resource for analyzing plant metabolic and regulatory pathways. In addition to ∼200 curated rice reference pathways, the portal hosts gene homology-based pathway projections for 33 plant species. Both the genome and pathway browsers interface with the EMBL-EBI's Expression Atlas to enable the projection of baseline and differential expression data from curated expression studies in plants. Gramene's archive website (http://archive.gramene.org) continues to provide previously reported resources on comparative maps, markers and QTL. To further aid our users, we have also introduced a live monthly educational webinar series and a Gramene YouTube channel carrying video tutorials. PMID:26553803

  17. Covering Your Bases: Inheritance of DNA Methylation in Plant Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytosine methylation is an important base modification that is inherited across mitotic and meiotic cell divisions in plant genomes. Heritable methylation variants can contribute to within-species phenotypic variation. Few methylation variants were known until recently, making it possible to begin to address major unanswered questions: the extent of natural methylation variation within plant genomes, its effects on phenotypic variation, its degree of dependence on genotype, and how it fits into an evolutionary context. Techniques like whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) make it possible to determine cytosine methylation states at single-base resolution across entire genomes and populations. Application of this method to natural and novel experimental populations is revealing answers to these long-standing questions about the role of DNA methylation in plant genomes. PMID:24270503

  18. Targeted modification of plant genomes for precision crop breeding.

    PubMed

    Hilscher, Julia; Bürstmayr, Hermann; Stoger, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The development of gene targeting and gene editing techniques based on programmable site-directed nucleases (SDNs) has increased the precision of genome modification and made the outcomes more predictable and controllable. These approaches have achieved rapid advances in plant biotechnology, particularly the development of improved crop varieties. Here, we review the range of alterations which have already been implemented in plant genomes, and summarize the reported efficiencies of precise genome modification. Many crop varieties are being developed using SDN technologies and although their regulatory status in the USA is clear there is still a decision pending in the EU. DNA-free genome editing strategies are briefly discussed because they also present a unique regulatory challenge. The potential applications of genome editing in plant breeding and crop improvement are highlighted by drawing examples from the recent literature.

  19. GenomicusPlants: a web resource to study genome evolution in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Louis, Alexandra; Murat, Florent; Salse, Jérôme; Crollius, Hugues Roest

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics combined with phylogenetic reconstructions are powerful approaches to study the evolution of genes and genomes. However, the current rapid expansion of the volume of genomic information makes it increasingly difficult to interrogate, integrate and synthesize comparative genome data while taking into account the maximum breadth of information available. GenomicusPlants (http://www.genomicus.biologie.ens.fr/genomicus-plants) is an extension of the Genomicus webserver that addresses this issue by allowing users to explore flowering plant genomes in an intuitive way, across the broadest evolutionary scales. Extant genomes of 26 flowering plants can be analyzed, as well as 23 ancestral reconstructed genomes. Ancestral gene order provides a long-term chronological view of gene order evolution, greatly facilitating comparative genomics and evolutionary studies. Four main interfaces ('views') are available where: (i) PhyloView combines phylogenetic trees with comparisons of genomic loci across any number of genomes; (ii) AlignView projects loci of interest against all other genomes to visualize its topological conservation; (iii) MatrixView compares two genomes in a classical dotplot representation; and (iv) Karyoview visualizes chromosome karyotypes 'painted' with colours of another genome of interest. All four views are interconnected and benefit from many customizable features.

  20. GenomicusPlants: A Web Resource to Study Genome Evolution in Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Alexandra; Murat, Florent; Salse, Jérôme; Roest Crollius, Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics combined with phylogenetic reconstructions are powerful approaches to study the evolution of genes and genomes. However, the current rapid expansion of the volume of genomic information makes it increasingly difficult to interrogate, integrate and synthesize comparative genome data while taking into account the maximum breadth of information available. GenomicusPlants (http://www.genomicus.biologie.ens.fr/genomicus-plants) is an extension of the Genomicus webserver that addresses this issue by allowing users to explore flowering plant genomes in an intuitive way, across the broadest evolutionary scales. Extant genomes of 26 flowering plants can be analyzed, as well as 23 ancestral reconstructed genomes. Ancestral gene order provides a long-term chronological view of gene order evolution, greatly facilitating comparative genomics and evolutionary studies. Four main interfaces (‘views’) are available where: (i) PhyloView combines phylogenetic trees with comparisons of genomic loci across any number of genomes; (ii) AlignView projects loci of interest against all other genomes to visualize its topological conservation; (iii) MatrixView compares two genomes in a classical dotplot representation; and (iv) Karyoview visualizes chromosome karyotypes ‘painted’ with colours of another genome of interest. All four views are interconnected and benefit from many customizable features. PMID:25432975

  1. The maize genome as a model for efficient sequence analysis of large plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    The genomes of flowering plants vary in size from about 0.1 to over 100 gigabase pairs (Gbp), mostly because of polyploidy and variation in the abundance of repetitive elements in intergenic regions. High-quality sequences of the relatively small genomes of Arabidopsis (0.14 Gbp) and rice (0.4 Gbp) have now been largely completed. The sequencing of plant genomes that have a more representative size (the mean for flowering plant genomes is 5.6 Gbp) has been seen as a daunting task, partly because of their size and partly because of the numerous highly conserved repeats. Nevertheless, creative strategies and powerful new tools have been generated recently in the plant genetics community, so that sequencing large plant genomes is now a realistic possibility. Maize (2.4-2.7 Gbp) will be the first gigabase-size plant genome to be sequenced using these novel approaches. Pilot studies on maize indicate that the new gene-enrichment, gene-finishing and gene-orientation technologies are efficient, robust and comprehensive. These strategies will succeed in sequencing the gene-space of large genome plants, and in locating all of these genes and adjacent sequences on the genetic and physical maps.

  2. Recent updates and developments to plant genome size databases.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Sònia; Leitch, Ilia J; Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Canela, Miguel Á; Gálvez, Francisco; Garnatje, Teresa; Gras, Airy; Hidalgo, Oriane; Johnston, Emmeline; Mas de Xaxars, Gemma; Pellicer, Jaume; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Vallès, Joan; Vitales, Daniel; Bennett, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Two plant genome size databases have been recently updated and/or extended: the Plant DNA C-values database (http://data.kew.org/cvalues), and GSAD, the Genome Size in Asteraceae database (http://www.asteraceaegenomesize.com). While the first provides information on nuclear DNA contents across land plants and some algal groups, the second is focused on one of the largest and most economically important angiosperm families, Asteraceae. Genome size data have numerous applications: they can be used in comparative studies on genome evolution, or as a tool to appraise the cost of whole-genome sequencing programs. The growing interest in genome size and increasing rate of data accumulation has necessitated the continued update of these databases. Currently, the Plant DNA C-values database (Release 6.0, Dec. 2012) contains data for 8510 species, while GSAD has 1219 species (Release 2.0, June 2013), representing increases of 17 and 51%, respectively, in the number of species with genome size data, compared with previous releases. Here we provide overviews of the most recent releases of each database, and outline new features of GSAD. The latter include (i) a tool to visually compare genome size data between species, (ii) the option to export data and (iii) a webpage containing information about flow cytometry protocols.

  3. Perspectives for genomic selection applications and research in plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection (GS) has created a lot of excitement and expectations in the animal and plant breeding research communities. In this review, we briefly describe how genomic prediction can be integrated into breeding efforts and point out achievements and areas where more research is needed. GS pro...

  4. Recent updates and developments to plant genome size databases

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Sònia; Leitch, Ilia J.; Anadon-Rosell, Alba; Canela, Miguel Á.; Gálvez, Francisco; Garnatje, Teresa; Gras, Airy; Hidalgo, Oriane; Johnston, Emmeline; Mas de Xaxars, Gemma; Pellicer, Jaume; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja; Vallès, Joan; Vitales, Daniel; Bennett, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Two plant genome size databases have been recently updated and/or extended: the Plant DNA C-values database (http://data.kew.org/cvalues), and GSAD, the Genome Size in Asteraceae database (http://www.asteraceaegenomesize.com). While the first provides information on nuclear DNA contents across land plants and some algal groups, the second is focused on one of the largest and most economically important angiosperm families, Asteraceae. Genome size data have numerous applications: they can be used in comparative studies on genome evolution, or as a tool to appraise the cost of whole-genome sequencing programs. The growing interest in genome size and increasing rate of data accumulation has necessitated the continued update of these databases. Currently, the Plant DNA C-values database (Release 6.0, Dec. 2012) contains data for 8510 species, while GSAD has 1219 species (Release 2.0, June 2013), representing increases of 17 and 51%, respectively, in the number of species with genome size data, compared with previous releases. Here we provide overviews of the most recent releases of each database, and outline new features of GSAD. The latter include (i) a tool to visually compare genome size data between species, (ii) the option to export data and (iii) a webpage containing information about flow cytometry protocols. PMID:24288377

  5. Reconstructing relative genome size of vascular plants through geological time.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Barry H; Hilton, Jason; Bateman, Richard M; Upchurch, Garland R; Lake, Janice A; Leitch, Ilia J; Cromwell, Avery; Knight, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The strong positive relationship evident between cell and genome size in both animals and plants forms the basis of using the size of stomatal guard cells as a proxy to track changes in plant genome size through geological time. We report for the first time a taxonomic fine-scale investigation into changes in stomatal guard-cell length and use these data to infer changes in genome size through the evolutionary history of land plants. Our data suggest that many of the earliest land plants had exceptionally large genome sizes and that a predicted overall trend of increasing genome size within individual lineages through geological time is not supported. However, maximum genome size steadily increases from the Mississippian (c. 360 million yr ago (Ma)) to the present. We hypothesise that the functional relationship between stomatal size, genome size and atmospheric CO2 may contribute to the dichotomy reported between preferential extinction of neopolyploids and the prevalence of palaeopolyploidy observed in DNA sequence data of extant vascular plants.

  6. PGDD: a database of gene and genome duplication in plants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Tang, Haibao; Wang, Xiyin; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2013-01-01

    Genome duplication (GD) has permanently shaped the architecture and function of many higher eukaryotic genomes. The angiosperms (flowering plants) are outstanding models in which to elucidate consequences of GD for higher eukaryotes, owing to their propensity for chromosomal duplication or even triplication in a few cases. Duplicated genome structures often require both intra- and inter-genome alignments to unravel their evolutionary history, also providing the means to deduce both obvious and otherwise-cryptic orthology, paralogy and other relationships among genes. The burgeoning sets of angiosperm genome sequences provide the foundation for a host of investigations into the functional and evolutionary consequences of gene and GD. To provide genome alignments from a single resource based on uniform standards that have been validated by empirical studies, we built the Plant Genome Duplication Database (PGDD; freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/), a web service providing synteny information in terms of colinearity between chromosomes. At present, PGDD contains data for 26 plants including bryophytes and chlorophyta, as well as angiosperms with draft genome sequences. In addition to the inclusion of new genomes as they become available, we are preparing new functions to enhance PGDD. PMID:23180799

  7. Polyploidy-associated genome modifications during land plant evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuannian; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of polyploidy in land plant evolution has led to an acceleration of genome modifications relative to other crown eukaryotes and is correlated with key innovations in plant evolution. Extensive genome resources provide for relating genomic changes to the origins of novel morphological and physiological features of plants. Ancestral gene contents for key nodes of the plant family tree are inferred. Pervasive polyploidy in angiosperms appears likely to be the major factor generating novel angiosperm genes and expanding some gene families. However, most gene families lose most duplicated copies in a quasi-neutral process, and a few families are actively selected for single-copy status. One of the great challenges of evolutionary genomics is to link genome modifications to speciation, diversification and the morphological and/or physiological innovations that collectively compose biodiversity. Rapid accumulation of genomic data and its ongoing investigation may greatly improve the resolution at which evolutionary approaches can contribute to the identification of specific genes responsible for particular innovations. The resulting, more ‘particulate’ understanding of plant evolution, may elevate to a new level fundamental knowledge of botanical diversity, including economically important traits in the crop plants that sustain humanity. PMID:24958928

  8. The plant ontology as a tool for comparative plant anatomy and genomic analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant science is now a major player in the fields of genomics, gene expression analysis, phenomics and metabolomics. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have led to a windfall of data, with new species being added rapidly to the list of species whose genomes have been decoded. The Plant Ontol...

  9. Signatures of adaptation to plant parasitism in nematode genomes.

    PubMed

    Bird, David McK; Jones, John T; Opperman, Charles H; Kikuchi, Taisei; Danchin, Etienne G J

    2015-02-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes cause considerable damage to global agriculture. The ability to parasitize plants is a derived character that appears to have independently emerged several times in the phylum Nematoda. Morphological convergence to feeding style has been observed, but whether this is emergent from molecular convergence is less obvious. To address this, we assess whether genomic signatures can be associated with plant parasitism by nematodes. In this review, we report genomic features and characteristics that appear to be common in plant-parasitic nematodes while absent or rare in animal parasites, predators or free-living species. Candidate horizontal acquisitions of parasitism genes have systematically been found in all plant-parasitic species investigated at the sequence level. Presence of peptides that mimic plant hormones also appears to be a trait of plant-parasitic species. Annotations of the few genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes available to date have revealed a set of apparently species-specific genes on every occasion. Effector genes, important for parasitism are frequently found among those species-specific genes, indicating poor overlap. Overall, nematodes appear to have developed convergent genomic solutions to adapt to plant parasitism.

  10. Decoding Plant and Animal Genome Plasticity from Differential Paleo-Evolutionary Patterns and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Murat, Florent; de Peer, Yves Van; Salse, Jérôme

    2012-01-01

    Continuing advances in genome sequencing technologies and computational methods for comparative genomics currently allow inferring the evolutionary history of entire plant and animal genomes. Based on the comparison of the plant and animal genome paleohistory, major differences are unveiled in 1) evolutionary mechanisms (i.e., polyploidization versus diploidization processes), 2) genome conservation (i.e., coding versus noncoding sequence maintenance), and 3) modern genome architecture (i.e., genome organization including repeats expansion versus contraction phenomena). This article discusses how extant animal and plant genomes are the result of inherently different rates and modes of genome evolution resulting in relatively stable animal and much more dynamic and plastic plant genomes. PMID:22833223

  11. Genome triplication drove the diversification of Brassica plants

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-01-01

    The genus Brassica belongs to the plant family Brassicaceae, which includes many important crop species that are used as oilseed, condiments, or vegetables throughout the world. Brassica plants comprise many diverse species, and each species contains rich morphotypes showing extreme traits. Brassica species experienced an extra whole genome triplication (WGT) event compared with the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Whole genome sequencing of the Brassica species Brassica rapa, Brassica oleracea and others demonstrated that WGT plays an important role in the speciation and morphotype diversification of Brassica plants. Comparative genomic analysis based on the genome sequences of B. rapa and A. thaliana clearly identified the WGT event and further demonstrated that the translocated Proto-Calepine Karyotype (tPCK, n=7) was the diploid ancestor of the three subgenomes in B. rapa. Following WGT, subsequent extensive genome fractionation, block reshuffling and chromosome reduction accompanied by paleocentromere descent from the three tPCK subgenomes during the rediploidization process produced stable diploid species. Genomic rearrangement of the diploid species and their hybridization then contributed to Brassica speciation. The subgenome dominance effect and biased gene retention, such as the over-retention of auxin-related genes after WGT, promoted functional gene evolution and thus propelled the expansion of rich morphotypes in the Brassica species. In conclusion, the WGT event initiated subsequent genomic and gene-level evolution, which further drove Brassica speciation and created rich morphotypes in each species. PMID:26504539

  12. FLAGdb(++): A Bioinformatic Environment to Study and Compare Plant Genomes.

    PubMed

    Tamby, Jean Philippe; Brunaud, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Today, the growing knowledge and data accumulation on plant genomes do not solve in a simple way the task of gene function inference. Because data of different types are coming from various sources, we need to integrate and analyze them to help biologists in this task. We created FLAGdb(++) ( http://tools.ips2.u-psud.fr/FLAGdb ) to take up this challenge for a selection of plant genomes. In order to enrich gene function predictions, structural and functional annotations of the genomes are explored to generate meta-data and to compare them. Since data are numerous and complex, we focused on accessibility and visualization with an original and user-friendly interface. In this chapter we present the main tools of FLAGdb(++) and a use-case to explore a gene family: structural and functional properties of this family and research of orthologous genes in the other plant genomes.

  13. Plant Microbe Interactions in Post Genomic Era: Perspectives and Applications.

    PubMed

    Imam, Jahangir; Singh, Puneet K; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering plant-microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various 'omics' tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant-microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses.

  14. Genome-Editing Technologies for Enhancing Plant Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Andolfo, Giuseppe; Iovieno, Paolo; Frusciante, Luigi; Ercolano, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for agricultural science in the 21st century is to improve yield stability through the progressive development of superior cultivars. The increasing numbers of infectious plant diseases that are caused by plant-pathogens make it ever more necessary to develop new strategies for plant disease resistance breeding. Targeted genome engineering allows the introduction of precise modifications directly into a commercial variety, offering a viable alternative to traditional breeding methods. Genome editing is a powerful tool for modifying crucial players in the plant immunity system. In this work, we propose and discuss genome-editing strategies and targets for improving resistance to phytopathogens. First of all, we present the opportunities to rewrite the effector-target sequence for avoiding effector-target molecular interaction and also to modify effector-target promoters for increasing the expression of target genes involved in the resistance process. In addition, we describe potential approaches for obtaining synthetic R-genes through genome-editing technologies (GETs). Finally, we illustrate a genome editing flowchart to modify the pathogen recognition sites and engineer an R-gene that mounts resistance to some phylogenetically divergent pathogens. GETs potentially mark the beginning of a new era, in which synthetic biology affords a basis for obtaining a reinforced plant defense system. Nowadays it is conceivable that by modulating the function of the major plant immunity players, we will be able to improve crop performance for a sustainable agriculture. PMID:27990151

  15. MIPS PlantsDB: a database framework for comparative plant genome research.

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Martis, Mihaela M; Roessner, Stephan K; Pfeifer, Matthias; Bader, Kai C; Sharma, Sapna; Gundlach, Heidrun; Spannagl, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of plant genome (sequence) data enables powerful comparative analyses and integrative approaches and also requires structured and comprehensive information resources. Databases are needed for both model and crop plant organisms and both intuitive search/browse views and comparative genomics tools should communicate the data to researchers and help them interpret it. MIPS PlantsDB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/genomes.jsp) was initially described in NAR in 2007 [Spannagl,M., Noubibou,O., Haase,D., Yang,L., Gundlach,H., Hindemitt, T., Klee,K., Haberer,G., Schoof,H. and Mayer,K.F. (2007) MIPSPlantsDB-plant database resource for integrative and comparative plant genome research. Nucleic Acids Res., 35, D834-D840] and was set up from the start to provide data and information resources for individual plant species as well as a framework for integrative and comparative plant genome research. PlantsDB comprises database instances for tomato, Medicago, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Sorghum, maize, rice, barley and wheat. Building up on that, state-of-the-art comparative genomics tools such as CrowsNest are integrated to visualize and investigate syntenic relationships between monocot genomes. Results from novel genome analysis strategies targeting the complex and repetitive genomes of triticeae species (wheat and barley) are provided and cross-linked with model species. The MIPS Repeat Element Database (mips-REdat) and Catalog (mips-REcat) as well as tight connections to other databases, e.g. via web services, are further important components of PlantsDB.

  16. Genomics of adaptation to host-plants in herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Simon, Jean-Christophe; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Guy, Endrick; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Jaquiéry, Julie; Nouhaud, Pierre; Peccoud, Jean; Sugio, Akiko; Streiff, Réjane

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous insects represent the most species-rich lineages of metazoans. The high rate of diversification in herbivorous insects is thought to result from their specialization to distinct host-plants, which creates conditions favorable for the build-up of reproductive isolation and speciation. These conditions rely on constraints against the optimal use of a wide range of plant species, as each must constitute a viable food resource, oviposition site and mating site for an insect. Utilization of plants involves many essential traits of herbivorous insects, as they locate and select their hosts, overcome their defenses and acquire nutrients while avoiding intoxication. Although advances in understanding insect-plant molecular interactions have been limited by the complexity of insect traits involved in host use and the lack of genomic resources and functional tools, recent studies at the molecular level, combined with large-scale genomics studies at population and species levels, are revealing the genetic underpinning of plant specialization and adaptive divergence in non-model insect herbivores. Here, we review the recent advances in the genomics of plant adaptation in hemipterans and lepidopterans, two major insect orders, each of which includes a large number of crop pests. We focus on how genomics and post-genomics have improved our understanding of the mechanisms involved in insect-plant interactions by reviewing recent molecular discoveries in sensing, feeding, digesting and detoxifying strategies. We also present the outcomes of large-scale genomics approaches aimed at identifying loci potentially involved in plant adaptation in these insects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Plant genome size research: a field in focus.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Leitch, I J

    2005-01-01

    This Special Issue contains 18 papers arising from presentations at the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop and Discussion Meeting (hosted by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 8-12 September, 2003). This preface provides an overview of these papers, setting their key contents in the broad framework of this highly active field. It also highlights a few overarching issues with wide biological impact or interest, including (1) the need to unify terminology relating to C-value and genome size, (2) the ongoing quest for accurate gold standards for accurate plant genome size estimation, (3) how knowledge of species' DNA amounts has increased in recent years, (4) the existence, causes and significance of intraspecific variation, (5) recent progress in understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of genome size change, and (6) the impact of genome size knowledge on related biological activities such as genetic fingerprinting and quantitative genetics. The paper offers a vision of how increased knowledge and understanding of genome size will contribute to holisitic genomic studies in both plants and animals in the next decade.

  18. Plant Genome Size Research: A Field In Focus

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    This Special Issue contains 18 papers arising from presentations at the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop and Discussion Meeting (hosted by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 8–12 September, 2003). This preface provides an overview of these papers, setting their key contents in the broad framework of this highly active field. It also highlights a few overarching issues with wide biological impact or interest, including (1) the need to unify terminology relating to C-value and genome size, (2) the ongoing quest for accurate gold standards for accurate plant genome size estimation, (3) how knowledge of species' DNA amounts has increased in recent years, (4) the existence, causes and significance of intraspecific variation, (5) recent progress in understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of genome size change, and (6) the impact of genome size knowledge on related biological activities such as genetic fingerprinting and quantitative genetics. The paper offers a vision of how increased knowledge and understanding of genome size will contribute to holisitic genomic studies in both plants and animals in the next decade. PMID:15596455

  19. BRAD, the genetics and genomics database for Brassica plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Brassica species include both vegetable and oilseed crops, which are very important to the daily life of common human beings. Meanwhile, the Brassica species represent an excellent system for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, specifically for the analysis of genome evolution following polyploidy, so it is also very important for scientific research. Now, the genome of Brassica rapa has already been assembled, it is the time to do deep mining of the genome data. Description BRAD, the Brassica database, is a web-based resource focusing on genome scale genetic and genomic data for important Brassica crops. BRAD was built based on the first whole genome sequence and on further data analysis of the Brassica A genome species, Brassica rapa (Chiifu-401-42). It provides datasets, such as the complete genome sequence of B. rapa, which was de novo assembled from Illumina GA II short reads and from BAC clone sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non coding RNAs, transposable elements (TE), B. rapa genes' orthologous to those in A. thaliana, as well as genetic markers and linkage maps. BRAD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including search across annotation datasets, search for syntenic or non-syntenic orthologs, and to search the flanking regions of a certain target, as well as the tools of BLAST and Gbrowse. BRAD allows users to enter almost any kind of information, such as a B. rapa or A. thaliana gene ID, physical position or genetic marker. Conclusion BRAD, a new database which focuses on the genetics and genomics of the Brassica plants has been developed, it aims at helping scientists and breeders to fully and efficiently use the information of genome data of Brassica plants. BRAD will be continuously updated and can be accessed through http://brassicadb.org. PMID:21995777

  20. Conservation and functional element discovery in 20 angiosperm plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Hupalo, Daniel; Kern, Andrew D

    2013-07-01

    Here, we describe the construction of a phylogenetically deep, whole-genome alignment of 20 flowering plants, along with an analysis of plant genome conservation. Each included angiosperm genome was aligned to a reference genome, Arabidopsis thaliana, using the LASTZ/MULTIZ paradigm and tools from the University of California-Santa Cruz Genome Browser source code. In addition to the multiple alignment, we created a local genome browser displaying multiple tracks of newly generated genome annotation, as well as annotation sourced from published data of other research groups. An investigation into A. thaliana gene features present in the aligned A. lyrata genome revealed better conservation of start codons, stop codons, and splice sites within our alignments (51% of features from A. thaliana conserved without interruption in A. lyrata) when compared with previous publicly available plant pairwise alignments (34% of features conserved). The detailed view of conservation across angiosperms revealed not only high coding-sequence conservation but also a large set of previously uncharacterized intergenic conservation. From this, we annotated the collection of conserved features, revealing dozens of putative noncoding RNAs, including some with recorded small RNA expression. Comparing conservation between kingdoms revealed a faster decay of vertebrate genome features when compared with angiosperm genomes. Finally, conserved sequences were searched for folding RNA features, including but not limited to noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Among these, we highlight a double hairpin in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the PRIN2 gene and a putative ncRNA with homology targeting the LAF3 protein.

  1. Plant Microbe Interactions in Post Genomic Era: Perspectives and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Jahangir; Singh, Puneet K.; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    Deciphering plant–microbe interactions is a promising aspect to understand the benefits and the pathogenic effect of microbes and crop improvement. The advancement in sequencing technologies and various ‘omics’ tool has impressively accelerated the research in biological sciences in this area. The recent and ongoing developments provide a unique approach to describing these intricate interactions and test hypotheses. In the present review, we discuss the role of plant-pathogen interaction in crop improvement. The plant innate immunity has always been an important aspect of research and leads to some interesting information like the adaptation of unique immune mechanisms of plants against pathogens. The development of new techniques in the post - genomic era has greatly enhanced our understanding of the regulation of plant defense mechanisms against pathogens. The present review also provides an overview of beneficial plant–microbe interactions with special reference to Agrobacterium tumefaciens-plant interactions where plant derived signal molecules and plant immune responses are important in pathogenicity and transformation efficiency. The construction of various Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms and plants presented a better understanding of all metabolic interactions activated during the interactions. This review also lists the emerging repertoire of phytopathogens and its impact on plant disease resistance. Outline of different aspects of plant-pathogen interactions is presented in this review to bridge the gap between plant microbial ecology and their immune responses. PMID:27725809

  2. Application of functional genomics to plant cryopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many agriculturally important plant collections are maintained clonally, such as elite fruit cultivars that are propagated by grafting or cuttings. These collections are expensive to maintain as field or greenhouse plantings in genebanks. It is possible to efficiently back-up vegetatively propagat...

  3. Geospatial estimation of the impact of Deepwater Horizon oil spill on plant oiling along the Louisiana shorelines.

    PubMed

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Wobus, Cameron; Jones, Russell; Rissing, Matthew

    2016-09-15

    Stranded oil covering soil and plant stems in fragile Louisiana marshes was one of the most visible impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. As part of the assessment of marsh injury after the DWH spill, plant stem oiling was broken into five categories (0%, 0-10%, 10-50%, 50-90%, 90-100%) and used as the independent variable for estimating death of vegetation, accelerated erosion, and other metrics of injury. The length of shoreline falling into each of these stem oiling categories was therefore a key measure of the total extent of marsh injury, and its accurate estimation is the focus of this paper. First, we used geographically-weighted logistic regression (GWR) to explore and model spatially varying relationships between stem oiling field data and secondary information (oiling exposure category) collected during shoreline surveys. We then combined GWR probability estimates with field data using indicator cokriging to predict the probability of exceeding four stem oiling thresholds (0, 10, 50, and 90%) at 50 m intervals along the Louisiana shoreline. Cross-validation using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves demonstrate the greater prediction accuracy of the multivariate geostatistical approach relative to either aspatial regression or indicator kriging that ignores secondary information.

  4. Ancient signals: comparative genomics of green plant CDPKs.

    PubMed

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Sheen, Jen; Séguin, Armand

    2014-02-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are multifunctional proteins that combine calcium-binding and signaling capabilities within a single gene product. This unique versatility enables multiple plant biological processes to be controlled, including developmental programs and stress responses. The genome of flowering plants typically encodes around 30 CDPK homologs that cluster in four conserved clades. In this review, we take advantage of the recent availability of genome sequences from green algae and early land plants to examine how well the previously described CDPK family from angiosperms compares to the broader evolutionary states associated with early diverging green plant lineages. Our analysis suggests that the current architecture of the CDPK family was shaped during the colonization of the land by plants, whereas CDPKs from ancestor green algae have continued to evolve independently. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissecting Plant Genomes with the PLAZA Comparative Genomics Platform1[W

    PubMed Central

    Van Bel, Michiel; Proost, Sebastian; Wischnitzki, Elisabeth; Movahedi, Sara; Scheerlinck, Christopher; Van de Peer, Yves; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    With the arrival of low-cost, next-generation sequencing, a multitude of new plant genomes are being publicly released, providing unseen opportunities and challenges for comparative genomics studies. Here, we present PLAZA 2.5, a user-friendly online research environment to explore genomic information from different plants. This new release features updates to previous genome annotations and a substantial number of newly available plant genomes as well as various new interactive tools and visualizations. Currently, PLAZA hosts 25 organisms covering a broad taxonomic range, including 13 eudicots, five monocots, one lycopod, one moss, and five algae. The available data consist of structural and functional gene annotations, homologous gene families, multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees, and colinear regions within and between species. A new Integrative Orthology Viewer, combining information from different orthology prediction methodologies, was developed to efficiently investigate complex orthology relationships. Cross-species expression analysis revealed that the integration of complementary data types extended the scope of complex orthology relationships, especially between more distantly related species. Finally, based on phylogenetic profiling, we propose a set of core gene families within the green plant lineage that will be instrumental to assess the gene space of draft or newly sequenced plant genomes during the assembly or annotation phase. PMID:22198273

  6. Phytozome: a Tool for Green Plant Comparative Genomics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Phytozome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst green plants. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of release v4.0, Phytozome provides access to nine sequenced and annotated green plant genomes, eight of which have been clustered into gene families at six evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, TAIR, JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. [Copied from the Overview at http://www.phytozome.net/Phytozome_info.php

  7. Towards social acceptance of plant breeding by genome editing.

    PubMed

    Araki, Motoko; Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Although genome-editing technologies facilitate efficient plant breeding without introducing a transgene, it is creating indistinct boundaries in the regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Rapid advances in plant breeding by genome-editing require the establishment of a new global policy for the new biotechnology, while filling the gap between process-based and product-based GMO regulations. In this Opinion article we review recent developments in producing major crops using genome-editing, and we propose a regulatory model that takes into account the various methodologies to achieve genetic modifications as well as the resulting types of mutation. Moreover, we discuss the future integration of genome-editing crops into society, specifically a possible response to the 'Right to Know' movement which demands labeling of food that contains genetically engineered ingredients.

  8. Genomics Approaches For Improving Salinity Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nongpiur, Ramsong Chantre; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata; Pareek, Ashwani

    2016-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major factors which reduces crop production worldwide. Plant responses to salinity are highly complex and involve a plethora of genes. Due to its multigenicity, it has been difficult to attain a complete understanding of how plants respond to salinity. Genomics has progressed tremendously over the past decade and has played a crucial role towards providing necessary knowledge for crop improvement. Through genomics, we have been able to identify and characterize the genes involved in salinity stress response, map out signaling pathways and ultimately utilize this information for improving the salinity tolerance of existing crops. The use of new tools, such as gene pyramiding, in genetic engineering and marker assisted breeding has tremendously enhanced our ability to generate stress tolerant crops. Genome editing technologies such as Zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9 also provide newer and faster avenues for plant biologists to generate precisely engineered crops. PMID:27499683

  9. RNAi and functional genomics in plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Rosso, M N; Jones, J T; Abad, P

    2009-01-01

    Plant nematology is currently undergoing a revolution with the availability of the first genome sequences as well as comprehensive expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries from a range of nematode species. Several strategies are being used to exploit this wealth of information. Comparative genomics is being used to explore the acquisition of novel genes associated with parasitic lifestyles. Functional analyses of nematode genes are moving toward larger scale studies including global transcriptome profiling. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to reduce expression of a range of plant parasitic nematode genes and is a powerful tool for functional analysis of nematode genes. RNAi-mediated suppression of genes essential for nematode development, survival, or parasitism is revealing new targets for nematode control. Plant nematology in the genomics era is now facing the challenge to develop RNAi screens adequate for high-throughput functional analyses.

  10. Early genome duplications in conifers and other seed plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Baniaga, Anthony E; Sessa, Emily B; Scascitelli, Moira; Graham, Sean W; Rieseberg, Loren H; Barker, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation and evolution in angiosperms (flowering plants). In contrast, there is little evidence to date that whole genome duplication (WGD) has played a significant role in the evolution of their putative extant sister lineage, the gymnosperms. Recent analyses of the spruce genome, the first published conifer genome, failed to detect evidence of WGDs in gene age distributions and attributed many aspects of conifer biology to a lack of WGDs. We present evidence for three ancient genome duplications during the evolution of gymnosperms, based on phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomes from 24 gymnosperms and 3 outgroups. We use a new algorithm to place these WGD events in phylogenetic context: two in the ancestry of major conifer clades (Pinaceae and cupressophyte conifers) and one in Welwitschia (Gnetales). We also confirm that a WGD hypothesized to be restricted to seed plants is indeed not shared with ferns and relatives (monilophytes), a result that was unclear in earlier studies. Contrary to previous genomic research that reported an absence of polyploidy in the ancestry of contemporary gymnosperms, our analyses indicate that polyploidy has contributed to the evolution of conifers and other gymnosperms. As in the flowering plants, the evolution of the large genome sizes of gymnosperms involved both polyploidy and repetitive element activity.

  11. Early genome duplications in conifers and other seed plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Baniaga, Anthony E.; Sessa, Emily B.; Scascitelli, Moira; Graham, Sean W.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Barker, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common mode of speciation and evolution in angiosperms (flowering plants). In contrast, there is little evidence to date that whole genome duplication (WGD) has played a significant role in the evolution of their putative extant sister lineage, the gymnosperms. Recent analyses of the spruce genome, the first published conifer genome, failed to detect evidence of WGDs in gene age distributions and attributed many aspects of conifer biology to a lack of WGDs. We present evidence for three ancient genome duplications during the evolution of gymnosperms, based on phylogenomic analyses of transcriptomes from 24 gymnosperms and 3 outgroups. We use a new algorithm to place these WGD events in phylogenetic context: two in the ancestry of major conifer clades (Pinaceae and cupressophyte conifers) and one in Welwitschia (Gnetales). We also confirm that a WGD hypothesized to be restricted to seed plants is indeed not shared with ferns and relatives (monilophytes), a result that was unclear in earlier studies. Contrary to previous genomic research that reported an absence of polyploidy in the ancestry of contemporary gymnosperms, our analyses indicate that polyploidy has contributed to the evolution of conifers and other gymnosperms. As in the flowering plants, the evolution of the large genome sizes of gymnosperms involved both polyploidy and repetitive element activity. PMID:26702445

  12. The Amborella genome and the evolution of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    2013-12-20

    Amborella trichopoda is strongly supported as the single living species of the sister lineage to all other extant flowering plants, providing a unique reference for inferring the genome content and structure of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of living angiosperms. Sequencing the Amborella genome, we identified an ancient genome duplication predating angiosperm diversification, without evidence of subsequent, lineage-specific genome duplications. Comparisons between Amborella and other angiosperms facilitated reconstruction of the ancestral angiosperm gene content and gene order in the MRCA of core eudicots. We identify new gene families, gene duplications, and floral protein-protein interactions that first appeared in the ancestral angiosperm. Transposable elements in Amborella are ancient and highly divergent, with no recent transposon radiations. Population genomic analysis across Amborella's native range in New Caledonia reveals a recent genetic bottleneck and geographic structure with conservation implications.

  13. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D.; Staines, Daniel M.; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  14. Exploring laccase genes from plant pathogen genomes: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Feng, B Z; Li, P Q; Fu, L; Yu, X M

    2015-10-30

    To date, research on laccases has mostly been focused on plant and fungal laccases and their current use in biotechnological applications. In contrast, little is known about laccases from plant pathogens, although recent rapid progress in whole genome sequencing of an increasing number of organisms has facilitated their identification and ascertainment of their origins. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed to elucidate the distribution of laccases among bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes, and, through comparison of their amino acids, to determine the relationships between them. We retrieved the laccase genes for the 20 publicly available plant pathogen genomes. From these, 125 laccase genes were identified in total, including seven in bacterial genomes, 101 in fungal genomes, and 17 in oomycete genomes. Most of the predicted protein models of these genes shared typical fungal laccase characteristics, possessing four conserved domains with one cysteine and ten histidine residues at these domains. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that laccases from bacteria and oomycetes were grouped into two distinct clades, whereas fungal laccases clustered in three main clades. These results provide the theoretical groundwork regarding the role of laccases in plant pathogens and might be used to guide future research into these enzymes.

  15. Ensembl Plants: Integrating Tools for Visualizing, Mining, and Analyzing Plant Genomics Data.

    PubMed

    Bolser, Dan; Staines, Daniel M; Pritchard, Emily; Kersey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl Plants ( http://plants.ensembl.org ) is an integrative resource presenting genome-scale information for a growing number of sequenced plant species (currently 33). Data provided includes genome sequence, gene models, functional annotation, and polymorphic loci. Various additional information are provided for variation data, including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data. In each release, comparative analyses are performed on whole genome and protein sequences, and genome alignments and gene trees are made available that show the implied evolutionary history of each gene family. Access to the data is provided through a genome browser incorporating many specialist interfaces for different data types, and through a variety of additional methods for programmatic access and data mining. These access routes are consistent with those offered through the Ensembl interface for the genomes of non-plant species, including those of plant pathogens, pests, and pollinators.Ensembl Plants is updated 4-5 times a year and is developed in collaboration with our international partners in the Gramene ( http://www.gramene.org ) and transPLANT projects ( http://www.transplantdb.org ).

  16. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P. Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Lindsay, Bruce G.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Doyle, Jeff J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Carlson, John E.; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A.; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2006-01-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth–death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella. PMID:16702410

  17. Widespread genome duplications throughout the history of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liying; Wall, P Kerr; Leebens-Mack, James H; Lindsay, Bruce G; Soltis, Douglas E; Doyle, Jeff J; Soltis, Pamela S; Carlson, John E; Arumuganathan, Kathiravetpilla; Barakat, Abdelali; Albert, Victor A; Ma, Hong; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2006-06-01

    Genomic comparisons provide evidence for ancient genome-wide duplications in a diverse array of animals and plants. We developed a birth-death model to identify evidence for genome duplication in EST data, and applied a mixture model to estimate the age distribution of paralogous pairs identified in EST sets for species representing the basal-most extant flowering plant lineages. We found evidence for episodes of ancient genome-wide duplications in the basal angiosperm lineages including Nuphar advena (yellow water lily: Nymphaeaceae) and the magnoliids Persea americana (avocado: Lauraceae), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar: Magnoliaceae), and Saruma henryi (Aristolochiaceae). In addition, we detected independent genome duplications in the basal eudicot Eschscholzia californica (California poppy: Papaveraceae) and the basal monocot Acorus americanus (Acoraceae), both of which were distinct from duplications documented for ancestral grass (Poaceae) and core eudicot lineages. Among gymnosperms, we found equivocal evidence for ancient polyploidy in Welwitschia mirabilis (Gnetales) and no evidence for polyploidy in pine, although gymnosperms generally have much larger genomes than the angiosperms investigated. Cross-species sequence divergence estimates suggest that synonymous substitution rates in the basal angiosperms are less than half those previously reported for core eudicots and members of Poaceae. These lower substitution rates permit inference of older duplication events. We hypothesize that evidence of an ancient duplication observed in the Nuphar data may represent a genome duplication in the common ancestor of all or most extant angiosperms, except Amborella.

  18. Endogenous RNA viruses of plants in insect genomes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Holmes, Edward C

    2012-06-05

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) derived from RNA viruses with no DNA stage are rare, especially those where the parental viruses possess single-strand positive-sense (ssRNA+) genomes. Here we provide evidence that EVEs that share a sequence similarity to ssRNA+viruses of plants are integrated into the genomes of a number of insects, including mosquito, fruit flies, bees, ant, silkworm, pea aphid, Monarch butterfly, and wasps. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis places these EVEs as divergent relatives of the Virgaviridae and three currently unclassified plant viral species.

  19. Draft genome sequence of the marine Rhodobacteraceae strain O3.65, cultivated from oil-polluted seawater of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Klotz, Franziska; Voget, Sonja; Poehlein, Anja; Grosser, Katrin; Teske, Andreas; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The marine alphaproteobacterium strain O3.65 was isolated from an enrichment culture of surface seawater contaminated with weathered oil (slicks) from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill and belongs to the ubiquitous, diverse and ecological relevant Roseobacter group within the Rhodobacteraceae. Here, we present a preliminary set of physiological features of strain O3.65 and a description and annotation of its draft genome sequence. Based on our data we suggest potential ecological roles of the isolate in the degradation of crude oil within the network of the oil-enriched microbial community. The draft genome comprises 4,852,484 bp with 4,591 protein-coding genes and 63 RNA genes. Strain O3.65 utilizes pentoses, hexoses, disaccharides and amino acids as carbon and energy source and is able to grow on several hydroxylated and substituted aromatic compounds. Based on 16S rRNA gene comparison the closest described and validated strain is Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, however, strain O3.65 is lacking several phenotypic and genomic characteristics specific for the genus Phaeobacter. Phylogenomic analyses based on the whole genome support extensive genetic exchange of strain O3.65 with members of the genus Ruegeria, potentially by using the secretion system type IV. Our physiological observations are consistent with the genomic and phylogenomic analyses and support that strain O3.65 is a novel species of a new genus within the Rhodobacteraceae.

  20. Genomic variability as a driver of plant-pathogen coevolution?

    PubMed

    Karasov, Talia L; Horton, Matthew W; Bergelson, Joy

    2014-04-01

    Pathogens apply one of the strongest selective pressures in plant populations. Understanding plant-pathogen coevolution has therefore been a major research focus for at least sixty years [1]. Recent comparative genomic studies have revealed that the genes involved in plant defense and pathogen virulence are among the most polymorphic in the respective genomes. Which fraction of this diversity influences the host-pathogen interaction? Do coevolutionary dynamics maintain variation? Here we review recent literature on the evolutionary and molecular processes that shape this variation, focusing primarily on gene-for-gene interactions. In summarizing theoretical and empirical studies of the processes that shape this variation in natural plant and pathogen populations, we find a disconnect between the complexity of ecological interactions involving hosts and their myriad microbes, and the models that describe them.

  1. [Parental genomic imprinting in plants: significance for reproduction].

    PubMed

    Jullien, Pauline E; Berger, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Parental genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon causing the expression of a gene from one of the two parental alleles. Imprinting has been identified in plants and mammals. Recent evidence shows that DNA methylation and histone modifications are responsible for this parent-of-origin dependent expression of imprinted genes. We review the mechanisms and functions of imprinting in plants. We further describe the significance of imprinting for reproduction and discuss potential models for its evolution.

  2. Genomics of cold hardiness in woody plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The term cold hardiness or freezing tolerance is used to represent in a general sense the ability of plants to adapt to and withstand freezing temperatures. It is a complex, multigenic trait that is too often viewed as a single entity when in fact is composed of many aspects, all of which can be to...

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Flores, Ricardo; Candresse, Thierry; Barba, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21-24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus); beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus); and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus). The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae) by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology.

  4. Next-Generation Sequencing and Genome Editing in Plant Virology

    PubMed Central

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Flores, Ricardo; Candresse, Thierry; Barba, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied to plant virology since 2009. NGS provides highly efficient, rapid, low cost DNA, or RNA high-throughput sequencing of the genomes of plant viruses and viroids and of the specific small RNAs generated during the infection process. These small RNAs, which cover frequently the whole genome of the infectious agent, are 21–24 nt long and are known as vsRNAs for viruses and vd-sRNAs for viroids. NGS has been used in a number of studies in plant virology including, but not limited to, discovery of novel viruses and viroids as well as detection and identification of those pathogens already known, analysis of genome diversity and evolution, and study of pathogen epidemiology. The genome engineering editing method, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system has been successfully used recently to engineer resistance to DNA geminiviruses (family, Geminiviridae) by targeting different viral genome sequences in infected Nicotiana benthamiana or Arabidopsis plants. The DNA viruses targeted include tomato yellow leaf curl virus and merremia mosaic virus (begomovirus); beet curly top virus and beet severe curly top virus (curtovirus); and bean yellow dwarf virus (mastrevirus). The technique has also been used against the RNA viruses zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ringspot virus and turnip mosaic virus (potyvirus) and cucumber vein yellowing virus (ipomovirus, family, Potyviridae) by targeting the translation initiation genes eIF4E in cucumber or Arabidopsis plants. From these recent advances of major importance, it is expected that NGS and CRISPR-Cas technologies will play a significant role in the very near future in advancing the field of plant virology and connecting it with other related fields of biology. PMID:27617007

  5. [Non-LTR retrotransposons: LINEs and SINEs in plant genome].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-06-01

    Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.

  6. Ensembl Plants: Integrating Tools for Visualizing, Mining, and Analyzing Plant Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Bolser, Dan M; Staines, Daniel M; Perry, Emily; Kersey, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Ensembl Plants ( http://plants.ensembl.org ) is an integrative resource presenting genome-scale information for 39 sequenced plant species. Available data includes genome sequence, gene models, functional annotation, and polymorphic loci; for the latter, additional information including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data is available for some species. Comparative data is also available, including genomic alignments and "gene trees," which show the inferred evolutionary history of each gene family represented in the resource. Access to the data is provided through a genome browser, which incorporates many specialist interfaces for different data types, through a variety of programmatic interfaces, and via a specialist data mining tool supporting rapid filtering and retrieval of bulk data. Genomic data from many non-plant species, including those of plant pathogens, pests, and pollinators, is also available via the same interfaces through other divisions of Ensembl.Ensembl Plants is updated 4-6 times a year and is developed in collaboration with our international partners in the Gramene ( http://www.gramene.org ) and transPLANT projects ( http://www.transplantdb.eu ).

  7. Molecular Tools for Exploring Polyploid Genomes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Aversano, Riccardo; Ercolano, Maria Raffaella; Caruso, Immacolata; Fasano, Carlo; Rosellini, Daniele; Carputo, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Polyploidy is a very common phenomenon in the plant kingdom, where even diploid species are often described as paleopolyploids. The polyploid condition may bring about several advantages compared to the diploid state. Polyploids often show phenotypes that are not present in their diploid progenitors or exceed the range of the contributing species. Some of these traits may play a role in heterosis or could favor adaptation to new ecological niches. Advances in genomics and sequencing technology may create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring the molecular effects of polyploidization. Through this review, we provide an overview of technologies and strategies that may allow an in-depth analysis of polyploid genomes. After introducing some basic aspects on the origin and genetics of polyploids, we highlight the main tools available for genome and gene expression analysis and summarize major findings. In the last part of this review, the implications of next generation sequencing are briefly discussed. The accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists to understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement. PMID:22949863

  8. Analyses of Charophyte Chloroplast Genomes Help Characterize the Ancestral Chloroplast Genome of Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Civáň, Peter; Foster, Peter G.; Embley, Martin T.; Séneca, Ana; Cox, Cymon J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significance of the relationships between embryophytes and their charophyte algal ancestors in deciphering the origin and evolutionary success of land plants, few chloroplast genomes of the charophyte algae have been reconstructed to date. Here, we present new data for three chloroplast genomes of the freshwater charophytes Klebsormidium flaccidum (Klebsormidiophyceae), Mesotaenium endlicherianum (Zygnematophyceae), and Roya anglica (Zygnematophyceae). The chloroplast genome of Klebsormidium has a quadripartite organization with exceptionally large inverted repeat (IR) regions and, uniquely among streptophytes, has lost the rrn5 and rrn4.5 genes from the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene cluster operon. The chloroplast genome of Roya differs from other zygnematophycean chloroplasts, including the newly sequenced Mesotaenium, by having a quadripartite structure that is typical of other streptophytes. On the basis of the improbability of the novel gain of IR regions, we infer that the quadripartite structure has likely been lost independently in at least three zygnematophycean lineages, although the absence of the usual rRNA operonic synteny in the IR regions of Roya may indicate their de novo origin. Significantly, all zygnematophycean chloroplast genomes have undergone substantial genomic rearrangement, which may be the result of ancient retroelement activity evidenced by the presence of integrase-like and reverse transcriptase-like elements in the Roya chloroplast genome. Our results corroborate the close phylogenetic relationship between Zygnematophyceae and land plants and identify 89 protein-coding genes and 22 introns present in the chloroplast genome at the time of the evolutionary transition of plants to land, all of which can be found in the chloroplast genomes of extant charophytes. PMID:24682153

  9. Analyses of charophyte chloroplast genomes help characterize the ancestral chloroplast genome of land plants.

    PubMed

    Civaň, Peter; Foster, Peter G; Embley, Martin T; Séneca, Ana; Cox, Cymon J

    2014-04-01

    Despite the significance of the relationships between embryophytes and their charophyte algal ancestors in deciphering the origin and evolutionary success of land plants, few chloroplast genomes of the charophyte algae have been reconstructed to date. Here, we present new data for three chloroplast genomes of the freshwater charophytes Klebsormidium flaccidum (Klebsormidiophyceae), Mesotaenium endlicherianum (Zygnematophyceae), and Roya anglica (Zygnematophyceae). The chloroplast genome of Klebsormidium has a quadripartite organization with exceptionally large inverted repeat (IR) regions and, uniquely among streptophytes, has lost the rrn5 and rrn4.5 genes from the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene cluster operon. The chloroplast genome of Roya differs from other zygnematophycean chloroplasts, including the newly sequenced Mesotaenium, by having a quadripartite structure that is typical of other streptophytes. On the basis of the improbability of the novel gain of IR regions, we infer that the quadripartite structure has likely been lost independently in at least three zygnematophycean lineages, although the absence of the usual rRNA operonic synteny in the IR regions of Roya may indicate their de novo origin. Significantly, all zygnematophycean chloroplast genomes have undergone substantial genomic rearrangement, which may be the result of ancient retroelement activity evidenced by the presence of integrase-like and reverse transcriptase-like elements in the Roya chloroplast genome. Our results corroborate the close phylogenetic relationship between Zygnematophyceae and land plants and identify 89 protein-coding genes and 22 introns present in the chloroplast genome at the time of the evolutionary transition of plants to land, all of which can be found in the chloroplast genomes of extant charophytes.

  10. National Plant Genome Initiative: 2003-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Arabidopsis or rice. For example, potato tubers are underground stems that are uniquely modified as starch- storing organs. Sweet potatoes are roots...as computer hardware/ software and data storage , has decreased steadily. As a result, individual investigators and teams of investigators from a...maize, wheat, barley and sorghum . ! New fundamental science discoveries including: (1) the structure and organization of centromeres in higher plants

  11. Evolutionary genomics of LysM genes in land plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Cannon, Steven B; Stacey, Gary

    2009-08-03

    The ubiquitous LysM motif recognizes peptidoglycan, chitooligosaccharides (chitin) and, presumably, other structurally-related oligosaccharides. LysM-containing proteins were first shown to be involved in bacterial cell wall degradation and, more recently, were implicated in perceiving chitin (one of the established pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and lipo-chitin (nodulation factors) in flowering plants. However, the majority of LysM genes in plants remain functionally uncharacterized and the evolutionary history of complex LysM genes remains elusive. We show that LysM-containing proteins display a wide range of complex domain architectures. However, only a simple core architecture is conserved across kingdoms. Each individual kingdom appears to have evolved a distinct array of domain architectures. We show that early plant lineages acquired four characteristic architectures and progressively lost several primitive architectures. We report plant LysM phylogenies and associated gene, protein and genomic features, and infer the relative timing of duplications of LYK genes. We report a domain architecture catalogue of LysM proteins across all kingdoms. The unique pattern of LysM protein domain architectures indicates the presence of distinctive evolutionary paths in individual kingdoms. We describe a comparative and evolutionary genomics study of LysM genes in plant kingdom. One of the two groups of tandemly arrayed plant LYK genes likely resulted from an ancient genome duplication followed by local genomic rearrangement, while the origin of the other groups of tandemly arrayed LYK genes remains obscure. Given the fact that no animal LysM motif-containing genes have been functionally characterized, this study provides clues to functional characterization of plant LysM genes and is also informative with regard to evolutionary and functional studies of animal LysM genes.

  12. Evolutionary genomics of LysM genes in land plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Cannon, Steven B; Stacey, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous LysM motif recognizes peptidoglycan, chitooligosaccharides (chitin) and, presumably, other structurally-related oligosaccharides. LysM-containing proteins were first shown to be involved in bacterial cell wall degradation and, more recently, were implicated in perceiving chitin (one of the established pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and lipo-chitin (nodulation factors) in flowering plants. However, the majority of LysM genes in plants remain functionally uncharacterized and the evolutionary history of complex LysM genes remains elusive. Results We show that LysM-containing proteins display a wide range of complex domain architectures. However, only a simple core architecture is conserved across kingdoms. Each individual kingdom appears to have evolved a distinct array of domain architectures. We show that early plant lineages acquired four characteristic architectures and progressively lost several primitive architectures. We report plant LysM phylogenies and associated gene, protein and genomic features, and infer the relative timing of duplications of LYK genes. Conclusion We report a domain architecture catalogue of LysM proteins across all kingdoms. The unique pattern of LysM protein domain architectures indicates the presence of distinctive evolutionary paths in individual kingdoms. We describe a comparative and evolutionary genomics study of LysM genes in plant kingdom. One of the two groups of tandemly arrayed plant LYK genes likely resulted from an ancient genome duplication followed by local genomic rearrangement, while the origin of the other groups of tandemly arrayed LYK genes remains obscure. Given the fact that no animal LysM motif-containing genes have been functionally characterized, this study provides clues to functional characterization of plant LysM genes and is also informative with regard to evolutionary and functional studies of animal LysM genes. PMID:19650916

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies In Plant Pathosystems: Toward an Ecological Genomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bartoli, Claudia; Roux, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of plant pathogenic microorganisms are processes that imply perturbations in both host and pathogen ecological niches. Global change is largely assumed to drive the emergence of new etiological agents by altering the equilibrium of the ecological habitats which in turn places hosts more in contact with pathogen reservoirs. In this context, the number of epidemics is expected to increase dramatically in the next coming decades both in wild and crop plants. Under these considerations, the identification of the genetic variants underlying natural variation of resistance is a pre-requisite to estimate the adaptive potential of wild plant populations and to develop new breeding resistant cultivars. On the other hand, the prediction of pathogen's genetic determinants underlying disease emergence can help to identify plant resistance alleles. In the genomic era, whole genome sequencing combined with the development of statistical methods led to the emergence of Genome Wide Association (GWA) mapping, a powerful tool for detecting genomic regions associated with natural variation of disease resistance in both wild and cultivated plants. However, GWA mapping has been less employed for the detection of genetic variants associated with pathogenicity in microbes. Here, we reviewed GWA studies performed either in plants or in pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and oomycetes). In addition, we highlighted the benefits and caveats of the emerging joint GWA mapping approach that allows for the simultaneous identification of genes interacting between genomes of both partners. Finally, based on co-evolutionary processes in wild populations, we highlighted a phenotyping-free joint GWA mapping approach as a promising tool for describing the molecular landscape underlying plant - microbe interactions. PMID:28588588

  14. Editing plant genomes with CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Khaoula; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Patron, Nicola J; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a rapidly developing genome editing technology that has been successfully applied in many organisms, including model and crop plants. Cas9, an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, can be targeted to specific genomic sequences by engineering a separately encoded guide RNA with which it forms a complex. As only a short RNA sequence must be synthesized to confer recognition of a new target, CRISPR/Cas9 is a relatively cheap and easy to implement technology that has proven to be extremely versatile. Remarkably, in some plant species, homozygous knockout mutants can be produced in a single generation. Together with other sequence-specific nucleases, CRISPR/Cas9 is a game-changing technology that is poised to revolutionise basic research and plant breeding.

  15. Rapid Evolution of Manifold CRISPR Systems for Plant Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Levi; Malzahn, Aimee; Qi, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Advanced CRISPR-Cas9 based technologies first validated in mammalian cell systems are quickly being adapted for use in plants. These new technologies increase CRISPR-Cas9's utility and effectiveness by diversifying cellular capabilities through expression construct system evolution and enzyme orthogonality, as well as enhanced efficiency through delivery and expression mechanisms. Here, we review the current state of advanced CRISPR-Cas9 and Cpf1 capabilities in plants and cover the rapid evolution of these tools from first generation inducers of double strand breaks for basic genetic manipulations to second and third generation multiplexed systems with myriad functionalities, capabilities, and specialized applications. We offer perspective on how to utilize these tools for currently untested research endeavors and analyze strengths and weaknesses of novel CRISPR systems in plants. Advanced CRISPR functionalities and delivery options demonstrated in plants are primarily reviewed but new technologies just coming to the forefront of CRISPR development, or those on the horizon, are briefly discussed. Topics covered are focused on the expansion of expression and delivery capabilities for CRISPR-Cas9 components and broadening targeting range through orthogonal Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins. PMID:27895652

  16. Genomes, free radicals and plant cell invasion: recent developments in plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Egan, Martin J; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2008-08-01

    This review describes current advances in our understanding of fungal-plant interactions. The widespread application of whole genome sequencing to a diverse range of fungal species has allowed new insight into the evolution of fungal pathogenesis and the definition of the gene inventories associated with important plant pathogens. This has also led to functional genomic approaches to carry out large-scale gene functional analysis. There has also been significant progress in understanding appressorium-mediated plant infection by fungi and its underlying genetic basis. The nature of biotrophic proliferation of fungal pathogens in host tissue has recently revealed new potential mechanisms for cell-to-cell movement by invading pathogens.

  17. The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cedric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sorensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theilsen, Gunter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loque, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2011-04-28

    We report the genome sequence of the nonseed vascular plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and by comparative genomics identify genes that likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular plants and their subsequent evolution

  18. Geometric horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Alan A.; McNutt, David D.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2017-08-01

    We discuss black hole spacetimes with a geometrically defined quasi-local horizon on which the curvature tensor is algebraically special relative to the alignment classification. Based on many examples and analytical results, we conjecture that a spacetime horizon is always more algebraically special (in all of the orders of specialization) than other regions of spacetime. Using recent results in invariant theory, such geometric black hole horizons can be identified by the alignment type II or D discriminant conditions in terms of scalar curvature invariants, which are not dependent on spacetime foliations. The above conjecture is, in fact, a suite of conjectures (isolated vs dynamical horizon; four vs higher dimensions; zeroth order invariants vs higher order differential invariants). However, we are particularly interested in applications in four dimensions and especially the location of a black hole in numerical computations.

  19. Substantial genome synteny preservation among woody angiosperm species: comparative genomics of Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) and plant reference genomes.

    PubMed

    Staton, Margaret; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Olukolu, Bode; Fang, Guang Chen; Nelson, Dana; Carlson, John E; Abbott, Albert G

    2015-10-05

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) has emerged as a model species for the Fagaceae family with extensive genomic resources including a physical map, a dense genetic map and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chestnut blight resistance. These resources enable comparative genomics analyses relative to model plants. We assessed the degree of conservation between the chestnut genome and other well annotated and assembled plant genomic sequences, focusing on the QTL regions of most interest to the chestnut breeding community. The integrated physical and genetic map of Chinese chestnut has been improved to now include 858 shared sequence-based markers. The utility of the integrated map has also been improved through the addition of 42,970 BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequences spanning over 26 million bases of the estimated 800 Mb chestnut genome. Synteny between chestnut and ten model plant species was conducted on a macro-syntenic scale using sequences from both individual probes and BAC end sequences across the chestnut physical map. Blocks of synteny with chestnut were found in all ten reference species, with the percent of the chestnut physical map that could be aligned ranging from 10 to 39 %. The integrated genetic and physical map was utilized to identify BACs that spanned the three previously identified QTL regions conferring blight resistance. The clones were pooled and sequenced, yielding 396 sequence scaffolds covering 13.9 Mbp. Comparative genomic analysis on a microsytenic scale, using the QTL-associated genomic sequence, identified synteny from chestnut to other plant genomes ranging from 5.4 to 12.9 % of the genome sequences aligning. On both the macro- and micro-synteny levels, the peach, grape and poplar genomes were found to be the most structurally conserved with chestnut. Interestingly, these results did not strictly follow the expectation that decreased phylogenetic distance would correspond to increased levels of genome

  20. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk, Sc.D.

    2002-07-31

    Real-time horizon sensing (HS) on continuous mining (CM) machines is becoming an industry tool. Installation and testing of production-grade HS systems has been ongoing this quarter at Oxbow Mining Company, Monterey Coal Company (EXXON), FMC Trona, Twentymile Coal Company (RAG America), and SASOL Coal. Detailed monitoring of system function, user experience, and mining benefits is ongoing. All horizon sensor components have finished MSHA (United States) and IEC (International) certification.

  1. Advances in genome studies in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Appels, R; Nystrom-Persson, J; Keeble-Gagnere, G

    2014-03-01

    The area of plant and animal genomics covers the entire suite of issues in biology because it aims to determine the structure and function of genetic material. Although specific issues define research advances at an organism level, it is evident that many of the fundamental features of genome structure and the translation of encoded information to function share common ground. The Plant and Animal Genome (PAG) conference held in San Diego (California), in January each year provides an overview across all organisms at the genome level, and often it is evident that investments in the human area provide leadership, applications, and discoveries for researchers studying other organisms. This mini-review utilizes the plenary lectures as a basis for summarizing the trends in the genome-level studies of organisms, and the lectures include presentations by Ewan Birney (EBI, UK), Eric Green (NIH, USA), John Butler (NIST, USA), Elaine Mardis (Washington, USA), Caroline Dean (John Innes Centre, UK), Trudy Mackay (NC State University, USA), Sue Wessler (UC Riverside, USA), and Patrick Wincker (Genoscope, France). The work reviewed is based on published papers. Where unpublished information is cited, permission to include the information in this manuscript was obtained from the presenters.

  2. Zygotic genome activation in isogenic and hybrid plant embryos.

    PubMed

    Del Toro-De León, Gerardo; Lepe-Soltero, Daniel; Gillmor, C Stewart

    2016-02-01

    Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is the onset of large-scale transcription that occurs after fertilization. In animal embryos, ZGA occurs after a period of transcriptional quiescence that varies between species. In plants, the timing of ZGA may also vary between species, and may or may not occur in a parent-of-origin dependent manner: some studies have shown a maternal bias in mRNA transcripts and gene activity in early embryogenesis, while other experiments have found the contribution of maternal and paternal genomes to be equal. In order to differentiate between maternal and paternal mRNAs, RNA sequencing studies of ZGA in plants have used embryos hybrid for polymorphic accessions. A recent genetic assay in Arabidopsis demonstrated significant variation in paternal allele activity between some hybrid combinations and isogenic embryos, as well as between different hybrid combinations, suggesting a possible source for conflicting results obtained by various experiments on paternal genome activation. We review recent literature on paternal genome activation studies in the zygote in both isogenic and hybrid embryos, and discuss possible explanations for the effects of hybridization on gene expression in early embryogenesis in plants.

  3. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chengzhi; Mao, Long; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln

    2009-10-01

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for transcriptional evidence-known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed sequence tags (ESTs)-in the species of interest. This limitation is of particular concern for plant genomes, where the rate of genome sequencing is greatly outpacing the rate of EST- and cDNA-sequencing projects. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an evidence-based gene build system (the Gramene pipeline) that can use transcriptional evidence across related species. The Gramene pipeline uses the Ensembl computing infrastructure with a novel data processing scheme. Using the previously annotated plant genomes, the dicot Arabidopsis thaliana and the monocot Oryza sativa, we show that the cross-species ESTs from within monocot or dicot class are a valuable source of evidence for gene predictions. We also find that, using only EST and cross-species evidence, the Gramene pipeline can generate a plant gene set that is comparable in quality to the human genes based on known proteins and full-length cDNAs. We compare the Gramene pipeline to several widely used ab initio gene prediction programs in rice; this comparison shows the pipeline performs favorably at both the gene and exon levels with cross-species gene products only. We discuss the results of testing the pipeline on a 22-Mb region of the newly sequenced maize genome and discuss potential application of the pipeline to other genomes.

  4. Genome Sequence of a Plant-Associated Bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain UCMB5036

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Shahid; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UCMB5036, a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from a cotton plant. Its genome contains gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites known for their antimicrobial activities. The availability of this genome will provide novel insights into plant-bacterium–associated activities. PMID:23516223

  5. PGSB/MIPS PlantsDB Database Framework for the Integration and Analysis of Plant Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2017-01-01

    Plant Genome and Systems Biology (PGSB), formerly Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) PlantsDB, is a database framework for the integration and analysis of plant genome data, developed and maintained for more than a decade now. Major components of that framework are genome databases and analysis resources focusing on individual (reference) genomes providing flexible and intuitive access to data. Another main focus is the integration of genomes from both model and crop plants to form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny). Data exchange and integrated search functionality with/over many plant genome databases is provided within the transPLANT project.

  6. Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj): A Portal Website for the Integration of Plant Genome-Related Databases

    PubMed Central

    Asamizu, Erika; Ichihara, Hisako; Nakaya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ishii, Takahiro; Tamura, Takuro; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Nakajima, Yukari; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj, http://pgdbj.jp/?ln=en) is a portal website that aims to integrate plant genome-related information from databases (DBs) and the literature. The PGDBj is comprised of three component DBs and a cross-search engine, which provides a seamless search over the contents of the DBs. The three DBs are as follows. (i) The Ortholog DB, providing gene cluster information based on the amino acid sequence similarity. Over 500,000 amino acid sequences of 20 Viridiplantae species were subjected to reciprocal BLAST searches and clustered. Sequences from plant genome DBs (e.g. TAIR10 and RAP-DB) were also included in the cluster with a direct link to the original DB. (ii) The Plant Resource DB, integrating the SABRE DB, which provides cDNA and genome sequence resources accumulated and maintained in the RIKEN BioResource Center and National BioResource Projects. (iii) The DNA Marker DB, providing manually or automatically curated information of DNA markers, quantitative trait loci and related linkage maps, from the literature and external DBs. As the PGDBj targets various plant species, including model plants, algae, and crops important as food, fodder and biofuel, researchers in the field of basic biology as well as a wide range of agronomic fields are encouraged to perform searches using DNA sequences, gene names, traits and phenotypes of interest. The PGDBj will return the search results from the component DBs and various types of linked external DBs. PMID:24363285

  7. Multi-tissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Rice, Charles D.; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL), and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil, and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August, 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast. PMID:23659337

  8. Multitissue molecular, genomic, and developmental effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on resident Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis).

    PubMed

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitehead, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey T; Rice, Charles D; Galvez, Fernando

    2013-05-21

    The Deepwater Horizon oil rig disaster resulted in crude oil contamination along the Gulf coast in sensitive estuaries. Toxicity from exposure to crude oil can affect populations of fish that live or breed in oiled habitats as seen following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In an ongoing study of the effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil on fish, Gulf killifish ( Fundulus grandis ) were collected from an oiled site (Grande Terre, LA) and two reference locations (coastal MS and AL) and monitored for measures of exposure to crude oil. Killifish collected from Grande Terre had divergent gene expression in the liver and gill tissue coincident with the arrival of contaminating oil and up-regulation of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein in gill, liver, intestine, and head kidney for over one year following peak landfall of oil (August 2011) compared to fish collected from reference sites. Furthermore, laboratory exposures of Gulf killifish embryos to field-collected sediments from Grande Terre and Barataria Bay, LA, also resulted in increased CYP1A and developmental abnormalities when exposed to sediments collected from oiled sites compared to exposure to sediments collected from a reference site. These data are predictive of population-level impacts in fish exposed to sediments from oiled locations along the Gulf of Mexico coast.

  9. Plant genome values: how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D

    1998-03-03

    Plants are the basis of life on earth. We cannot overemphasize their importance. The value of plant genome initiatives is self-evident. The need is to identify priorities for action. The angiosperm genome is highly variable, but the extent of this variability is unknown. Uncertainties remain about the number of genes and the number of species living. Many plants will become extinct before they are discovered. We risk losing both genes and vital information about plant uses. There are also major gaps in our karyotypic knowledge. No chromosome count exists for >70% of angiosperm species. DNA C values are known for only approximately 1% of angiosperms, a sample unrepresentative of the global flora. Researchers reported new relationships between genome size and characters of major interest for plant breeding and the environment and the need for more data. In 1997, a Royal Botanic Gardens Kew workshop identified gaps and planned international collaboration to fill them. An electronic version of the Angiosperm DNA C value database also was published. Another initiative, which will make a very significant contribution to the conservation of plant genetic diversity on a global scale is Kew's Millennium Seed Bank, partly funded by the U.K. Millennium Commission, celebrating the year 2000. Costing up to 80 million (1 = $1.62), its main aims are to collect and conserve the seed of almost all of the U.K. spermatophyte flora by the year 2000, to collect and conserve a further 10% of the world spermatophyte flora principally from the drylands by 2009, and to provide a world class building as the focus of this activity by 2000.

  10. Plant genome values: How much do we know?

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    Plants are the basis of life on earth. We cannot overemphasize their importance. The value of plant genome initiatives is self-evident. The need is to identify priorities for action. The angiosperm genome is highly variable, but the extent of this variability is unknown. Uncertainties remain about the number of genes and the number of species living. Many plants will become extinct before they are discovered. We risk losing both genes and vital information about plant uses. There are also major gaps in our karyotypic knowledge. No chromosome count exists for >70% of angiosperm species. DNA C values are known for only ≈1% of angiosperms, a sample unrepresentative of the global flora. Researchers reported new relationships between genome size and characters of major interest for plant breeding and the environment and the need for more data. In 1997, a Royal Botanic Gardens Kew workshop identified gaps and planned international collaboration to fill them. An electronic version of the Angiosperm DNA C value database also was published. Another initiative, which will make a very significant contribution to the conservation of plant genetic diversity on a global scale is Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank, partly funded by the U.K. Millennium Commission, celebrating the year 2000. Costing up to £80 million (£1 = $1.62), its main aims are to collect and conserve the seed of almost all of the U.K. spermatophyte flora by the year 2000, to collect and conserve a further 10% of the world spermatophyte flora principally from the drylands by 2009, and to provide a world class building as the focus of this activity by 2000. PMID:9482826

  11. A Revolution in Plant Metabolism: Genome-Enabled Pathway Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Buell, C. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-enabled discoveries are the hallmark of 21st century biology, including major discoveries in the biosynthesis and regulation of plant metabolic pathways. Access to next generation sequencing technologies has enabled research on the biosynthesis of diverse plant metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, resulting in a broader understanding of not only the structural and regulatory genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis but also in the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. Several paradigms that govern secondary metabolism have emerged, including that (1) gene family expansion and diversification contribute to the chemical diversity found in the plant kingdom, (2) genes encoding biochemical pathway components are frequently transcriptionally coregulated, and (3) physical clustering of nonhomologous genes that encode components of secondary metabolic pathways can occur. With an increasing knowledge base that is coupled with user-friendly and inexpensive technologies, biochemists are poised to accelerate the annotation of biochemical pathways relevant to human health, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:26224805

  12. Nontransgenic Genome Modification in Plant Cells1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Marton, Ira; Zuker, Amir; Shklarman, Elena; Zeevi, Vardit; Tovkach, Andrey; Roffe, Suzy; Ovadis, Marianna; Tzfira, Tzvi; Vainstein, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are a powerful tool for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. ZFNs have been used for targeted mutagenesis in model and crop species. In animal and human cells, transient ZFN expression is often achieved by direct gene transfer into the target cells. Stable transformation, however, is the preferred method for gene expression in plant species, and ZFN-expressing transgenic plants have been used for recovery of mutants that are likely to be classified as transgenic due to the use of direct gene-transfer methods into the target cells. Here we present an alternative, nontransgenic approach for ZFN delivery and production of mutant plants using a novel Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based expression system for indirect transient delivery of ZFNs into a variety of tissues and cells of intact plants. TRV systemically infected its hosts and virus ZFN-mediated targeted mutagenesis could be clearly observed in newly developed infected tissues as measured by activation of a mutated reporter transgene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and petunia (Petunia hybrida) plants. The ability of TRV to move to developing buds and regenerating tissues enabled recovery of mutated tobacco and petunia plants. Sequence analysis and transmission of the mutations to the next generation confirmed the stability of the ZFN-induced genetic changes. Because TRV is an RNA virus that can infect a wide range of plant species, it provides a viable alternative to the production of ZFN-mediated mutants while avoiding the use of direct plant-transformation methods. PMID:20876340

  13. Evolution of plant pathogenesis in Pseudomonas syringae: a genomics perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Heath E; Thakur, Shalabh; Guttman, David S

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae causes serious diseases in a wide range of important crop plants, with recent severe outbreaks on the New Zealand kiwifruit crop and among British horse chestnut trees. Next-generation genome sequencing of over 25 new strains has greatly broadened our understanding of how this species adapts to a diverse range of plant hosts. Not unexpectedly, the genomes were found to be highly dynamic, and extensive polymorphism was found in the distribution of type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) and other virulence-associated genes, even among strains within the same pathovar. An underexplored area brought to light by these data is the specific metabolic adaptations required for growth on woody hosts. These studies provide a tremendous wealth of candidates for more refined functional characterization, which is greatly enhancing our ability to disentangle the web of host-pathogen interactions that determine disease outcomes. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  14. Genomic approaches for interrogating the biochemistry of medicinal plant species

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fedewa, Greg; Yeo, Yunsoo; Chappell, Joe; DellaPenna, Dean; Buell, C. Robin

    2013-01-01

    Development of next-generation sequencing, coupled with the advancement of computational methods, has allowed researchers to access the transcriptomes of recalcitrant genomes such as those of medicinal plant species. Through the sequencing of even a few cDNA libraries, a broad representation of the transcriptome of any medicinal plant species can be obtained, providing a robust resource for gene discovery and downstream biochemical pathway discovery. When coupled to estimation of expression abundances in specific tissues from a developmental series, biotic stress, abiotic stress, or elicitor challenge, informative coexpression and differential expression estimates on a whole transcriptome level can be obtained to identify candidates for function discovery. PMID:23084937

  15. Impact of recurrent gene duplication on adaptation of plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent gene duplication and retention played an important role in angiosperm genome evolution. It has been hypothesized that these processes contribute significantly to plant adaptation but so far this hypothesis has not been tested at the genome scale. Results We studied available sequenced angiosperm genomes to assess the frequency of positive selection footprints in lineage specific expanded (LSE) gene families compared to single-copy genes using a dN/dS-based test in a phylogenetic framework. We found 5.38% of alignments in LSE genes with codons under positive selection. In contrast, we found no evidence for codons under positive selection in the single-copy reference set. An analysis at the branch level shows that purifying selection acted more strongly on single-copy genes than on LSE gene clusters. Moreover we detect significantly more branches indicating evolution under positive selection and/or relaxed constraint in LSE genes than in single-copy genes. Conclusions In this – to our knowledge –first genome-scale study we provide strong empirical support for the hypothesis that LSE genes fuel adaptation in angiosperms. Our conservative approach for detecting selection footprints as well as our results can be of interest for further studies on (plant) gene family evolution. PMID:24884640

  16. Pseudogenes and Their Genome-Wide Prediction in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jin; Sekhwal, Manoj Kumar; Li, Pingchuan; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie; Wang, Xiue; You, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudogenes are paralogs generated from ancestral functional genes (parents) during genome evolution, which contain critical defects in their sequences, such as lacking a promoter, having a premature stop codon or frameshift mutations. Generally, pseudogenes are functionless, but recent evidence demonstrates that some of them have potential roles in regulation. The majority of pseudogenes are generated from functional progenitor genes either by gene duplication (duplicated pseudogenes) or retro-transposition (processed pseudogenes). Pseudogenes are primarily identified by comparison to their parent genes. Bioinformatics tools for pseudogene prediction have been developed, among which PseudoPipe, PSF and Shiu’s pipeline are publicly available. We compared these three tools using the well-annotated Arabidopsis thaliana genome and its known 924 pseudogenes as a test data set. PseudoPipe and Shiu’s pipeline identified ~80% of A. thaliana pseudogenes, of which 94% were shared, while PSF failed to generate adequate results. A need for improvement of the bioinformatics tools for pseudogene prediction accuracy in plant genomes was thus identified, with the ultimate goal of improving the quality of genome annotation in plants. PMID:27916797

  17. Are we ready for genome-scale modeling in plants?

    PubMed

    Collakova, Eva; Yen, Jiun Y; Senger, Ryan S

    2012-08-01

    As it is becoming easier and faster to generate various types of high-throughput data, one would expect that by now we should have a comprehensive systems-level understanding of biology, biochemistry, and physiology at least in major prokaryotic and eukaryotic model systems. Despite the wealth of available data, we only get a glimpse of what is going on at the molecular level from the global perspective. The major reason is the high level of cellular complexity and our limited ability to identify all (or at least important) components and their interactions in virtually infinite number of internal and external conditions. Metabolism can be modeled mathematically by the use of genome-scale models (GEMs). GEMs are in silico metabolic flux models derived from available genome annotation. These models predict the combination of flux values of a defined metabolic network given the influence of internal and external signals. GEMs have been successfully implemented to model bacterial metabolism for over a decade. However, it was not until 2009 when the first GEM for Arabidopsis thaliana cell-suspension cultures was generated. Genome-scale modeling ("GEMing") in plants brings new challenges primarily due to the missing components and complexity of plant cells represented by the existence of: (i) photosynthesis; (ii) compartmentation; (iii) variety of cell and tissue types; and (iv) diverse metabolic responses to environmental and developmental cues as well as pathogens, insects, and competing weeds. This review presents a critical discussion of the advantages of existing plant GEMs, while identifies key targets for future improvements. Plant GEMs tend to be accurate in predicting qualitative changes in selected aspects of central carbon metabolism, while secondary metabolism is largely neglected mainly due to the missing (unknown) genes and metabolites. As such, these models are suitable for exploring metabolism in plants grown in favorable conditions, but not in field

  18. Crop Improvement through Modification of the Plant's Own Genome

    PubMed Central

    Rommens, Caius M.; Humara, Jaime M.; Ye, Jingsong; Yan, Hua; Richael, Craig; Zhang, Lynda; Perry, Rachel; Swords, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has, until now, relied on the incorporation of foreign DNA into plant genomes. Public concern about the extent to which transgenic crops differ from their traditionally bred counterparts has resulted in molecular strategies and gene choices that limit, but not eliminate, the introduction of foreign DNA. Here, we demonstrate that a plant-derived (P-) DNA fragment can be used to replace the universally employed Agrobacterium transfer (T-) DNA. Marker-free P-DNAs are transferred to plant cell nuclei together with conventional T-DNAs carrying a selectable marker gene. By subsequently linking a positive selection for temporary marker gene expression to a negative selection against marker gene integration, 29% of derived regeneration events contain P-DNA insertions but lack any copies of the T-DNA. Further refinements are accomplished by employing Ω-mutated virD2 and isopentenyl transferase cytokinin genes to impair T-DNA integration and select against backbone integration, respectively. The presented methods are used to produce hundreds of marker-free and backbone-free potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants displaying reduced expression of a tuber-specific polyphenol oxidase gene in potato. The modified plants represent the first example of genetically engineered plants that only contain native DNA. PMID:15133156

  19. The Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Boea hygrometrica: Insights into the Evolution of Plant Organellar Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xumin; Deng, Xin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Bh, Gesneriaceae) have been determined with the lengths of 153,493 bp and 510,519 bp, respectively. The smaller chloroplast genome contains more genes (147) with a 72% coding sequence, and the larger mitochondrial genome have less genes (65) with a coding faction of 12%. Similar to other seed plants, the Bh cp genome has a typical quadripartite organization with a conserved gene in each region. The Bh mt genome has three recombinant sequence repeats of 222 bp, 843 bp, and 1474 bp in length, which divide the genome into a single master circle (MC) and four isomeric molecules. Compared to other angiosperms, one remarkable feature of the Bh mt genome is the frequent transfer of genetic material from the cp genome during recent Bh evolution. We also analyzed organellar genome evolution in general regarding genome features as well as compositional dynamics of sequence and gene structure/organization, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organellar genomes in plants. The cp-derived sequences including tRNAs found in angiosperm mt genomes support the conclusion that frequent gene transfer events may have begun early in the land plant lineage. PMID:22291979

  20. The complete chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences of Boea hygrometrica: insights into the evolution of plant organellar genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tongwu; Fang, Yongjun; Wang, Xumin; Deng, Xin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Bh, Gesneriaceae) have been determined with the lengths of 153,493 bp and 510,519 bp, respectively. The smaller chloroplast genome contains more genes (147) with a 72% coding sequence, and the larger mitochondrial genome have less genes (65) with a coding faction of 12%. Similar to other seed plants, the Bh cp genome has a typical quadripartite organization with a conserved gene in each region. The Bh mt genome has three recombinant sequence repeats of 222 bp, 843 bp, and 1474 bp in length, which divide the genome into a single master circle (MC) and four isomeric molecules. Compared to other angiosperms, one remarkable feature of the Bh mt genome is the frequent transfer of genetic material from the cp genome during recent Bh evolution. We also analyzed organellar genome evolution in general regarding genome features as well as compositional dynamics of sequence and gene structure/organization, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organellar genomes in plants. The cp-derived sequences including tRNAs found in angiosperm mt genomes support the conclusion that frequent gene transfer events may have begun early in the land plant lineage.

  1. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era.

    PubMed

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-08-01

    and larger scale. In their article, Onda and Mochida detailed how to use these technologies in fully characterizing the genetic diversity or multigenecity within a particular plant species. The authors discussed the constant innovation of sequencing platforms which has made sequencing technologies become more superior and more powerful than ever before. Additionally, the efforts result in not only further cut down of the sequencing cost and increase in the sequencing speed, but also improvement in sequencing accuracy and extended sequencing application to studies at both DNA and RNA levels. Such knowledge will help the scientists interpret, at least partially, how plants can adapt to various environmental conditions, or how different cultivars can respond differently to the same stress. Another article by Ong et al. also laid emphasis on the importance of various high-throughput sequencing platforms, thanks to which a large number of genomic databases supplied with detailed annotation and useful bioinformatics tools have been established to assist geneticists. Readers can find in this review the summary of available plant-specific genomic databases up-to-date and popular web-based resources that are relevant for comparative genomics, plant evolution and phylogenomics studies. These, along with other approaches, such as quantitative trait locus and genome-wide association study, will lay foundation for prediction and identification of genes or alleles responsible for valuable agronomic traits, contributing to the enhancement of plant productivity by genetic engineering approach. In this thematic issue, specific examples for crop improvement are also demonstrated. The first showcase is given by Nongpiur et al. who provided evidence that synergistic employment of genomics approaches and high-throughput gene expression methods have aided in dissecting the salinity-responsive signaling pathway, identifying genes involved in the stress response and selecting candidate genes

  2. Telling plant species apart with DNA: from barcodes to genomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, De-Zhu; van der Bank, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Land plants underpin a multitude of ecosystem functions, support human livelihoods and represent a critically important component of terrestrial biodiversity—yet many tens of thousands of species await discovery, and plant identification remains a substantial challenge, especially where material is juvenile, fragmented or processed. In this opinion article, we tackle two main topics. Firstly, we provide a short summary of the strengths and limitations of plant DNA barcoding for addressing these issues. Secondly, we discuss options for enhancing current plant barcodes, focusing on increasing discriminatory power via either gene capture of nuclear markers or genome skimming. The former has the advantage of establishing a defined set of target loci maximizing efficiency of sequencing effort, data storage and analysis. The challenge is developing a probe set for large numbers of nuclear markers that works over sufficient phylogenetic breadth. Genome skimming has the advantage of using existing protocols and being backward compatible with existing barcodes; and the depth of sequence coverage can be increased as sequencing costs fall. Its non-targeted nature does, however, present a major informatics challenge for upscaling to large sample sets. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481790

  3. Telling plant species apart with DNA: from barcodes to genomes.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Peter M; Li, De-Zhu; van der Bank, Michelle; Twyford, Alex D

    2016-09-05

    Land plants underpin a multitude of ecosystem functions, support human livelihoods and represent a critically important component of terrestrial biodiversity-yet many tens of thousands of species await discovery, and plant identification remains a substantial challenge, especially where material is juvenile, fragmented or processed. In this opinion article, we tackle two main topics. Firstly, we provide a short summary of the strengths and limitations of plant DNA barcoding for addressing these issues. Secondly, we discuss options for enhancing current plant barcodes, focusing on increasing discriminatory power via either gene capture of nuclear markers or genome skimming. The former has the advantage of establishing a defined set of target loci maximizing efficiency of sequencing effort, data storage and analysis. The challenge is developing a probe set for large numbers of nuclear markers that works over sufficient phylogenetic breadth. Genome skimming has the advantage of using existing protocols and being backward compatible with existing barcodes; and the depth of sequence coverage can be increased as sequencing costs fall. Its non-targeted nature does, however, present a major informatics challenge for upscaling to large sample sets.This article is part of the themed issue 'From DNA barcodes to biomes'.

  4. Enhancement of Plant Productivity in the Post-Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Tran, Vietnam Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    and larger scale. In their article, Onda and Mochida detailed how to use these technologies in fully characterizing the genetic diversity or multigenecity within a particular plant species. The authors discussed the constant innovation of sequencing platforms which has made sequencing technologies become more superior and more powerful than ever before. Additionally, the efforts result in not only further cut down of the sequencing cost and increase in the sequencing speed, but also improvement in sequencing accuracy and extended sequencing application to studies at both DNA and RNA levels. Such knowledge will help the scientists interpret, at least partially, how plants can adapt to various environmental conditions, or how different cultivars can respond differently to the same stress. Another article by Ong et al. also laid emphasis on the importance of various high-throughput sequencing platforms, thanks to which a large number of genomic databases supplied with detailed annotation and useful bioinformatics tools have been established to assist geneticists. Readers can find in this review the summary of available plant-specific genomic databases up-to-date and popular web-based resources that are relevant for comparative genomics, plant evolution and phylogenomics studies. These, along with other approaches, such as quantitative trait locus and genome-wide association study, will lay foundation for prediction and identification of genes or alleles responsible for valuable agronomic traits, contributing to the enhancement of plant productivity by genetic engineering approach. In this thematic issue, specific examples for crop improvement are also demonstrated. The first showcase is given by Nongpiur et al. who provided evidence that synergistic employment of genomics approaches and high-throughput gene expression methods have aided in dissecting the salinity-responsive signaling pathway, identifying genes involved in the stress response and selecting candidate genes

  5. HORIZON SENSING

    SciTech Connect

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine appropriately. The Horizon Sensor

  6. The Comprehensive Phytopathogen Genomics Resource: a web-based resource for data-mining plant pathogen genomes.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, John P; Neeno-Eckwall, Eric C; Adhikari, Bishwo N; Perna, Nicole T; Tisserat, Ned; Leach, Jan E; Lévesque, C André; Buell, C Robin

    2011-01-01

    The Comprehensive Phytopathogen Genomics Resource (CPGR) provides a web-based portal for plant pathologists and diagnosticians to view the genome and trancriptome sequence status of 806 bacterial, fungal, oomycete, nematode, viral and viroid plant pathogens. Tools are available to search and analyze annotated genome sequences of 74 bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens. Oomycete and fungal genomes are obtained directly from GenBank, whereas bacterial genome sequences are downloaded from the A Systematic Annotation Package (ASAP) database that provides curation of genomes using comparative approaches. Curated lists of bacterial genes relevant to pathogenicity and avirulence are also provided. The Plant Pathogen Transcript Assemblies Database provides annotated assemblies of the transcribed regions of 82 eukaryotic genomes from publicly available single pass Expressed Sequence Tags. Data-mining tools are provided along with tools to create candidate diagnostic markers, an emerging use for genomic sequence data in plant pathology. The Plant Pathogen Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) database is a resource for pathogens that lack genome or transcriptome data sets and contains 131 755 rDNA sequences from GenBank for 17 613 species identified as plant pathogens and related genera. Database URL: http://cpgr.plantbiology.msu.edu.

  7. Killing Horizons Kill Horizon Degrees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, L.; Grumiller, D.

    Frequently, it is argued that the microstates responsible for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy should arise from some physical degrees of freedom located near or on the black hole horizon. In this essay, we elucidate that instead entropy may emerge from the conversion of physical degrees of freedom, attached to a generic boundary, into unobservable gauge degrees of freedom attached to the horizon. By constructing the reduced phase space, it can be demonstrated that such a transmutation indeed takes place for a large class of black holes, including Schwarzschild.

  8. Applications of CPPs in Genome Modulation of Plants.

    PubMed

    Ziemienowicz, Alicja; Pepper, Jordan; Eudes, François

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a class of short peptides that are known to translocate inside living cells through the cell membrane. Many CPPs show an ability to bind and deliver macromolecular cargoes such as DNA, RNA and protein into living cells, making them excellent transfection and transduction agents with low cytotoxicity. While their use is well established in mammalian cell systems, they have also been explored in the last decade as transfection agents in plant cells. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in both monocot and dicot clades as well as a variety of tissues and cell cultures, from leaves to protoplasts. Factors affecting CPP and CPP-cargo uptake have been addressed with specific attention to the plant cell wall and classes of CPPs utilized in plant cell systems. It has been shown that internalization of most free peptides in plant cells has been dominated by direct translocation across the cell membrane, while CPP-macromolecular cargo complexes and conjugates were translocated via macropinocytosis. Moreover, functionalization of CPPs resulted in generation of peptides with specialized cargo delivery attributes, e.g., for specific subcellular targeting. Thus, the use of CPPs in plants presents a promising method for plant transgenesis as well as genome regulation and modification.

  9. Plant Ion Channels: Gene Families, Physiology, and Functional Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John M.; Mäser, Pascal; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Distinct potassium, anion, and calcium channels in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of plant cells have been identified and characterized by patch clamping. Primarily owing to advances in Arabidopsis genetics and genomics, and yeast functional complementation, many of the corresponding genes have been identified. Recent advances in our understanding of ion channel genes that mediate signal transduction and ion transport are discussed here. Some plant ion channels, for example, ALMT and SLAC anion channel subunits, are unique. The majority of plant ion channel families exhibit homology to animal genes; such families include both hyperpolarization-and depolarization-activated Shaker-type potassium channels, CLC chloride transporters/channels, cyclic nucleotide–gated channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptor homologs. These plant ion channels offer unique opportunities to analyze the structural mechanisms and functions of ion channels. Here we review gene families of selected plant ion channel classes and discuss unique structure-function aspects and their physiological roles in plant cell signaling and transport. PMID:18842100

  10. Developing maps of fitness consequences for plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Flowers, Jonathan M; Purugganan, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the fitness consequences of mutations, and their concomitant impacts on molecular and cellular function as well as organismal phenotypes, is an important challenge in biology that has new relevance in an era when genomic data is readily available. The ability to construct genomewide maps of fitness consequences in plant genomes is a recent development that has profound implications for our ability to predict the fitness effects of mutations and discover functional elements. Here we highlight approaches to building fitness consequence maps to infer regions under selection. We emphasize computational methods applied primarily to the study of human disease that translate physical maps of within-species genome variation into maps of fitness effects of individual natural mutations. Maps of fitness consequences in plants, combined with traditional genetic approaches, could accelerate discovery of functional elements such as regulatory sequences in non-coding DNA and genetic polymorphisms associated with key traits, including agronomically-important traits such as yield and environmental stress responses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. De novo prediction of the genomic components and capabilities for microbial plant biomass degradation from (meta-)genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the biological mechanisms used by microorganisms for plant biomass degradation is of considerable biotechnological interest. Despite of the growing number of sequenced (meta)genomes of plant biomass-degrading microbes, there is currently no technique for the systematic determination of the genomic components of this process from these data. Results We describe a computational method for the discovery of the protein domains and CAZy families involved in microbial plant biomass degradation. Our method furthermore accurately predicts the capability to degrade plant biomass for microbial species from their genome sequences. Application to a large, manually curated data set of microbial degraders and non-degraders identified gene families of enzymes known by physiological and biochemical tests to be implicated in cellulose degradation, such as GH5 and GH6. Additionally, genes of enzymes that degrade other plant polysaccharides, such as hemicellulose, pectins and oligosaccharides, were found, as well as gene families which have not previously been related to the process. For draft genomes reconstructed from a cow rumen metagenome our method predicted Bacteroidetes-affiliated species and a relative to a known plant biomass degrader to be plant biomass degraders. This was supported by the presence of genes encoding enzymatically active glycoside hydrolases in these genomes. Conclusions Our results show the potential of the method for generating novel insights into microbial plant biomass degradation from (meta-)genome data, where there is an increasing production of genome assemblages for uncultured microbes. PMID:23414703

  12. Phytochemicals in plants: genomics-assisted plant improvement for nutritional and health benefits.

    PubMed

    Grusak, Michael A

    2002-10-01

    Plants are an important source of essential nutrients and health-beneficial components that are crucial for human life. Because the intake of these phytochemicals is not always adequate, the resources of plant biotechnology are being used to enhance the nutritional quality of our plant-based food supply. Various improvement strategies are feasible, depending on whether the phytochemical target is a major or minor constituent. Recent efforts in gene discovery and functional genomics are providing the necessary understanding to develop and evaluate different approaches to manipulate phytochemical composition.

  13. Whole genome duplications in plants: an overview from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, Juan Carlos; Ramirez-Parra, Elena

    2015-12-01

    Polyploidy is a common event in plants that involves the acquisition of more than two complete sets of chromosomes. Allopolyploidy originates from interspecies hybrids while autopolyploidy originates from intraspecies whole genome duplication (WGD) events. In spite of inconveniences derived from chromosomic rearrangement during polyploidization, natural plant polyploids species often exhibit improved growth vigour and adaptation to adverse environments, conferring evolutionary advantages. These advantages have also been incorporated into crop breeding programmes. Many tetraploid crops show increased stress tolerance, although the molecular mechanisms underlying these different adaptation abilities are poorly known. Understanding the physiological, cellular, and molecular mechanisms coupled to WGD, in both allo- and autopolyploidy, is a major challenge. Over the last few years, several studies, many of them in Arabidopsis, are shedding light on the basis of genetic, genomic, and epigenomic changes linked to WGD. In this review we summarize and discuss the latest advances made in Arabidopsis polyploidy, but also in other agronomic plant species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Genome-based approaches to the authentication of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Carles, Maria C

    2008-05-01

    Medicinal plants are the source of a large number of essential drugs in Western medicine and are the basis of herbal medicine, which is not only the primary source of health care for most of the world's population living in developing countries but also enjoys growing popularity in developed countries. The increased demand for botanical products is met by an expanding industry and accompanied by calls for assurance of quality, efficacy and safety. Plants used as drugs, dietary supplements and herbal medicines are identified at the species level. Unequivocal identification is a critical step at the beginning of an extensive process of quality assurance and is of importance for the characterization of the genetic diversity, phylogeny and phylogeography as well as the protection of endangered species. DNA-based methods have been developed for the identification of medicinal plants. Nuclear and chloroplast DNA is amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the reaction products are analyzed by gel electrophoresis, sequencing, or hybridization with species-specific probes. Genomic fingerprinting can differentiate between individuals, species and populations and is useful for the detection of the homogeneity of the samples and presence of adulterants. Although sequences from single chloroplast or nuclear genes have been useful for differentiation of species, phylogenetic studies often require consideration of DNA sequence data from more than one gene or genomic region. Phytochemical and genetic data are correlated but only the latter normally allow for differentiation at the species level. The generation of molecular "barcodes" of medicinal plants will be worth the concerted effort of the medicinal plant research community and contribute to the ongoing effort of defining barcodes for every species on earth.

  15. [Chromosomal organization of the genomes of small-chromosome plants].

    PubMed

    Muravenko, O V; Zelenin, A V

    2009-11-01

    An effective approach to study the chromosome organization in genomes of plants with small chromosomes and/or with low-informative C-banding patterns was developed in the course of investigation of the karyotypes of cotton plant, camomile, flax, and pea. To increase the resolving power of chromosome analysis, methods were worked out for revealing early replication patterns on chromosomes and for artificial impairment of mitotic chromosome condensation with the use of a DNA intercalator, 9-aminoacridine (9-AMA). To estimate polymorphism of the patterns of C-banding of small chromosomes on preparations obtained with the use of 9-AMA, it is necessary to choose a length interval that must not exceed three average sizes of metaphase chromosomes without the intercalator. The use of 9-AMA increases the resolution of differential C- and OR-banding and the precision of physical chromosome mapping by the FISH method. Of particular importance in studying small chromosomes is optimization of the computer-aided methods used to obtain and process chromosome images. The complex approach developed for analysis of the chromosome organization in plant genomes was used to study the karyotypes of 24 species of the genus Linum L. It permitted their chromosomes to be identified for the first time, and, in addition, B chromosomes were discovered and studied in the karyotypes of the species of the section Syllinum. By similarity of the karyotypes, the studied flax species were distributed in eight groups in agreement with the clusterization of these species according to the results of RAPD analysis performed in parallel. Systematic positions and phylogenetic relationships of the studied flax species were verified. Out results can serve as an important argument in favour of the proposal to develop a special program for sequencing the genome of cultivated flax (L. usitatissimum L.), which is a major representative of small-chromosome species.

  16. Mechanisms and evolution of genomic imprinting in plants.

    PubMed

    Köhler, C; Weinhofer-Molisch, I

    2010-07-01

    Genomic imprinting, the allele-specific expression of a gene dependent on its parent-of-origin, has independently evolved in flowering plants and mammals. In mammals and flowering plants, imprinting occurs in the embryo as well as in embryo-nourishing tissues, the placenta and the endosperm, respectively, and it has been suggested that imprinted genes control the nutrient flow from the mother to the offspring ('kinship theory'). Alternatively, imprinting might have evolved as a by-product of a defense mechanism destined to control transposon activity in gametes ('defense hypothesis'). Recent studies provide substantial evidence for the 'defense hypothesis' by showing that imprinted genes in plants are located in the vicinity of transposon or repeat sequences, suggesting that the insertion of transposon or repeat sequences was a prerequisite for imprinting evolution. Transposons or repeat sequences are silenced by DNA methylation, causing silencing of neighboring genes in vegetative tissues. However, because of genome-wide DNA demethylation in the central cell, genes located in the vicinity of transposon or repeat sequences will be active in the central cell and the maternal alleles will remain unmethylated and active in the descendent endosperm, assuming an imprinted expression. Consequently, many imprinted genes are likely to have an endosperm-restricted function, or, alternatively, they have no functional role in the endosperm and are on the trajectory to convert to pseudogenes. Thus, the 'defense hypothesis' as well as 'kinship theory' together can explain the origin of genomic imprinting; whereas the first hypothesis explains how imprinting originates, the latter explains how imprinting is manifested and maintained.

  17. Seamless editing of the chloroplast genome in plants.

    PubMed

    Martin Avila, Elena; Gisby, Martin F; Day, Anil

    2016-07-29

    Gene editing technologies enable the precise insertion of favourable mutations and performance enhancing trait genes into chromosomes whilst excluding all excess DNA from modified genomes. The technology gives rise to a new class of biotech crops which is likely to have widespread applications in agriculture. Despite progress in the nucleus, the seamless insertions of point mutations and non-selectable foreign genes into the organelle genomes of crops have not been described. The chloroplast genome is an attractive target to improve photosynthesis and crop performance. Current chloroplast genome engineering technologies for introducing point mutations into native chloroplast genes leave DNA scars, such as the target sites for recombination enzymes. Seamless editing methods to modify chloroplast genes need to address reversal of site-directed point mutations by template mediated repair with the vast excess of wild type chloroplast genomes that are present early in the transformation process. Using tobacco, we developed an efficient two-step method to edit a chloroplast gene by replacing the wild type sequence with a transient intermediate. This was resolved to the final edited gene by recombination between imperfect direct repeats. Six out of 11 transplastomic plants isolated contained the desired intermediate and at the second step this was resolved to the edited chloroplast gene in five of six plants tested. Maintenance of a single base deletion mutation in an imperfect direct repeat of the native chloroplast rbcL gene showed the limited influence of biased repair back to the wild type sequence. The deletion caused a frameshift, which replaced the five C-terminal amino acids of the Rubisco large subunit with 16 alternative residues resulting in a ~30-fold reduction in its accumulation. We monitored the process in vivo by engineering an overlapping gusA gene downstream of the edited rbcL gene. Translational coupling between the overlapping rbcL and gusA genes

  18. Rhea Horizon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-25

    Gazing off toward the horizon is thought-provoking no matter what body's horizon it is. Rhea's horizon is slightly irregular and battered by craters, so thoughts inevitably turn towards the forces that shape these icy worlds. The surface of Rhea (949 miles or 1527 kilometers across) has been sculpted largely by impact cratering, each crater a reminder of a collision sometime in the moon's history. On more geologically active worlds like Earth, the craters would be erased by erosion, volcanoes or tectonics. But on quieter worlds like Rhea, the craters remain until they are disrupted or covered up by the ejecta of a subsequent impact. Lit terrain seen here is on the trailing hemisphere of Rhea. North on Rhea is up and rotated 12 degrees to the right. In this view, Cassini was at a subspacecraft latitude of 9 degrees North. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Feb. 10, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 35,000 miles (56,000 kilometers) from Rhea and at a Sun-Rhea-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 76 degrees. Image scale is 1,100 feet (330 meters) per pixel. .http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18316

  19. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS006

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Bernal, Johan F.; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR Bacillus amyloliquefaciens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences encode genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides, in addition to genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:26607897

  20. Genome Sequence of the Banana Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PS006

    PubMed Central

    Gamez, Rocío M.; Rodríguez, Fernando; Ramírez, Sandra; Gómez, Yolanda; Agarwala, Richa; Landsman, David

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a well-known plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR). We report here the first whole-genome sequence of PGPR P. fluorescens evaluated in Colombian banana plants. The genome sequences contains genes involved in plant growth and defense, including bacteriocins, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, and genes that provide resistance to toxic compounds. PMID:27151797

  1. Draft genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jeong, Da-Eun; Kim, Sun Hong; Song, Geun Cheol; Park, Soo-Young; Ryu, Choong-Min; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2012-08-01

    Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613(T), a novel halophilic Bacillus species isolated from a salted Thai food, produced antimicrobial compounds against plant pathogens and promoted plant growth by volatile emission. We determined the 3.8-Mb genome sequence of B. siamensis KCTC 13613(T) to reveal the plant-beneficial effect at the genomic level.

  2. Genome evolution in filamentous plant pathogens: why bigger can be better.

    PubMed

    Raffaele, Sylvain; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-05-08

    Many species of fungi and oomycetes are plant pathogens of great economic importance. Over the past 7 years, the genomes of more than 30 of these filamentous plant pathogens have been sequenced, revealing remarkable diversity in genome size and architecture. Whereas the genomes of many parasites and bacterial symbionts have been reduced over time, the genomes of several lineages of filamentous plant pathogens have been shaped by repeat-driven expansions. In these lineages, the genes encoding proteins involved in host interactions are frequently polymorphic and reside within repeat-rich regions of the genome. Here, we review the properties of these adaptable genome regions and the mechanisms underlying their plasticity, and we illustrate cases in which genome plasticity has contributed to the emergence of new virulence traits. We also discuss how genome expansions may have had an impact on the co-evolutionary conflict between these filamentous plant pathogens and their hosts.

  3. A collection of plant-specific genomic data and resources at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Tatusova, Tatiana; Smith-White, Brian; Ostell, James

    2007-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a data-rich environment in support of genomic research by collecting the biological data for genomes, genes, gene expressions, gene variation, gene families, proteins, and protein domains and integrating the data with analytical, search, and retrieval resources through the NCBI Web site. Entrez, an integrated search and retrieval system, enables text searches across various diverse biological databases maintained at NCBI. Map Viewer, the genome browser developed at NCBI, displays aligned genetic, physical, and sequence maps for eukaryotic genomes including those of many plants. A specialized plant query page allows maps from all plant genomes available in the Map Viewer to be searched to produce a display of aligned maps from several species. Customized Plant Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (PlantBLAST) allows the user to perform sequence similarity searches in a special collection of mapped plant sequence data and to view the resulting alignments within a genomic context using Map Viewer. In addition, pre-computed sequence similarities, such as those for proteins offered by BLAST Link (BLink), enable fluid navigation from un-annotated to annotated sequences, quickening the pace of discovery. Plant Genome Central (PGC) is a Web portal that provides centralized access to all NCBI plant genome resources. Also, there are links to plant-specific Web resources external to NCBI such as organism-specific databases, genome-sequencing project Web pages, and homepages of genomic bioinformatics organizations.

  4. Metal hyperaccumulation and hypertolerance: a model for plant evolutionary genomics.

    PubMed

    Hanikenne, Marc; Nouet, Cécile

    2011-06-01

    In the course of evolution, plants adapted to widely differing metal availabilities in soils and therefore represent an important source of natural variation of metal homeostasis networks. Research on plant metal homeostasis can thus provide insights into the functioning, regulation and adaptation of biological networks. Here, we describe major recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of metal hyperaccumulation and associated hypertolerance, a naturally selected complex trait which represents an extreme adaptation of the metal homeostasis network. Investigations in this field reveal further the molecular alterations underlying the evolution of natural phenotypic diversity and provide a highly relevant framework for comparative genomics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of genomic DNA from medicinal plants without liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pratibha; Joshi, Neha; Sharma, Anubhuti

    2010-06-01

    Genomic DNA was extracted from eight medicinal plants using the present DNA extraction protocols (CTAB extraction method) with some modifications. Leaves were fixed in different fixing solutions containing absolute alcohol (99.99%), chloroform and EDTA, but without liquid nitrogen. DNA quality and quantity obtained were comparable to those isolated with liquid nitrogen, as the lambda260/lambda280 ratio with liquid nitrogen was in range 1.3-1.7 and with other fixing solutions it was 1.1-1.5. Absolute alcohol showed best results as fixing solution. Good quality of DNA was isolated without using liquid nitrogen from different medicinal plant species. DNA isolated by this method was suitable for various molecular biology applications.

  6. The Plant Ontology as a Tool for Comparative Plant Anatomy and Genomic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Laurel; Walls, Ramona L.; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Smith, Barry; Preece, Justin; Athreya, Balaji; Mungall, Christopher J.; Rensing, Stefan; Hiss, Manuel; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Berardini, Tanya Z.; Li, Donghui; Huala, Eva; Schaeffer, Mary; Menda, Naama; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Rosemary; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/) is a publicly available, collaborative effort to develop and maintain a controlled, structured vocabulary (‘ontology’) of terms to describe plant anatomy, morphology and the stages of plant development. The goals of the PO are to link (annotate) gene expression and phenotype data to plant structures and stages of plant development, using the data model adopted by the Gene Ontology. From its original design covering only rice, maize and Arabidopsis, the scope of the PO has been expanded to include all green plants. The PO was the first multispecies anatomy ontology developed for the annotation of genes and phenotypes. Also, to our knowledge, it was one of the first biological ontologies that provides translations (via synonyms) in non-English languages such as Japanese and Spanish. As of Release #18 (July 2012), there are about 2.2 million annotations linking PO terms to >110,000 unique data objects representing genes or gene models, proteins, RNAs, germplasm and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from 22 plant species. In this paper, we focus on the plant anatomical entity branch of the PO, describing the organizing principles, resources available to users and examples of how the PO is integrated into other plant genomics databases and web portals. We also provide two examples of comparative analyses, demonstrating how the ontology structure and PO-annotated data can be used to discover the patterns of expression of the LEAFY (LFY) and terpene synthase (TPS) gene homologs. PMID:23220694

  7. The plant ontology as a tool for comparative plant anatomy and genomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Laurel; Walls, Ramona L; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Smith, Barry; Preece, Justin; Athreya, Balaji; Mungall, Christopher J; Rensing, Stefan; Hiss, Manuel; Lang, Daniel; Reski, Ralf; Berardini, Tanya Z; Li, Donghui; Huala, Eva; Schaeffer, Mary; Menda, Naama; Arnaud, Elizabeth; Shrestha, Rosemary; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Jaiswal, Pankaj

    2013-02-01

    The Plant Ontology (PO; http://www.plantontology.org/) is a publicly available, collaborative effort to develop and maintain a controlled, structured vocabulary ('ontology') of terms to describe plant anatomy, morphology and the stages of plant development. The goals of the PO are to link (annotate) gene expression and phenotype data to plant structures and stages of plant development, using the data model adopted by the Gene Ontology. From its original design covering only rice, maize and Arabidopsis, the scope of the PO has been expanded to include all green plants. The PO was the first multispecies anatomy ontology developed for the annotation of genes and phenotypes. Also, to our knowledge, it was one of the first biological ontologies that provides translations (via synonyms) in non-English languages such as Japanese and Spanish. As of Release #18 (July 2012), there are about 2.2 million annotations linking PO terms to >110,000 unique data objects representing genes or gene models, proteins, RNAs, germplasm and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from 22 plant species. In this paper, we focus on the plant anatomical entity branch of the PO, describing the organizing principles, resources available to users and examples of how the PO is integrated into other plant genomics databases and web portals. We also provide two examples of comparative analyses, demonstrating how the ontology structure and PO-annotated data can be used to discover the patterns of expression of the LEAFY (LFY) and terpene synthase (TPS) gene homologs.

  8. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkug; Park, Dongsuk; Seol, Youngjoo; Hahn, Jangho

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage.

  9. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  10. Progress in Genome Editing Technology and Its Application in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented. PMID:28261237

  11. Progress in Genome Editing Technology and Its Application in Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Raboanatahiry, Nadia; Zhu, Bin; Li, Maoteng

    2017-01-01

    Genome editing technology (GET) is a versatile approach that has progressed rapidly as a mechanism to alter the genotype and phenotype of organisms. However, conventional genome modification using GET cannot satisfy current demand for high-efficiency and site-directed mutagenesis, retrofitting of artificial nucleases has developed into a new avenue within this field. Based on mechanisms to recognize target genes, newly-developed GETs can generally be subdivided into three cleavage systems, protein-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., zinc-finger nucleases, ZFN, and transcription activator-like effector nucleases, TALEN), RNA-dependent DNA cleavage systems (i.e., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated proteins, CRISPR-Cas9, CRISPR-Cpf1, and CRISPR-C2c1), and RNA-dependent RNA cleavage systems (i.e., RNA interference, RNAi, and CRISPR-C2c2). All these techniques can lead to double-stranded (DSB) or single-stranded breaks (SSB), and result in either random mutations via non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) or targeted mutation via homologous recombination (HR). Thus, site-directed mutagenesis can be induced via targeted gene knock-out, knock-in, or replacement to modify specific characteristics including morphology-modification, resistance-enhancement, and physiological mechanism-improvement along with plant growth and development. In this paper, an non-comprehensive review on the development of different GETs as applied to plants is presented.

  12. Genomic and genotoxic responses to controlled weathered-oil exposures confirm and extend field studies on impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on native killifish.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼ 10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA.

  13. Genomic and Genotoxic Responses to Controlled Weathered-Oil Exposures Confirm and Extend Field Studies on Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Native Killifish

    PubMed Central

    Pilcher, Whitney; Miles, Scott; Tang, Song; Mayer, Greg; Whitehead, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    To understand the ecotoxicological impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, field studies provide a context for ecological realism but laboratory-based studies offer power for connecting biological effects with specific causes. As a complement to field studies, we characterized genome-wide gene expression responses of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to oil-contaminated waters in controlled laboratory exposures. Transcriptional responses to the highest concentrations of oiled water in the laboratory were predictive of field-observed responses that coincided with the timing and location of major oiling. The transcriptional response to the low concentration (∼10-fold lower than the high concentration) was distinct from the high concentration and was not predictive of major oiling in the field. The high concentration response was characterized by activation of the molecular signaling pathway that facilitates oil metabolism and oil toxicity. The high concentration also induced DNA damage. The low concentration invoked expression of genes that may support a compensatory response, including genes associated with regulation of transcription, cell cycle progression, RNA processing, DNA damage, and apoptosis. We conclude that the gene expression response detected in the field was a robust indicator of exposure to the toxic components of contaminating oil, that animals in the field were exposed to relatively high concentrations that are especially damaging to early life stages, and that such exposures can damage DNA. PMID:25208076

  14. Plant noncoding RNA gene discovery by "single-genome comparative genomics".

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong-Jian; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yue-Qin; Qu, Liang-Hu; Gautheret, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Plant genomes have undergone multiple rounds of duplications that contributed massively to the growth of gene families. The structure of resulting families has been studied in depth for protein-coding genes. However, little is known about the impact of duplications on noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes. Here we perform a systematic analysis of duplicated regions in the rice genome in search of such ncRNA repeats. We observe that, just like their protein counterparts, most ncRNA genes have undergone multiple duplications that left visible sequence conservation footprints. The extent of ncRNA gene duplication in plants is such that these sequence footprints can be exploited for the discovery of novel ncRNA gene families on a large scale. We developed an SVM model that is able to retrieve likely ncRNA candidates among the 100,000+ repeat families in the rice genome, with a reasonably low false-positive discovery rate. Among the nearly 4000 ncRNA families predicted by this means, only 90 correspond to putative snoRNA or miRNA families. About half of the remaining families are classified as structured RNAs. New candidate ncRNAs are particularly enriched in UTR and intronic regions. Interestingly, 89% of the putative ncRNA families do not produce a detectable signal when their sequences are compared to another grass genome such as maize. Our results show that a large fraction of rice ncRNA genes are present in multiple copies and are species-specific or of recent origin. Intragenome comparison is a unique and potent source for the computational annotation of this major class of ncRNA.

  15. High-throughput comparison, functional annotation, and metabolic modeling of plant genomes using the PlantSEED resource

    PubMed Central

    Seaver, Samuel M. D.; Gerdes, Svetlana; Frelin, Océane; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Bradbury, Louis M. T.; Zallot, Rémi; Hasnain, Ghulam; Niehaus, Thomas D.; El Yacoubi, Basma; Pasternak, Shiran; Olson, Robert; Pusch, Gordon; Overbeek, Ross; Stevens, Rick; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Ware, Doreen; Hanson, Andrew D.; Henry, Christopher S.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of sequenced plant genomes is placing new demands on the methods applied to analyze, annotate, and model these genomes. Today’s annotation pipelines result in inconsistent gene assignments that complicate comparative analyses and prevent efficient construction of metabolic models. To overcome these problems, we have developed the PlantSEED, an integrated, metabolism-centric database to support subsystems-based annotation and metabolic model reconstruction for plant genomes. PlantSEED combines SEED subsystems technology, first developed for microbial genomes, with refined protein families and biochemical data to assign fully consistent functional annotations to orthologous genes, particularly those encoding primary metabolic pathways. Seamless integration with its parent, the prokaryotic SEED database, makes PlantSEED a unique environment for cross-kingdom comparative analysis of plant and bacterial genomes. The consistent annotations imposed by PlantSEED permit rapid reconstruction and modeling of primary metabolism for all plant genomes in the database. This feature opens the unique possibility of model-based assessment of the completeness and accuracy of gene annotation and thus allows computational identification of genes and pathways that are restricted to certain genomes or need better curation. We demonstrate the PlantSEED system by producing consistent annotations for 10 reference genomes. We also produce a functioning metabolic model for each genome, gapfilling to identify missing annotations and proposing gene candidates for missing annotations. Models are built around an extended biomass composition representing the most comprehensive published to date. To our knowledge, our models are the first to be published for seven of the genomes analyzed. PMID:24927599

  16. High-throughput comparison, functional annotation, and metabolic modeling of plant genomes using the PlantSEED resource.

    PubMed

    Seaver, Samuel M D; Gerdes, Svetlana; Frelin, Océane; Lerma-Ortiz, Claudia; Bradbury, Louis M T; Zallot, Rémi; Hasnain, Ghulam; Niehaus, Thomas D; El Yacoubi, Basma; Pasternak, Shiran; Olson, Robert; Pusch, Gordon; Overbeek, Ross; Stevens, Rick; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Ware, Doreen; Hanson, Andrew D; Henry, Christopher S

    2014-07-01

    The increasing number of sequenced plant genomes is placing new demands on the methods applied to analyze, annotate, and model these genomes. Today's annotation pipelines result in inconsistent gene assignments that complicate comparative analyses and prevent efficient construction of metabolic models. To overcome these problems, we have developed the PlantSEED, an integrated, metabolism-centric database to support subsystems-based annotation and metabolic model reconstruction for plant genomes. PlantSEED combines SEED subsystems technology, first developed for microbial genomes, with refined protein families and biochemical data to assign fully consistent functional annotations to orthologous genes, particularly those encoding primary metabolic pathways. Seamless integration with its parent, the prokaryotic SEED database, makes PlantSEED a unique environment for cross-kingdom comparative analysis of plant and bacterial genomes. The consistent annotations imposed by PlantSEED permit rapid reconstruction and modeling of primary metabolism for all plant genomes in the database. This feature opens the unique possibility of model-based assessment of the completeness and accuracy of gene annotation and thus allows computational identification of genes and pathways that are restricted to certain genomes or need better curation. We demonstrate the PlantSEED system by producing consistent annotations for 10 reference genomes. We also produce a functioning metabolic model for each genome, gapfilling to identify missing annotations and proposing gene candidates for missing annotations. Models are built around an extended biomass composition representing the most comprehensive published to date. To our knowledge, our models are the first to be published for seven of the genomes analyzed.

  17. The methylation status of plant genomic DNA influences PCR efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Dubrovina, A S; Tyunin, A P

    2015-03-01

    During the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which is a versatile and widely used method, certain DNA sequences are rapidly amplified through thermocycling. Although there are numerous protocols of PCR optimization for different applications, little is known about the effect of DNA modifications, such as DNA methylation, on PCR efficiency. Recent studies show that cytosine methylation alters DNA mechanical properties and suggest that DNA methylation may directly or indirectly influence the effectiveness of DNA amplification during PCR. In the present study, using plant DNA, we found that highly methylated plant DNA genomic regions were amplified with lower efficiencies compared to that for the regions methylated at a lower level. The correlation was observed when amplifying stilbene synthase (STS1, STS10) genes of Vitis amurensis, the Actin2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, the internal transcribed spacer (AtITS), and tRNAPro of A. thaliana. The level of DNA methylation within the analyzed DNA regions has been analyzed with bisulfite sequencing. The obtained data show that efficient PCRs of highly methylated plant DNA regions can be hampered. Proteinase K treatment of the plant DNA prior to PCR and using HotTaq DNA polymerase improved amplification of the highly methylated plant DNA regions. We suggest that increased DNA denaturation temperatures of the highly methylated DNA and contamination with DNA-binding proteins contribute to the hampered PCR amplification of highly methylated DNA. The data show that it is necessary to use current DNA purification protocols and commercial kits with caution to ensure appropriate PCR product yield and prevent bias toward unmethylated DNA amplification in PCRs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Lifestyles of the effector-rich: genome-enabled characterization of bacterial plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genome sequencing of bacterial plant pathogens is providing transformative insights into the complex network of molecular plant-microbe interactions mediated by extracellular effectors during pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens sequenced to completion are phylogenetically diverse and vary significant...

  19. Genomic resources for valuable woody ornamental landscape plants such as hydrangea macrophylla

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    New and improved ornamental landscape plants are typically produced by conventional breeding. Unfortunately, long generation times for woody plants can significantly slow progress. Incorporating genomic and biotechnology resources provides more information when designing breeding strategies and ac...

  20. Evaluation of Genome Sequencing Quality in Selected Plant Species Using Expressed Sequence Tags

    PubMed Central

    Shangguan, Lingfei; Han, Jian; Kayesh, Emrul; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Changqing; Pervaiz, Tariq; Wen, Xicheng; Fang, Jinggui

    2013-01-01

    Background With the completion of genome sequencing projects for more than 30 plant species, large volumes of genome sequences have been produced and stored in online databases. Advancements in sequencing technologies have reduced the cost and time of whole genome sequencing enabling more and more plants to be subjected to genome sequencing. Despite this, genome sequence qualities of multiple plants have not been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Finding Integrity and accuracy were calculated to evaluate the genome sequence quality of 32 plants. The integrity of a genome sequence is presented by the ratio of chromosome size and genome size (or between scaffold size and genome size), which ranged from 55.31% to nearly 100%. The accuracy of genome sequence was presented by the ratio between matched EST and selected ESTs where 52.93% ∼ 98.28% and 89.02% ∼ 98.85% of the randomly selected clean ESTs could be mapped to chromosome and scaffold sequences, respectively. According to the integrity, accuracy and other analysis of each plant species, thirteen plant species were divided into four levels. Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa and Zea mays had the highest quality, followed by Brachypodium distachyon, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Glycine max, Sorghum bicolor, Solanum lycopersicum and Fragaria vesca, and Lotus japonicus, Medicago truncatula and Malus × domestica in that order. Assembling the scaffold sequences into chromosome sequences should be the primary task for the remaining nineteen species. Low GC content and repeat DNA influences genome sequence assembly. Conclusion The quality of plant genome sequences was found to be lower than envisaged and thus the rapid development of genome sequencing projects as well as research on bioinformatics tools and the algorithms of genome sequence assembly should provide increased processing and correction of genome sequences that have already been published. PMID:23922843

  1. Methodologies for In Vitro Cloning of Small RNAs and Application for Plant Genome(s)

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Eric J.; Huang, Lingyan; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y.

    2009-01-01

    The “RNA revolution” that started at the end of the 20th century with the discovery of post-transcriptional gene silencing and its mechanism via RNA interference (RNAi) placed tiny 21-24 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the forefront of biology as one of the most important regulatory elements in a host of physiologic processes. The discovery of new classes of ncRNAs including endogenous small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs is a hallmark in the understanding of RNA-dependent gene regulation. New generation high-throughput sequencing technologies further accelerated the studies of this “tiny world” and provided their global characterization and validation in many biological systems with sequenced genomes. Nevertheless, for the many “yet-unsequenced” plant genomes, the discovery of small RNA world requires in vitro cloning from purified cellular RNAs. Thus, reproducible methods for in vitro small RNA cloning are of paramount importance and will remain so into the foreseeable future. In this paper, we present a description of existing small RNA cloning methods as well as next-generation sequencing methods that have accelerated this research along with a description of the application of one in vitro cloning method in an initial small RNA survey in the “still unsequenced” allotetraploid cotton genome. PMID:19551152

  2. Methodologies for in vitro cloning of small RNAs and application for plant genome(s).

    PubMed

    Devor, Eric J; Huang, Lingyan; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2009-01-01

    The "RNA revolution" that started at the end of the 20th century with the discovery of post-transcriptional gene silencing and its mechanism via RNA interference (RNAi) placed tiny 21-24 nucleotide long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the forefront of biology as one of the most important regulatory elements in a host of physiologic processes. The discovery of new classes of ncRNAs including endogenous small interfering RNAs, microRNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs is a hallmark in the understanding of RNA-dependent gene regulation. New generation high-throughput sequencing technologies further accelerated the studies of this "tiny world" and provided their global characterization and validation in many biological systems with sequenced genomes. Nevertheless, for the many "yet-unsequenced" plant genomes, the discovery of small RNA world requires in vitro cloning from purified cellular RNAs. Thus, reproducible methods for in vitro small RNA cloning are of paramount importance and will remain so into the foreseeable future. In this paper, we present a description of existing small RNA cloning methods as well as next-generation sequencing methods that have accelerated this research along with a description of the application of one in vitro cloning method in an initial small RNA survey in the "still unsequenced" allotetraploid cotton genome.

  3. Research progress of plant population genomics based on high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Yunsheng, Wang

    2016-08-01

    Population genomics, a new paradigm for population genetics, combine the concepts and techniques of genomics with the theoretical system of population genetics and improve our understanding of microevolution through identification of site-specific effect and genome-wide effects using genome-wide polymorphic sites genotypeing. With the appearance and improvement of the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, the numbers of plant species with complete genome sequences increased rapidly and large scale resequencing has also been carried out in recent years. Parallel sequencing has also been done in some plant species without complete genome sequences. These studies have greatly promoted the development of population genomics and deepened our understanding of the genetic diversity, level of linking disequilibium, selection effect, demographical history and molecular mechanism of complex traits of relevant plant population at a genomic level. In this review, I briely introduced the concept and research methods of population genomics and summarized the research progress of plant population genomics based on high-throughput sequencing. I also discussed the prospect as well as existing problems of plant population genomics in order to provide references for related studies.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae

    Treesearch

    Zhixin Zhao; Cheng Guo; Sreeskandarajan Sutharzan; Pei Li; Craig Echt; Jie Zhang; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among...

  5. Hyb-Seq: combining target enrichment and genome skimming for plant phylogenomics

    Treesearch

    Kevin Weitemier; Shannon C.K. Straub; Richard C. Cronn; Mark Fishbein; Roswitha Schmickl; Angela McDonnell; Aaron. Liston

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Hyb-Seq, the combination of target enrichment and genome skimming, allows simultaneous data collection for low-copy nuclear genes and high-copy genomic targets for plant systematics and evolution studies. • Methods and Results: Genome and transcriptome assemblies for milkweed ( Asclepias syriaca ) were used to design enrichment probes for 3385...

  6. Genome sequences of Phytophthora enable translational plant disease management and accelerate research

    Treesearch

    Niklaus J. Grünwald

    2012-01-01

    Whole and partial genome sequences are becoming available at an ever-increasing pace. For many plant pathogen systems, we are moving into the era of genome resequencing. The first Phytophthora genomes, P. ramorum and P. sojae, became available in 2004, followed shortly by P. infestans...

  7. Genome sequences of Phytophthora enable translational plant disease management and accelerate research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole and partial genome sequences are becoming available at an ever-increasing pace. For many plant pathogen systems, we are moving into the era of genome resequencing. The first Phytophthora genomes, P. ramorum and P. sojae, became available in 2004, followed shortly by P. infestans in 2006. Ava...

  8. A Guide to the PLAZA 3.0 Plant Comparative Genomic Database.

    PubMed

    Vandepoele, Klaas

    2017-01-01

    PLAZA 3.0 is an online resource for comparative genomics and offers a versatile platform to study gene functions and gene families or to analyze genome organization and evolution in the green plant lineage. Starting from genome sequence information for over 35 plant species, precomputed comparative genomic data sets cover homologous gene families, multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic trees, and genomic colinearity information within and between species. Complementary functional data sets, a Workbench, and interactive visualization tools are available through a user-friendly web interface, making PLAZA an excellent starting point to translate sequence or omics data sets into biological knowledge. PLAZA is available at http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/ .

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain 869T2, a Plant-Beneficial Endophytic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Ying-Ning

    2015-01-01

    An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia. PMID:26564046

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain 869T2, a Plant-Beneficial Endophytic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ying-Ning; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2015-11-12

    An endophytic bacterium, Burkholderia cenocepacia 869T2, isolated from vetiver grass, has shown its abilities for both in planta biocontrol and plant growth promotion. Its draft genome sequence was determined to provide insights into those metabolic pathways involved in plant-beneficial activity. This is the first genome report for endophytic B. cenocepacia.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai Yin; Dietel, Kristin; Lapa, Svitlana V; Avdeeva, Lilija V; Borriss, Rainer; Reva, Oleg N

    2013-06-20

    Bacillus atrophaeus UCMB-5137 shows an extraordinary activity in root colonization and plant and crop protection. Its draft genome sequence comprises 21 contigs of 4.11 Mb, harboring 4,167 coding sequences (CDS). The genome carries several genes encoding antimicrobial lipopeptides and polyketides. Multiple horizontally acquired genes of possible importance for plant colonization were also found.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis Isolated from Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Harrison, James; Grant, Murray R; Studholme, David J

    2016-02-11

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequences of strains Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis NCPPB 1832 and NCPPB 1630 (NCPPB, National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria), both isolated from Musa species in New Zealand. This will allow the comparison of genomes between phylogenetically distant xanthomonads that have independently converged with the ability to colonize banana plants.

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Strains of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis Isolated from Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, James; Grant, Murray R.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the annotated draft genome sequences of strains Xanthomonas arboricola pv. celebensis NCPPB 1832 and NCPPB 1630 (NCPPB, National Collection of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria), both isolated from Musa species in New Zealand. This will allow the comparison of genomes between phylogenetically distant xanthomonads that have independently converged with the ability to colonize banana plants. PMID:26868395

  14. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Enterobacter cloacae GS1

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Manoharan; Ponraj, Paramasivan; Ilakiam, Devaraj; Rajendhran, Jeyaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae GS1. This strain proficiently colonizes rice roots and promotes plant growth by improving plant nutrition. Analyses of the E. cloacae GS1 genome will throw light on the genetic factors involved in root colonization, growth promotion, and ecological success of this rhizobacterium. PMID:22843603

  15. Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju Yeon; Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Yu, Dong Su; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Sun-Hyung; Kwon, Suk Yoon; Kim, Jihyun F

    2012-07-01

    Volatile and nonvolatile compounds emitted from the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain JS enhance the growth of tobacco and lettuce. Here, we report the high-quality genome sequence of this bacterium. Its 4.1-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis.

  16. The two-speed genomes of filamentous pathogens: waltz with plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Raffaele, Sylvain; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-12-01

    Fungi and oomycetes include deep and diverse lineages of eukaryotic plant pathogens. The last 10 years have seen the sequencing of the genomes of a multitude of species of these so-called filamentous plant pathogens. Already, fundamental concepts have emerged. Filamentous plant pathogen genomes tend to harbor large repertoires of genes encoding virulence effectors that modulate host plant processes. Effector genes are not randomly distributed across the genomes but tend to be associated with compartments enriched in repetitive sequences and transposable elements. These findings have led to the 'two-speed genome' model in which filamentous pathogen genomes have a bipartite architecture with gene sparse, repeat rich compartments serving as a cradle for adaptive evolution. Here, we review this concept and discuss how plant pathogens are great model systems to study evolutionary adaptations at multiple time scales. We will also introduce the next phase of research on this topic.

  17. Reduced representation sequencing: a success in maize and a promise for other plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Barbazuk, W Brad; Bedell, Joseph A; Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2005-08-01

    Plant, and particularly cereal genomes, are challenging to sequence due to their large size and high repetitive DNA content. Gene-enrichment strategies are alternative or complementary approaches to complete genome sequencing that yield, rapidly and inexpensively, useful sequence data from large and complex genomes. The maize genome is large (2.7 Gbp) and contains large amounts of conserved repetitive elements. Furthermore, the high allelic diversity found between maize inbred lines may necessitate sequencing several inbred lines in order to recover the maize "gene pool". Two gene-enrichment approaches, methylation filtration (MF) and high C(o)t (HC) sequencing have been tested in maize and their ability to sample the gene space has been examined. Combined with other genomic sequencing strategies, gene-enriched genomic sequencing is a practical way to examine the maize gene pool, to order and orient the genic sequences on the genome, and to enable investigation of gene content of other complex plant genomes.

  18. Complete genome sequence of the plant-associated Serratia plymuthica strain AS13

    SciTech Connect

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Finlay, Roger D.; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Alstrom, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Land, Miriam L; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Held, Brittany; Han, Cliff; Detter, J C; Tapia, Roxanne; Hauser, Loren John; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Hogberg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica AS13 is a plant-associated Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of special interest because of its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The complete genome of S. plymuthica AS13 consists of a 5,442,549 bp circular chromosome. The chromosome contains 4,951 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced as part of the project enti- tled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  19. Complete genome sequence of the plant-associated Serratia plymuthica strain AS13

    PubMed Central

    Finlay, Roger D.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Goodwin, Lynne; Alström, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Land, Miriam; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Held, Brittany; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxanne; Hauser, Loren; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Woyke, Tanja; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Högberg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica AS13 is a plant-associated Gammaproteobacteria, isolated from rapeseed roots. It is of special interest because of its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The complete genome of S. plymuthica AS13 consists of a 5,442,549 bp circular chromosome. The chromosome contains 4,951 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome was sequenced as part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” within the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010). PMID:23450001

  20. Response of salt marshes to oiling from the Deepwater Horizon spill: Implications for plant growth, soil surface-erosion, and shoreline stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Graham, Sean A; Hou, Aixin; Fleeger, John W; Deis, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the initial impacts and post spill recovery of salt marshes over a 3.5-year period along northern Barataria Bay, LA, USA exposed to varying degrees of Deepwater Horizon oiling to determine the effects on shoreline-stabilizing vegetation and soil processes. In moderately oiled marshes, surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations were ~70mgg(-1) nine months after the spill. Though initial impacts of moderate oiling were evident, Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus aboveground biomass and total live belowground biomass were equivalent to reference marshes within 24-30months post spill. In contrast, heavily oiled marsh plants did not fully recover from oiling with surface soil total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations that exceeded 500mgg(-1) nine months after oiling. Initially, heavy oiling resulted in near complete plant mortality, and subsequent recovery of live aboveground biomass was only 50% of reference marshes 42months after the spill. Heavy oiling also changed the vegetation structure of shoreline marshes from a mixed Spartina-Juncus community to predominantly Spartina; live Spartina aboveground biomass recovered within 2-3years, however, Juncus showed no recovery. In addition, live belowground biomass (0-12cm) in heavily oiled marshes was reduced by 76% three and a half years after the spill. Detrimental effects of heavy oiling on marsh plants also corresponded with significantly lower soil shear strength, lower sedimentation rates, and higher vertical soil-surface erosion rates, thus potentially affecting shoreline salt marsh stability.

  1. High-throughput comparison, functional annotation, and metabolic modeling of plant genomes using the PlantSEED resource

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increasing number of sequenced plant genomes is placing new demands on the methods applied to analyze, annotate, and model these genomes. Today's annotation pipelines result in inconsistent gene assignments that complicate comparative analyses and prevent efficient construction of metabolic mode...

  2. UV-C-irradiated Arabidopsis and tobacco emit volatiles that trigger genomic instability in neighboring plants.

    PubMed

    Yao, Youli; Danna, Cristian H; Zemp, Franz J; Titov, Viktor; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim; Przybylski, Roman; Ausubel, Frederick M; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that local exposure of plants to stress results in a systemic increase in genome instability. Here, we show that UV-C-irradiated plants produce a volatile signal that triggers an increase in genome instability in neighboring nonirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This volatile signal is interspecific, as UV-C-irradiated Arabidopsis plants transmit genome destabilization to naive tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants and vice versa. We report that plants exposed to the volatile hormones methyl salicylate (MeSA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) exhibit a similar level of genome destabilization as UV-C-irradiated plants. We also found that irradiated Arabidopsis plants produce MeSA and MeJA. The analysis of mutants impaired in the synthesis and/or response to salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid showed that at least one other volatile compound besides MeSA and MeJA can communicate interplant genome instability. The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (npr1) mutant, defective in SA signaling, is impaired in both the production and the perception of the volatile signals, demonstrating a key role for NPR1 as a central regulator of genome stability. Finally, various forms of stress resulting in the formation of necrotic lesions also generate a volatile signal that leads to genomic instability.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pantoea sp. Strain AS-PWVM4.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Indu; Kaur, Sukhvir; Devi, Usha; Kumar, Navinder; Sharma, Deepak; Subramanian, Srikrishna; Saini, Adesh K

    2013-12-05

    Nonpathogenic Pantoea spp. have been shown to confer biofertilizer and biocontrol activities, indicating their potential for increasing crop yield. Herein, we provide the high-quality genome sequence of Pantoea sp. strain AS-PWVM4, a Gram-negative motile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium isolated from a pomegranate plant. The 4.9-Mb genome contains genes related to plant growth promotion and the synthesis of siderophores.

  4. Targeted plant genome editing via the CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Targeted modification of plant genome is key for elucidating and manipulating gene functions in basic and applied plant research. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in diverse organisms. This technology utilizes an easily reprogrammable guide RNA (gRNA) to guide Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease to generate a DNA double-strand break (DSB) within an intended genomic sequence and subsequently stimulate chromosomal mutagenesis or homologous recombination near the DSB site through cellular DNA repair machineries. In this chapter, we describe the detailed procedure to design, construct, and evaluate dual gRNAs for plant codon-optimized Cas9 (pcoCas9)-mediated genome editing using Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts as model cellular systems. We also discuss strategies to apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generating targeted genome modifications in whole plants.

  5. Decoding Synteny Blocks and Large-Scale Duplications in Mammalian and Plant Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qian; Alekseyev, Max A.; Tesler, Glenn; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    The existing synteny block reconstruction algorithms use anchors (e.g., orthologous genes) shared over all genomes to construct the synteny blocks for multiple genomes. This approach, while efficient for a few genomes, cannot be scaled to address the need to construct synteny blocks in many mammalian genomes that are currently being sequenced. The problem is that the number of anchors shared among all genomes quickly decreases with the increase in the number of genomes. Another problem is that many genomes (plant genomes in particular) had extensive duplications, which makes decoding of genomic architecture and rearrangement analysis in plants difficult. The existing synteny block generation algorithms in plants do not address the issue of generating non-overlapping synteny blocks suitable for analyzing rearrangements and evolution history of duplications. We present a new algorithm based on the A-Bruijn graph framework that overcomes these difficulties and provides a unified approach to synteny block reconstruction for multiple genomes, and for genomes with large duplications.

  6. Draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, a broad-host-range pathogen of plants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hitendra Kumar; da Silva, Daniel Passos; Devescovi, Giulia; Maraite, Henri; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Studholme, David J; Venturi, Vittorio

    2012-05-01

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae was first reported as a pathogen of rice causing sheath rot in plants grown at high altitudes. P. fuscovaginae is now considered a broad-host-range plant pathogen causing disease in several economically important plants. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first draft genome sequence of a P. fuscovaginae strain.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fuscovaginae, a Broad-Host-Range Pathogen of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hitendra Kumar; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Devescovi, Giulia; Maraite, Henri; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Studholme, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas fuscovaginae was first reported as a pathogen of rice causing sheath rot in plants grown at high altitudes. P. fuscovaginae is now considered a broad-host-range plant pathogen causing disease in several economically important plants. We report what is, to our knowledge, the first draft genome sequence of a P. fuscovaginae strain. PMID:22535942

  8. CRISPR-Cas9: Tool for Qualitative and Quantitative Plant Genome Editing

    PubMed Central

    Noman, Ali; Aqeel, Muhammad; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in genome editing techniques have aroused substantial excitement among agricultural scientists. These techniques offer new opportunities for developing improved plant lines with addition of important traits or removal of undesirable traits. Increased adoption of genome editing has been geared by swiftly developing Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). This is appearing as driving force for innovative utilization in diverse branches of plant biology. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is being used for rapid, easy and efficient alteration of genes among diverse plant species. With approximate completion of conceptual work about CRISPR-Cas9, plant scientists are applying this genome editing tool for crop attributes enhancement. The capability of this system for performing targeted and efficient modifications in genome sequence as well as gene expression will certainly spur novel developments not only in model plants but in crop and ornamental plants as well. Additionally, due to non-involvement of foreign DNA, this technique may help alleviating regulatory issues associated with genetically modified plants. We expect that prevailing challenges in plant science like genomic region manipulation, crop specific vectors etc. will be addressed along with sustained growth of this genome editing tool. In this review, recent progress of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in plants has been summarized and discussed. We reviewed significance of CRISPR-Cas9 for specific and non-traditional aspects of plant life. It also covers strengths of this technique in comparison with other genome editing techniques, e.g., Zinc finger nucleases, Transcription activator-like effector nucleases and potential challenges in coming decades have been described. PMID:27917188

  9. CRISPR-Cas9: Tool for Qualitative and Quantitative Plant Genome Editing.

    PubMed

    Noman, Ali; Aqeel, Muhammad; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in genome editing techniques have aroused substantial excitement among agricultural scientists. These techniques offer new opportunities for developing improved plant lines with addition of important traits or removal of undesirable traits. Increased adoption of genome editing has been geared by swiftly developing Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). This is appearing as driving force for innovative utilization in diverse branches of plant biology. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is being used for rapid, easy and efficient alteration of genes among diverse plant species. With approximate completion of conceptual work about CRISPR-Cas9, plant scientists are applying this genome editing tool for crop attributes enhancement. The capability of this system for performing targeted and efficient modifications in genome sequence as well as gene expression will certainly spur novel developments not only in model plants but in crop and ornamental plants as well. Additionally, due to non-involvement of foreign DNA, this technique may help alleviating regulatory issues associated with genetically modified plants. We expect that prevailing challenges in plant science like genomic region manipulation, crop specific vectors etc. will be addressed along with sustained growth of this genome editing tool. In this review, recent progress of CRISPR-Cas9 technology in plants has been summarized and discussed. We reviewed significance of CRISPR-Cas9 for specific and non-traditional aspects of plant life. It also covers strengths of this technique in comparison with other genome editing techniques, e.g., Zinc finger nucleases, Transcription activator-like effector nucleases and potential challenges in coming decades have been described.

  10. Comparative analysis of microsatellites in chloroplast genomes of lower and higher plants.

    PubMed

    George, Biju; Bhatt, Bhavin S; Awasthi, Mayur; George, Binu; Singh, Achuit K

    2015-11-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), contain repetitive DNA sequence where tandem repeats of one to six base pairs are present number of times. Chloroplast genome sequences have been  shown to possess extensive variations in the length, number and distribution of SSRs. However, a comparative analysis of chloroplast microsatellites is not available. Considering their potential importance in generating genomic diversity, we have systematically analysed the abundance and distribution of simple and compound microsatellites in 164 sequenced chloroplast genomes from wide range of plants. The key findings of these studies are (1) a large number of mononucleotide repeats as compared to SSR(2-6)(di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexanucleotide repeats) are present in all chloroplast genomes investigated, (2) lower plants such as algae show wide variation in relative abundance, density and distribution of microsatellite repeats as compared to flowering plants, (3) longer SSRs are excluded from coding regions of most chloroplast genomes, (4) GC content has a weak influence on number, relative abundance and relative density of mononucleotide as well as SSR(2-6). However, GC content strongly showed negative correlation with relative density (R (2) = 0.5, P < 0.05) and relative abundance (R (2) = 0.6, P < 0.05) of cSSRs. In summary, our comparative studies of chloroplast genomes illustrate the variable distribution of microsatellites and revealed that chloroplast genome of smaller plants possesses relatively more genomic diversity compared to higher plants.

  11. Unprecedented heterogeneity in the synonymous substitution rate within a plant genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Andan; Guo, Wenhu; Jain, Kanika; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2014-05-01

    The synonymous substitution rate varies widely among species, but it is generally quite stable within a genome due to the absence of strong selective pressures. In plants, plastid genes tend to evolve faster than mitochondrial genes, rate variation among species generally correlates between the mitochondrial and plastid genomes, and few examples of intragenomic rate heterogeneity exist. To study the extent of substitution rate variation between and within plant organellar genomes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial and plastid genomes from the bugleweed, Ajuga reptans, which was previously shown to exhibit rate heterogeneity for several mitochondrial genes. Substitution rates were accelerated specifically in the mitochondrial genome, which contrasts with correlated plastid and mitochondrial rate changes in most other angiosperms. Strikingly, we uncovered a 340-fold range of synonymous substitution rate variation among Ajuga mitochondrial genes. This is by far the largest amount of synonymous rate heterogeneity ever reported for a genome, but the evolutionary forces driving this phenomenon are unclear. Selective effects on synonymous sites in plant mitochondria are generally weak and thus unlikely to generate such unprecedented intragenomic rate heterogeneity. Quickly evolving genes are not clustered in the genome, arguing against localized hypermutation, although it is possible that they were clustered ancestrally given the high rate of genomic rearrangement in plant mitochondria. Mutagenic retroprocessing, involving error-prone reverse transcription and genomic integration of mature transcripts, is hypothesized as another potential explanation.

  12. Patterns of genomic integration of nuclear chloroplast DNA fragments in plant species.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takanori; Furihata, Hazuka Y; Kawabe, Akira

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of organelle DNA fragments to the nuclear genome is frequently observed in eukaryotes. These transfers are thought to play an important role in gene and genome evolution of eukaryotes. In plants, such transfers occur from plastid to nuclear [nuclear plastid DNAs (NUPTs)] and mitochondrial to nuclear (nuclear mitochondrial DNAs) genomes. The amount and genomic organization of organelle DNA fragments have been studied in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice. At present, publicly available genomic data can be used to conduct such studies in non-model plants. In this study, we analysed the amount and genomic organization of NUPTs in 17 plant species for which genome sequences are available. The amount and distribution of NUPTs varied among the species. We also estimated the distribution of NUPTs according to the time of integration (relative age) by conducting sequence similarity analysis between NUPTs and the plastid genome. The age distributions suggested that the present genomic constitutions of NUPTs could be explained by the combination of the rapidly eliminated deleterious parts and few but constantly existing less deleterious parts.

  13. The Challenges and Opportunities for Extending Plant Genomics to Climate (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, David

    2013-03-01

    David Weston of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on "The challenges and opportunities for extending plant genomics to climate" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  14. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on "New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  15. The Genome of Selaginella: A Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting, 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Banks, Jody [Purdue University

    2016-07-12

    Jody Banks from Purdue University on "The Genome of Selaginella, a Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  16. The Genome of Selaginella: A Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting, 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jody

    2012-03-21

    Jody Banks from Purdue University on "The Genome of Selaginella, a Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  17. Plant genome editing made easy: targeted mutagenesis in model and crop plants using the CRISPR/Cas system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Targeted genome engineering (also known as genome editing) has emerged as an alternative to classical plant breeding and transgenic (GMO) methods to improve crop plants. Until recently, available tools for introducing site-specific double strand DNA breaks were restricted to zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). However, these technologies have not been widely adopted by the plant research community due to complicated design and laborious assembly of specific DNA binding proteins for each target gene. Recently, an easier method has emerged based on the bacterial type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) immune system. The CRISPR/Cas system allows targeted cleavage of genomic DNA guided by a customizable small noncoding RNA, resulting in gene modifications by both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) mechanisms. In this review we summarize and discuss recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas technology in plants. PMID:24112467

  18. Plant genome editing made easy: targeted mutagenesis in model and crop plants using the CRISPR/Cas system.

    PubMed

    Belhaj, Khaoula; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Kamoun, Sophien; Nekrasov, Vladimir

    2013-10-11

    Targeted genome engineering (also known as genome editing) has emerged as an alternative to classical plant breeding and transgenic (GMO) methods to improve crop plants. Until recently, available tools for introducing site-specific double strand DNA breaks were restricted to zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs). However, these technologies have not been widely adopted by the plant research community due to complicated design and laborious assembly of specific DNA binding proteins for each target gene. Recently, an easier method has emerged based on the bacterial type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas (CRISPR-associated) immune system. The CRISPR/Cas system allows targeted cleavage of genomic DNA guided by a customizable small noncoding RNA, resulting in gene modifications by both non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) mechanisms. In this review we summarize and discuss recent applications of the CRISPR/Cas technology in plants.

  19. Insights into Land Plant Evolution Garnered from the Marchantia polymorpha Genome.

    PubMed

    Bowman, John L; Kohchi, Takayuki; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Jenkins, Jerry; Shu, Shengqiang; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Yamaoka, Shohei; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Berger, Frédéric; Adam, Catherine; Aki, Shiori Sugamata; Althoff, Felix; Araki, Takashi; Arteaga-Vazquez, Mario A; Balasubrmanian, Sureshkumar; Barry, Kerrie; Bauer, Diane; Boehm, Christian R; Briginshaw, Liam; Caballero-Perez, Juan; Catarino, Bruno; Chen, Feng; Chiyoda, Shota; Chovatia, Mansi; Davies, Kevin M; Delmans, Mihails; Demura, Taku; Dierschke, Tom; Dolan, Liam; Dorantes-Acosta, Ana E; Eklund, D Magnus; Florent, Stevie N; Flores-Sandoval, Eduardo; Fujiyama, Asao; Fukuzawa, Hideya; Galik, Bence; Grimanelli, Daniel; Grimwood, Jane; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Hamada, Takahiro; Haseloff, Jim; Hetherington, Alexander J; Higo, Asuka; Hirakawa, Yuki; Hundley, Hope N; Ikeda, Yoko; Inoue, Keisuke; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Ishida, Sakiko; Jia, Qidong; Kakita, Mitsuru; Kanazawa, Takehiko; Kawai, Yosuke; Kawashima, Tomokazu; Kennedy, Megan; Kinose, Keita; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Kohara, Yuji; Koide, Eri; Komatsu, Kenji; Kopischke, Sarah; Kubo, Minoru; Kyozuka, Junko; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lin, Shih-Shun; Lindquist, Erika; Lipzen, Anna M; Lu, Chia-Wei; De Luna, Efraín; Martienssen, Robert A; Minamino, Naoki; Mizutani, Masaharu; Mizutani, Miya; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Monte, Isabel; Mosher, Rebecca; Nagasaki, Hideki; Nakagami, Hirofumi; Naramoto, Satoshi; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Ohtani, Misato; Okamoto, Takashi; Okumura, Masaki; Phillips, Jeremy; Pollak, Bernardo; Reinders, Anke; Rövekamp, Moritz; Sano, Ryosuke; Sawa, Shinichiro; Schmid, Marc W; Shirakawa, Makoto; Solano, Roberto; Spunde, Alexander; Suetsugu, Noriyuki; Sugano, Sumio; Sugiyama, Akifumi; Sun, Rui; Suzuki, Yutaka; Takenaka, Mizuki; Takezawa, Daisuke; Tomogane, Hirokazu; Tsuzuki, Masayuki; Ueda, Takashi; Umeda, Masaaki; Ward, John M; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Yotsui, Izumi; Zachgo, Sabine; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2017-10-05

    The evolution of land flora transformed the terrestrial environment. Land plants evolved from an ancestral charophycean alga from which they inherited developmental, biochemical, and cell biological attributes. Additional biochemical and physiological adaptations to land, and a life cycle with an alternation between multicellular haploid and diploid generations that facilitated efficient dispersal of desiccation tolerant spores, evolved in the ancestral land plant. We analyzed the genome of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, a member of a basal land plant lineage. Relative to charophycean algae, land plant genomes are characterized by genes encoding novel biochemical pathways, new phytohormone signaling pathways (notably auxin), expanded repertoires of signaling pathways, and increased diversity in some transcription factor families. Compared with other sequenced land plants, M. polymorpha exhibits low genetic redundancy in most regulatory pathways, with this portion of its genome resembling that predicted for the ancestral land plant. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Variation block-based genomics method for crop plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In contrast with wild species, cultivated crop genomes consist of reshuffled recombination blocks, which occurred by crossing and selection processes. Accordingly, recombination block-based genomics analysis can be an effective approach for the screening of target loci for agricultural traits. Results We propose the variation block method, which is a three-step process for recombination block detection and comparison. The first step is to detect variations by comparing the short-read DNA sequences of the cultivar to the reference genome of the target crop. Next, sequence blocks with variation patterns are examined and defined. The boundaries between the variation-containing sequence blocks are regarded as recombination sites. All the assumed recombination sites in the cultivar set are used to split the genomes, and the resulting sequence regions are termed variation blocks. Finally, the genomes are compared using the variation blocks. The variation block method identified recurring recombination blocks accurately and successfully represented block-level diversities in the publicly available genomes of 31 soybean and 23 rice accessions. The practicality of this approach was demonstrated by the identification of a putative locus determining soybean hilum color. Conclusions We suggest that the variation block method is an efficient genomics method for the recombination block-level comparison of crop genomes. We expect that this method will facilitate the development of crop genomics by bringing genomics technologies to the field of crop breeding. PMID:24929792

  1. BioNano genome mapping of individual chromosomes supports physical mapping and sequence assembly in complex plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Staňková, Helena; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Vrána, Jan; Tulpová, Zuzana; Kubaláková, Marie; Visendi, Paul; Hayashi, Satomi; Luo, Mingcheng; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šimková, Hana

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of a reference genome sequence of bread wheat is challenging due to its specific features such as the genome size of 17 Gbp, polyploid nature and prevalence of repetitive sequences. BAC-by-BAC sequencing based on chromosomal physical maps, adopted by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium as the key strategy, reduces problems caused by the genome complexity and polyploidy, but the repeat content still hampers the sequence assembly. Availability of a high-resolution genomic map to guide sequence scaffolding and validate physical map and sequence assemblies would be highly beneficial to obtaining an accurate and complete genome sequence. Here, we chose the short arm of chromosome 7D (7DS) as a model to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to couple chromosome flow sorting with genome mapping in nanochannel arrays and create a de novo genome map of a wheat chromosome. We constructed a high-resolution chromosome map composed of 371 contigs with an N50 of 1.3 Mb. Long DNA molecules achieved by our approach facilitated chromosome-scale analysis of repetitive sequences and revealed a ~800-kb array of tandem repeats intractable to current DNA sequencing technologies. Anchoring 7DS sequence assemblies obtained by clone-by-clone sequencing to the 7DS genome map provided a valuable tool to improve the BAC-contig physical map and validate sequence assembly on a chromosome-arm scale. Our results indicate that creating genome maps for the whole wheat genome in a chromosome-by-chromosome manner is feasible and that they will be an affordable tool to support the production of improved pseudomolecules. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Constructing gene-enriched plant genomic libraries using methylation filtration technology.

    PubMed

    Rabinowicz, Pablo D

    2003-01-01

    Full genome sequencing in higher plants is a very difficult task, because their genomes are often very large and repetitive. For this reason, gene targeted partial genomic sequencing becomes a realistic option. The method reported here is a simple approach to generate gene-enriched plant genomic libraries called methylation filtration. This technique takes advantage of the fact that repetitive DNA is heavily methylated and genes are hypomethylated. Then, by simply using an Escherichia coli host strain harboring a wild-type modified cytosine restriction (McrBC) system, which cuts DNA containing methylcytosine, repetitive DNA is eliminated from these genomic libraries, while low copy DNA (i.e., genes) is recovered. To prevent cloning significant proportions of organelle DNA, a crude nuclear preparation must be performed prior to purifying genomic DNA. Adaptor-mediated cloning and DNA size fractionation are necessary for optimal results.

  3. Escape from Preferential Retention Following Repeated Whole Genome Duplications in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Schnable, James C.; Wang, Xiaowu; Pires, J. Chris; Freeling, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The well supported gene dosage hypothesis predicts that genes encoding proteins engaged in dose–sensitive interactions cannot be reduced back to single copies once all interacting partners are simultaneously duplicated in a whole genome duplication. The genomes of extant flowering plants are the result of many sequential rounds of whole genome duplication, yet the fraction of genomes devoted to encoding complex molecular machines does not increase as fast as expected through multiple rounds of whole genome duplications. Using parallel interspecies genomic comparisons in the grasses and crucifers, we demonstrate that genes retained as duplicates following a whole genome duplication have only a 50% chance of being retained as duplicates in a second whole genome duplication. Genes which fractionated to a single copy following a second whole genome duplication tend to be the member of a gene pair with less complex promoters, lower levels of expression, and to be under lower levels of purifying selection. We suggest the copy with lower levels of expression and less purifying selection contributes less to effective gene-product dosage and therefore is under less dosage constraint in future whole genome duplications, providing an explanation for why flowering plant genomes are not overrun with subunits of large dose–sensitive protein complexes. PMID:22639677

  4. Advances and perspectives on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 systems in plant genomics research

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Degao; Hu, Rongbin; Palla, Kaitlin J.; ...

    2016-02-18

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases has become a powerful tool for functional characterization of plant genes and genetic improvement of agricultural crops. Among the various site-specific nuclease-based technologies available for genome editing, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems have shown the greatest potential for rapid and efficient editing of genomes in plant species. Here, this article reviews the current status of application of CRISPR/Cas9 to plant genomics research, with a focus on loss-of-function and gain-of-function analysis of individual genes in the context of perennial plants and the potential application of CRISPR/Cas9 to perturbation ofmore » gene expression, as well as identification and analysis of gene modules as part of an accelerated domestication and synthetic biology effort.« less

  5. Advances and perspectives on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 systems in plant genomics research

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Degao; Hu, Rongbin; Palla, Kaitlin J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Yang, Xiaohan

    2016-02-18

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases has become a powerful tool for functional characterization of plant genes and genetic improvement of agricultural crops. Among the various site-specific nuclease-based technologies available for genome editing, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems have shown the greatest potential for rapid and efficient editing of genomes in plant species. Here, this article reviews the current status of application of CRISPR/Cas9 to plant genomics research, with a focus on loss-of-function and gain-of-function analysis of individual genes in the context of perennial plants and the potential application of CRISPR/Cas9 to perturbation of gene expression, as well as identification and analysis of gene modules as part of an accelerated domestication and synthetic biology effort.

  6. Reverse Genetics and High Throughput Sequencing Methodologies for Plant Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Amar, Anis; Daldoul, Samia; Reustle, Götz M.; Krczal, Gabriele; Mliki, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, increasingly sophisticated genetic tools are being developed with the long-term goal of understanding how the coordinated activity of genes gives rise to a complex organism. With the advent of the next generation sequencing associated with effective computational approaches, wide variety of plant species have been fully sequenced giving a wealth of data sequence information on structure and organization of plant genomes. Since thousands of gene sequences are already known, recently developed functional genomics approaches provide powerful tools to analyze plant gene functions through various gene manipulation technologies. Integration of different omics platforms along with gene annotation and computational analysis may elucidate a complete view in a system biology level. Extensive investigations on reverse genetics methodologies were deployed for assigning biological function to a specific gene or gene product. We provide here an updated overview of these high throughout strategies highlighting recent advances in the knowledge of functional genomics in plants. PMID:28217003

  7. Novel Functional Genomics Approaches: A Promising Future in the Combat Against Plant Viruses.

    PubMed

    Fondong, Vincent N; Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2016-10-01

    Advances in functional genomics and genome editing approaches have provided new opportunities and potential to accelerate plant virus control efforts through modification of host and viral genomes in a precise and predictable manner. Here, we discuss application of RNA-based technologies, including artificial micro RNA, transacting small interfering RNA, and Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein 9), which are currently being successfully deployed in generating virus-resistant plants. We further discuss the reverse genetics approach, targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) and its variant, known as EcoTILLING, that are used in the identification of plant virus recessive resistance gene alleles. In addition to describing specific applications of these technologies in plant virus control, this review discusses their advantages and limitations.

  8. Polyploidization as a Retraction Force in Plant Genome Evolution: Sequence Rearrangements in Triticale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyploidization is a major evolutionary process in plants where hybridization and chromosome doubling induce enormous genomic stress and restructuring. Here, we show that PCR-based molecular marker techniques involving retrotransposons and microsatellites are extremely powerful tools to uncover pol...

  9. Advances and perspectives on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 systems in plant genomics research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Degao; Hu, Rongbin; Palla, Kaitlin J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan

    2016-04-01

    Genome editing with site-specific nucleases has become a powerful tool for functional characterization of plant genes and genetic improvement of agricultural crops. Among the various site-specific nuclease-based technologies available for genome editing, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems have shown the greatest potential for rapid and efficient editing of genomes in plant species. This article reviews the current status of application of CRISPR/Cas9 to plant genomics research, with a focus on loss-of-function and gain-of-function analysis of individual genes in the context of perennial plants and the potential application of CRISPR/Cas9 to perturbation of gene expression, and identification and analysis of gene modules as part of an accelerated domestication and synthetic biology effort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Life-style transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colletotrichum species are devastating fungal pathogens of major crop plants worldwide. Infection involves differentiation of specialized cell-types associated with host surface penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). Here we report genome and t...

  11. The Power of CRISPR-Cas9-Induced Genome Editing to Speed Up Plant Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenqin; Le, Hien T. T.

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing with engineered nucleases enabling site-directed sequence modifications bears a great potential for advanced plant breeding and crop protection. Remarkably, the RNA-guided endonuclease technology (RGEN) based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is an extremely powerful and easy tool that revolutionizes both basic research and plant breeding. Here, we review the major technical advances and recent applications of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for manipulation of model and crop plant genomes. We also discuss the future prospects of this technology in molecular plant breeding. PMID:28097123

  12. Widespread selective sweeps throughout the genome of model plant pathogenic fungi and identification of effector candidates.

    PubMed

    Badouin, H; Gladieux, P; Gouzy, J; Siguenza, S; Aguileta, G; Snirc, A; Le Prieur, S; Jeziorski, C; Branca, A; Giraud, T

    2017-04-01

    Identifying the genes underlying adaptation, their distribution in genomes and the evolutionary forces shaping genomic diversity are key challenges in evolutionary biology. Very few studies have investigated the abundance and distribution of selective sweeps in species with high-quality reference genomes, outside a handful of model species. Pathogenic fungi are tractable eukaryote models for investigating the genomics of adaptation. By sequencing 53 genomes of two species of anther-smut fungi and mapping them against a high-quality reference genome, we showed that selective sweeps were abundant and scattered throughout the genome in one species, affecting near 17% of the genome, but much less numerous and in different genomic regions in its sister species, where they left footprints in only 1% of the genome. Polymorphism was negatively correlated with linkage disequilibrium levels in the genomes, consistent with recurrent positive and/or background selection. Differential expression in planta and in vitro, and functional annotation, suggested that many of the selective sweeps were probably involved in adaptation to the host plant. Examples include glycoside hydrolases, pectin lyases and an extracellular membrane protein with CFEM domain. This study thus provides candidate genes for being involved in plant-pathogen interaction (effectors), which have remained elusive for long in this otherwise well-studied system. Their identification will foster future functional and evolutionary studies, in the plant and in the anther-smut pathogens, being model species of natural plant-pathogen associations. In addition, our results suggest that positive selection can have a pervasive impact in shaping genomic variability in pathogens and selfing species, broadening our knowledge of the occurrence and frequency of selective events in natural populations.

  13. In silico archeogenomics unveils modern plant genome organisation, regulation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Salse, Jérôme

    2012-04-01

    Increasing access to plant genome sequences as well as high resolution gene-based genetic maps have recently offered the opportunity to compare modern genomes and model their evolutionary history from their reconstructed founder ancestors on an unprecedented scale. In silico paleogenomic data have revealed the evolutionary forces that have shaped present-day genomes and allowed us to gain insight into how they are organised and regulated today. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Draft genome sequence of Dactylonectria macrodydima, a plant pathogenic fungus in the Nectriaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dactylonectria macrodidyma is part of the Nectriaceae, a family containing important plant pathogens. This species possesses the ability to induce disease on grapevine, avocado and olive. Here, we report the first draft genome of D. macrodidyma isolate JAC15-08. The assembled genome was 58 Mbp and c...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of a Diazotrophic, Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium of the Pseudomonas syringae Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Blakney, Andrew J. C.; Wallace, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae GR12-2, a nitrogen-fixing, plant growth–promoting bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of an Arctic grass. The 6.6-Mbp genome contains 5,676 protein-coding genes, including a nitrogen-fixation island similar to that in P. stutzeri. PMID:27660794

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Diazotrophic, Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of the Pseudomonas syringae Complex.

    PubMed

    Patten, Cheryl L; Jeong, Haeyoung; Blakney, Andrew J C; Wallace, Natalie

    2016-09-22

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae GR12-2, a nitrogen-fixing, plant growth-promoting bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of an Arctic grass. The 6.6-Mbp genome contains 5,676 protein-coding genes, including a nitrogen-fixation island similar to that in P. stutzeri.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of a Genomovirus Associated with Common Bean Plant Leaves in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, Natalia Silva; Fontenele, Rafaela Salgado; Melo, Fernando Lucas; Costa, Antonio Felix; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    A new genomovirus has been identified in three common bean plants in Brazil. This virus has a circular genome of 2,220 nucleotides and 3 major open reading frames. It shares 80.7% genome-wide pairwise identity with a genomovirus recovered from Tongan fruit bat guano. PMID:27834705

  18. An Innovative Plant Genomics and Gene Annotation Program for High School, Community College, and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Hilgert, Uwe; Nash, E. Bruce; Micklos, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Today's biology educators face the challenge of training their students in modern molecular biology techniques including genomics and bioinformatics. The Dolan DNA Learning Center (DNALC) of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory has developed and disseminated a bench- and computer-based plant genomics curriculum for biology faculty. In 2007, a five-day…

  19. Plum pox virus (PPV) genome expression in genetically engineered RNAi plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An important approach to controlling sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the development of PPV resistant plants using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) technology. In order to evaluate siRNA induced gene silencing, we studied, based on knowledge of the PPV genome sequence, virus genome t...

  20. Diverse lifestyles and strategies of plant pathogenesis encoded in the genomes of eighteen Dothideomycetes fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here for the first time we compare the sequenced genomes of 18 Dothideomycetes to analyze their evolution, genome organization, a...

  1. An Innovative Plant Genomics and Gene Annotation Program for High School, Community College, and University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacisalihoglu, Gokhan; Hilgert, Uwe; Nash, E. Bruce; Micklos, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Today's biology educators face the challenge of training their students in modern molecular biology techniques including genomics and bioinformatics. The Dolan DNA Learning Center (DNALC) of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory has developed and disseminated a bench- and computer-based plant genomics curriculum for biology faculty. In 2007, a five-day…

  2. Draft Genome Assembly of Colletotrichum chlorophyti, a Pathogen of Herbaceous Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gan, P.; Narusaka, M.; Tsushima, A.; Narusaka, Y.; Takano, Y.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Colletotrichum chlorophyti is a fungal pathogen that infects various herbaceous plants, including crops such as legumes, tomato, and soybean. Here, we present the genome of C. chlorophyti NTL11, isolated from tomato. Analysis of this genome will allow a clearer understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying fungal host range and pathogenicity. PMID:28280027

  3. Genome-wide computational prediction and analysis of core promoter elements across plant monocots and dicots

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transcription initiation, essential to gene expression regulation, involves recruitment of basal transcription factors to the core promoter elements (CPEs). The distribution of currently known CPEs across plant genomes is largely unknown. This is the first large scale genome-wide report on the compu...

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a Hop Latent Virus Infecting Hop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseong

    2015-01-01

    The hop latent virus is a single-stranded RNA virus that mainly infects hop plants. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a hop latent virus, which was de novo assembled by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our study indicates that transcriptome data are useful for identifying a complete viral genome. PMID:25908127

  5. Genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. strain 916.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Chuping; Chen, Zhiyi

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus sp. strain 916, isolated from the soil, showed strong activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain 916. Its 3.9-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis.

  6. The complete Mitochondrial genome of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, comprises 17027 bp. The genome contains 13 protein coding regions, 22 tRNA genes, and two ribosomal RNA genes. The gene arrangement corresponds to the common order found among insect mtDNAs which is considered to be the ...

  7. Complete genome sequence of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum strain Po82.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Zheng, Hua-jun; Liu, Lei; Pan, Zhe-chao; Prior, Philippe; Tang, Biao; Xu, Jing-sheng; Zhang, Hao; Tian, Qian; Zhang, Li-qing; Feng, Jie

    2011-08-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum strain Po82, a phylotype IIB/sequevar 4 strain, was found to be pathogenic to both solanaceous plants and banana. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Po82 and its comparison with seven published R. solanacearum genomes.

  8. Complete genome sequence of the plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora strain ATCC 49946

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Erwinia amylovora causes the economically important disease fire blight that affects rosaceous plants, especially pear and apple. Here we report the complete genome sequence and annotation of strain ATCC 49946. The analysis of the sequence and its comparison with sequenced genomes of closely related...

  9. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequences of Two Xanthomonas Pathotype Strains Infecting Aroid Plants

    PubMed Central

    Bolot, S.; Pruvost, O.; Arlat, M.; Noël, L. D.; Carrère, S.; Jacques, M.-A.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft genome sequences of bacterial pathogens of the Araceae family, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae LMG 695 and Xanthomonas campestris pv. syngonii LMG 9055, differing in host range. A comparison between genome sequences will help understand the mechanisms involved in tissue specificity and adaptation to host plants. PMID:27587819

  10. Genomic selection for quantitative adult plant stem rust resistance in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Quantitative adult plant resistance (APR) to stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) is an important breeding target in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a potential target for genomic selection (GS). To evaluate the relative importance of known APR loci in applying genomic selection, we charact...

  11. Complete genome of Planococcus rifietoensis M8(T), a halotolerant and potentially plant growth promoting bacterium.

    PubMed

    See-Too, Wah-Seng; Convey, Peter; Pearce, David A; Lim, Yan Lue; Ee, Robson; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-03-10

    Planococcus rifietoensis M8(T) (=DSM 15069(T)=ATCC BAA-790(T)) is a halotolerant bacterium with potential plant growth promoting properties isolated from an algal mat collected from a sulfurous spring in Campania (Italy). This paper presents the first complete genome of P. rifietoensis M8(T). Genes coding for various potentially plant growth promoting properties were identified within its genome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Dothideomycetes

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabian; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-05

    The class of Dothideomycetes is one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops that are grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host plant, and related species can have very diverse hosts. Eighteen genomes of Dothideomycetes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. Here we describe the results of comparative analyses of the fungi in this group.

  13. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Doethideomycetes Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabien; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2012-03-13

    The class of Dothideomycetes is one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related species can have very diverse host plants. Eighteen genomes of Dothideomycetes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. Here we describe the results of comparative analyses of the fungi in this group.

  14. PLAZA 3.0: an access point for plant comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    Proost, Sebastian; Van Bel, Michiel; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van de Peer, Yves; Inzé, Dirk; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis has significantly altered our view on the complexity of genome organization and gene functions in different kingdoms. PLAZA 3.0 is designed to make comparative genomics data for plants available through a user-friendly web interface. Structural and functional annotation, gene families, protein domains, phylogenetic trees and detailed information about genome organization can easily be queried and visualized. Compared with the first version released in 2009, which featured nine organisms, the number of integrated genomes is more than four times higher, and now covers 37 plant species. The new species provide a wider phylogenetic range as well as a more in-depth sampling of specific clades, and genomes of additional crop species are present. The functional annotation has been expanded and now comprises data from Gene Ontology, MapMan, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PlnTFDB and PlantTFDB. Furthermore, we improved the algorithms to transfer functional annotation from well-characterized plant genomes to other species. The additional data and new features make PLAZA 3.0 (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/) a versatile and comprehensible resource for users wanting to explore genome information to study different aspects of plant biology, both in model and non-model organisms. PMID:25324309

  15. PLAZA 3.0: an access point for plant comparative genomics.

    PubMed

    Proost, Sebastian; Van Bel, Michiel; Vaneechoutte, Dries; Van de Peer, Yves; Inzé, Dirk; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Vandepoele, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis has significantly altered our view on the complexity of genome organization and gene functions in different kingdoms. PLAZA 3.0 is designed to make comparative genomics data for plants available through a user-friendly web interface. Structural and functional annotation, gene families, protein domains, phylogenetic trees and detailed information about genome organization can easily be queried and visualized. Compared with the first version released in 2009, which featured nine organisms, the number of integrated genomes is more than four times higher, and now covers 37 plant species. The new species provide a wider phylogenetic range as well as a more in-depth sampling of specific clades, and genomes of additional crop species are present. The functional annotation has been expanded and now comprises data from Gene Ontology, MapMan, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PlnTFDB and PlantTFDB. Furthermore, we improved the algorithms to transfer functional annotation from well-characterized plant genomes to other species. The additional data and new features make PLAZA 3.0 (http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/plaza/) a versatile and comprehensible resource for users wanting to explore genome information to study different aspects of plant biology, both in model and non-model organisms. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. From Agrobacterium to viral vectors: genome modification of plant cells by rare cutting restriction enzymes.

    PubMed

    Marton, Ira; Honig, Arik; Omid, Ayelet; De Costa, Noam; Marhevka, Elena; Cohen, Barry; Zuker, Amir; Vainstein, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and biotechnologists require methods to accurately modify the genome of higher eukaryotic cells. Such modifications include, but are not limited to, site-specific mutagenesis, site-specific insertion of foreign DNA, and replacement and deletion of native sequences. Accurate genome modifications in plant species have been rather limited, with only a handful of plant species and genes being modified through the use of early genome-editing techniques. The development of rare-cutting restriction enzymes as a tool for the induction of site-specific genomic double-strand breaks and their introduction as a reliable tool for genome modification in animals, animal cells and human cell lines have paved the way for the adaptation of rare-cutting restriction enzymes to genome editing in plant cells. Indeed, the number of plant species and genes which have been successfully edited using zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and engineered homing endonucleases is on the rise. In our review, we discuss the basics of rare-cutting restriction enzyme-mediated genome-editing technology with an emphasis on its application in plant species.

  17. Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Stephen D.; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E.; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A.; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A.

    2008-01-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome. PMID:18192393

  18. Genome of the actinomycete plant pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus suggests recent niche adaptation.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Stephen D; Corton, Craig; Brown, Susan E; Barron, Andrew; Clark, Louise; Doggett, Jon; Harris, Barbara; Ormond, Doug; Quail, Michael A; May, Georgiana; Francis, David; Knudson, Dennis; Parkhill, Julian; Ishimaru, Carol A

    2008-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus and comparison with the genome sequences of related plant pathogens revealed a dramatic recent evolutionary history. The genome contains 106 insertion sequence elements, which appear to have been active in extensive rearrangement of the chromosome compared to that of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. There are 110 pseudogenes with overrepresentation in functions associated with carbohydrate metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and pathogenicity. Genome comparisons also indicated that there is substantial gene content diversity within the species, probably due to differential gene acquisition and loss. These genomic features and evolutionary dating suggest that there was recent adaptation for life in a restricted niche where nutrient diversity and perhaps competition are low, correlated with a reduced ability to exploit previously occupied complex niches outside the plant. Toleration of factors such as multiplication and integration of insertion sequence elements, genome rearrangements, and functional disruption of many genes and operons seems to indicate that there has been general relaxation of selective pressure on a large proportion of the genome.

  19. Impact of the allium genomes on plant breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An understanding of the structures and characteristics of the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes have played significant roles in the genetic improvement of Allium crops. In this chapter I reflect upon the practical use of this genomic information for genetic improvement of the Alliums....

  20. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    PubMed Central

    Högberg, Nils; Alström, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010). PMID:22675598

  1. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Högberg, Nils; Alström, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

    2012-03-19

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  2. Complete genome sequence of the rapeseed plant-growth promoting Serratia plymuthica strain AS9

    SciTech Connect

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Hogberg, Nils; Alstrom, Sadhna; Lucas, Susan; Han, James; Lapidus, Alla L.; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Peters, Lin; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Lu, Megan; Han, Cliff; Detter, J. Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Fiebig, Anne; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Ivanova, N; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica are plant-associated, plant beneficial species belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The members of the genus Serratia are ubiquitous in nature and their life style varies from endophytic to free-living. S. plymuthica AS9 is of special interest for its ability to inhibit fungal pathogens of rapeseed and to promote plant growth. The genome of S. plymuthica AS9 comprises a 5,442,880 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 4,952 protein-coding genes, 87 tRNA genes and 7 rRNA operons. This genome is part of the project entitled Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP2010).

  3. Genome editing: intellectual property and product development in plant biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. Due to the ingenuity of genome editing, the time between new product conception and its actual existence can be relatively short; therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. This point must be regarded in a national framework as patents are instituted nationally. Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market.

  4. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    SciTech Connect

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C.; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Brutnell, Thomas P.; Doust, Andrew N.; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ~400-Mb assembly covers ~80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  5. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    SciTech Connect

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  6. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P; Doust, Andrew N; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-05-13

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  7. Genome-wide profiling of genetic variation in Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants*#

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-xu; Wu, San-ling; Liu, Yan-hua; Jin, Gu-lei; Zhao, Hai-jun; Fan, Long-jiang; Shu, Qing-yao

    2016-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been widely used in producing transgenic plants, and was recently used to generate “transgene-clean” targeted genomic modifications coupled with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) system. Although tremendous variation in morphological and agronomic traits, such as plant height, seed fertility, and grain size, was observed in transgenic plants, the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood, and the types and frequency of genetic variation in transformed plants have not been fully disclosed. To reveal the genome-wide variation in transformed plants, we sequenced the genomes of five independent T0 rice plants using next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Bioinformatics analyses followed by experimental validation revealed the following: (1) in addition to transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertions, three transformed plants carried heritable plasmid backbone DNA of variable sizes (855–5216 bp) and in different configurations with the T-DNA insertions (linked or apart); (2) each transgenic plant contained an estimated 338–1774 independent genetic variations (single nucleotide variations (SNVs) or small insertion/deletions); and (3) 2–6 new Tos17 insertions were detected in each transformed plant, but no other transposable elements or bacterial genomic DNA. PMID:27921404

  8. Genome-wide profiling of genetic variation in Agrobacterium-transformed rice plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Xu; Wu, San-Ling; Liu, Yan-Hua; Jin, Gu-Lei; Zhao, Hai-Jun; Fan, Long-Jiang; Shu, Qing-Yao

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been widely used in producing transgenic plants, and was recently used to generate "transgene-clean" targeted genomic modifications coupled with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas9) system. Although tremendous variation in morphological and agronomic traits, such as plant height, seed fertility, and grain size, was observed in transgenic plants, the underlying mechanisms are not yet well understood, and the types and frequency of genetic variation in transformed plants have not been fully disclosed. To reveal the genome-wide variation in transformed plants, we sequenced the genomes of five independent T0 rice plants using next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. Bioinformatics analyses followed by experimental validation revealed the following: (1) in addition to transfer-DNA (T-DNA) insertions, three transformed plants carried heritable plasmid backbone DNA of variable sizes (855-5216 bp) and in different configurations with the T-DNA insertions (linked or apart); (2) each transgenic plant contained an estimated 338-1774 independent genetic variations (single nucleotide variations (SNVs) or small insertion/deletions); and (3) 2-6 new Tos17 insertions were detected in each transformed plant, but no other transposable elements or bacterial genomic DNA.

  9. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: The Most Archaic Form in Vascular Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Libo; Xue, Jia-Yu; Yu, Jun; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes have maintained some bacterial features despite their residence within eukaryotic cells for approximately two billion years. One of these features is the frequent presence of polycistronic operons. In land plants, however, it has been shown that all sequenced vascular plant chondromes lack large polycistronic operons while bryophyte chondromes have many of them. In this study, we provide the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of a lycophyte, from Huperzia squarrosa, which is a member of the sister group to all other vascular plants. The genome, at a size of 413,530 base pairs, contains 66 genes and 32 group II introns. In addition, it has 69 pseudogene fragments for 24 of the 40 protein- and rRNA-coding genes. It represents the most archaic form of mitochondrial genomes of all vascular plants. In particular, it has one large conserved gene cluster containing up to 10 ribosomal protein genes, which likely represents a polycistronic operon but has been disrupted and greatly reduced in the chondromes of other vascular plants. It also has the least rearranged gene order in comparison to the chondromes of other vascular plants. The genome is ancestral in vascular plants in several other aspects: the gene content resembling those of charophytes and most bryophytes, all introns being cis-spliced, a low level of RNA editing, and lack of foreign DNA of chloroplast or nuclear origin. PMID:22511984

  10. The mitochondrial genome of the lycophyte Huperzia squarrosa: the most archaic form in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Bin; Cui, Peng; Li, Libo; Xue, Jia-Yu; Yu, Jun; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes have maintained some bacterial features despite their residence within eukaryotic cells for approximately two billion years. One of these features is the frequent presence of polycistronic operons. In land plants, however, it has been shown that all sequenced vascular plant chondromes lack large polycistronic operons while bryophyte chondromes have many of them. In this study, we provide the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of a lycophyte, from Huperzia squarrosa, which is a member of the sister group to all other vascular plants. The genome, at a size of 413,530 base pairs, contains 66 genes and 32 group II introns. In addition, it has 69 pseudogene fragments for 24 of the 40 protein- and rRNA-coding genes. It represents the most archaic form of mitochondrial genomes of all vascular plants. In particular, it has one large conserved gene cluster containing up to 10 ribosomal protein genes, which likely represents a polycistronic operon but has been disrupted and greatly reduced in the chondromes of other vascular plants. It also has the least rearranged gene order in comparison to the chondromes of other vascular plants. The genome is ancestral in vascular plants in several other aspects: the gene content resembling those of charophytes and most bryophytes, all introns being cis-spliced, a low level of RNA editing, and lack of foreign DNA of chloroplast or nuclear origin.

  11. Shrinkage of Genome Size in a Plant RNA Virus upon Transfer of an Essential Viral Gene into the Host Genome

    PubMed Central

    Tromas, Nicolas; Zwart, Mark P.; Forment, Javier; Elena, Santiago F.

    2014-01-01

    Nonretroviral integrated RNA viruses (NIRVs) are genes of nonretroviral RNA viruses found in the genomes of many eukaryotic organisms. NIRVs are thought to sometimes confer virus resistance, meaning that they could impact spread of the virus in the host population. However, a NIRV that is expressed may also impact the evolution of virus populations within host organisms. Here, we experimentally addressed the evolution of a virus in a host expressing a NIRV using Tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant RNA virus, and transgenic tobacco plants expressing its replicase, NIb. We found that a virus missing the NIb gene, TEV-ΔNIb, which is incapable of autonomous replication in wild-type plants, had a higher fitness than the full-length TEV in the transgenic plants. Moreover, when the full-length TEV was evolved by serial passages in transgenic plants, we observed genomic deletions within NIb—and in some cases the adjacent cistrons—starting from the first passage. When we passaged TEV and TEV-ΔNIb in transgenic plants, we found mutations in proteolytic sites, but these only occurred in TEV-ΔNIb lineages, suggesting the adaptation of polyprotein processing to altered NIb expression. These results raise the possibility that NIRV expression can indeed induce the deletion of the corresponding genes in the viral genome, resulting in the formation of viruses that are replication defective in hosts that do not express the same NIRV. Moreover, virus genome evolution was contingent upon the deletion of the viral replicase, suggesting NIRV expression could also alter patterns of virus evolution. PMID:24558257

  12. Shrinkage of genome size in a plant RNA virus upon transfer of an essential viral gene into the host genome.

    PubMed

    Tromas, Nicolas; Zwart, Mark P; Forment, Javier; Elena, Santiago F

    2014-03-01

    Nonretroviral integrated RNA viruses (NIRVs) are genes of nonretroviral RNA viruses found in the genomes of many eukaryotic organisms. NIRVs are thought to sometimes confer virus resistance, meaning that they could impact spread of the virus in the host population. However, a NIRV that is expressed may also impact the evolution of virus populations within host organisms. Here, we experimentally addressed the evolution of a virus in a host expressing a NIRV using Tobacco etch virus (TEV), a plant RNA virus, and transgenic tobacco plants expressing its replicase, NIb. We found that a virus missing the NIb gene, TEV-ΔNIb, which is incapable of autonomous replication in wild-type plants, had a higher fitness than the full-length TEV in the transgenic plants. Moreover, when the full-length TEV was evolved by serial passages in transgenic plants, we observed genomic deletions within NIb--and in some cases the adjacent cistrons--starting from the first passage. When we passaged TEV and TEV-ΔNIb in transgenic plants, we found mutations in proteolytic sites, but these only occurred in TEV-ΔNIb lineages, suggesting the adaptation of polyprotein processing to altered NIb expression. These results raise the possibility that NIRV expression can indeed induce the deletion of the corresponding genes in the viral genome, resulting in the formation of viruses that are replication defective in hosts that do not express the same NIRV. Moreover, virus genome evolution was contingent upon the deletion of the viral replicase, suggesting NIRV expression could also alter patterns of virus evolution.

  13. Nitrogen limitation as a driver of genome size evolution in a group of karst plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ming; Wang, Jing; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-06-01

    Genome size is of fundamental biological importance with significance in predicting structural and functional attributes of organisms. Although abundant evidence has shown that the genome size can be largely explained by differential proliferation and removal of non-coding DNA of the genome, the evolutionary and ecological basis of genome size variation remains poorly understood. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements of DNA and protein building blocks, yet often subject to environmental limitation in natural ecosystems. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test this hypothesis by determining whether leaf N and P availability affects genome sizes in 99 species of Primulina (Gesneriaceae), a group of soil specialists adapted to limestone karst environment in south China. We find that genome sizes in Primulina are strongly positively correlated with plant N content, but the correlation with plant P content is not significant when phylogeny history was taken into account. This study shows for the first time that N limitation might have been a plausible driver of genome size variation in a group of plants. We propose that competition for nitrogen nutrient between DNA synthesis and cellular functions is a possible mechanism for genome size evolution in Primulina under N-limitation.

  14. Nitrogen limitation as a driver of genome size evolution in a group of karst plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ming; Wang, Jing; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-06-25

    Genome size is of fundamental biological importance with significance in predicting structural and functional attributes of organisms. Although abundant evidence has shown that the genome size can be largely explained by differential proliferation and removal of non-coding DNA of the genome, the evolutionary and ecological basis of genome size variation remains poorly understood. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements of DNA and protein building blocks, yet often subject to environmental limitation in natural ecosystems. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test this hypothesis by determining whether leaf N and P availability affects genome sizes in 99 species of Primulina (Gesneriaceae), a group of soil specialists adapted to limestone karst environment in south China. We find that genome sizes in Primulina are strongly positively correlated with plant N content, but the correlation with plant P content is not significant when phylogeny history was taken into account. This study shows for the first time that N limitation might have been a plausible driver of genome size variation in a group of plants. We propose that competition for nitrogen nutrient between DNA synthesis and cellular functions is a possible mechanism for genome size evolution in Primulina under N-limitation.

  15. Nitrogen limitation as a driver of genome size evolution in a group of karst plants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ming; Wang, Jing; Huang, Hongwen

    2015-01-01

    Genome size is of fundamental biological importance with significance in predicting structural and functional attributes of organisms. Although abundant evidence has shown that the genome size can be largely explained by differential proliferation and removal of non-coding DNA of the genome, the evolutionary and ecological basis of genome size variation remains poorly understood. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements of DNA and protein building blocks, yet often subject to environmental limitation in natural ecosystems. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we test this hypothesis by determining whether leaf N and P availability affects genome sizes in 99 species of Primulina (Gesneriaceae), a group of soil specialists adapted to limestone karst environment in south China. We find that genome sizes in Primulina are strongly positively correlated with plant N content, but the correlation with plant P content is not significant when phylogeny history was taken into account. This study shows for the first time that N limitation might have been a plausible driver of genome size variation in a group of plants. We propose that competition for nitrogen nutrient between DNA synthesis and cellular functions is a possible mechanism for genome size evolution in Primulina under N-limitation. PMID:26109237

  16. CRISPR/Cas9: an advanced tool for editing plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Milan Kumar; Dey, Avishek; Gayen, Srimonta

    2016-10-01

    To meet current challenges in agriculture, genome editing using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) is a powerful tool for basic and applied plant biology research. Here, we describe the principle and application of available genome editing tools, including zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat associated CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among these SSNs, CRISPR/Cas9 is the most recently characterized and rapidly developing genome editing technology, and has been successfully utilized in a wide variety of organisms. This review specifically illustrates the power of CRISPR/Cas9 as a tool for plant genome engineering, and describes the strengths and weaknesses of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology compared to two well-established genome editing tools, ZFNs and TALENs.

  17. A and D genomes spatial separation at somatic metaphase in tetraploid cotton: evidence for genomic disposition in a polyploid plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Jinlei; Zhou, Baoliang; Shan, Wenbo; Yu, Liying; Wu, Weiren; Wang, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Chromosomal dispositions were analyzed on the metaphase plate of tetraploid cotton (AADD). At metaphase, the two subgenomes, A and D, were separated in a radial pattern in which the small D subgenome chromosomes tended to concentrate at the center and the large A subgenome chromosomes were scattered about the periphery on the metaphase plate. Although the ordered chromosome arrangement was disturbed in an artificial hexaploid (AADDGG), the separation pattern could be recovered after the majority of the additional genome (GG) chromosomes were removed by backcrossing the artificial hexaploid with the tetraploid cotton (AADD). A similar genome separation phenomenon was also found in synthesized tetraploid cotton (AAGG). These results indicate that the genome separation pattern could be established immediately after tetraploid cotton formation and could be stably inherited in tetraploid cotton. Given the evidence of parental genome separation in other plants and animals, we speculated that genome separation might be a normal phenomenon in diploid and polyploid species. These finding will shed light on the chromosome conformation in plant cells.

  18. [CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing systems and the analysis of targeted genome mutations in plants].

    PubMed

    Xingliang, Ma; Yaoguang, Liu

    2016-02-01

    Targeted genomic editing technologies use programmable DNA nucleases to cleave genomic target sites, thus inducing targeted mutations in the genomes. The newly prevailed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system that consists of the Cas9 nuclease and single guide RNA (sgRNA) has the advantages of simplicity and high efficiency as compared to other programmable DNA nuclease systems such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs). Currently, a number of cases have been reported on the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 genomic editing technology in plants. In this review, we summarize the strategies for preparing the Cas9 and sgRNA expression constructs, the transformation method for obtaining targeted mutations, the efficiency and features of the resulting mutations and the methods for detecting or genotyping of the mutation sites. We also discuss the existing problems and perspectives of CRISPR/Cas9-based genomic editing in plants.

  19. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P; Guerra, Miguel P

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100-220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field.

  20. Plastid genomics in horticultural species: importance and applications for plant population genetics, evolution, and biotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, Marcelo; do Nascimento Vieira, Leila; Fraga, Hugo P.; Guerra, Miguel P.

    2015-01-01

    During the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, plastids, and mitochondria arose from an endosymbiotic process, which determined the presence of three genetic compartments into the incipient plant cell. After that, these three genetic materials from host and symbiont suffered several rearrangements, bringing on a complex interaction between nuclear and organellar gene products. Nowadays, plastids harbor a small genome with ∼130 genes in a 100–220 kb sequence in higher plants. Plastid genes are mostly highly conserved between plant species, being useful for phylogenetic analysis in higher taxa. However, intergenic spacers have a relatively higher mutation rate and are important markers to phylogeographical and plant population genetics analyses. The predominant uniparental inheritance of plastids is like a highly desirable feature for phylogeny studies. Moreover, the gene content and genome rearrangements are efficient tools to capture and understand evolutionary events between different plant species. Currently, genetic engineering of the plastid genome (plastome) offers a number of attractive advantages as high-level of foreign protein expression, marker gene excision, gene expression in operon and transgene containment because of maternal inheritance of plastid genome in most crops. Therefore, plastid genome can be used for adding new characteristics related to synthesis of metabolic compounds, biopharmaceutical, and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we describe the importance and applications of plastid genome as tools for genetic and evolutionary studies, and plastid transformation focusing on increasing the performance of horticultural species in the field. PMID:26284102

  1. 350 my of mitochondrial genome stasis in mosses, an early land plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Medina, Rafael; Goffinet, Bernard

    2014-10-01

    Among land plants, angiosperms have the structurally most labile mitochondrial (mt) genomes. In contrast, the so-called early land plants (e.g., mosses) seem to have completely static mt chromosomes. We assembled the complete mt genomes from 12 mosses spanning the moss tree of life, to assess 1) the phylogenetic depth of the conserved mt gene content and order and 2) the correlation between scattered sequence repeats and gene order lability in land plants. The mt genome of most mosses is approximately 100 kb in size, and thereby the smallest among land plants. Based on divergence time estimates, moss mt genome structure has remained virtually frozen for 350 My, with only two independent gene losses and a single gene relocation detected across the macroevolutionary tree. This is the longest period of mt genome stasis demonstrated to date in a plant lineage. The complete lack of intergenic repeat sequences, considered to be essential for intragenomic recombinations, likely accounts for the evolutionary stability of moss mt genomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Comparative analysis of the functional genome architecture of animal and plant cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Christoph; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Meister, Armin; Schubert, Ingo; Zink, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the functional architecture of eukaryotic genomes displays striking similarities in evolutionarily distant organisms. For example, late-replicating and transcriptionally inactive chromatin is associated with the nuclear periphery in organisms as different as budding yeast and man. These findings suggest that eukaryotic genomes are organized in cell nuclei according to conserved principles. In order to investigate this, we examined nuclei of different animal and plant species by comparing replicational pulse-labelling patterns and their topological relationship to markers for heterochromatin and euchromatin. The data show great similarities in the nuclear genome organization of the investigated animal and plant species, supporting the idea that eukaryotic genomes are organized according to conserved principles. There are, however, differences between animals and plants with regard to histone acetylation patterns and the nuclear distribution of late-replicating chromatin.

  3. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Lynne A.; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C.; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project “Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens” awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI’s Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24501629

  4. Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of plant-growth promoting Serratia proteamaculans S4.

    PubMed

    Neupane, Saraswoti; Goodwin, Lynne A; Högberg, Nils; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Alström, Sadhna; Bruce, David; Quintana, Beverly; Munk, Christine; Daligault, Hajnalka; Teshima, Hazuki; Davenport, Karen; Reitenga, Krista; Green, Lance; Chain, Patrick; Erkkila, Tracy; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yan; Kunde, Yulia; Chertkov, Olga; Han, James; Han, Cliff; Detter, John C; Ivanova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Szeto, Ernest; Mavromatis, Kostas; Huntemann, Marcel; Nolan, Matt; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Markowitz, Victor; Pagani, Ioanna; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Finlay, Roger D

    2013-07-30

    Serratia proteamaculans S4 (previously Serratia sp. S4), isolated from the rhizosphere of wild Equisetum sp., has the ability to stimulate plant growth and to suppress the growth of several soil-borne fungal pathogens of economically important crops. Here we present the non-contiguous, finished genome sequence of S. proteamaculans S4, which consists of a 5,324,944 bp circular chromosome and a 129,797 bp circular plasmid. The chromosome contains 5,008 predicted genes while the plasmid comprises 134 predicted genes. In total, 4,993 genes are assigned as protein-coding genes. The genome consists of 22 rRNA genes, 82 tRNA genes and 58 pseudogenes. This genome is a part of the project "Genomics of four rapeseed plant growth-promoting bacteria with antagonistic effect on plant pathogens" awarded through the 2010 DOE-JGI's Community Sequencing Program.

  5. Analysis of 41 plant genomes supports a wave of successful genome duplications in association with the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Kevin; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs), also referred to as paleopolyploidizations, have been reported in most evolutionary lineages. Their attributed role remains a major topic of discussion, ranging from an evolutionary dead end to a road toward evolutionary success, with evidence supporting both fates. Previously, based on dating WGDs in a limited number of plant species, we found a clustering of angiosperm paleopolyploidizations around the Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event about 66 million years ago. Here we revisit this finding, which has proven controversial, by combining genome sequence information for many more plant lineages and using more sophisticated analyses. We include 38 full genome sequences and three transcriptome assemblies in a Bayesian evolutionary analysis framework that incorporates uncorrelated relaxed clock methods and fossil uncertainty. In accordance with earlier findings, we demonstrate a strongly nonrandom pattern of genome duplications over time with many WGDs clustering around the K–Pg boundary. We interpret these results in the context of recent studies on invasive polyploid plant species, and suggest that polyploid establishment is promoted during times of environmental stress. We argue that considering the evolutionary potential of polyploids in light of the environmental and ecological conditions present around the time of polyploidization could mitigate the stark contrast in the proposed evolutionary fates of polyploids. PMID:24835588

  6. Analysis of 41 plant genomes supports a wave of successful genome duplications in association with the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Kevin; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves

    2014-08-01

    Ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs), also referred to as paleopolyploidizations, have been reported in most evolutionary lineages. Their attributed role remains a major topic of discussion, ranging from an evolutionary dead end to a road toward evolutionary success, with evidence supporting both fates. Previously, based on dating WGDs in a limited number of plant species, we found a clustering of angiosperm paleopolyploidizations around the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) extinction event about 66 million years ago. Here we revisit this finding, which has proven controversial, by combining genome sequence information for many more plant lineages and using more sophisticated analyses. We include 38 full genome sequences and three transcriptome assemblies in a Bayesian evolutionary analysis framework that incorporates uncorrelated relaxed clock methods and fossil uncertainty. In accordance with earlier findings, we demonstrate a strongly nonrandom pattern of genome duplications over time with many WGDs clustering around the K-Pg boundary. We interpret these results in the context of recent studies on invasive polyploid plant species, and suggest that polyploid establishment is promoted during times of environmental stress. We argue that considering the evolutionary potential of polyploids in light of the environmental and ecological conditions present around the time of polyploidization could mitigate the stark contrast in the proposed evolutionary fates of polyploids.

  7. Genome of Plant Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Illuminates Genomic Basis for High-Altitude Adaptation in the Central Andes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yang; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jiajin; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yuntao; Long, Ni; Wang, Yangzi; Ma, Yujin; He, Yuqi; Xue, Yu; Hao, Shumei; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Liangsheng; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jun

    2016-07-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, 2n = 8x = 64), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is an economic plant cultivated in the central Andes sierra in Peru (4000-4500 m). Considering that the rapid uplift of the central Andes occurred 5-10 million years ago (Ma), an evolutionary question arises regarding how plants such as maca acquire high-altitude adaptation within a short geological period. Here, we report the high-quality genome assembly of maca, in which two closely spaced maca-specific whole-genome duplications (WGDs; ∼6.7 Ma) were identified. Comparative genomic analysis between maca and closely related Brassicaceae species revealed expansions of maca genes and gene families involved in abiotic stress response, hormone signaling pathway, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis via WGDs. The retention and subsequent functional divergence of many duplicated genes may account for the morphological and physiological changes (i.e., small leaf shape and self-fertility) in maca in a high-altitude environment. In addition, some duplicated maca genes were identified with functions in morphological adaptation (i.e., LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) and abiotic stress response (i.e., GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEINS and DNA-DAMAGE-REPAIR/TOLERATION 2) under positive selection. Collectively, the maca genome provides useful information to understand the important roles of WGDs in the high-altitude adaptation of plants in the Andes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A CRISPR/Cas9 Toolbox for Multiplexed Plant Genome Editing and Transcriptional Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lowder, Levi G; Zhang, Dengwei; Baltes, Nicholas J; Paul, Joseph W; Tang, Xu; Zheng, Xuelian; Voytas, Daniel F; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    The relative ease, speed, and biological scope of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated Protein9 (Cas9)-based reagents for genomic manipulations are revolutionizing virtually all areas of molecular biosciences, including functional genomics, genetics, applied biomedical research, and agricultural biotechnology. In plant systems, however, a number of hurdles currently exist that limit this technology from reaching its full potential. For example, significant plant molecular biology expertise and effort is still required to generate functional expression constructs that allow simultaneous editing, and especially transcriptional regulation, of multiple different genomic loci or multiplexing, which is a significant advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 versus other genome-editing systems. To streamline and facilitate rapid and wide-scale use of CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for plant research, we developed and implemented a comprehensive molecular toolbox for multifaceted CRISPR/Cas9 applications in plants. This toolbox provides researchers with a protocol and reagents to quickly and efficiently assemble functional CRISPR/Cas9 transfer DNA constructs for monocots and dicots using Golden Gate and Gateway cloning methods. It comes with a full suite of capabilities, including multiplexed gene editing and transcriptional activation or repression of plant endogenous genes. We report the functionality and effectiveness of this toolbox in model plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa), demonstrating its utility for basic and applied plant research. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Ochrobactrum intermedium Strain SA148, a Plant Growth-Promoting Desert Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Feras F.; Alam, Intikhab; Geurts, Rene; Bisseling, Ton; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ochrobactrum intermedium strain SA148 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium isolated from sandy soil in the Jizan area of Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 4.9-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, highlighting different pathways characteristic of plant growth promotion activity and environmental adaptation of SA148. PMID:28254977

  10. From Nehemiah Grew to Genomics: the emerging field of evo-devo research for woody plants

    Treesearch

    Andrew Groover; Quentin Cronk

    2013-01-01

    Wood has played a primary role in the evolution of land plants (Spicer and Groover 2010), but our understanding of the genes and mechanisms underlying wood evolution and development has been limited until recently. Importantly, many of the fundamental questions of woody plant evolution and development are now tractable using genomics and high-capacity sequencing...

  11. Rapid and reliable extraction of genomic DNA from various wild-type and transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae-Jin; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2004-09-02

    DNA extraction methods for PCR-quality DNA from calluses and plants are not time efficient, since they require that the tissues be ground in liquid nitrogen, followed by precipitation of the DNA pellet in ethanol, washing and drying the pellet, etc. The need for a rapid and simple procedure is urgent, especially when hundreds of samples need to be analyzed. Here, we describe a simple and efficient method of isolating high-quality genomic DNA for PCR amplification and enzyme digestion from calluses, various wild-type and transgenic plants. We developed new rapid and reliable genomic DNA extraction method. With our developed method, plant genomic DNA extraction could be performed within 30 min. The method was as follows. Plant tissue was homogenized with salt DNA extraction buffer using hand-operated homogenizer and extracted by phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). After centrifugation, the supernatant was directly used for DNA template for PCR, resulting in successful amplification for RAPD from various sources of plants and specific foreign genes from transgenic plants. After precipitating the supernatant, the DNA was completely digested by restriction enzymes. This DNA extraction procedure promises simplicity, speed, and efficiency, both in terms of time and the amount of plant sample required. In addition, this method does not require expensive facilities for plant genomic DNA extraction.

  12. Complete Genome of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1

    SciTech Connect

    Matilla, M.A.; van der Lelie, D.; Pizarro-Tobias, P.; Roca, A.; Fernandez, M.; Duque, E.; Molina, L.; Wu, X.; Gomez, M. J.; Segura, A.; Ramos, J.-L.

    2011-03-01

    We report the complete sequence of the 5.7-Mbp genome of Pseudomonas putida BIRD-1, a metabolically versatile plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that is highly tolerant to desiccation and capable of solubilizing inorganic phosphate and iron and of synthesizing phytohormones that stimulate seed germination and plant growth.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus Species from the Rhizosphere of the Desert Plant Rhazya stricta

    PubMed Central

    Abo-Aba, S. E. M.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Baeshen, Mohammed N.; Sabir, Meshaal J.; Mutwakil, Mohammed H. Z.; Baeshen, Nabih A.; D’Amore, Rosalinda

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the ecology and diversity of microbes in the rhizosphere of desert plants, we undertook a survey of Bacillus species isolated from soil around Rhazya stricta plants from the area around Jeddah, in The Kingdom, Saudi Arabia. We have sequenced the genomes of 8 Bacillus isolates representing four different species. PMID:26543104

  14. The promise of genomics in the study of plant-pollinator interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Flowers exist in exceedingly complex fitness landscapes, in which subtle variation in each trait can affect the pollinators, herbivores and pleiotropically linked traits in other plant tissues. A whole-genome approach to flower evolution will help our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:23796166

  15. De novo reconstruction of plant RNA and DNA virus genomes from viral siRNAs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In antiviral defense, plants produce massive quantities of 21-24 nucleotide siRNAs. Here we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA and RNA viruses and viroids can be reconstructed by deep sequencing and de novo assembly of viral/viroid siRNAs from experimentally- and naturally-infected plants....

  16. Complete genome sequence of a tentative new caulimovirus from the medicinal plant Atractylodes macrocephala.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seungmo; Igori, Davaajargal; Zhao, Fumei; Yoo, Ran Hee; An, Tae-Jin; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Lee, Su-Heon; Moon, Jae Sun

    2015-12-01

    A total of nine contigs related to caulimovirus-like sequences were detected using high-throughput paired-end RNA sequencing. An attempt to find the plant sample infected with this type of virus identified the medicinal plant Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi showing mild mottle symptoms. Subsequently, the complete DNA genome sequence of the Atractylodes virus was determined. The 8,105-nt genome of the virus was composed of six open reading frames and displayed the highest nucleotide sequence identity (70%) with soybean Putnam virus. Based upon the symptoms observed on the source plant, we propose to refer to this new member of the genus Caulimovirus as atractylodes mild mottle virus.

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus Strain P23, a Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium of Duckweed

    PubMed Central

    Hosoyama, Akira; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus strain P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium, which was isolated from the surface of duckweed. We report here the draft genome sequence of strain P23. The genome data will serve as a valuable reference for understanding the molecular mechanism of plant growth promotion in aquatic plants. PMID:25720680

  18. Genome-wide analysis suggests divergent evolution of lipid phosphotases/phosphotransferase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Zhenxi; Kasimu, Rena; Chen, Yinhua; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Jiangtao

    2016-08-01

    Genes of the LPPT (lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase) family play important roles in lipid phosphorous transfer and triacylglycerol accumulation in plants. To provide overviews of the plant LPPT family and their overall relationships, here we carried out genome-wide identifications and analyses of plant LPPT family members. A total of 643 putative LPPT genes were identified from 48 sequenced plant genomes, among which 205 genes from 14 plants were chosen for further analyses. Plant LPPT genes belonged to three distinctive groups, namely the LPT (lipid phosphotransfease), LPP (lipid phosphatase), and pLPP (plastidic lipid phosphotransfease) groups. Genes of the LPT group could be further partitioned into three groups, two of which were only identified in terrestrial plants. Genes in the LPP and pLPP groups experienced duplications in early stages of plant evolution. Among 17 Zea mays LPPT genes, divergence of temporal-spatial expression patterns was revealed based on microarray data analysis. Peptide sequences of plant LPPT genes harbored different conserved motifs. A test of Branch Model versus One-ratio Model did not support significant selective pressures acting on different groups of LPPT genes, although quite different nonsynonymous evolutionary rates and selective pressures were observed. The complete picture of the plant LPPT family provided here should facilitate further investigations of plant LPPT genes and offer a better understanding of lipid biosynthesis in plants.

  19. A CRISPR/Cas9 Toolbox for Multiplexed Plant Genome Editing and Transcriptional Regulation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lowder, Levi G.; Zhang, Dengwei; Baltes, Nicholas J.; Paul, Joseph W.; Tang, Xu; Zheng, Xuelian; Voytas, Daniel F.; Hsieh, Tzung-Fu; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    The relative ease, speed, and biological scope of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated Protein9 (Cas9)-based reagents for genomic manipulations are revolutionizing virtually all areas of molecular biosciences, including functional genomics, genetics, applied biomedical research, and agricultural biotechnology. In plant systems, however, a number of hurdles currently exist that limit this technology from reaching its full potential. For example, significant plant molecular biology expertise and effort is still required to generate functional expression constructs that allow simultaneous editing, and especially transcriptional regulation, of multiple different genomic loci or multiplexing, which is a significant advantage of CRISPR/Cas9 versus other genome-editing systems. To streamline and facilitate rapid and wide-scale use of CRISPR/Cas9-based technologies for plant research, we developed and implemented a comprehensive molecular toolbox for multifaceted CRISPR/Cas9 applications in plants. This toolbox provides researchers with a protocol and reagents to quickly and efficiently assemble functional CRISPR/Cas9 transfer DNA constructs for monocots and dicots using Golden Gate and Gateway cloning methods. It comes with a full suite of capabilities, including multiplexed gene editing and transcriptional activation or repression of plant endogenous genes. We report the functionality and effectiveness of this toolbox in model plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and rice (Oryza sativa), demonstrating its utility for basic and applied plant research. PMID:26297141

  20. 77 FR 75425 - Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomics (IWGPG): The National Plant Genome Initiative-What's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... genomics; Opportunities for Federal agency coordination, cooperation, public/private partnerships; Associated opportunities to enhance training, education, and public outreach. Short presentations will be... research community, including the public and private sectors as well as the international...

  1. Cytogenetic characterization and genome size of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme; Cardoso, Luísa; Oliveira, Helena; Santos, Conceição; Duarte, Patrícia; Sottomayor, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Catharanthus roseus is a highly valuable medicinal plant producing several terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs) with pharmaceutical applications, including the anticancer agents vinblastine and vincristine. Due to the interest in its TIAs, C. roseus is one of the most extensively studied medicinal plants and has become a model species for the study of plant secondary metabolism. However, very little is known about the cytogenetics and genome size of this species, in spite of their importance for breeding programmes, TIA genetics and emerging genomic research. Therefore, the present paper provides a karyotype description and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data for C. roseus, as well as a rigorous characterization of its genome size. Methodology The organization of C. roseus chromosomes was characterized using several DNA/chromatin staining techniques and FISH of rDNA. Genome size was investigated by flow cytometry using an optimized methodology. Principal results The C. roseus full chromosome complement of 2n = 16 includes two metacentric, four subtelocentric and two telocentric chromosome pairs, with the presence of a single nucleolus organizer region in chromosome 6. An easy and reliable flow cytometry protocol for nuclear genome analysis of C. roseus was optimized, and the C-value of this species was estimated to be 1C = 0.76 pg, corresponding to 738 Mbp. Conclusions The organization and size of the C. roseus genome were characterized, providing an important basis for future studies of this important medicinal species, including further cytogenetic mapping, genomics, TIA genetics and breeding programmes. PMID:22479673

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Xu, Haibin; Yang, Liming; Liu, Guangxin; Sheng, Yu; Zheng, Chen; Zheng, Weiwei; Cheng, Tielong; Shi, Jisen

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around 10 species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats, and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR) region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA), was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp genome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for related species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostroboides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F.) D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyptostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the coniferous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systematics and evolution.

  3. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the relict woody plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinhui; Hao, Zhaodong; Xu, Haibin; Yang, Liming; Liu, Guangxin; Sheng, Yu; Zheng, Chen; Zheng, Weiwei; Cheng, Tielong; Shi, Jisen

    2015-01-01

    Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng is the only species in the genus Metasequoia Miki ex Hu et Cheng, which belongs to the Cupressaceae family. There were around 10 species in the Metasequoia genus, which were widely spread across the Northern Hemisphere during the Cretaceous of the Mesozoic and in the Cenozoic. M. glyptostroboides is the only remaining representative of this genus. Here, we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence and the cp genomic features of M. glyptostroboides. The M. glyptostroboides cp genome is 131,887 bp in length, with a total of 117 genes comprised of 82 protein-coding genes, 31 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. In this genome, 11 forward repeats, nine palindromic repeats, and 15 tandem repeats were detected. A total of 188 perfect microsatellites were detected through simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis and these were distributed unevenly within the cp genome. Comparison of the cp genome structure and gene order to those of several other land plants indicated that a copy of the inverted repeat (IR) region, which was found to be IR region A (IRA), was lost in the M. glyptostroboides cp genome. The five most divergent and five most conserved genes were determined and further phylogenetic analysis was performed among plant species, especially for related species in conifers. Finally, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that M. glyptostroboides is a sister species to Cryptomeria japonica (L. F.) D. Don and to Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata. The complete cp genome sequence information of M. glyptostroboides will be great helpful for further investigations of this endemic relict woody plant and for in-depth understanding of the evolutionary history of the coniferous cp genomes, especially for the position of M. glyptostroboides in plant systematics and evolution. PMID:26136762

  4. Detecting and Characterizing the Highly Divergent Plastid Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Parasitic Plant Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Julia; Der, Joshua P.; Wafula, Eric K.; Jones, Samuel S.; Wagner, Sarah T.; Honaas, Loren A.; Ralph, Paula E.; Bolin, Jay F.; Maass, Erika; Neinhuis, Christoph; Wanke, Stefan; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2016-01-01

    Plastid genomes of photosynthetic flowering plants are usually highly conserved in both structure and gene content. However, the plastomes of parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plants may be released from selective constraint due to the reduction or loss of photosynthetic ability. Here we present the greatly reduced and highly divergent, yet functional, plastome of the nonphotosynthetic holoparasite Hydnora visseri (Hydnoraceae, Piperales). The plastome is 27 kb in length, with 24 genes encoding ribosomal proteins, ribosomal RNAs, tRNAs, and a few nonbioenergetic genes, but no genes related to photosynthesis. The inverted repeat and the small single copy region are only approximately 1.5 kb, and intergenic regions have been drastically reduced. Despite extreme reduction, gene order and orientation are highly similar to the plastome of Piper cenocladum, a related photosynthetic plant in Piperales. Gene sequences in Hydnora are highly divergent and several complementary approaches using the highest possible sensitivity were required for identification and annotation of this plastome. Active transcription is detected for all of the protein-coding genes in the plastid genome, and one of two introns is appropriately spliced out of rps12 transcripts. The whole-genome shotgun read depth is 1,400× coverage for the plastome, whereas the mitochondrial genome is covered at 40× and the nuclear genome at 2×. Despite the extreme reduction of the genome and high sequence divergence, the presence of syntenic, long transcriptionally active open-reading frames with distant similarity to other plastid genomes and a high plastome stoichiometry relative to the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes suggests that the plastome remains functional in H. visseri. A four-stage model of gene reduction, including the potential for complete plastome loss, is proposed to account for the range of plastid genomes in nonphotosynthetic plants. PMID:26739167

  5. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Results Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB), to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD), which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (<3%) of mature RH1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1%) after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be <140kb. Analysis of only 16 RH lines carrying deletions on chromosome 2D resulted in a physical map with cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH

  6. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Simons, Kristin; Iqbal, Muhammad J; de Jiménez, Monika Michalak; Bassi, Filippo M; Ghavami, Farhad; Al-Azzam, Omar; Drader, Thomas; Wang, Yi; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q; Denton, Anne; Lazo, Gerard R; Xu, Steven S; Dvorak, Jan; Kianian, Penny M A; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2012-11-05

    Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb), highly repetitive (>80%) and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB), to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD), which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (<3%) of mature RH1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1%) after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be <140kb. Analysis of only 16 RH lines carrying deletions on chromosome 2D resulted in a physical map with cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH lines with an average

  7. Are We There Yet? Reliably Estimating the Completeness of Plant Genome Sequences[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Genome sequencing is becoming cheaper and faster thanks to the introduction of next-generation sequencing techniques. Dozens of new plant genome sequences have been released in recent years, ranging from small to gigantic repeat-rich or polyploid genomes. Most genome projects have a dual purpose: delivering a contiguous, complete genome assembly and creating a full catalog of correctly predicted genes. Frequently, the completeness of a species’ gene catalog is measured using a set of marker genes that are expected to be present. This expectation can be defined along an evolutionary gradient, ranging from highly conserved genes to species-specific genes. Large-scale population resequencing studies have revealed that gene space is fairly variable even between closely related individuals, which limits the definition of the expected gene space, and, consequently, the accuracy of estimates used to assess genome and gene space completeness. We argue that, based on the desired applications of a genome sequencing project, different completeness scores for the genome assembly and/or gene space should be determined. Using examples from several dicot and monocot genomes, we outline some pitfalls and recommendations regarding methods to estimate completeness during different steps of genome assembly and annotation. PMID:27512012

  8. RNA-guided genome editing in plants using a CRISPR-Cas system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kabin; Yang, Yinong

    2013-11-01

    Precise and straightforward methods to edit the plant genome are much needed for functional genomics and crop improvement. Recently, RNA-guided genome editing using bacterial Type II cluster regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease (Cas) is emerging as an efficient tool for genome editing in microbial and animal systems. Here, we report the genome editing and targeted gene mutation in plants via the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Three guide RNAs (gRNAs) with a 20-22-nt seed region were designed to pair with distinct rice genomic sites which are followed by the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM). The engineered gRNAs were shown to direct the Cas9 nuclease for precise cleavage at the desired sites and introduce mutation (insertion or deletion) by error-prone non-homologous end joining DNA repairing. By analyzing the RNA-guided genome-editing events, the mutation efficiency at these target sites was estimated to be 3-8%. In addition, the off-target effect of an engineered gRNA-Cas9 was found on an imperfectly paired genomic site, but it had lower genome-editing efficiency than the perfectly matched site. Further analysis suggests that mismatch position between gRNA seed and target DNA is an important determinant of the gRNA-Cas9 targeting specificity, and specific gRNAs could be designed to target more than 90% of rice genes. Our results demonstrate that the CRISPR-Cas system can be exploited as a powerful tool for gene targeting and precise genome editing in plants.

  9. The CRISPR-Cas system for plant genome editing: advances and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinay; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Genome editing is an approach in which a specific target DNA sequence of the genome is altered by adding, removing, or replacing DNA bases. Artificially engineered hybrid enzymes, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated protein) system are being used for genome editing in various organisms including plants. The CRISPR-Cas system has been developed most recently and seems to be more efficient and less time-consuming compared with ZFNs or TALENs. This system employs an RNA-guided nuclease, Cas9, to induce double-strand breaks. The Cas9-mediated breaks are repaired by cellular DNA repair mechanisms and mediate gene/genome modifications. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the CRISPR-Cas system and its adoption in different organisms, especially plants, for various applications. Important considerations and future opportunities for deployment of the CRISPR-Cas system in plants for numerous applications are also discussed. Recent investigations have revealed the implications of the CRISPR-Cas system as a promising tool for targeted genetic modifications in plants. This technology is likely to be more commonly adopted in plant functional genomics studies and crop improvement in the near future.

  10. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-01-01

    Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp) genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC) region (82,805 bp), with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA)/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19) was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23) genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP) gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  11. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-01-01

    Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp) genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC) region (82,805 bp), with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA)/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19) was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23) genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP) gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus. PMID:26513163

  12. Function and evolution of a minimal plastid genome from a nonphotosynthetic parasitic plant.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, K H; Morden, C W; Palmer, J D

    1992-01-01

    Complete nucleotide sequencing shows that the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana, a nonphotosynthetic parasitic flowering plant, lacks all genes for photosynthesis and chlororespiration found in chloroplast genomes of green plants. The 70,028-base-pair genome contains only 42 genes, at least 38 of which specify components of the gene-expression apparatus of the plastid. Moreover, all chloroplast-encoded RNA polymerase genes and many tRNA and ribosomal protein genes have been lost. Since the genome is functional, nuclear gene products must compensate for some gene losses by means of previously unsuspected import mechanisms that may operate in all plastids. At least one of the four unassigned protein genes in Epifagus plastid DNA must have a nongenetic and nonbioenergetic function and, thereby, serve as the reason for the maintenance of an active genome. Many small insertions in the Epifagus plastid genome create tandem duplications and presumably arose by slippage mispairing during DNA replication. The extensive reduction in genome size in Epifagus reflects an intensification of the same processes of length mutation that govern the amount of noncoding DNA in chloroplast genomes. Remarkably, this massive pruning occurred with a virtual absence of gene order change. Images PMID:1332054

  13. Function and evolution of a minimal plastid genome from a nonphotosynthetic parasitic plant.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, K H; Morden, C W; Palmer, J D

    1992-11-15

    Complete nucleotide sequencing shows that the plastid genome of Epifagus virginiana, a nonphotosynthetic parasitic flowering plant, lacks all genes for photosynthesis and chlororespiration found in chloroplast genomes of green plants. The 70,028-base-pair genome contains only 42 genes, at least 38 of which specify components of the gene-expression apparatus of the plastid. Moreover, all chloroplast-encoded RNA polymerase genes and many tRNA and ribosomal protein genes have been lost. Since the genome is functional, nuclear gene products must compensate for some gene losses by means of previously unsuspected import mechanisms that may operate in all plastids. At least one of the four unassigned protein genes in Epifagus plastid DNA must have a nongenetic and nonbioenergetic function and, thereby, serve as the reason for the maintenance of an active genome. Many small insertions in the Epifagus plastid genome create tandem duplications and presumably arose by slippage mispairing during DNA replication. The extensive reduction in genome size in Epifagus reflects an intensification of the same processes of length mutation that govern the amount of noncoding DNA in chloroplast genomes. Remarkably, this massive pruning occurred with a virtual absence of gene order change.

  14. Testing the large genome constraint hypothesis: plant traits, habitat and climate seasonality in Liliaceae.

    PubMed

    Carta, Angelino; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    The factors driving genome size evolution in Liliaceae were examined. In particular, we investigated whether species with larger genomes are confined to less stressful environments with a longer vegetative season. We tested our hypotheses by correlating the genome size with other plant traits and environmental variables. To determine the adaptive nature of the genome size, we also compared the performances of Brownian motion (BM) processes with those inferred by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) models of trait evolution. A positive correlation of genome size with plant size, mean temperature and habitat moisture and a negative correlation with altitude and precipitation seasonality were found. Models of trait evolution revealed a deviation from a drift process or BM. Instead, changes in genome size were significantly associated with precipitation regimes according to an OU process. Specifically, the evolutionary optima towards which the genome size evolves were higher for humid climates and lower for drier ones. Taken together, our results indicate that the genome size increase in Liliaceae is constrained by climate seasonality.

  15. Genome and metagenome sequencing: Using the human methyl-binding domain to partition genomic DNA derived from plant tissues1

    PubMed Central

    Yigit, Erbay; Hernandez, David I.; Trujillo, Joshua T.; Dimalanta, Eileen; Bailey, C. Donovan

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Variation in the distribution of methylated CpG (methyl-CpG) in genomic DNA (gDNA) across the tree of life is biologically interesting and useful in genomic studies. We illustrate the use of human methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD2) to fractionate angiosperm DNA into eukaryotic nuclear (methyl-CpG-rich) vs. organellar and prokaryotic (methyl-CpG-poor) elements for genomic and metagenomic sequencing projects. • Methods: MBD2 has been used to enrich prokaryotic DNA in animal systems. Using gDNA from five model angiosperm species, we apply a similar approach to identify whether MBD2 can fractionate plant gDNA into methyl-CpG-depleted vs. enriched methyl-CpG elements. For each sample, three gDNA libraries were sequenced: (1) untreated gDNA, (2) a methyl-CpG-depleted fraction, and (3) a methyl-CpG-enriched fraction. • Results: Relative to untreated gDNA, the methyl-depleted libraries showed a 3.2–11.2-fold and 3.4–11.3-fold increase in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), respectively. Methyl-enriched fractions showed a 1.8–31.3-fold and 1.3–29.0-fold decrease in cpDNA and mtDNA, respectively. • Discussion: The application of MBD2 enabled fractionation of plant gDNA. The effectiveness was particularly striking for monocot gDNA (Poaceae). When sufficiently effective on a sample, this approach can increase the cost efficiency of sequencing plant genomes as well as prokaryotes living in or on plant tissues. PMID:25383266

  16. Genome and metagenome sequencing: Using the human methyl-binding domain to partition genomic DNA derived from plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Erbay; Hernandez, David I; Trujillo, Joshua T; Dimalanta, Eileen; Bailey, C Donovan

    2014-11-01

    Variation in the distribution of methylated CpG (methyl-CpG) in genomic DNA (gDNA) across the tree of life is biologically interesting and useful in genomic studies. We illustrate the use of human methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD2) to fractionate angiosperm DNA into eukaryotic nuclear (methyl-CpG-rich) vs. organellar and prokaryotic (methyl-CpG-poor) elements for genomic and metagenomic sequencing projects. • MBD2 has been used to enrich prokaryotic DNA in animal systems. Using gDNA from five model angiosperm species, we apply a similar approach to identify whether MBD2 can fractionate plant gDNA into methyl-CpG-depleted vs. enriched methyl-CpG elements. For each sample, three gDNA libraries were sequenced: (1) untreated gDNA, (2) a methyl-CpG-depleted fraction, and (3) a methyl-CpG-enriched fraction. • Relative to untreated gDNA, the methyl-depleted libraries showed a 3.2-11.2-fold and 3.4-11.3-fold increase in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), respectively. Methyl-enriched fractions showed a 1.8-31.3-fold and 1.3-29.0-fold decrease in cpDNA and mtDNA, respectively. • The application of MBD2 enabled fractionation of plant gDNA. The effectiveness was particularly striking for monocot gDNA (Poaceae). When sufficiently effective on a sample, this approach can increase the cost efficiency of sequencing plant genomes as well as prokaryotes living in or on plant tissues.

  17. Maintenance of genome stability in plants: repairing DNA double strand breaks and chromatin structure stability.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells are subject to high levels of DNA damage resulting from plant's obligatory dependence on sunlight and the associated exposure to environmental stresses like solar UV radiation, high soil salinity, drought, chilling injury, and other air and soil pollutants including heavy metals and metabolic by-products from endogenous processes. The irreversible DNA damages, generated by the environmental and genotoxic stresses affect plant growth and development, reproduction, and crop productivity. Thus, for maintaining genome stability, plants have developed an extensive array of mechanisms for the detection and repair of DNA damages. This review will focus recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms regulating plant genome stability in the context of repairing of double stand breaks and chromatin structure maintenance.

  18. A Populus EST resource for plant functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Sterky, Fredrik; Bhalerao, Rupali R.; Unneberg, Per; Segerman, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Brunner, Amy M.; Charbonnel-Campaa, Laurence; Lindvall, Jenny Jonsson; Tandre, Karolina; Strauss, Steven H.; Sundberg, Björn; Gustafsson, Petter; Uhlén, Mathias; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P.; Nilsson, Ove; Sandberg, Göran; Karlsson, Jan; Lundeberg, Joakim; Jansson, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Trees present a life form of paramount importance for terrestrial ecosystems and human societies because of their ecological structure and physiological function and provision of energy and industrial materials. The genus Populus is the internationally accepted model for molecular tree biology. We have analyzed 102,019 Populus ESTs that clustered into 11,885 clusters and 12,759 singletons. We also provide >4,000 assembled full clone sequences to serve as a basis for the upcoming annotation of the Populus genome sequence. A public web-based EST database (populusdb) provides digital expression profiles for 18 tissues that comprise the majority of differentiated organs. The coding content of Populus and Arabidopsis genomes shows very high similarity, indicating that differences between these annual and perennial angiosperm life forms result primarily from differences in gene regulation. The high similarity between Populus and Arabidopsis will allow studies of Populus to directly benefit from the detailed functional genomic information generated for Arabidopsis, enabling detailed insights into tree development and adaptation. These data will also valuable for functional genomic efforts in Arabidopsis. PMID:15353603

  19. Plant Proteogenomics: Improvements to the Grapevine Genome Annotation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Brett; Bellgard, Matthew

    2017-09-12

    Grapevine is an important perennial fruit to the wine industry, and has implications for the health industry with some causative agents proven to reduce heart disease. Since the sequencing and assembly of grapevine cultivar Pinot Noir, several studies have contributed to its genome annotation. This new study further contributes towards genome annotation efforts by conducting a proteogenomics analysis using the latest genome annotation from CRIBI, legacy proteomics dataset from cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon and a large RNA-seq dataset. A total of 341 novel annotation events were identified consisting of 5 frame-shifts, 37 translated UTRs, 15 exon boundaries, 1 novel splice, 9 novel exons, 159 gene boundaries, 112 reverse strands and 1 novel gene event in 213 genes and 323 proteins. From this proteogenomics evidence, the Augustus gene prediction tool predicted 52 novel and revised genes (54 protein isoforms), 11 genes of which were associated with key traits such as stress tolerance and floral and fruity wine characteristics. This study also highlighted a likely over-assembly with the genome, particularly on chromosome 7. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic selection in plant breeding: knowledge and prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic selection,” the ability to select for even complex, quantitative traits based on marker data alone, has arisen from the conjunction of new high throughput marker technologies and new statistical methods needed to analyze the data. This review surveys what is known about these technologies, ...

  1. Evidence-based gene predictions in plant genomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Automated evidence-based gene building is a rapid and cost-effective way to provide reliable gene annotations on newly sequenced genomes. One of the limitations of evidence-based gene builders, however, is their requirement for gene expression evidence—known proteins, full-length cDNAs, or expressed...

  2. Plants from Chernobyl zone could shed light on genome stability in radioactive environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, Galina; Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Doonan, John

    2016-07-01

    For nearly 30 years, despite of chronic radiation, flora in Chernobyl zone continue to flourish, evidencing the adaptation of plants to such an environment. Keeping in mind interplanetary missions, this phenomenon is a challenge for plant space research since it highlights the possible mechanisms of genome protection and stabilization in harmful environment. Plants are sessile organisms and, contrary to animals, could not escape the external impact. Therefore, plants should evolve the robust system allowing DNA-protection against damage, which is of special interest. Our investigations show that Arabidopsis thaliana from Chernobyl zone tolerate radiomimetics and heavy metals better than control plants from non-polluted areas. Besides, its genome is less affected by such mutagens. qPCR investigations have revealed up-regulation of some genes involved in DNA damage response. In particular, expression of ATR is increased slightly and downstream expression of CycB1:1 gene is increased significantly after bleomycin treatment suggesting role of ATR-dependent pathway in genome stabilization. Several DNA repair pathways are known to exist in plants. We continue investigations on gene expression from different DNA repair pathways as well as cell cycle regulation and investigation of PCD hallmarks in order to reveal the mechanism of plant tolerance to radiation environment. Our investigations provide unique information for space researchers working on biotechnology of radiation tolerant plants.

  3. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2016-07-27

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. The Ditylenchus destructor genome provides new insights into the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinshui; Peng, Donghai; Chen, Ling; Liu, Hualin; Chen, Feng; Xu, Mengci; Ju, Shouyong; Ruan, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes were found in 4 of the 12 clades of phylum Nematoda. These nematodes in different clades may have originated independently from their free-living fungivorous ancestors. However, the exact evolutionary process of these parasites is unclear. Here, we sequenced the genome sequence of a migratory plant nematode, Ditylenchus destructor. We performed comparative genomics among the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans and all the plant nematodes with genome sequences available. We found that, compared with C. elegans, the core developmental control processes underwent heavy reduction, though most signal transduction pathways were conserved. We also found D. destructor contained more homologies of the key genes in the above processes than the other plant nematodes. We suggest that Ditylenchus spp. may be an intermediate evolutionary history stage from free-living nematodes that feed on fungi to obligate plant-parasitic nematodes. Based on the facts that D. destructor can feed on fungi and has a relatively short life cycle, and that it has similar features to both C. elegans and sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes from clade 12, we propose it as a new model to study the biology, biocontrol of plant nematodes and the interaction between nematodes and plants. PMID:27466450

  5. The Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence of the Medicinal Plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Gao, Huanhuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Sun, Chao; Li, Xian’en; Li, Chuyuan; Liu, Juyan; Xu, Haibin; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza, the first sequenced member of the Lamiaceae family, is reported here. The genome is 151,328 bp in length and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 82,695 bp) and small (SSC, 17,555 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,539 bp). It contains 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to the typical angiosperm cp genomes. Four forward, three inverted and seven tandem repeats were detected in the Salvia miltiorrhiza cp genome. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis among the 30 asterid cp genomes revealed that most SSRs are AT-rich, which contribute to the overall AT richness of these cp genomes. Additionally, fewer SSRs are distributed in the protein-coding sequences compared to the non-coding regions, indicating an uneven distribution of SSRs within the cp genomes. Entire cp genome comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza and three other Lamiales cp genomes showed a high degree of sequence similarity and a relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Sequence divergence analysis discovered the ten most divergent and ten most conserved genes as well as their length variation, which will be helpful for phylogenetic studies in asterids. Our analysis also supports that both regional and functional constraints affect gene sequence evolution. Further, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a sister relationship between Salvia miltiorrhiza and Sesamum indicum. The complete cp genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza reported in this paper will facilitate population, phylogenetic and cp genetic engineering studies of this medicinal plant. PMID:23460883

  6. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Gao, Huanhuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Pang, Xiaohui; Yao, Hui; Sun, Chao; Li, Xian'en; Li, Chuyuan; Liu, Juyan; Xu, Haibin; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza is an important medicinal plant with great economic and medicinal value. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza, the first sequenced member of the Lamiaceae family, is reported here. The genome is 151,328 bp in length and exhibits a typical quadripartite structure of the large (LSC, 82,695 bp) and small (SSC, 17,555 bp) single-copy regions, separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 25,539 bp). It contains 114 unique genes, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs. The genome structure, gene order, GC content and codon usage are similar to the typical angiosperm cp genomes. Four forward, three inverted and seven tandem repeats were detected in the Salvia miltiorrhiza cp genome. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis among the 30 asterid cp genomes revealed that most SSRs are AT-rich, which contribute to the overall AT richness of these cp genomes. Additionally, fewer SSRs are distributed in the protein-coding sequences compared to the non-coding regions, indicating an uneven distribution of SSRs within the cp genomes. Entire cp genome comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza and three other Lamiales cp genomes showed a high degree of sequence similarity and a relatively high divergence of intergenic spacers. Sequence divergence analysis discovered the ten most divergent and ten most conserved genes as well as their length variation, which will be helpful for phylogenetic studies in asterids. Our analysis also supports that both regional and functional constraints affect gene sequence evolution. Further, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a sister relationship between Salvia miltiorrhiza and Sesamum indicum. The complete cp genome sequence of Salvia miltiorrhiza reported in this paper will facilitate population, phylogenetic and cp genetic engineering studies of this medicinal plant.

  7. Evaluating and Characterizing Ancient Whole-Genome Duplications in Plants with Gene Count Data.

    PubMed

    Tiley, George P; Ané, Cécile; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2016-04-11

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have helped shape the genomes of land plants, and recent evidence suggests that the genomes of all angiosperms have experienced at least two ancient WGDs. In plants, WGDs often are followed by rapid fractionation, in which many homeologous gene copies are lost. Thus, it can be extremely difficult to identify, let alone characterize, ancient WGDs. In this study, we use a new maximum likelihood estimator to test for evidence of ancient WGDs in land plants and estimate the fraction of new genes copies that are retained following a WGD using gene count data, the number of gene copies in gene families. We identified evidence of many putative ancient WGDs in land plants and found that the genome fractionation rates vary tremendously among ancient WGDs. Analyses of WGDs within Brassicales also indicate that background gene duplication and loss rates vary across land plants, and different gene families have different probabilities of being retained following a WGD. Although our analyses are largely robust to errors in duplication and loss rates and the choice of priors, simulations indicate that this method can have trouble detecting multiple WGDs that occur on the same branch, especially when the gene retention rates for ancient WGDs are very low. They also suggest that we should carefully evaluate evidence for some ancient plant WGD hypotheses.

  8. Genome Sequencing of the Plant Pathogen Taphrina deformans, the Causal Agent of Peach Leaf Curl

    PubMed Central

    Cissé, Ousmane H.; Almeida, João M. G. C. F.; Fonseca, Álvaro; Kumar, Ajay Anand; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Overmyer, Kirk; Hauser, Philippe M.; Pagni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Taphrina deformans is a fungus responsible for peach leaf curl, an important plant disease. It is phylogenetically assigned to the Taphrinomycotina subphylum, which includes the fission yeast and the mammalian pathogens of the genus Pneumocystis. We describe here the genome of T. deformans in the light of its dual plant-saprophytic/plant-parasitic lifestyle. The 13.3-Mb genome contains few identifiable repeated elements (ca. 1.5%) and a relatively high GC content (49.5%). A total of 5,735 protein-coding genes were identified, among which 83% share similarities with other fungi. Adaptation to the plant host seems reflected in the genome, since the genome carries genes involved in plant cell wall degradation (e.g., cellulases and cutinases), secondary metabolism, the hallmark glyoxylate cycle, detoxification, and sterol biosynthesis, as well as genes involved in the biosynthesis of plant hormones. Genes involved in lipid metabolism may play a role in its virulence. Several locus candidates for putative MAT cassettes and sex-related genes akin to those of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were identified. A mating-type-switching mechanism similar to that found in ascomycetous yeasts could be in effect. Taken together, the findings are consistent with the alternate saprophytic and parasitic-pathogenic lifestyles of T. deformans. PMID:23631913

  9. Evaluating and Characterizing Ancient Whole-Genome Duplications in Plants with Gene Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Tiley, George P.; Ané, Cécile; Burleigh, J. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have helped shape the genomes of land plants, and recent evidence suggests that the genomes of all angiosperms have experienced at least two ancient WGDs. In plants, WGDs often are followed by rapid fractionation, in which many homeologous gene copies are lost. Thus, it can be extremely difficult to identify, let alone characterize, ancient WGDs. In this study, we use a new maximum likelihood estimator to test for evidence of ancient WGDs in land plants and estimate the fraction of new genes copies that are retained following a WGD using gene count data, the number of gene copies in gene families. We identified evidence of many putative ancient WGDs in land plants and found that the genome fractionation rates vary tremendously among ancient WGDs. Analyses of WGDs within Brassicales also indicate that background gene duplication and loss rates vary across land plants, and different gene families have different probabilities of being retained following a WGD. Although our analyses are largely robust to errors in duplication and loss rates and the choice of priors, simulations indicate that this method can have trouble detecting multiple WGDs that occur on the same branch, especially when the gene retention rates for ancient WGDs are very low. They also suggest that we should carefully evaluate evidence for some ancient plant WGD hypotheses. PMID:26988251

  10. Genome characteristics of facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strains reflect host range and host plant biogeography

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, Johann Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry, Alison M.; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, Maria Pilar; Goltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga R.; Labarre, Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez, Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth C.; Niemann, James; Pujic, Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt, Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde, Claudio; Wall, Luis G.; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Soil bacteria that also form mutualistic symbioses in plants encounter two major levels of selection. One occurs during adaptation to and survival in soil, and the other occurs in concert with host plant speciation and adaptation. Actinobacteria from the genus Frankia are facultative symbionts that form N2-fixing root nodules on diverse and globally distributed angiosperms in the “actinorhizal” symbioses. Three closely related clades of Frankia sp. strains are recognized; members of each clade infect a subset of plants from among eight angiosperm families. We sequenced the genomes from three strains; their sizes varied from 5.43 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (Frankia sp. strain HFPCcI3) to 7.50 Mbp for a medium host range strain (Frankia alni strain ACN14a) to 9.04 Mbp for a broad host range strain (Frankia sp. strain EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported for such closely related soil bacteria (97.8%–98.9% identity of 16S rRNA genes). The extent of gene deletion, duplication, and acquisition is in concert with the biogeographic history of the symbioses and host plant speciation. Host plant isolation favored genome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genome expansion. The results support the idea that major genome expansions as well as reductions can occur in facultative symbiotic soil bacteria as they respond to new environments in the context of their symbioses. PMID:17151343

  11. Genomes of three facultatively symbiotic Frankia sp. strainsreflect host plant biogeography

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, Philippe; Lapierre, Pascal; Tisa, Louis S.; Gogarten, J.Peter; Alloisio, Nicole; Bagnarol, Emilie; Bassi, Carla A.; Berry,Alison; Bickhart, Derek M.; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Cournoyer, Benoit; Cruveiller, Stephane; Daubin, Vincent; Demange, Nadia; Francino, M. Pilar; Ggoltsman, Eugene; Huang, Ying; Kopp, Olga; Labarre,Laurent; Lapidus, Alla; Lavire, Celine; Marechal, Joelle; Martinez,Michele; Mastronunzio, Juliana E.; Mullin, Beth; Niemann, James; Pujic,Pierre; Rawnsley, Tania; Rouy, Zoe; Schenowitz, Chantal; Sellstedt,Anita; Tavares, Fernando; Tomkins, Jeffrey P.; Vallenet, David; Valverde,Claudio; Wall, Luis; Wang, Ying; Medigue, Claudine; Benson, David R.

    2006-02-01

    Filamentous actinobacteria from the genus Frankia anddiverse woody trees and shrubs together form N2-fixing actinorhizal rootnodule symbioses that are a major source of new soil nitrogen in widelydiverse biomes 1. Three major clades of Frankia sp. strains are defined;each clade is associated with a defined subset of plants from among theeight actinorhizal plant families 2,3. The evolution arytrajectoriesfollowed by the ancestors of both symbionts leading to current patternsof symbiont compatibility are unknown. Here we show that the competingprocesses of genome expansion and contraction have operated in differentgroups of Frankia strains in a manner that can be related to thespeciation of the plant hosts and their geographic distribution. Wesequenced and compared the genomes from three Frankia sp. strains havingdifferent host plant specificities. The sizes of their genomes variedfrom 5.38 Mbp for a narrow host range strain (HFPCcI3) to 7.50Mbp for amedium host range strain (ACN14a) to 9.08 Mbp for a broad host rangestrain (EAN1pec.) This size divergence is the largest yet reported forsuch closely related bacteria. Since the order of divergence of thestrains is known, the extent of gene deletion, duplication andacquisition could be estimated and was found to be inconcert with thebiogeographic history of the symbioses. Host plant isolation favoredgenome contraction, whereas host plant diversification favored genomeexpansion. The results support the idea that major genome reductions aswell as expansions can occur in facultatively symbiotic soil bacteria asthey respond to new environments in the context of theirsymbioses.

  12. Reconstructing the plant mitochondrial genome for marker discovery: a case study using Pinus.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Kevin; Cottrell, Joan; Ennos, Richard A; Vendramin, Giovanni Guiseppe; A'Hara, Stuart; King, Sarah; Perry, Annika; Wachowiak, Witold; Cavers, Stephen

    2016-12-20

    Whole-genome-shotgun (WGS) sequencing of total genomic DNA was used to recover ~1 Mbp of novel mitochondrial (mtDNA) sequence from Pinus sylvestris (L.) and three members of the closely-related Pinus mugo species complex. DNA was extracted from megagametophyte tissue from six mother trees from locations across Europe and 100 bp paired-end sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform. Candidate mtDNA sequences were identified by their size and coverage characteristics, and by comparison with published plant mitochondrial genomes. Novel variants were identified, and primers targeting these loci were trialled on a set of 28 individuals from across Europe. In total, 31 SNP loci were successfully resequenced, characterising 15 unique haplotypes. This approach offers a cost effective means of developing marker resources for mitochondrial genomes in other plant species where reference sequences are unavailable. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous florendoviruses are major components of plant genomes and hallmarks of virus evolution

    PubMed Central

    Geering, Andrew D. W.; Maumus, Florian; Copetti, Dario; Choisne, Nathalie; Zwickl, Derrick J.; Zytnicki, Matthias; McTaggart, Alistair R.; Scalabrin, Simone; Vezzulli, Silvia; Wing, Rod A.; Quesneville, Hadi; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    The extent and importance of endogenous viral elements have been extensively described in animals but are much less well understood in plants. Here we describe a new genus of Caulimoviridae called ‘Florendovirus’, members of which have colonized the genomes of a large diversity of flowering plants, sometimes at very high copy numbers (>0.5% total genome content). The genome invasion of Oryza is dated to over 1.8 million years ago (MYA) but phylogeographic evidence points to an even older age of 20–34 MYA for this virus group. Some appear to have had a bipartite genome organization, a unique characteristic among viral retroelements. In Vitis vinifera, 9% of the endogenous florendovirus loci are located within introns and therefore may influence host gene expression. The frequent colocation of endogenous florendovirus loci with TA simple sequence repeats, which are associated with chromosome fragility, suggests sequence capture during repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. PMID:25381880

  14. Endogenous florendoviruses are major components of plant genomes and hallmarks of virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Geering, Andrew D W; Maumus, Florian; Copetti, Dario; Choisne, Nathalie; Zwickl, Derrick J; Zytnicki, Matthias; McTaggart, Alistair R; Scalabrin, Simone; Vezzulli, Silvia; Wing, Rod A; Quesneville, Hadi; Teycheney, Pierre-Yves

    2014-11-10

    The extent and importance of endogenous viral elements have been extensively described in animals but are much less well understood in plants. Here we describe a new genus of Caulimoviridae called 'Florendovirus', members of which have colonized the genomes of a large diversity of flowering plants, sometimes at very high copy numbers (>0.5% total genome content). The genome invasion of Oryza is dated to over 1.8 million years ago (MYA) but phylogeographic evidence points to an even older age of 20-34 MYA for this virus group. Some appear to have had a bipartite genome organization, a unique characteristic among viral retroelements. In Vitis vinifera, 9% of the endogenous florendovirus loci are located within introns and therefore may influence host gene expression. The frequent colocation of endogenous florendovirus loci with TA simple sequence repeats, which are associated with chromosome fragility, suggests sequence capture during repair of double-stranded DNA breaks.

  15. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Safiyh; van der Lelie, Daniel; Hoffman, Adam; Zhang, Yian-Biao; Walla, Michael D.; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Newman, Lee; Monchy, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  16. Genome-wide analysis and experimentation of plant serine/ threonine/tyrosine-specific protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Reddy, Mamatha M; Rajasekharan, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in cell growth, development and oncogenesis. No classical protein tyrosine kinase has hitherto been cloned from plants. Does protein tyrosine kinase exist in plants? To address this, we have performed a genomic survey of protein tyrosine kinase motifs in plants using the delineated tyrosine phosphorylation motifs from the animal system. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes 57 different protein kinases that have tyrosine kinase motifs. Animal non-receptor tyrosine kinases, SRC, ABL, LYN, FES, SEK, KIN and RAS have structural relationship with putative plant tyrosine kinases. In an extended analysis, animal receptor and non-receptor kinases, Raf and Ras kinases, mixed lineage kinases and plant serine/threonine/tyrosine (STY) protein kinases, form a well-supported group sharing a common origin within the superfamily of STY kinases. We report that plants lack bona fide tyrosine kinases, which raise an intriguing possibility that tyrosine phosphorylation is carried out by dual-specificity STY protein kinases in plants. The distribution pattern of STY protein kinase families on Arabidopsis chromosomes indicates that this gene family is partly a consequence of duplication and reshuffling of the Arabidopsis genome and of the generation of tandem repeats. Genome-wide analysis is supported by the functional expression and characterization of At2g24360 and phosphoproteomics of Arabidopsis. Evidence for tyrosine phosphorylated proteins is provided by alkaline hydrolysis, anti-phosphotyrosine immunoblotting, phosphoamino acid analysis and peptide mass fingerprinting. These results report the first comprehensive survey of genome-wide and tyrosine phosphoproteome analysis of plant STY protein kinases.

  17. Whole-Genome Sequence of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Escherichia coli USML2.

    PubMed

    Tharek, Munirah; Sim, Kee-Shin; Khairuddin, Dzulaikha; Ghazali, Amir Hamzah; Najimudin, Nazalan

    2017-05-11

    Escherichia coli strain USML2 was originally isolated from the inner leaf tissues of surface-sterilized phytopathogenic-free oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). We present here the whole-genome sequence of this plant-endophytic strain. The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,502,758 bp, 4,315 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 50.8%. Copyright © 2017 Tharek et al.

  18. Whole-Genome Sequence of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Escherichia coli USML2

    PubMed Central

    Tharek, Munirah; Sim, Kee-Shin; Khairuddin, Dzulaikha; Najimudin, Nazalan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli strain USML2 was originally isolated from the inner leaf tissues of surface-sterilized phytopathogenic-free oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). We present here the whole-genome sequence of this plant-endophytic strain. The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 4,502,758 bp, 4,315 predicted coding sequences, and a G+C content of 50.8%. PMID:28495774

  19. The Physcomitrella genome reveals evolutionary insights into the conquest of land by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rensing, Stefan A.; Lang, Daniel; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Nishiyama, Tomaoki; Perroud, Pierre-Francois; Lindquist, Erika A.; Kamisugi, Yasuko; Tanahashi, Takako; Sakakibara, Keiko; Fujita, Tomomichi; Oishi, Kazuko; Shin, Tadasu; Kuroki, Yoko; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Hashimoto, Shin-ichi; Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Sugano, Sumio; Kohara, Yuji; Fujiyama, Asao; Anterola, Aldwin; Aoki, Setsuyuki; Ashton, Neil; Barbazuk, W. Brad; Barker, Elizabeth; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Blankenship, Robert; Cho, Sung Hyun; Dutcher, Susan K.; Estelle, Mark; Fawcett, Jeffrey A.; Gundlach, Heidrum; Hanada, Kousuke; Melkozernov, Alexander; Murata, Takashi; Nelson, David R.; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Reiss, Bernd; Renner, Tanya; Rombauts, Stephane; Rushton, Paul J.; Sanderfoot, Anton; Schween, Gabriele; Shiu, Shin-Han; Stueber, Kurt; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Tu, Hank; Van de Peer, Yves; Verrier, Paul J.; Waters, Elizabeth; Wood, Andrew; Yang, Lixing; Cove, David; Cuming, Andrew C.; Hasebe, Mitsayasu; Lucas, Susan; Mishler, Brent D.; Reski, Ralf; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Quatrano, Rakph S.; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2007-09-18

    We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family complexity; loss of genes associated with aquatic environments (e.g., flagellar arms); acquisition of genes for tolerating terrestrial stresses (e.g., variation in temperature and water availability); and the development of the auxin and abscisic acid signaling pathways for coordinating multicellular growth and dehydration response. The Physcomitrella genome provides a resource for phylogenetic inferences about gene function and for experimental analysis of plant processes through this plant's unique facility for reverse genetics.

  20. The Brucella suis genome reveals fundamental similarities between animal and plant pathogens and symbionts.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Ian T; Seshadri, Rekha; Nelson, Karen E; Eisen, Jonathan A; Heidelberg, John F; Read, Timothy D; Dodson, Robert J; Umayam, Lowell; Brinkac, Lauren M; Beanan, Maureen J; Daugherty, Sean C; Deboy, Robert T; Durkin, A Scott; Kolonay, James F; Madupu, Ramana; Nelson, William C; Ayodeji, Bola; Kraul, Margaret; Shetty, Jyoti; Malek, Joel; Van Aken, Susan E; Riedmuller, Steven; Tettelin, Herve; Gill, Steven R; White, Owen; Salzberg, Steven L; Hoover, David L; Lindler, Luther E; Halling, Shirley M; Boyle, Stephen M; Fraser, Claire M

    2002-10-01

    The 3.31-Mb genome sequence of the intracellular pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent, Brucella suis, was determined. Comparison of B. suis with Brucella melitensis has defined a finite set of differences that could be responsible for the differences in virulence and host preference between these organisms, and indicates that phage have played a significant role in their divergence. Analysis of the B. suis genome reveals transport and metabolic capabilities akin to soil/plant-associated bacteria. Extensive gene synteny between B. suis chromosome 1 and the genome of the plant symbiont Mesorhizobium loti emphasizes the similarity between this animal pathogen and plant pathogens and symbionts. A limited repertoire of genes homologous to known bacterial virulence factors were identified.

  1. The CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and beyond.

    PubMed

    Bortesi, Luisa; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Targeted genome editing using artificial nucleases has the potential to accelerate basic research as well as plant breeding by providing the means to modify genomes rapidly in a precise and predictable manner. Here we describe the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system, a recently developed tool for the introduction of site-specific double-stranded DNA breaks. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of this technology compared with two well-established genome editing platforms: zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We summarize recent results obtained in plants using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, discuss possible applications in plant breeding and consider potential future developments.

  2. Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences Plant Genome Resources. A Framework for Integrative and Comparative Analyses1[w

    PubMed Central

    Schoof, Heiko; Spannagl, Manuel; Yang, Li; Ernst, Rebecca; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haase, Dirk; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2005-01-01

    With several plant genomes sequenced, the power of comparative genome analysis can now be applied. However, genome-scale cross-species analyses are limited by the effort for data integration. To develop an integrated cross-species plant genome resource, we maintain comprehensive databases for model plant genomes, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), Medicago truncatula, and rice (Oryza sativa). Integration of data and resources is emphasized, both in house as well as with external partners and databases. Manual curation and state-of-the-art bioinformatic analysis are combined to achieve quality data. Easy access to the data is provided through Web interfaces and visualization tools, bulk downloads, and Web services for application-level access. This allows a consistent view of the model plant genomes for comparative and evolutionary studies, the transfer of knowledge between species, and the integration with functional genomics data. PMID:16010004

  3. The sacred lotus genome provides insights into the evolution of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36,385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis.

  4. The Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. UW4

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jin; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Zhenyu; Heikkila, John J.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2013-01-01

    The plant growth-promoting bacterium (PGPB) Pseudomonas sp. UW4, previously isolated from the rhizosphere of common reeds growing on the campus of the University of Waterloo, promotes plant growth in the presence of different environmental stresses, such as flooding, high concentrations of salt, cold, heavy metals, drought and phytopathogens. In this work, the genome sequence of UW4 was obtained by pyrosequencing and the gaps between the contigs were closed by directed PCR. The P. sp. UW4 genome contains a single circular chromosome that is 6,183,388 bp with a 60.05% G+C content. The bacterial genome contains 5,423 predicted protein-coding sequences that occupy 87.2% of the genome. Nineteen genomic islands (GIs) were predicted and thirty one complete putative insertion sequences were identified. Genes potentially involved in plant growth promotion such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) biosynthesis, trehalose production, siderophore production, acetoin synthesis, and phosphate solubilization were determined. Moreover, genes that contribute to the environmental fitness of UW4 were also observed including genes responsible for heavy metal resistance such as nickel, copper, cadmium, zinc, molybdate, cobalt, arsenate, and chromate. Whole-genome comparison with other completely sequenced Pseudomonas strains and phylogeny of four concatenated “housekeeping” genes (16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and rpoD) of 128 Pseudomonas strains revealed that UW4 belongs to the fluorescens group, jessenii subgroup. PMID:23516524

  5. Genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus provides insight into the oldest plant symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Tisserant, Emilie; Malbreil, Mathilde; Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Balestrini, Raffaella; Charron, Philippe; Duensing, Nina; Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Gilbert, Luz B.; Handa, Yoshihiro; Herr, Joshua R.; Hijri, Mohamed; Koul, Raman; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Krajinski, Franziska; Lammers, Peter J.; Masclaux, Frederic G.; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Ndikumana, Steve; Pagni, Marco; Petitpierre, Denis; Requena, Natalia; Rosikiewicz, Pawel; Riley, Rohan; Saito, Katsuharu; San Clemente, Hélène; Shapiro, Harris; van Tuinen, Diederik; Bécard, Guillaume; Bonfante, Paola; Paszkowski, Uta; Shachar-Hill, Yair Y.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Young, J. Peter W.; Sanders, Ian R.; Henrissat, Bernard; Rensing, Stefan A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Corradi, Nicolas; Roux, Christophe; Martin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    The mutualistic symbiosis involving Glomeromycota, a distinctive phylum of early diverging Fungi, is widely hypothesized to have promoted the evolution of land plants during the middle Paleozoic. These arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) perform vital functions in the phosphorus cycle that are fundamental to sustainable crop plant productivity. The unusual biological features of AMF have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. The coenocytic hyphae host a community of hundreds of nuclei and reproduce clonally through large multinucleated spores. It has been suggested that the AMF maintain a stable assemblage of several different genomes during the life cycle, but this genomic organization has been questioned. Here we introduce the 153-Mb haploid genome of Rhizophagus irregularis and its repertoire of 28,232 genes. The observed low level of genome polymorphism (0.43 SNP per kb) is not consistent with the occurrence of multiple, highly diverged genomes. The expansion of mating-related genes suggests the existence of cryptic sex-related processes. A comparison of gene categories confirms that R. irregularis is close to the Mucoromycotina. The AMF obligate biotrophy is not explained by genome erosion or any related loss of metabolic complexity in central metabolism, but is marked by a lack of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and of genes involved in toxin and thiamine synthesis. A battery of mycorrhiza-induced secreted proteins is expressed in symbiotic tissues. The present comprehensive repertoire of R. irregularis genes provides a basis for future research on symbiosis-related mechanisms in Glomeromycota. PMID:24277808

  6. Functional genomics of bio-energy plants and related patent activities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2013-04-01

    With dwindling fossil oil resources and increased economic growth of many developing countries due to globalization, energy driven from an alternative source such as bio-energy in a sustainable fashion is the need of the hour. However, production of energy from biological source is relatively expensive due to low starch and sugar contents of bioenergy plants leading to lower oil yield and reduced quality along with lower conversion efficiency of feedstock. In this context genetic improvement of bio-energy plants offers a viable solution. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current status of functional genomics studies and related patent activities in bio-energy plants. Currently, genomes of considerable bio-energy plants have been sequenced or are in progress and also large amount of expression sequence tags (EST) or cDNA sequences are available from them. These studies provide fundamental data for more reliable genome annotation and as a result, several genomes have been annotated in a genome-wide level. In addition to this effort, various mutagenesis tools have also been employed to develop mutant populations for characterization of genes that are involved in bioenergy quantitative traits. With the progress made on functional genomics of important bio-energy plants, more patents were filed with a significant number of them focusing on genes and DNA sequences which may involve in improvement of bio-energy traits including higher yield and quality of starch, sugar and oil. We also believe that these studies will lead to the generation of genetically altered plants with improved tolerance to various abiotic and biotic stresses.

  7. Creating Order from Chaos: Epigenome Dynamics in Plants with Complex Genomes.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan M; Lisch, Damon; Li, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Flowering plants have strikingly distinct genomes, although they contain a similar suite of expressed genes. The diversity of genome structures and organization is largely due to variation in transposable elements (TEs) and whole-genome duplication (WGD) events. We review evidence that chromatin modifications and epigenetic regulation are intimately associated with TEs and likely play a role in mediating the effects of WGDs. We hypothesize that the current structure of a genome is the result of various TE bursts and WGDs and it is likely that the silencing mechanisms and the chromatin structure of a genome have been shaped by these events. This suggests that the specific mechanisms targeting chromatin modifications and epigenomic patterns may vary among different species. Many crop species have likely evolved chromatin-based mechanisms to tolerate silenced TEs near actively expressed genes. These interactions of heterochromatin and euchromatin are likely to have important roles in modulating gene expression and variability within species.

  8. Creating Order from Chaos: Epigenome Dynamics in Plants with Complex Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Lisch, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Flowering plants have strikingly distinct genomes, although they contain a similar suite of expressed genes. The diversity of genome structures and organization is largely due to variation in transposable elements (TEs) and whole-genome duplication (WGD) events. We review evidence that chromatin modifications and epigenetic regulation are intimately associated with TEs and likely play a role in mediating the effects of WGDs. We hypothesize that the current structure of a genome is the result of various TE bursts and WGDs and it is likely that the silencing mechanisms and the chromatin structure of a genome have been shaped by these events. This suggests that the specific mechanisms targeting chromatin modifications and epigenomic patterns may vary among different species. Many crop species have likely evolved chromatin-based mechanisms to tolerate silenced TEs near actively expressed genes. These interactions of heterochromatin and euchromatin are likely to have important roles in modulating gene expression and variability within species. PMID:26869701

  9. Comparative genomics reveals convergent rates of evolution in ant-plant mutualisms.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Benjamin E R; Moreau, Corrie S

    2016-08-25

    Symbiosis-the close and often long-term interaction of species-is predicted to drive genome evolution in a variety of ways. For example, parasitic interactions have been shown to increase rates of molecular evolution, a trend generally attributed to the Red Queen Hypothesis. However, it is much less clear how mutualisms impact the genome, as both increased and reduced rates of change have been predicted. Here we sequence the genomes of seven species of ants, three that have convergently evolved obligate plant-ant mutualism and four closely related species of non-mutualists. Comparing these sequences, we investigate how genome evolution is shaped by mutualistic behaviour. We find that rates of molecular evolution are higher in the mutualists genome wide, a characteristic apparently not the result of demography. Our results suggest that the intimate relationships of obligate mutualists may lead to selective pressures similar to those seen in parasites, thereby increasing rates of evolution.

  10. Complete genome sequence of a new enamovirus from Argentina infecting alfalfa plants showing dwarfism symptoms.

    PubMed

    Bejerman, Nicolás; Giolitti, Fabián; Trucco, Verónica; de Breuil, Soledad; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-07-01

    Alfalfa dwarf disease, probably caused by synergistic interactions of mixed virus infections, is a major and emergent disease that threatens alfalfa production in Argentina. Deep sequencing of diseased alfalfa plant samples from the central region of Argentina resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling enamoviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Enamovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "alfalfa enamovirus 1" (AEV-1). The availability of the AEV-1 genome sequence will make it possible to assess the genetic variability of this virus and to construct an infectious clone to investigate its role in alfalfa dwarfism disease.

  11. Ralstonia solanacearum, a widespread bacterial plant pathogen in the post-genomic era.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Nemo; Guidot, Alice; Vailleau, Fabienne; Valls, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium causing the widespread disease known as bacterial wilt. Ralstonia solanacearum is also the causal agent of Moko disease of banana and brown rot of potato. Since the last R. solanacearum pathogen profile was published 10 years ago, studies concerning this plant pathogen have taken a genomic and post-genomic direction. This was pioneered by the first sequenced and annotated genome for a major plant bacterial pathogen and followed by many more genomes in subsequent years. All molecular features studied now have a genomic flavour. In the future, this will help in connecting the classical field of pathology and diversity studies with the gene content of specific strains. In this review, we summarize the recent research on this bacterial pathogen, including strain classification, host range, pathogenicity determinants, regulation of virulence genes, type III effector repertoire, effector-triggered immunity, plant signalling in response to R. solanacearum, as well as a review of different new pathosystems. Bacteria; Proteobacteria; β subdivision; Ralstonia group; genus Ralstonia. Ralstonia solanacearum is the agent of bacterial wilt of plants, characterized by a sudden wilt of the whole plant. Typically, stem cross-sections will ooze a slimy bacterial exudate. In the case of Moko disease of banana and brown rot of potato, there is also visible bacterial colonization of banana fruit and potato tuber. As a soil-borne pathogen, infected fields can rarely be reused, even after rotation with nonhost plants. The disease is controlled by the use of resistant and tolerant plant cultivars. The prevention of spread of the disease has been achieved, in some instances, by the application of strict prophylactic sanitation practices. Stock centre: International Centre for Microbial Resources-French Collection for Plant-associated Bacteria CIRM-CFBP, IRHS UMR 1345 INRA-ACO-UA, 42 rue Georges Morel, 49070 Beaucouzé Cedex, France

  12. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  13. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences of Mongolia Medicine Artemisia frigida and Phylogenetic Relationships with Other Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A.; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. Conclusion The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be

  14. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Mongolia medicine Artemisia frigida and phylogenetic relationships with other plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Huo, Naxin; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Shuixian; Young, Hugh A; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yong Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Artemisia frigida Willd. is an important Mongolian traditional medicinal plant with pharmacological functions of stanch and detumescence. However, there is little sequence and genomic information available for Artemisia frigida, which makes phylogenetic identification, evolutionary studies, and genetic improvement of its value very difficult. We report the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida based on 454 pyrosequencing. The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida is 151,076 bp including a large single copy (LSC) region of 82,740 bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 18,394 bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,971 bp. The genome contains 114 unique genes and 18 duplicated genes. The chloroplast genome of Artemisia frigida contains a small 3.4 kb inversion within a large 23 kb inversion in the LSC region, a unique feature in Asteraceae. The gene order in the SSC region of Artemisia frigida is inverted compared with the other 6 Asteraceae species with the chloroplast genomes sequenced. This inversion is likely caused by an intramolecular recombination event only occurred in Artemisia frigida. The existence of rich SSR loci in the Artemisia frigida chloroplast genome provides a rare opportunity to study population genetics of this Mongolian medicinal plant. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates a sister relationship between Artemisia frigida and four other species in Asteraceae, including Ageratina adenophora, Helianthus annuus, Guizotia abyssinica and Lactuca sativa, based on 61 protein-coding sequences. Furthermore, Artemisia frigida was placed in the tribe Anthemideae in the subfamily Asteroideae (Asteraceae) based on ndhF and trnL-F sequence comparisons. The chloroplast genome sequence of Artemisia frigida was assembled and analyzed in this study, representing the first plastid genome sequenced in the Anthemideae tribe. This complete chloroplast genome sequence will be useful for molecular ecology and molecular phylogeny

  15. Genomic Prediction in Animals and Plants: Simulation of Data, Validation, Reporting, and Benchmarking

    PubMed Central

    Daetwyler, Hans D.; Calus, Mario P. L.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; de los Campos, Gustavo; Hickey, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The genomic prediction of phenotypes and breeding values in animals and plants has developed rapidly into its own research field. Results of genomic prediction studies are often difficult to compare because data simulation varies, real or simulated data are not fully described, and not all relevant results are reported. In addition, some new methods have been compared only in limited genetic architectures, leading to potentially misleading conclusions. In this article we review simulation procedures, discuss validation and reporting of results, and apply benchmark procedures for a variety of genomic prediction methods in simulated and real example data. Plant and animal breeding programs are being transformed by the use of genomic data, which are becoming widely available and cost-effective to predict genetic merit. A large number of genomic prediction studies have been published using both simulated and real data. The relative novelty of this area of research has made the development of scientific conventions difficult with regard to description of the real data, simulation of genomes, validation and reporting of results, and forward in time methods. In this review article we discuss the generation of simulated genotype and phenotype data, using approaches such as the coalescent and forward in time simulation. We outline ways to validate simulated data and genomic prediction results, including cross-validation. The accuracy and bias of genomic prediction are highlighted as performance indicators that should be reported. We suggest that a measure of relatedness between the reference and validation individuals be reported, as its impact on the accuracy of genomic prediction is substantial. A large number of methods were compared in example simulated and real (pine and wheat) data sets, all of which are publicly available. In our limited simulations, most methods performed similarly in traits with a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), whereas in traits

  16. Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A.; Dalzell, Jonathan J.; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J.; Assefa, Samuel A.; Cock, Peter J. A.; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C.; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G.; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T.; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the

  17. Dynamics and Adaptive Benefits of Protein Domain Emergence and Arrangements during Plant Genome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kersting, Anna R.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Moore, Andrew D.; Grath, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Plant genomes are generally very large, mostly paleopolyploid, and have numerous gene duplicates and complex genomic features such as repeats and transposable elements. Many of these features have been hypothesized to enable plants, which cannot easily escape environmental challenges, to rapidly adapt. Another mechanism, which has recently been well described as a major facilitator of rapid adaptation in bacteria, animals, and fungi but not yet for plants, is modular rearrangement of protein-coding genes. Due to the high precision of profile-based methods, rearrangements can be well captured at the protein level by characterizing the emergence, loss, and rearrangements of protein domains, their structural, functional, and evolutionary building blocks. Here, we study the dynamics of domain rearrangements and explore their adaptive benefit in 27 plant and 3 algal genomes. We use a phylogenomic approach by which we can explain the formation of 88% of all arrangements by single-step events, such as fusion, fission, and terminal loss of domains. We find many domains are lost along every lineage, but at least 500 domains are novel, that is, they are unique to green plants and emerged more or less recently. These novel domains duplicate and rearrange more readily within their genomes than ancient domains and are overproportionally involved in stress response and developmental innovations. Novel domains more often affect regulatory proteins and show a higher degree of structural disorder than ancient domains. Whereas a relatively large and well-conserved core set of single-domain proteins exists, long multi-domain arrangements tend to be species-specific. We find that duplicated genes are more often involved in rearrangements. Although fission events typically impact metabolic proteins, fusion events often create new signaling proteins essential for environmental sensing. Taken together, the high volatility of single domains and complex arrangements in plant genomes

  18. Submesoscale Dispersion in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Spill

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-02

    ecosystems, society, and the economy as evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and the Fukushima nuclear plant...evidenced by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 and the Fukushima nuclear plant incident in the Pacific Ocean in 2011. Accurate

  19. From chloroplasts to "cryptic" plastids: evolution of plastid genomes in parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kirsten

    2008-09-01

    To date, more than 130 plastid genomes (plastomes) have been completely sequenced. Of those, 12 are strongly reduced plastid genomes from heterotrophic plants or plant-related species that exhibit a parasitic lifestyle. Half of these species are land plants while the other half consists of unicellular species that have evolved from photosynthetic algae. Due to their specialized lifestyle, parasitic lineages experienced a loss of evolutionary pressure on the plastid genome and, in particular, on the photosynthesis-related genes. This made them tolerant for the accumulation of detrimental mutations and deletions in plastid genes. That parasitic plants are naturally occurring plastome mutants makes them a rich source of information concerning plastome evolution and the mechanisms that are involved. This review reports on the progress made in recent years with parasitic plant plastomes and attempts to summarize what we can learn from analysing the genomes of functionally reduced, or cryptic, plastids. Particularly, the loss of genes for a plastid-encoded RNA polymerase as well as an intron maturase and the retention of the gene for the large subunit of the Calvin cycle enzyme Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) in selected species will be discussed.

  20. Loss of photosynthetic and chlororespiratory genes from the plastid genome of a parasitic flowering plant.

    PubMed

    dePamphilis, C W; Palmer, J D

    1990-11-22

    Photosynthesis is the hallmark of plant life and is the only plastid metabolic process known to be controlled by plastid genes. The complete loss of photosynthetic ability, however, has occurred on several independent occasions in parasitic flowering plants. Some of these plants are known to lack chlorophyll and certain photosynthetic enzymes, but it is not known to what extent changes have occurred in the genes encoding the photosynthetic apparatus or whether the plants even maintain a plastid genome. Here we report that the nonphotosynthetic root parasite Epifagus virginiana has a plastid chromosome only 71 kilobases in size, far smaller than any previously characterized land plant plastid genome. The Epifagus plastid genome has lost most, if not all, of the 30 or more chloroplast genes for photosynthesis and most of a large family of plastid genes, the ndh genes, whose products may be involved in a plastid respiratory chain. The extensive changes in Epifagus plastid gene content must have occurred in a relatively short time (5-50 x 10(6) yr), because Striga asiatica, a related photosynthetic parasite, has a typical complement of chloroplast genes for photosynthesis and chlororespiration. The plastid genome of Epifagus has retained transcribed ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein genes, suggesting that it expresses one or more gene products for plastid functions not related to photosynthesis.

  1. Physiological and genomic basis of mechanical-functional trade-off in plant vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sonali; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2014-01-01

    Some areas in plant abiotic stress research are not frequently addressed by genomic and molecular tools. One such area is the cross reaction of gravitational force with upward capillary pull of water and the mechanical-functional trade-off in plant vasculature. Although frost, drought and flooding stress greatly impact these physiological processes and consequently plant performance, the genomic and molecular basis of such trade-off is only sporadically addressed and so is its adaptive value. Embolism resistance is an important multiple stress- opposition trait and do offer scopes for critical insight to unravel and modify the input of living cells in the process and their biotechnological intervention may be of great importance. Vascular plants employ different physiological strategies to cope with embolism and variation is observed across the kingdom. The genomic resources in this area have started to emerge and open up possibilities of synthesis, validation and utilization of the new knowledge-base. This review article assesses the research till date on this issue and discusses new possibilities for bridging physiology and genomics of a plant, and foresees its implementation in crop science. PMID:24904619

  2. Plant protein phosphatases 2C: from genomic diversity to functional multiplicity and importance in stress management.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjeet; Pandey, Amita; Srivastava, Ashish K; Tran, Lam-Son Phan; Pandey, Girdhar K

    2016-12-01

    Protein phosphatases (PPs) counteract kinases in reversible phosphorylation events during numerous signal transduction pathways in eukaryotes. Type 2C PPs (PP2Cs) represent the major group of PPs in plants, and recent discovery of novel abscisic acid (ABA) receptors (ABARs) has placed the PP2Cs at the center stage of the major signaling pathway regulating plant responses to stresses and plant development. Several studies have provided deep insight into vital roles of the PP2Cs in various plant processes. Global analyses of the PP2C gene family in model plants have contributed to our understanding of their genomic diversity and conservation, across plant species. In this review, we discuss the genomic and structural accounts of PP2Cs in plants. Recent advancements in their interaction paradigm with ABARs and sucrose nonfermenting related kinases 2 (SnRK2s) in ABA signaling are also highlighted. In addition, expression analyses and important roles of PP2Cs in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses, potassium (K(+)) deficiency signaling, plant immunity and development are elaborated. Knowledge of functional roles of specific PP2Cs could be exploited for the genetic manipulation of crop plants. Genetic engineering using PP2C genes could provide great impetus in the agricultural biotechnology sector in terms of imparting desired traits, including a higher degree of stress tolerance and productivity without a yield penalty.

  3. Space stress and genome shock in developing plant cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper I review symptoms of stress at the level of the nucleus in cells of plants grown in space under nonoptimized conditions. It remains to be disclosed to what extent gravity "unloading" in the space environment directly contributes to the low mitotic index and the chromosomal anomalies and damage that is frequently, but not invariably, demonstrable in space-grown plants. Evaluation of the available facts indicates that indirect effects play a major role and that there is a significant biological component to the susceptibility to stress damage equation as well. Much remains to be learned on how to provide strictly controlled, optimal environments for plant growth in space. Only after optimized controls become possible will one be able to attribute any observed space effects to lowered gravity or to other significant but more indirect effects of the space environment.

  4. The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cédric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sørensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theißen, Günter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loqué, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes (1). We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first non-seed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionary diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a non-seed vascular to a flowering plant, while secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in post-transcriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the tasiRNA pathway and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes. PMID:21551031

  5. The Selaginella genome identifies genetic changes associated with the evolution of vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A; Ashton, Neil W; Axtell, Michael J; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cédric; Floyd, Sandra K; Frommer, Wolf B; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E; Sørensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theissen, Günter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W G T; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loqué, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel; Grigoriev, Igor V

    2011-05-20

    Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in evolutionarily diverse taxa, we found that the transition from a gametophyte- to a sporophyte-dominated life cycle required far fewer new genes than the transition from a nonseed vascular to a flowering plant, whereas secondary metabolic genes expanded extensively and in parallel in the lycophyte and angiosperm lineages. Selaginella differs in posttranscriptional gene regulation, including small RNA regulation of repetitive elements, an absence of the trans-acting small interfering RNA pathway, and extensive RNA editing of organellar genes.

  6. A CRISPR-Cpf1 system for efficient genome editing and transcriptional repression in plants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xu; Lowder, Levi G; Zhang, Tao; Malzahn, Aimee A; Zheng, Xuelian; Voytas, Daniel F; Zhong, Zhaohui; Chen, Yiyi; Ren, Qiurong; Li, Qian; Kirkland, Elida R; Zhang, Yong; Qi, Yiping

    2017-02-17

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cpf1 has emerged as an effective genome editing tool in animals. Here we compare the activity of Cpf1 from Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 (As) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 (Lb) in plants, using a dual RNA polymerase II promoter expression system. LbCpf1 generated biallelic mutations at nearly 100% efficiency at four independent sites in rice T0 transgenic plants. Moreover, we repurposed AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 for efficient transcriptional repression in Arabidopsis, and demonstrated a more than tenfold reduction in miR159b transcription. Our data suggest promising applications of CRISPR-Cpf1 for editing plant genomes and modulating the plant transcriptome.

  7. Genomic dissection of host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions for advanced plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Samuel; Agler, Matthew T; Kemen, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture faces many emerging challenges to sustainability, including limited nutrient resources, losses from diseases caused by current and emerging pathogens and environmental degradation. Microorganisms have great importance for plant growth and performance, including the potential to increase yields, nutrient uptake and pathogen resistance. An urgent need is therefore to understand and engineer plants and their associated microbial communities. Recent massive genomic sequencing of host plants and associated microbes offers resources to identify novel mechanisms of communal assembly mediated by the host. For example, host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions are involved in niche formation, thereby contributing to colonization. By leveraging genomic resources, genetic traits underlying those mechanisms will become important resources to design plants selecting and hosting beneficial microbial communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Verticillium-wilt causing plant pathogen Verticillium nonalfalfae.

    PubMed

    Jelen, Vid; de Jonge, Ronnie; Van de Peer, Yves; Javornik, Branka; Jakše, Jernej

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium nonalfalfae is a fungal plant pathogen that causes wilt disease by colonizing the vascular tissues of host plants. The disease induced by hop isolates of V. nonalfalfae manifests in two different forms, ranging from mild symptoms to complete plant dieback, caused by mild and lethal pathotypes, respectively. Pathogenicity variations between the causal strains have been attributed to differences in genomic sequences and perhaps also to differences in their mitochondrial genomes. We used data from our recent Illumina NGS-based project of genome sequencing V. nonalfalfae to study the mitochondrial genomes of its different strains. The aim of the research was to prepare a V. nonalfalfae reference mitochondrial genome and to determine its phylogenetic placement in the fungal kingdom. The resulting 26,139 bp circular DNA molecule contains a full complement of the 14 "standard" fungal mitochondrial protein-coding genes of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase subunits, together with a small rRNA subunit, a large rRNA subunit, which contains ribosomal protein S3 encoded within a type IA-intron and 26 tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of this mitochondrial genome placed it in the Verticillium spp. lineage in the Glomerellales group, which is also supported by previous phylogenetic studies based on nuclear markers. The clustering with the closely related Verticillium dahliae mitochondrial genome showed a very conserved synteny and a high sequence similarity. Two distinguishing mitochondrial genome features were also found-a potential long non-coding RNA (orf414) contained only in the Verticillium spp. of the fungal kingdom, and a specific fragment length polymorphism observed only in V. dahliae and V. nubilum of all the Verticillium spp., thus showing potential as a species specific biomarker.

  9. Moving through the Stressed Genome: Emerging Regulatory Roles for Transposons in Plant Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Pooja; Rai, Archana N.; Suprasanna, Penna

    2016-01-01

    The recognition of a positive correlation between organism genome size with its transposable element (TE) content, represents a key discovery of the field of genome biology. Considerable evidence accumulated since then suggests the involvement of TEs in genome structure, evolution and function. The global genome reorganization brought about by transposon activity might play an adaptive/regulatory role in the host response to environmental challenges, reminiscent of McClintock's original ‘Controlling Element’ hypothesis. This regulatory aspect of TEs is also garnering support in light of the recent evidences, which project TEs as “distributed genomic control modules.” According to this view, TEs are capable of actively reprogramming host genes circuits and ultimately fine-tuning the host response to specific environmental stimuli. Moreover, the stress-induced changes in epigenetic status of TE activity may allow TEs to propagate their stress responsive elements to host genes; the resulting genome fluidity can permit phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stress. Given their predominating presence in the plant genomes, nested organization in the genic regions and potential regulatory role in stress response, TEs hold unexplored potential for crop improvement programs. This review intends to present the current information about the roles played by TEs in plant genome organization, evolution, and function and highlight the regulatory mechanisms in plant stress responses. We will also briefly discuss the connection between TE activity, host epigenetic response and phenotypic plasticity as a critical link for traversing the translational bridge from a purely basic study of TEs, to the applied field of stress adaptation and crop improvement. PMID:27777577

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Verticillium-wilt causing plant pathogen Verticillium nonalfalfae

    PubMed Central

    Jelen, Vid; de Jonge, Ronnie; Van de Peer, Yves; Javornik, Branka; Jakše, Jernej

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium nonalfalfae is a fungal plant pathogen that causes wilt disease by colonizing the vascular tissues of host plants. The disease induced by hop isolates of V. nonalfalfae manifests in two different forms, ranging from mild symptoms to complete plant dieback, caused by mild and lethal pathotypes, respectively. Pathogenicity variations between the causal strains have been attributed to differences in genomic sequences and perhaps also to differences in their mitochondrial genomes. We used data from our recent Illumina NGS-based project of genome sequencing V. nonalfalfae to study the mitochondrial genomes of its different strains. The aim of the research was to prepare a V. nonalfalfae reference mitochondrial genome and to determine its phylogenetic placement in the fungal kingdom. The resulting 26,139 bp circular DNA molecule contains a full complement of the 14 "standard" fungal mitochondrial protein-coding genes of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase subunits, together with a small rRNA subunit, a large rRNA subunit, which contains ribosomal protein S3 encoded within a type IA-intron and 26 tRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of this mitochondrial genome placed it in the Verticillium spp. lineage in the Glomerellales group, which is also supported by previous phylogenetic studies based on nuclear markers. The clustering with the closely related Verticillium dahliae mitochondrial genome showed a very conserved synteny and a high sequence similarity. Two distinguishing mitochondrial genome features were also found—a potential long non-coding RNA (orf414) contained only in the Verticillium spp. of the fungal kingdom, and a specific fragment length polymorphism observed only in V. dahliae and V. nubilum of all the Verticillium spp., thus showing potential as a species specific biomarker. PMID:26839950

  11. A Proposal for Establishing a Free Market Basis for Plant Genome Information Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T.

    2001-09-26

    The current situation of genomics information exchange is reminiscent of some Third World cities, where residents despair they will ever get official utility service and therefore tap into power, phone, and gas sources with makeshift connections. Thus, each genomics grant spawns yet another idiosyncratic Web site, with makeshift links to whatever random Web sites the PI is most familiar with. There are few standards for semantics of data, and fewer standards for automating the interchange or integration of these autonomous Web sites. The US Plant Genome Initiative (PGI) has been enthusiastic contributor to this proliferation of chaotic Web sites, but to its credit it appears to be the first major program to attempt to find a solution. Some of us from the earliest days of the Human Genome Program have been acutely aware of the problems of genomic data integration, since long before the Web appeared and made the problem exponentially harder to resolve. We have seen large scale attempts, and subsequent failures or inadequacies, of many potential solution approaches (i.e., database federation, classical data warehousing, centralized data, etc.) and believe we know at least some of the reasons they still remain inadequate. It is our opinion that the only solution that has a chance of succeeding is one that considers the overall economics of genomics data production, sharing, and integration. We believe that attempting to create a kind of Free Market for data created under the Plant Genome Initiative will represent the most practical, powerful, and cost-effective approach to dealing with the broad range of plant genome information that has been unleashed.

  12. Comparative genomic analysis of four representative plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Pseudomonas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully sequenced genome. We conducted a genomic analysis comparing GP72 with three other pseudomonad PGPR: P. fluorescens Pf-5, P. aeruginosa M18, and the nitrogen-fixing strain P. stutzeri A1501. Our aim was to identify the similarities and differences among these strains using a comparative genomic approach to clarify the mechanisms of plant growth-promoting activity. Results The genome sizes of GP72, Pf-5, M18, and A1501 ranged from 4.6 to 7.1 M, and the number of protein-coding genes varied among the four species. Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) analysis assigned functions to predicted proteins. The COGs distributions were similar among the four species. However, the percentage of genes encoding transposases and their inactivated derivatives (COG L) was 1.33% of the total genes with COGs classifications in A1501, 0.21% in GP72, 0.02% in Pf-5, and 0.11% in M18. A phylogenetic analysis indicated that GP72 and Pf-5 were the most closely related strains, consistent with the genome alignment results. Comparisons of predicted coding sequences (CDSs) between GP72 and Pf-5 revealed 3544 conserved genes. There were fewer conserved genes when GP72 CDSs were compared with those of A1501 and M18. Comparisons among the four Pseudomonas species revealed 603 conserved genes in GP72, illustrating common plant growth-promoting traits shared among these PGPR. Conserved genes were related to catabolism, transport of plant-derived compounds, stress resistance, and rhizosphere colonization. Some strain-specific CDSs were related to different kinds of biocontrol activities or plant growth promotion. The GP72 genome

  13. Complete genome sequence of a plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033 is of special interest for its ability to promote host plant growth through production of stimulating compounds and suppression of soil borne pathogens by synthesizing antibacterial and antifungal metabolites or priming plant defense as induced systemic resistance. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens UCMB5033 comprises a 4,071,167 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 3,912 protein-coding genes, 86 tRNA genes and 10 rRNA operons. PMID:25197456

  14. Complete genome sequence of a plant associated bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033.

    PubMed

    Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2014-06-15

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCMB5033 is of special interest for its ability to promote host plant growth through production of stimulating compounds and suppression of soil borne pathogens by synthesizing antibacterial and antifungal metabolites or priming plant defense as induced systemic resistance. The genome of B. amyloliquefaciens UCMB5033 comprises a 4,071,167 bp long circular chromosome that consists of 3,912 protein-coding genes, 86 tRNA genes and 10 rRNA operons.

  15. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae.

  16. Plant flavonoids in cancer chemoprevention: role in genome stability.

    PubMed

    George, Vazhappilly Cijo; Dellaire, Graham; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2016-11-28

    Carcinogenesis is a multistage process that involves a series of events comprising of genetic and epigenetic changes leading to the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer. Chemoprevention is referred to as the use of nontoxic natural compounds, synthetic chemicals or their combinations to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis. Chemoprevention through diet modification, i.e., increased consumption of plant-based food, has emerged as a most promising and potentially cost-effective approach to reducing the risk of cancer. Flavonoids are naturally occurring polyphenols that are ubiquitous in plant-based food such as fruits, vegetables and teas as well as in most medicinal plants. Over 10,000 flavonoids have been characterized over the last few decades. Flavonoids comprise of several subclasses including flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanins, flavanones, flavones, isoflavones and proanthocyanidins. This review describes the most efficacious plant flavonoids, including luteolin, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, apigenin and chrysin; their hormetic effects; and the molecular basis of how these flavonoids contribute to the chemoprevention with a focus on protection against DNA damage caused by various carcinogenic factors. The present knowledge on the role of flavonoids in chemoprevention can be used in developing effective dietary strategies and natural health products targeted for cancer chemoprevention.

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant bugs from the genus Lygus are important pests of a wide variety of cultivated crops throughout the northern temperate regions. Lygus lineolaris is the most widespread species in North America and the primary pest species in the eastern half of the continent. Mitochondrial DNA has been an imp...

  18. Genome-Wide Prediction of Metabolic Enzymes, Pathways, and Gene Clusters in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peifen; Kim, Taehyong; Banf, Michael; Chavali, Arvind K.; Nilo-Poyanco, Ricardo; Bernard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Plant metabolism underpins many traits of ecological and agronomic importance. Plants produce numerous compounds to cope with their environments but the biosynthetic pathways for most of these compounds have not yet been elucidated. To engineer and improve metabolic traits, we need comprehensive and accurate knowledge of the organization and regulation of plant metabolism at the genome scale. Here, we present a computational pipeline to identify metabolic enzymes, pathways, and gene clusters from a sequenced genome. Using this pipeline, we generated metabolic pathway databases for 22 species and identified metabolic gene clusters from 18 species. This unified resource can be used to conduct a wide array of comparative studies of plant metabolism. Using the resource, we discovered a widespread occurrence of metabolic gene clusters in plants: 11,969 clusters from 18 species. The prevalence of metabolic gene clusters offers an intriguing possibility of an untapped source for uncovering new metabolite biosynthesis pathways. For example, more than 1,700 clusters contain enzymes that could generate a specialized metabolite scaffold (signature enzymes) and enzymes that modify the scaffold (tailoring enzymes). In four species with sufficient gene expression data, we identified 43 highly coexpressed clusters that contain signature and tailoring enzymes, of which eight were characterized previously to be functional pathways. Finally, we identified patterns of genome organization that implicate local gene duplication and, to a lesser extent, single gene transposition as having played roles in the evolution of plant metabolic gene clusters. PMID:28228535

  19. Biotechnological application of functional genomics towards plant-parasitic nematode control.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiarui; Todd, Timothy C; Lee, Junghoon; Trick, Harold N

    2011-12-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are primary biotic factors limiting the crop production. Current nematode control strategies include nematicides, crop rotation and resistant cultivars, but each has serious limitations. RNA interference (RNAi) represents a major breakthrough in the application of functional genomics for plant-parasitic nematode control. RNAi-induced suppression of numerous genes essential for nematode development, reproduction or parasitism has been demonstrated, highlighting the considerable potential for using this strategy to control damaging pest populations. In an effort to find more suitable and effective gene targets for silencing, researchers are employing functional genomics methodologies, including genome sequencing and transcriptome profiling. Microarrays have been used for studying the interactions between nematodes and plant roots and to measure both plants and nematodes transcripts. Furthermore, laser capture microdissection has been applied for the precise dissection of nematode feeding sites (syncytia) to allow the study of gene expression specifically in syncytia. In the near future, small RNA sequencing techniques will provide more direct information for elucidating small RNA regulatory mechanisms in plants and specific gene silencing using artificial microRNAs should further improve the potential of targeted gene silencing as a strategy for nematode management. © 2011 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2011 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Delineation of metabolic gene clusters in plant genomes by chromatin signatures

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Nan; Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; MacDonald, James T.; Moore, Ben; Field, Ben; Berriri, Souha; Trick, Martin; Rosser, Susan J.; Kumar, S. Vinod; Freemont, Paul S.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Plants are a tremendous source of diverse chemicals, including many natural product-derived drugs. It has recently become apparent that the genes for the biosynthesis of numerous different types of plant natural products are organized as metabolic gene clusters, thereby unveiling a highly unusual form of plant genome architecture and offering novel avenues for discovery and exploitation of plant specialized metabolism. Here we show that these clustered pathways are characterized by distinct chromatin signatures of histone 3 lysine trimethylation (H3K27me3) and histone 2 variant H2A.Z, associated with cluster repression and activation, respectively, and represent discrete windows of co-regulation in the genome. We further demonstrate that knowledge of these chromatin signatures along with chromatin mutants can be used to mine genomes for cluster discovery. The roles of H3K27me3 and H2A.Z in repression and activation of single genes in plants are well known. However, our discovery of highly localized operon-like co-regulated regions of chromatin modification is unprecedented in plants. Our findings raise intriguing parallels with groups of physically linked multi-gene complexes in animals and with clustered pathways for specialized metabolism in filamentous fungi. PMID:26895889

  1. Genome plasticity in filamentous plant pathogens contributes to the emergence of novel effectors and their cellular processes in the host.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yanhan; Li, Ying; Qi, Zhongqiang; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-02-01

    Plant diseases cause extensive yield loss of crops worldwide, and secretory 'warfare' occurs between plants and pathogenic organisms all the time. Filamentous plant pathogens have evolved the ability to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization through secreting effectors inside plant cells. The stresses from hosts and environment can drive the genome dynamics of plant pathogens. Remarkable advances in plant pathology have been made owing to these adaptable genome regions of several lineages of filamentous phytopathogens. Characterization new effectors and interaction analyses between pathogens and plants have provided molecular insights into the plant pathways perturbed during the infection process. In this mini-review, we highlight promising approaches of identifying novel effectors based on the genome plasticity. We also discuss the interaction mechanisms between plants and their filamentous pathogens and outline the possibilities of effector gene expression under epigenetic control that will be future directions for research.

  2. Integrated genomics and molecular breeding approaches for dissecting the complex quantitative traits in crop plants.

    PubMed

    Kujur, Alice; Saxena, Maneesha S; Bajaj, Deepak; Laxmi; Parida, Swarup K

    2013-12-01

    The enormous population growth, climate change and global warming are now considered major threats to agriculture and world's food security. To improve the productivity and sustainability of agriculture, the development of highyielding and durable abiotic and biotic stress-tolerant cultivars and/climate resilient crops is essential. Henceforth, understanding the molecular mechanism and dissection of complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits is the prime objective in current agricultural biotechnology research. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in plant genomics and molecular breeding research pertaining to conventional and next-generation whole genome, transcriptome and epigenome sequencing efforts, generation of huge genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic resources and development of modern genomics-assisted breeding approaches in diverse crop genotypes with contrasting yield and abiotic stress tolerance traits. Unfortunately, the detailed molecular mechanism and gene regulatory networks controlling such complex quantitative traits is not yet well understood in crop plants. Therefore, we propose an integrated strategies involving available enormous and diverse traditional and modern -omics (structural, functional, comparative and epigenomics) approaches/resources and genomics-assisted breeding methods which agricultural biotechnologist can adopt/utilize to dissect and decode the molecular and gene regulatory networks involved in the complex quantitative yield and stress tolerance traits in crop plants. This would provide clues and much needed inputs for rapid selection of novel functionally relevant molecular tags regulating such complex traits to expedite traditional and modern marker-assisted genetic enhancement studies in target crop species for developing high-yielding stress-tolerant varieties.

  3. The plant growth-promoting bacteria Azospirillum amazonense: genomic versatility and phytohormone pathway.

    PubMed

    Cecagno, Ricardo; Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-01-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum amazonense associates with plant roots to promote plant growth. Variation in replicon numbers and rearrangements is common among Azospirillum strains, and characterization of these naturally occurring differences can improve our understanding of genome evolution. We performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis to understand the genomic plasticity of A. amazonense. The number of A. amazonense-specific coding sequences was similar when compared with the six closely related bacteria regarding belonging or not to the Azospirillum genus. Our results suggest that the versatile gene repertoire found in A. amazonense genome could have been acquired from distantly related bacteria from horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the identification of coding sequence related to phytohormone production, such as flavin-monooxygenase and aldehyde oxidase, is likely to represent the tryptophan-dependent TAM pathway for auxin production in this bacterium. Moreover, the presence of the coding sequence for nitrilase indicates the presence of the alternative route that uses IAN as an intermediate for auxin synthesis, but it remains to be established whether the IAN pathway is the Trp-independent route. Future investigations are necessary to support the hypothesis that its genomic structure has evolved to meet the requirement for adaptation to the rhizosphere and interaction with host plants.

  4. The Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Azospirillum amazonense: Genomic Versatility and Phytohormone Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cecagno, Ricardo; Fritsch, Tiago Ebert; Schrank, Irene Silveira

    2015-01-01

    The rhizosphere bacterium Azospirillum amazonense associates with plant roots to promote plant growth. Variation in replicon numbers and rearrangements is common among Azospirillum strains, and characterization of these naturally occurring differences can improve our understanding of genome evolution. We performed an in silico comparative genomic analysis to understand the genomic plasticity of A. amazonense. The number of A. amazonense-specific coding sequences was similar when compared with the six closely related bacteria regarding belonging or not to the Azospirillum genus. Our results suggest that the versatile gene repertoire found in A. amazonense genome could have been acquired from distantly related bacteria from horizontal transfer. Furthermore, the identification of coding sequence related to phytohormone production, such as flavin-monooxygenase and aldehyde oxidase, is likely to represent the tryptophan-dependent TAM pathway for auxin production in this bacterium. Moreover, the presence of the coding sequence for nitrilase indicates the presence of the alternative route that uses IAN as an intermediate for auxin synthesis, but it remains to be established whether the IAN pathway is the Trp-independent route. Future investigations are necessary to support the hypothesis that its genomic structure has evolved to meet the requirement for adaptation to the rhizosphere and interaction with host plants. PMID:25866821

  5. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    DOE PAGES

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; ...

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  7. Comparative genomics of plant-associated Pseudomonas spp.: Insights into diversity and inheritance of traits involved in multitrophic interactions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We provide here a comparative genome analysis of the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, including seven new genomic sequences for plant-associated strains. These strains exhibit a diverse spectrum of traits involved in biological control and other multitrophic interactions with plants, microbes, and ins...

  8. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing and gene replacement in plants: Transitioning from lab to field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system has ignited and swept through the scientific community like wildfire. Owing largely to its efficiency, specificity, and flexibility, the CRISPR/Cas9 system has quickly become the preferred genome-editing tool of plant scientists. In plants, much of the earl...

  9. Genome sequences of two plant growth-promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas strains, R62 and R81.

    PubMed

    Mathimaran, N; Srivastava, R; Wiemken, A; Sharma, A K; Boller, T

    2012-06-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains R62 and R81 have previously been isolated and characterized as part of the Indo-Swiss Collaboration in Biotechnology. Here we present the draft genome sequences of these two PGPR strains, with the aim of unraveling the mechanisms behind their ability to promote wheat growth.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Multitrait Plant Growth-Promoting Bacillus sp. Strain RZ2MS9

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Bruna Durante; Taniguti, Lucas Mitsuo; Almeida, Jaqueline Raquel; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain RZ2MS9 is a multitrait soybean and maize growth-promoting bacterium isolated in Brazil from guarana’s rhizosphere. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of RZ2MS9 and its genes involved in many features related to plant growth promotion. PMID:28007854

  11. Comparative genomics of bacterial and plant folate synthesis and salvage: predictions and validations

    PubMed Central

    de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; El Yacoubi, Basma; de la Garza, Rocío Díaz; Noiriel, Alexandre; Hanson, Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Background Folate synthesis and salvage pathways are relatively well known from classical biochemistry and genetics but they have not been subjected to comparative genomic analysis. The availability of genome sequences from hundreds of diverse bacteria, and from Arabidopsis thaliana, enabled such an analysis using the SEED database and its tools. This study reports the results of the analysis and integrates them with new and existing experimental data. Results Based on sequence similarity and the clustering, fusion, and phylogenetic distribution of genes, several functional predictions emerged from this analysis. For bacteria, these included the existence of novel GTP cyclohydrolase I and folylpolyglutamate synthase gene families, and of a trifunctional p-aminobenzoate synthesis gene. For plants and bacteria, the predictions comprised the identities of a 'missing' folate synthesis gene (folQ) and of a folate transporter, and the absence from plants of a folate salvage enzyme. Genetic and biochemical tests bore out these predictions. Conclusion For bacteria, these results demonstrate that much can be learnt from comparative genomics, even for well-explored primary metabolic pathways. For plants, the findings particularly illustrate the potential for rapid functional assignment of unknown genes that have prokaryotic homologs, by analyzing which genes are associated with the latter. More generally, our data indicate how combined genomic analysis of both plants and prokaryotes can be more powerful than isolated examination of either group alone. PMID:17645794

  12. Genomic Diversity of Biocontrol Strains of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Aerial or Root Surfaces of Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The striking ecological, metabolic, and biochemical diversity of Pseudomonas has intrigued microbiologists for many decades. To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains known to suppress plant disease. The str...

  13. Genome Sequence of Serratia marcescens MSU97, a Plant-Associated Bacterium That Makes Multiple Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Udaondo, Zulema

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Serratia marcescens MSU97 was isolated from the Guayana region of Venezuela due to its ability to suppress plant-pathogenic oomycetes. Here, we report the genome sequence of MSU97, which produces various antibiotics, including the bacterial acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase inhibitor andrimid, the chlorinated macrolide oocydin A, and the red linear tripyrrole antibiotic prodigiosin. PMID:28254993

  14. Genome Sequence of the Potato Plant Pathogen Dickeya dianthicola Strain RNS04.9

    PubMed Central

    Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Mondy, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Dickeya dianthicola is one of the causative agents of soft rot and blackleg diseases, which are currently identified in European countries in a wide range of crops. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of D. dianthicola strain RNS04.9, which was isolated from a potato plant with blackleg symptoms in 2004. PMID:26044429

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni" Strain CX, a Plant-Pathogenic Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-M; Shao, J; Bottner-Parker, K D; Gundersen-Rindal, D E; Zhao, Y; Davis, R E

    2015-10-15

    "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni" strain CX, belonging to subgroup 16SrIII-A, is a plant-pathogenic bacterium causing economically important diseases in many fruit crops. Here, we report the draft genome sequence, which consists of 598,508 bases, with a G+C content of 27.21 mol%. Copyright © 2015 Lee et al.

  16. Sequence and genetic map of Meloidogyne hapla: A compact nematode genome for plant parasitism

    PubMed Central

    Opperman, Charles H.; Bird, David M.; Williamson, Valerie M.; Rokhsar, Dan S.; Burke, Mark; Cohn, Jonathan; Cromer, John; Diener, Steve; Gajan, Jim; Graham, Steve; Houfek, T. D.; Liu, Qingli; Mitros, Therese; Schaff, Jennifer; Schaffer, Reenah; Scholl, Elizabeth; Sosinski, Bryon R.; Thomas, Varghese P.; Windham, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We have established Meloidogyne hapla as a tractable model plant-parasitic nematode amenable to forward and reverse genetics, and we present a complete genome sequence. At 54 Mbp, M. hapla represents not only the smallest nematode genome yet completed, but also the smallest metazoan, and defines a platform to elucidate mechanisms of parasitism by what is the largest uncontrolled group of plant pathogens worldwide. The M. hapla genome encodes significantly fewer genes than does the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (most notably through a reduction of odorant receptors and other gene families), yet it has acquired horizontally from other kingdoms numerous genes suspected to be involved in adaptations to parasitism. In some cases, amplification and tandem duplication have occurred with genes suspected of being acquired horizontally and involved in parasitism of plants. Although M. hapla and C. elegans diverged >500 million years ago, many developmental and biochemical pathways, including those for dauer formation and RNAi, are conserved. Although overall genome organization is not conserved, there are areas of microsynteny that may suggest a primary biological function in nematodes for those genes in these areas. This sequence and map represent a wealth of biological information on both the nature of nematode parasitism of plants and its evolution. PMID:18809916

  17. Mycosphaerella graminicola sequencing heads towards the first finished genome of a filamentous plant pathogenic fungus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, a few of which cause disease in humans and other vertebrates. The genomes of M. graminicola and M. fijiensis, two of the most economically important pathogens of wheat and banana, respectively, ...

  18. Draft genome sequence of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ strain CX, a plant pathogenic bacterium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni’ strain CX, belonging to subgroup 16SrIII-A, is a plant pathogenic bacterium causing economically important diseases in many fruit crops. Here we report the draft genome sequence that consists of 598,508 bases, with a G+C content of 27.21 mol%. ...

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of a Carnation Mottle Virus Infecting Hop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Choi, Hoseong

    2015-01-01

    The Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) is a single positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the genus Carmovirus. The major natural host for CarMV is the carnation. In this study, using transcriptome data, we provide for the first time a nearly complete genome sequence of CarMV infecting hop plants. PMID:25977420

  20. A genome-wide association study platform built on iPlant cyber-infrastructure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We demonstrated a flexible Genome-Wide Association (GWA) Study (GWAS) platform built upon the iPlant Collaborative Cyber-infrastructure. The platform supports big data management, sharing, and large scale study of both genotype and phenotype data on clusters. End users can add their own analysis too...

  1. Reovirus genomes from plant-feeding insects represent a newly discovered lineage within the family Reoviridae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A complex set of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) was isolated from threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus), a plant-feeding hemipteran pest. A subset of these dsRNAs constitute the genome of a new reovirus, provisionally designated Spissistilus festinus reovirus (SpFRV). SpFRV was prese...

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Thermus thermophilus TMY, Isolated from a Geothermal Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Yasuhiro; Nagayoshi, Yuko; Ohshima, Toshihisa; Ogata, Seiya; Doi, Katsumi

    2017-02-02

    Thermus thermophilus TMY (JCM 10668) was isolated from silica scale formed at a geothermal power plant in Japan. Here, we report the complete genome sequence for this strain, which contains a chromosomal DNA of 2,121,526 bp with 2,500 predicted genes and a pTMY plasmid of 19,139 bp, with 28 predicted genes.

  3. Plant breeding with genomic selection: potential gain per unit time and cost

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based ph...

  4. Genome of the Root-Associated Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Variovorax paradoxus Strain EPS.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-In; Spain, Jim C; Leadbetter, Jared R; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Goodwin, Lynne A; Han, Cliff S; Woyke, Tanja; Davenport, Karen W; Orwin, Paul M

    2013-10-24

    Variovorax paradoxus is a ubiquitous betaproteobacterium involved in plant growth promotion, the degradation of xenobiotics, and quorum-quenching activity. The genome of V. paradoxus strain EPS consists of a single circular chromosome of 6,550,056 bp, with a 66.48% G+C content.

  5. Genomic prediction unifies animal and plant breeding programs to form platforms for biological discovery.

    PubMed

    Hickey, John M; Chiurugwi, Tinashe; Mackay, Ian; Powell, Wayne

    2017-08-30

    The rate of annual yield increases for major staple crops must more than double relative to current levels in order to feed a predicted global population of 9 billion by 2050. Controlled hybridization and selective breeding have been used for centuries to adapt plant and animal species for human use. However, achieving higher, sustainable rates of improvement in yields in various species will require renewed genetic interventions and dramatic improvement of agricultural practices. Genomic prediction of breeding values has the potential to improve selection, reduce costs and provide a platform that unifies breeding approaches, biological discovery, and tools and methods. Here we compare and contrast some animal and plant breeding approaches to make a case for bringing the two together through the application of genomic selection. We propose a strategy for the use of genomic selection as a unifying approach to deliver innovative 'step changes' in the rate of genetic gain at scale.

  6. Whole-Genome Regression and Prediction Methods Applied to Plant and Animal Breeding

    PubMed Central

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Hickey, John M.; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Daetwyler, Hans D.; Calus, Mario P. L.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic-enabled prediction is becoming increasingly important in animal and plant breeding and is also receiving attention in human genetics. Deriving accurate predictions of complex traits requires implementing whole-genome regression (WGR) models where phenotypes are regressed on thousands of markers concurrently. Methods exist that allow implementing these large-p with small-n regressions, and genome-enabled selection (GS) is being implemented in several plant and animal breeding programs. The list of available methods is long, and the relationships between them have not been fully addressed. In this article we provide an overview of available methods for implementing parametric WGR models, discuss selected topics that emerge in applications, and present a general discussion of lessons learned from simulation and empirical data analysis in the last decade. PMID:22745228

  7. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from latex-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Michiels, An; Van den Ende, Wim; Tucker, Mark; Van Riet, Liesbet; Van Laere, André

    2003-04-01

    The isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including long PCR, endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. Many protocols are available for the extraction of DNA from plant material. However, for latex-containing Asteraceae (Cichorioideae) species, standard protocols and commercially available kits do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. A cetyltrimethylammonium bromide protocol has been optimized for isolation of genomic DNA from latex-containing plants. Key steps in the modified protocol are the use of etiolated leaf tissue for extraction and an overnight 25 degrees C isopropanol precipitation step. The purified DNA has excellent spectral qualities, is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for long-fragment PCR amplification.

  8. Lifestyle transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Richard J; Thon, Michael R; Hacquard, Stéphane; Amyotte, Stefan G; Kleemann, Jochen; Torres, Maria F; Damm, Ulrike; Buiate, Ester A; Epstein, Lynn; Alkan, Noam; Altmüller, Janine; Alvarado-Balderrama, Lucia; Bauser, Christopher A; Becker, Christian; Birren, Bruce W; Chen, Zehua; Choi, Jaeyoung; Crouch, Jo Anne; Duvick, Jonathan P; Farman, Mark A; Gan, Pamela; Heiman, David; Henrissat, Bernard; Howard, Richard J; Kabbage, Mehdi; Koch, Christian; Kracher, Barbara; Kubo, Yasuyuki; Law, Audrey D; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Miyara, Itay; Moore, Neil; Neumann, Ulla; Nordström, Karl; Panaccione, Daniel G; Panstruga, Ralph; Place, Michael; Proctor, Robert H; Prusky, Dov; Rech, Gabriel; Reinhardt, Richard; Rollins, Jeffrey A; Rounsley, Steve; Schardl, Christopher L; Schwartz, David C; Shenoy, Narmada; Shirasu, Ken; Sikhakolli, Usha R; Stüber, Kurt; Sukno, Serenella A; Sweigard, James A; Takano, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Hiroyuki; Trail, Frances; van der Does, H Charlotte; Voll, Lars M; Will, Isa; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhang, Jingze; Zhou, Shiguo; Dickman, Martin B; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Ma, Li-Jun; Vaillancourt, Lisa J

    2012-09-01

    Colletotrichum species are fungal pathogens that devastate crop plants worldwide. Host infection involves the differentiation of specialized cell types that are associated with penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). We report here genome and transcriptome analyses of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis thaliana and Colletotrichum graminicola infecting maize. Comparative genomics showed that both fungi have large sets of pathogenicity-related genes, but families of genes encoding secreted effectors, pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transporters and peptidases are expanded in C. higginsianum. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that these genes are transcribed in successive waves that are linked to pathogenic transitions: effectors and secondary metabolism enzymes are induced before penetration and during biotrophy, whereas most hydrolases and transporters are upregulated later, at the switch to necrotrophy. Our findings show that preinvasion perception of plant-derived signals substantially reprograms fungal gene expression and indicate previously unknown functions for particular fungal cell types.

  9. Whole-genome regression and prediction methods applied to plant and animal breeding.

    PubMed

    de Los Campos, Gustavo; Hickey, John M; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Daetwyler, Hans D; Calus, Mario P L

    2013-02-01

    Genomic-enabled prediction is becoming increasingly important in animal and plant breeding and is also receiving attention in human genetics. Deriving accurate predictions of complex traits requires implementing whole-genome regression (WGR) models where phenotypes are regressed on thousands of markers concurrently. Methods exist that allow implementing these large-p with small-n regressions, and genome-enabled selection (GS) is being implemented in several plant and animal breeding programs. The list of available methods is long, and the relationships between them have not been fully addressed. In this article we provide an overview of available methods for implementing parametric WGR models, discuss selected topics that emerge in applications, and present a general discussion of lessons learned from simulation and empirical data analysis in the last decade.

  10. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mushegian, Arcady R.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  11. Genome Information of Methylobacterium oryzae, a Plant-Probiotic Methylotroph in the Phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Madhaiyan, Munusamy; Lee, Yi; Sa, Tong-Min; Oh, Tae Kwang; Kim, Jihyun F.

    2014-01-01

    Pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs in the Rhizobiales are widespread in the environment, and many Methylobacterium species associated with plants produce plant growth-promoting substances. To gain insights into the life style at the phyllosphere and the genetic bases of plant growth promotion, we determined and analyzed the complete genome sequence of Methylobacterium oryzae CBMB20T, a strain isolated from rice stem. The genome consists of a 6.29-Mb chromosome and four plasmids, designated as pMOC1 to pMOC4. Among the 6,274 coding sequences in the chromosome, the bacterium has, besides most of the genes for the central metabolism, all of the essential genes for the assimilation and dissimilation of methanol that are either located in methylotrophy islands or dispersed. M. oryzae is equipped with several kinds of genes for adaptation to plant surfaces such as defense against UV radiation, oxidative stress, desiccation, or nutrient deficiency, as well as high proportion of genes related to motility and signaling. Moreover, it has an array of genes involved in metabolic pathways that may contribute to promotion of plant growth; they include auxin biosynthesis, cytokine biosynthesis, vitamin B12 biosynthesis, urea metabolism, biosorption of heavy metals or decrease of metal toxicity, pyrroloquinoline quinone biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deamination, phosphate solubilization, and thiosulfate oxidation. Through the genome analysis of M. oryzae, we provide information on the full gene complement of M. oryzae that resides in the aerial parts of plants and enhances plant growth. The plant-associated lifestyle of M. oryzae pertaining to methylotrophy and plant growth promotion, and its potential as a candidate for a bioinoculant targeted to the phyllosphere and focused on phytostimulation are illuminated. PMID:25211235

  12. Genomic imprinting in plants: what makes the functions of paternal and maternal genes different in endosperm formation?

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takayuki; Sekine, Daisuke; Kinoshita, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Genomic imprinting refers to the unequal expression of maternal and paternal alleles according to the parent of origin. This phenomenon is regulated by epigenetic controls and has been reported in placental mammals and flowering plants. Although conserved characteristics can be identified across a wide variety of taxa, it is believed that genomic imprinting evolved independently in animal and plant lineages. Plant genomic imprinting occurs most obviously in the endosperm, a terminally differentiated embryo-nourishing tissue that is required for seed development. Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between genomic imprinting and the development of elaborate defense mechanisms against parasitic elements during plant sexual reproduction. In this chapter, we provide an introductory description of genomic imprinting in plants, and focus on recent advances in our understanding of its role in endosperm development, the frontline of maternal and paternal epigenomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-read sequencing uncovers the adaptive topography of a carnivorous plant genome

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tianying; Renner, Tanya; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Farr, Kimberly M.; Chang, Tien-Hao; Cervantes-Pérez, Sergio Alan; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David; Tang, Haibao; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Putra, Alexander; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Albert, Victor A.

    2017-01-01

    Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation. Syntenic duplicates retained in polyploid blocks are enriched for transcription factor functions, whereas gene copies derived from ongoing tandem duplication events are enriched in metabolic functions potentially important for a carnivorous plant. Among these are tandem arrays of cysteine protease genes with trap-specific expression that evolved within a protein family known to be useful in the digestion of animal prey. Further enriched functions among tandem duplicates (also with trap-enhanced expression) include peptide transport (intercellular movement of broken-down prey proteins), ATPase activities (bladder-trap acidification and transmembrane nutrient transport), hydrolase and chitinase activities (breakdown of prey polysaccharides), and cell-wall dynamic components possibly associated with active bladder movements. Whereas independently polyploid Arabidopsis syntenic gene duplicates are similarly enriched for transcriptional regulatory activities, Arabidopsis tandems are distinct from those of U. gibba, while still metabolic and likely reflecting unique adaptations of that species. Taken together, these findings highlight the special importance of tandem duplications in the adaptive landscapes of a carnivorous plant genome. PMID:28507139

  14. Long-read sequencing uncovers the adaptive topography of a carnivorous plant genome.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tianying; Renner, Tanya; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Farr, Kimberly M; Chang, Tien-Hao; Cervantes-Pérez, Sergio Alan; Zheng, Chunfang; Sankoff, David; Tang, Haibao; Purbojati, Rikky W; Putra, Alexander; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Schuster, Stephan C; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Albert, Victor A

    2017-05-30

    Utricularia gibba, the humped bladderwort, is a carnivorous plant that retains a tiny nuclear genome despite at least two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) since common ancestry with grapevine and other species. We used a third-generation genome assembly with several complete chromosomes to reconstruct the two most recent lineage-specific ancestral genomes that led to the modern U. gibba genome structure. Patterns of subgenome dominance in the most recent WGD, both architectural and transcriptional, are suggestive of allopolyploidization, which may have generated genomic novelty and led to instantaneous speciation. Syntenic duplicates retained in polyploid blocks are enriched for transcription factor functions, whereas gene copies derived from ongoing tandem duplication events are enriched in metabolic functions potentially important for a carnivorous plant. Among these are tandem arrays of cysteine protease genes with trap-specific expression that evolved within a protein family known to be useful in the digestion of animal prey. Further enriched functions among tandem duplicates (also with trap-enhanced expression) include peptide transport (intercellular movement of broken-down prey proteins), ATPase activities (bladder-trap acidification and transmembrane nutrient transport), hydrolase and chitinase activities (breakdown of prey polysaccharides), and cell-wall dynamic components possibly associated with active bladder movements. Whereas independently polyploid Arabidopsis syntenic gene duplicates are similarly enriched for transcriptional regulatory activities, Arabidopsis tandems are distinct from those of U. gibba, while still metabolic and likely reflecting unique adaptations of that species. Taken together, these findings highlight the special importance of tandem duplications in the adaptive landscapes of a carnivorous plant genome.

  15. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Trantas, Emmanouil A; Licciardello, Grazia; Almeida, Nalvo F; Witek, Kamil; Strano, Cinzia P; Duxbury, Zane; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E; Jones, Jonathan D G; Guttman, David S; Catara, Vittoria; Sarris, Panagiotis F

    2015-01-01

    The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor) and P. mediterranea (Pmed), are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for genes that encode proteins involved in commercially important chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of type III secretion system and known type III effector-encoding genes from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes. Genome-mining also revealed the presence of gene clusters for biosynthesis of siderophores, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and hydrogen cyanide. A highly conserved quorum sensing system was detected in all strains, although species specific differences were observed. Our study provides the basis for in-depth investigations regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence strategies in the battle between plants and microbes.

  16. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Trantas, Emmanouil A.; Licciardello, Grazia; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Witek, Kamil; Strano, Cinzia P.; Duxbury, Zane; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Guttman, David S.; Catara, Vittoria; Sarris, Panagiotis F.

    2015-01-01

    The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor) and P. mediterranea (Pmed), are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for genes that encode proteins involved in commercially important chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of type III secretion system and known type III effector-encoding genes from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes. Genome-mining also revealed the presence of gene clusters for biosynthesis of siderophores, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and hydrogen cyanide. A highly conserved quorum sensing system was detected in all strains, although species specific differences were observed. Our study provides the basis for in-depth investigations regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence strategies in the battle between plants and microbes. PMID:26300874

  17. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  18. Two Horizons of Fusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Mun Ling; Chik, Pakey Pui Man

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim to differentiate the internal and external horizons of "fusion." "Fusion" in the internal horizon relates to the structure and meaning of the object of learning as experienced by the learner. It clarifies the interrelationships among an object's critical features and aspects. It also illuminates the…

  19. The 2010 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Levine, A.; Smith, R.; Stone, S.

    2010-01-01

    The annual "Horizon Report" describes the continuing work of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a qualitative research project established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, or creative inquiry on college and university campuses within the next five years. The…

  20. The 2011 Horizon Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L.; Smith, R.; Willis, H.; Levine, A.; Haywood, K.

    2011-01-01

    The internationally recognized series of "Horizon Reports" is part of the New Media Consortium's Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture established in 2002 that identifies and describes emerging technologies likely to have a large impact over the coming five years on a variety of sectors around the globe. This volume, the "2011 Horizon…

  1. Comparative Genomics Reveals Insight into Virulence Strategies of Plant Pathogenic Oomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Bishwo N.; Hamilton, John P.; Zerillo, Marcelo M.; Tisserat, Ned; Lévesque, C. André; Buell, C. Robin

    2013-01-01

    The kingdom Stramenopile includes diatoms, brown algae, and oomycetes. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, including Phytophthora, Pythium and downy mildew species, cause devastating diseases on a wide range of host species and have a significant impact on agriculture. Here, we report comparative analyses on the genomes of thirteen straminipilous species, including eleven plant pathogenic oomycetes, to explore common features linked to their pathogenic lifestyle. We report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of six Pythium genomes and comparison with other stramenopiles including photosynthetic diatoms, and other plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora species, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Novel features of the oomycete genomes include an expansion of genes encoding secreted effectors and plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Phytophthora species and an over-representation of genes involved in proteolytic degradation and signal transduction in Pythium species. A complete lack of classical RxLR effectors was observed in the seven surveyed Pythium genomes along with an overall reduction of pathogenesis-related gene families in H. arabidopsidis. Comparative analyses revealed fewer genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in Pythium species and H. arabidopsidis as compared to Phytophthora species, suggesting variation in virulence mechanisms within plant pathogenic oomycete species. Shared features between the oomycetes and diatoms revealed common mechanisms of intracellular signaling and transportation. Our analyses demonstrate the value of comparative genome analyses for exploring the evolution of pathogenesis and survival mechanisms in the oomycetes. The comparative analyses of seven Pythium species with the closely related oomycetes, Phytophthora species and H. arabidopsidis, and distantly related diatoms provide insight into genes that underlie virulence. PMID:24124466

  2. Comparative genomics reveals insight into virulence strategies of plant pathogenic oomycetes.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bishwo N; Hamilton, John P; Zerillo, Marcelo M; Tisserat, Ned; Lévesque, C André; Buell, C Robin

    2013-01-01

    The kingdom Stramenopile includes diatoms, brown algae, and oomycetes. Plant pathogenic oomycetes, including Phytophthora, Pythium and downy mildew species, cause devastating diseases on a wide range of host species and have a significant impact on agriculture. Here, we report comparative analyses on the genomes of thirteen straminipilous species, including eleven plant pathogenic oomycetes, to explore common features linked to their pathogenic lifestyle. We report the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of six Pythium genomes and comparison with other stramenopiles including photosynthetic diatoms, and other plant pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora species, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Novel features of the oomycete genomes include an expansion of genes encoding secreted effectors and plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Phytophthora species and an over-representation of genes involved in proteolytic degradation and signal transduction in Pythium species. A complete lack of classical RxLR effectors was observed in the seven surveyed Pythium genomes along with an overall reduction of pathogenesis-related gene families in H. arabidopsidis. Comparative analyses revealed fewer genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in Pythium species and H. arabidopsidis as compared to Phytophthora species, suggesting variation in virulence mechanisms within plant pathogenic oomycete species. Shared features between the oomycetes and diatoms revealed common mechanisms of intracellular signaling and transportation. Our analyses demonstrate the value of comparative genome analyses for exploring the evolution of pathogenesis and survival mechanisms in the oomycetes. The comparative analyses of seven Pythium species with the closely related oomycetes, Phytophthora species and H. arabidopsidis, and distantly related diatoms provide insight into genes that underlie virulence.

  3. Anomaly corrected heterotic horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanella, A.; Gutowski, J. B.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-10-01

    We consider supersymmetric near-horizon geometries in heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We identify the conditions for the horizons to admit enhancement of supersymmetry. We show that solutions which undergo supersymmetry enhancement exhibit an {s}{l}(2,{R}) symmetry, and we describe the geometry of their horizon sections. We also prove a modified Lichnerowicz type theorem, incorporating α' corrections, which relates Killing spinors to zero modes of near-horizon Dirac operators. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are no AdS2 solutions in heterotic supergravity up to second order in α' for which the fields are smooth and the internal space is smooth and compact without boundary. We investigate a class of nearly supersymmetric horizons, for which the gravitino Killing spinor equation is satisfied on the spatial cross sections but not the dilatino one, and present a description of their geometry.

  4. Genome Analysis of a Zygomycete Fungus Choanephora cucurbitarum Elucidates Necrotrophic Features Including Bacterial Genes Related to Plant Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Min, Byoungnam; Park, Ji-Hyun; Park, Hongjae; Shin, Hyeon-Dong; Choi, In-Geol

    2017-01-01

    A zygomycete fungus, Choanephora cucurbitarum is a plant pathogen that causes blossom rot in cucurbits and other plants. Here we report the genome sequence of Choanephora cucurbitarum KUS-F28377 isolated from squash. The assembled genome has a size of 29.1 Mbp and 11,977 protein-coding genes. The genome analysis indicated that C. cucurbitarum may employ a plant pathogenic mechanism similar to that of bacterial plant pathogens. The genome contained 11 genes with a Streptomyces subtilisin inhibitor-like domain, which plays an important role in the defense against plant immunity. This domain has been found only in bacterial genomes. Carbohydrate active enzyme analysis detected 312 CAZymes in this genome where carbohydrate esterase family 6, rarely found in dikaryotic fungal genomes, was comparatively enriched. The comparative genome analysis showed that the genes related to sexual communication such as the biosynthesis of β-carotene and trisporic acid were conserved and diverged during the evolution of zygomycete genomes. Overall, these findings will help us to understand how zygomycetes are associated with plants. PMID:28091548

  5. Living with genome instability: the adaptation of phytoplasmas todiverse environments of their insect and plant hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jianhua; Ewing, Adam; Miller, Sally A.; Radek, Agnes; Shevchenko, Dimitriy; Tsukerman, Kiryl; Walunas, Theresa; Lapidus, Alla; Campbell, John W.; Hogenhout Saskia A.

    2006-02-17

    Phytoplasmas (Candidatus Phytoplasma, Class Mollicutes) cause disease in hundreds of economically important plants, and are obligately transmitted by sap-feeding insects of the order Hemiptera, mainly leafhoppers and psyllids. The 706,569-bp chromosome and four plasmids of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches broom (AY-WB) were sequenced and compared to the onion yellows phytoplasma strain M (OY-M) genome. The phytoplasmas have small repeat-rich genomes. The repeated DNAs are organized into large clusters, potential mobile units (PMUs), which contain tra5 insertion sequences (ISs), and specialized sigma factors and membrane proteins. So far, PMUs are unique to phytoplasmas. Compared to mycoplasmas, phytoplasmas lack several recombination and DNA modification functions, and therefore phytoplasmas probably use different mechanisms of recombination, likely involving PMUs, for the creation of variability, allowing phytoplasmas to adjust to the diverse environments of plants and insects. The irregular GC skews and presence of ISs and large repeated sequences in the AY-WB and OY-M genomes are indicative of high genomic plasticity. Nevertheless, segments of {approx}250 kb, located between genes lplA and glnQ are syntenic between the two phytoplasmas, contain the majority of the metabolic genes and no ISs. AY-WB is further along in the reductive evolution process than OY-M. The AY-WB genome is {approx}154 kb smaller than the OY-M genome, primarily as a result of fewer multicopy sequences, including PMUs. Further, AY-WB lacks genes that are truncated and are part of incomplete pathways in OY-M. This is the first comparative phytoplasma genome analysis and report of the existence of PMUs in phytoplasma genomes.

  6. Analysis of microsatellite markers in the genome of the plant pathogen Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Melissa C; Wilken, P Markus; Coetzee, Martin P A; Wingfield, Michael J; Wingfield, Brenda D

    2013-01-01

    Ceratocystis fimbriata sensu lato represents a complex of cryptic and commonly plant pathogenic species that are morphologically similar. Species in this complex have been described using morphological characteristics, intersterility tests and phylogenetics. Microsatellite markers have been useful to study the population structure and origin of some species in the complex. In this study we sequenced the genome of C. fimbriata. This provided an opportunity to mine the genome for microsatellites, to develop new microsatellite markers, and map previously developed markers onto the genome. Over 6000 microsatellites were identified in the genome and their abundance and distribution was determined. Ceratocystis fimbriata has a medium level of microsatellite density and slightly smaller genome when compared with other fungi for which similar microsatellite analyses have been performed. This is the first report of a microsatellite analysis conducted on a genome sequence of a fungal species in the order Microascales. Forty-seven microsatellite markers have been published for population genetic studies, of which 35 could be mapped onto the C. fimbriata genome sequence. We developed an additional ten microsatellite markers within putative genes to differentiate between species in the C. fimbriata s.l. complex. These markers were used to distinguish between 12 species in the complex.

  7. Hyb-Seq: Combining target enrichment and genome skimming for plant phylogenomics1

    PubMed Central

    Weitemier, Kevin; Straub, Shannon C. K.; Cronn, Richard C.; Fishbein, Mark; Schmickl, Roswitha; McDonnell, Angela; Liston, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Hyb-Seq, the combination of target enrichment and genome skimming, allows simultaneous data collection for low-copy nuclear genes and high-copy genomic targets for plant systematics and evolution studies. • Methods and Results: Genome and transcriptome assemblies for milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were used to design enrichment probes for 3385 exons from 768 genes (>1.6 Mbp) followed by Illumina sequencing of enriched libraries. Hyb-Seq of 12 individuals (10 Asclepias species and two related genera) resulted in at least partial assembly of 92.6% of exons and 99.7% of genes and an average assembly length >2 Mbp. Importantly, complete plastomes and nuclear ribosomal DNA cistrons were assembled using off-target reads. Phylogenomic analyses demonstrated signal conflict between genomes. • Conclusions: The Hyb-Seq approach enables targeted sequencing of thousands of low-copy nuclear exons and flanking regions, as well as genome skimming of high-copy repeats and organellar genomes, to efficiently produce genome-scale data sets for phylogenomics. PMID:25225629

  8. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequence and Phylogenetic Analysis of the Medicinal Plant Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaofeng; Wu, Mingli; Liao, Baosheng; Liu, Zhixiang; Bai, Rui; Xiao, Shuiming; Li, Xiwen; Zhang, Boli; Xu, Jiang; Chen, Shilin

    2017-08-11

    The complete chloroplast genome of Artemisia annua (Asteraceae), the primary source of artemisinin, was sequenced and analyzed. The A. annua cp genome is 150,995 bp, and harbors a pair of inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb), of 24,850 bp each that separate large (LSC, 82,988 bp) and small (SSC, 18,267 bp) single-copy regions. Our annotation revealed that the A. annua cp genome contains 113 genes and 18 duplicated genes. The gene order in the SSC region of A. annua is inverted; this fact is consistent with the sequences of chloroplast genomes from three other Artemisia species. Fifteen (15) forward and seventeen (17) inverted repeats were detected in the genome. The existence of rich SSR loci in the genome suggests opportunities for future population genetics work on this anti-malarial medicinal plant. In A. annua cpDNA, the rps19 gene was found in the LSC region rather than the IR region, and the rps19 pseudogene was absent in the IR region. Sequence divergence analysis of five Asteraceae species indicated that the most highly divergent regions were found in the intergenic spacers, and that the differences between A. annua and A. fukudo were very slight. A phylogenetic analysis revealed a sister relationship between A. annua and A. fukudo. This study identified the unique characteristics of the A. annua cp genome. These results offer valuable information for future research on Artemisia species identification and for the selective breeding of A. annua with high pharmaceutical efficacy.

  9. Optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to modify abiotic stress responses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Watanabe, Takahito; Sugano, Shigeo S; Ueta, Risa; Ishihara, Ryosuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Osakabe, Keishi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to modify plant genomes, however, improvements in specificity and applicability are still needed in order for the editing technique to be useful in various plant species. Here, using genome editing mediated by a truncated gRNA (tru-gRNA)/Cas9 combination, we generated new alleles for OST2, a proton pump in Arabidopsis, with no off-target effects. By following expression of Cas9 and the tru-gRNAs, newly generated mutations in CRIPSR/Cas9 transgenic plants were detected with high average mutation rates of up to 32.8% and no off-target effects using constitutive promoter. Reducing nuclear localization signals in Cas9 decreased the mutation rate. In contrast, tru-gRNA Cas9 cassettes driven by meristematic- and reproductive-tissue-specific promoters increased the heritable mutation rate in Arabidopsis, showing that high expression in the germ line can produce bi-allelic mutations. Finally, the new mutant alleles obtained for OST2 exhibited altered stomatal closing in response to environmental conditions. These results suggest further applications in molecular breeding to improve plant function using optimized plant CRISPR/Cas9 systems. PMID:27226176

  10. Optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to modify abiotic stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Watanabe, Takahito; Sugano, Shigeo S; Ueta, Risa; Ishihara, Ryosuke; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Osakabe, Keishi

    2016-05-26

    Genome editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to modify plant genomes, however, improvements in specificity and applicability are still needed in order for the editing technique to be useful in various plant species. Here, using genome editing mediated by a truncated gRNA (tru-gRNA)/Cas9 combination, we generated new alleles for OST2, a proton pump in Arabidopsis, with no off-target effects. By following expression of Cas9 and the tru-gRNAs, newly generated mutations in CRIPSR/Cas9 transgenic plants were detected with high average mutation rates of up to 32.8% and no off-target effects using constitutive promoter. Reducing nuclear localization signals in Cas9 decreased the mutation rate. In contrast, tru-gRNA Cas9 cassettes driven by meristematic- and reproductive-tissue-specific promoters increased the heritable mutation rate in Arabidopsis, showing that high expression in the germ line can produce bi-allelic mutations. Finally, the new mutant alleles obtained for OST2 exhibited altered stomatal closing in response to environmental conditions. These results suggest further applications in molecular breeding to improve plant function using optimized plant CRISPR/Cas9 systems.

  11. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Vallon, Olivier; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Witman, George B.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Marshall, Wallace F.; Qu, Liang-Hu; Nelson, David R.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Spalding, Martin H.; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Ren, Qinghu; Ferris, Patrick; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan M.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Cardol, Pierre; Cerutti, Heriberto; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Chen, Chun-Long; Cognat, Valérie; Croft, Martin T.; Dent, Rachel; Dutcher, Susan; Fernández, Emilio; Ferris, Patrick; Fukuzawa, Hideya; González-Ballester, David; González-Halphen, Diego; Hallmann, Armin; Hanikenne, Marc; Hippler, Michael; Inwood, William; Jabbari, Kamel; Kalanon, Ming; Kuras, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Lohr, Martin; Manuell, Andrea; Meier, Iris; Mets, Laurens; Mittag, Maria; Mittelmeier, Telsa; Moroney, James V.; Moseley, Jeffrey; Napoli, Carolyn; Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Niyogi, Krishna; Novoselov, Sergey V.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Pazour, Greg; Purton, Saul; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Riekhof, Wayne; Rymarquis, Linda; Schroda, Michael; Stern, David; Umen, James; Willows, Robert; Wilson, Nedra; Zimmer, Sara Lana; Allmer, Jens; Balk, Janneke; Bisova, Katerina; Chen, Chong-Jian; Elias, Marek; Gendler, Karla; Hauser, Charles; Lamb, Mary Rose; Ledford, Heidi; Long, Joanne C.; Minagawa, Jun; Page, M. Dudley; Pan, Junmin; Pootakham, Wirulda; Roje, Sanja; Rose, Annkatrin; Stahlberg, Eric; Terauchi, Aimee M.; Yang, Pinfen; Ball, Steven; Bowler, Chris; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Green, Pamela; Jorgensen, Richard; Mayfield, Stephen; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard T.; Brokstein, Peter; Dubchak, Inna; Goodstein, David; Hornick, Leila; Huang, Y. Wayne; Jhaveri, Jinal; Luo, Yigong; Martínez, Diego; Ngau, Wing Chi Abby; Otillar, Bobby; Poliakov, Alexander; Porter, Aaron; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Werner, Gregory; Zhou, Kemin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ∼120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella. PMID:17932292

  12. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops. PMID:25320561

  13. Comparative Genomics of Taphrina Fungi Causing Varying Degrees of Tumorous Deformity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Isheng J.; Tanaka, Eiji; Masuya, Hayato; Tanaka, Ryusei; Hirooka, Yuuri; Endoh, Rikiya; Sahashi, Norio; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-01-01

    Taphrina fungi are biotrophic plant pathogens that cause plant deformity diseases. We sequenced the genomes of four Taphrina species—Taphrina wiesneri, T. deformans, T. flavorubra, and T. populina—which parasitize Prunus, Cerasus, and Populus hosts with varying severity of disease symptoms. High levels of gene synteny within Taphrina species were observed, and our comparative analysis further revealed that these fungi may utilize multiple strategies in coping with the host environment that are also found in some specialized dimorphic species. These include species-specific aneuploidy and clusters of highly diverged secreted proteins located at subtelomeres. We also identified species differences in plant hormone biosynthesis pathways, which may contribute to varying degree of disease symptoms. The genomes provide a rich resource for investigation into Taphrina biology and evolutionary studies across the basal ascomycetes clade. PMID:24682155

  14. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  15. Kazusa Marker DataBase: a database for genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in plants.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    In order to provide useful genomic information for agronomical plants, we have established a database, the Kazusa Marker DataBase (http://marker.kazusa.or.jp). This database includes information on DNA markers, e.g., SSR and SNP markers, genetic linkage maps, and physical maps, that were developed at the Kazusa DNA Research Institute. Keyword searches for the markers, sequence data used for marker development, and experimental conditions are also available through this database. Currently, 10 plant species have been targeted: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), radish (Raphanus sativus), Lotus japonicus, soybean (Glycine max), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), red clover (Trifolium pratense), white clover (Trifolium repens), and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis). In addition, the number of plant species registered in this database will be increased as our research progresses. The Kazusa Marker DataBase will be a useful tool for both basic and applied sciences, such as genomics, genetics, and molecular breeding in crops.

  16. Genome size reduction can trigger rapid phenotypic evolution in invasive plants

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Sébastien; Muenke, Nikolas J.; Molofsky, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The study of rapid evolution in invasive species has highlighted the fundamental role played by founder events, emergence of genetic novelties through recombination and rapid response to new selective pressures. However, whether rapid adaptation of introduced species can be driven by punctual changes in genome organization has received little attention. In plants, variation in genome size, i.e. variation in the amount of DNA per monoploid set of chromosomes through loss or gain of repeated DNA sequences, is known to influence a number of physiological, phenological and life-history features. The present study investigated whether change in genome size has contributed to the evolution of greater potential of vegetative growth in invasive populations of an introduced grass. Methods The study was based on the recent demonstration that invasive genotypes of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) occurring in North America have emerged from recombination between introduced European strains. The genome sizes of more than 200 invasive and native genotypes were measured and their genome size was related to their phenotypic traits measured in a common glasshouse environment. Population genetics data were used to infer phylogeographical relationships between study populations, and the evolutionary history of genome size within the study species was inferred. Key Results Invasive genotypes had a smaller genome than European native genotypes from which they are derived. This smaller genome size had phenotypic effects that increased the species' invasive potential, including a higher early growth rate, due to a negative relationship between genome size and rate of stem elongation. Based on inferred phylogeographical relationships of invasive and native populations, evolutionary models were consistent with a scenario of genome reduction by natural selection during the invasion process, rather than a scenario of stochastic change. Conclusions Punctual

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth–Promoting Rhizobacterium Acinetobacter radioresistens Strain SA188 Isolated from the Desert Plant Indigofera argentea

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Feras F.; Alam, Intikhab; Bisseling, Ton; Geurts, Rene; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acinetobacter radioresistens strain SA188 is a plant endophytic bacterium, isolated from root nodules of the desert plants Indigofera spp., collected in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Here, we report the 3.2-Mb draft genome sequence of strain SA188, highlighting characteristic pathways for plant growth–promoting activity and environmental adaptation. PMID:28254978

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Cupriavidus gilardii Strain JZ4 Isolated from the Desert Plant Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Lafi, Feras F; Bokhari, Ameerah; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B; Hirt, Heribert; Saad, Maged M

    2016-07-28

    We isolated the plant endophytic bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain JZ4 from the roots of the desert plant Tribulus terrestris, collected from the Jizan region, Saudi Arabia. We report here the draft genome sequence of JZ4, together with several enzymes related to plant growth-promoting activity, environmental adaption, and antifungal activity.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Cupriavidus gilardii Strain JZ4 Isolated from the Desert Plant Tribulus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Feras F.; Bokhari, Ameerah; Alam, Intikhab; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2016-01-01

    We isolated the plant endophytic bacterium Cupriavidus gilardii strain JZ4 from the roots of the desert plant Tribulus terrestris, collected from the Jizan region, Saudi Arabia. We report here the draft genome sequence of JZ4, together with several enzymes related to plant growth-promoting activity, environmental adaption, and antifungal activity. PMID:27469951

  20. UV-C–Irradiated Arabidopsis and Tobacco Emit Volatiles That Trigger Genomic Instability in Neighboring Plants[W

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Youli; Danna, Cristian H.; Zemp, Franz J.; Titov, Viktor; Ciftci, Ozan Nazim; Przybylski, Roman; Ausubel, Frederick M.; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that local exposure of plants to stress results in a systemic increase in genome instability. Here, we show that UV-C–irradiated plants produce a volatile signal that triggers an increase in genome instability in neighboring nonirradiated Arabidopsis thaliana plants. This volatile signal is interspecific, as UV-C–irradiated Arabidopsis plants transmit genome destabilization to naive tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants and vice versa. We report that plants exposed to the volatile hormones methyl salicylate (MeSA) or methyl jasmonate (MeJA) exhibit a similar level of genome destabilization as UV-C–irradiated plants. We also found that irradiated Arabidopsis plants produce MeSA and MeJA. The analysis of mutants impaired in the synthesis and/or response to salicylic acid (SA) and/or jasmonic acid showed that at least one other volatile compound besides MeSA and MeJA can communicate interplant genome instability. The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (npr1) mutant, defective in SA signaling, is impaired in both the production and the perception of the volatile signals, demonstrating a key role for NPR1 as a central regulator of genome stability. Finally, various forms of stress resulting in the formation of necrotic lesions also generate a volatile signal that leads to genomic instability. PMID:22028460

  1. Insights from the draft genome of Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488, a promising plant growth promoting bacterium.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Vasvi; Chauhan, Puneet S; Mishra, Aradhana; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar H; Mantri, Shrikant S; Bag, Sumit K; Singh, Sunil K; Sawant, Samir V; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2013-12-01

    Paenibacillus lentimorbus NRRL B-30488, a plant growth-promoting bacterium was isolated from Sahiwal cow's milk. The strain shows antagonism against phytopathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Alternaria solani. Its genome contains gene clusters involved in nonribosomal synthesis of secondary metabolites involved in antimicrobial activities. The genome sequence of P. lentimorbus NRRL B-30488 provides the genetic basis for application of this bacterial strain in plant growth promotion, plant protection and degradation of organic pollutants.

  2. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth Promoting Endophytic Bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Hoffman, A.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Walla, M. D.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.; Monchy, S.

    2010-05-13

    Enterobacter sp. 638 is an endophytic plant growth promoting gamma-proteobacterium that was isolated from the stem of poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. H11-11), a potentially important biofuel feed stock plant. The Enterobacter sp. 638 genome sequence reveals the presence of a 4,518,712 bp chromosome and a 157,749 bp plasmid (pENT638-1). Genome annotation and comparative genomics allowed the identification of an extended set of genes specific to the plant niche adaptation of this bacterium. This includes genes that code for putative proteins involved in survival in the rhizosphere (to cope with oxidative stress or uptake of nutrients released by plant roots), root adhesion (pili, adhesion, hemagglutinin, cellulose biosynthesis), colonization/establishment inside the plant (chemiotaxis, flagella, cellobiose phosphorylase), plant protection against fungal and bacterial infections (siderophore production and synthesis of the antimicrobial compounds 4-hydroxybenzoate and 2-phenylethanol), and improved poplar growth and development through the production of the phytohormones indole acetic acid, acetoin, and 2,3-butanediol. Metabolite analysis confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR showed that, the production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol is induced by the presence of sucrose in the growth medium. Interestingly, both the genetic determinants required for sucrose metabolism and the synthesis of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol are clustered on a genomic island. These findings point to a close interaction between Enterobacter sp. 638 and its poplar host, where the availability of sucrose, a major plant sugar, affects the synthesis of plant growth promoting phytohormones by the endophytic bacterium. The availability of the genome sequence, combined with metabolome and transcriptome analysis, will provide a better understanding of the synergistic interactions between poplar and its growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638. This information can be further exploited to

  3. Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: a current perspective of genome distribution, evolution, and function : Plant STAND P-loop NTPases: genomic organization, evolution, and molecular mechanism models contribute broadly to plant pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2017-09-12

    STAND P-loop NTPase is the common weapon used by plant and other organisms from all three kingdoms of life to defend themselves against pathogen invasion. The purpose of this study is to review comprehensively the latest finding of plant STAND P-loop NTPase related to their genomic distribution, evolution, and their mechanism of action. Earlier, the plant STAND P-loop NTPase known to be comprised of only NBS-LRRs/AP-ATPase/NB-ARC ATPase. However, recent finding suggests that genome of early green plants comprised of two types of STAND P-loop NTPases: (1) mammalian NACHT NTPases and (2) NBS-LRRs. Moreover, YchF (unconventional G protein and members of P-loop NTPase) subfamily has been reported to be exceptionally involved in biotic stress (in case of Oryza sativa), thereby a novel member of STAND P-loop NTPase in green plants. The lineage-specific expansion and genome duplication events are responsible for abundance of plant STAND P-loop NTPases; where "moderate tandem and low segmental duplication" trajectory followed in majority of plant species with few exception (equal contribution of tandem and segmental duplication). Since the past decades, systematic research is being investigated into NBS-LRR function supported the direct recognition of pathogen or pathogen effectors by the latest models proposed via 'integrated decoy' or 'sensor domains' model. Here, we integrate the recently published findings together with the previous literature on the genomic distribution, evolution, and distinct models proposed for functional molecular mechanism of plant STAND P-loop NTPases.

  4. MEGANTE: a web-based system for integrated plant genome annotation.

    PubMed

    Numa, Hisataka; Itoh, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The recent advancement of high-throughput genome sequencing technologies has resulted in a considerable increase in demands for large-scale genome annotation. While annotation is a crucial step for downstream data analyses and experimental studies, this process requires substantial expertise and knowledge of bioinformatics. Here we present MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system that makes plant genome annotation easy for researchers unfamiliar with bioinformatics. Without any complicated configuration, users can perform genomic sequence annotations simply by uploading a sequence and selecting the species to query. MEGANTE automatically runs several analysis programs and integrates the results to select the appropriate consensus exon-intron structures and to predict open reading frames (ORFs) at each locus. Functional annotation, including a similarity search against known proteins and a functional domain search, are also performed for the predicted ORFs. The resultant annotation information is visualized with a widely used genome browser, GBrowse. For ease of analysis, the results can be downloaded in Microsoft Excel format. All of the query sequences and annotation results are stored on the server side so that users can access their own data from virtually anywhere on the web. The current release of MEGANTE targets 24 plant species from the Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Musaceae, Poaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Vitaceae families, and it allows users to submit a sequence up to 10 Mb in length and to save up to 100 sequences with the annotation information on the server. The MEGANTE web service is available at https://megante.dna.affrc.go.jp/.

  5. CRISPR/Cpf1-mediated DNA-free plant genome editing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeran; Kim, Sang-Tae; Ryu, Jahee; Kang, Beum-Chang; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Cpf1, a type V CRISPR effector, recognizes a thymidine-rich protospacer-adjacent motif and induces cohesive double-stranded breaks at the target site guided by a single CRISPR RNA (crRNA). Here we show that Cpf1 can be used as a tool for DNA-free editing of plant genomes. We describe the delivery of recombinant Cpf1 proteins with in vitro transcribed or chemically synthesized target-specific crRNAs into protoplasts isolated from soybean and wild tobacco. Designed crRNAs are unique and do not have similar sequences (≤3 mismatches) in the entire soybean reference genome. Targeted deep sequencing analyses show that mutations are successfully induced in FAD2 paralogues in soybean and AOC in wild tobacco. Unlike SpCas9, Cpf1 mainly induces various nucleotide deletions at target sites. No significant mutations are detected at potential off-target sites in the soybean genome. These results demonstrate that Cpf1–crRNA complex is an effective DNA-free genome-editing tool for plant genome editing. PMID:28205546

  6. Multiplex sequencing of bacterial artificial chromosomes for assembling complex plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Schmutzer, Thomas; Felder, Marius; Taudien, Stefan; Mayer, Klaus F X; Platzer, Matthias; Stein, Nils; Scholz, Uwe; Mascher, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Hierarchical shotgun sequencing remains the method of choice for assembling high-quality reference sequences of complex plant genomes. The efficient exploitation of current high-throughput technologies and powerful computational facilities for large-insert clone sequencing necessitates the sequencing and assembly of a large number of clones in parallel. We developed a multiplexed pipeline for shotgun sequencing and assembling individual bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) using the Illumina sequencing platform. We illustrate our approach by sequencing 668 barley BACs (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a single Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. Using a newly designed parallelized computational pipeline, we obtained sequence assemblies of individual BACs that consist, on average, of eight sequence scaffolds and represent >98% of the genomic inserts. Our BAC assemblies are clearly superior to a whole-genome shotgun assembly regarding contiguity, completeness and the representation of the gene space. Our methods may be employed to rapidly obtain high-quality assemblies of a large number of clones to assemble map-based reference sequences of plant and animal species with complex genomes by sequencing along a minimum tiling path. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. CRISPR/Cas9-Based Multiplex Genome Editing in Monocot and Dicot Plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingliang; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2016-07-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome targeting system has been applied to a variety of organisms, including plants. Compared to other genome-targeting technologies such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), the CRISPR/Cas9 system is easier to use and has much higher editing efficiency. In addition, multiple "single guide RNAs" (sgRNAs) with different target sequences can be designed to direct the Cas9 protein to multiple genomic sites for simultaneous multiplex editing. Here, we present a procedure for highly efficient multiplex genome targeting in monocot and dicot plants using a versatile and robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, emphasizing the construction of binary constructs with multiple sgRNA expression cassettes in one round of cloning using Golden Gate ligation. We also describe the genotyping of targeted mutations in transgenic plants by direct Sanger sequencing followed by decoding of superimposed sequencing chromatograms containing biallelic or heterozygous mutations using the Web-based tool DSDecode. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana Database (MAtDB