Science.gov

Sample records for plant materials research

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  8. Plant Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Land's agricultural research team is testing new ways to sustain life in space as a research participant with Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Land, sponsored by Kraft General Foods, is an entertainment, research, and education facility at EPCOT Center, part of Walt Disney World. The cooperative effort is simultaneously a research and development program, a technology demonstration that provides the public to see high technology at work and an area of potential spinoff: the CELSS work may generate Earth use technology beneficial to the hydroponic (soilless growing) vegetable production industries of the world.

  9. Materials research at CMAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-18

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  10. Materials research at CMAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  11. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  12. Materials Research Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1986-01-01

    Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites, ceramics, coatings, processing techniques, etc., which are now also in use by U.S. industry. This brochure highlights selected past accomplishments of our materials research and technology staff. It also provides many examples of the facilities available with which we can conduct materials research. The nation is now beginning to consider integrating technology for high-performance supersonic/hypersonic aircraft, nuclear space power systems, a space station, and new research areas such as materials processing in space. As we proceed, I am confident that our materials research staff will continue to provide important contributions which will help our nation maintain a strong technology position in these areas of growing world competition. Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites

  13. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  14. Plant materials for novel ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preservationist approach to restoration plant materials has 'local' as its centerpiece, emphasizing taxonomic and genetic patterns (in space). This view can be seen to be at odds with an alternative interventionist point of view that emphasizes the 'processes' (across time) of ecosystem functio...

  15. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  16. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2011-01-01

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  17. Materials research. [research concerning materials for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported concerned with materials for aerospace applications. Areas reported include: electrical properties of glasses, oxides and metals; structural and high temperature properties of crystalline and amorphous materials; and physical properties, and microstructure of materials.

  18. Materials Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity materials processing experiments provide an opportunity to perform scientific research in an environment which allows one to observe various phenomena without the masking effects of gravity-driven convective flows, buoyancy, or contaminating influences of walled containers. Even for the most experienced scientists, it is still difficult to predict beforehand, whether or not microgravity experimentation can be successfully performed in space and achieve solutions to problems which are not attainable in 1 g. Consequently, experimentation in ground based facilities which are capable of simulating, in somewhat lesser time frames and to a lesser degree of microgravity, provides a unique low-cost approach to determine the feasibility of continuing research in a particular experiment. The utilization of these facilities in developing the full requirements for a space experiment does present a very cost-effective approach to microgravity experimentation. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an excellent test bed for containerless processing experiments such as described here. These facilities have demonstrated for a number of years the capability to develop insight into space experiments involving containerless processing, rapid solidification, and wetting phenomena through the use of lower-cost ground facilities. Once sufficient data has been obtained, then a space-based experiment can be better defined.

  19. Materials research at Stanford University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information briefly describing the total research activity related to the science of materials is reported. Emphasis is placed on physical and mechanical properties of composite materials, energy transportation, superconductors, microwave electronics, and solid state electrochemistry.

  20. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Encapsulation materials for solar cells were investigated. The different phases consisted of: (1) identification and development of low cost module encapsulation materials; (2) materials reliability examination; and (3) process sensitivity and process development. It is found that outdoor photothermal aging devices (OPT) are the best accelerated aging methods, simulate worst case field conditions, evaluate formulation and module performance and have a possibility for life assessment. Outdoor metallic copper exposure should be avoided, self priming formulations have good storage stability, stabilizers enhance performance, and soil resistance treatment is still effective.

  1. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  2. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature thermoplastic polyimide polymers are incorporated in engineering structures in the form of matrix materials in advanced fiber composites and adhesives in bonded joints. Developing analytical tools to predict long term performance and screen for final materials selection for polymers is the impetus for intensive studies at NASA and major industry based airframe developers. These fiber-reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs) combine high strength with lightweight. In addition, they offer corrosion and fatigue resistance, a reduction in parts count, and new possibilities for control through aeroelastic tailoring and "smart" structures containing fully-integrated sensors and actuators. However, large-scale acceptance and use of polymer composites has historically been extremely slow. Reasons for this include a lack of familiarity of designers with the materials; the need for new tooling and new inspection and repair infrastructures; and high raw materials and fabrication costs.

  3. Reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorophyll and water obscure the absorption features of all other leaf constituents in the spectra of green leaves. The predominant near-IR and thermal IR spectral features of dry plant materials originate from lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. These compounds account for 80 to 98 percent of the dry weight in most plant materials.

  4. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    The successful use of outdoor mounting racks as an accelerated aging technique (these devices are called optal reactors); a beginning list of candidate pottant materials for thin-film encapsulation, which process at temperatures well below 100 C; and description of a preliminary flame retardant formulation for ethylene vinyl acetate which could function to increase module flammability ratings are presented.

  5. Advanced desiccant materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Czanderna, A.W.; Thomas, T.M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  6. Aquatic plant control research

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N.; Ghio, E.G.

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  7. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Gates, Thomas S. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Computational Materials aims to model and predict thermodynamic, mechanical, and transport properties of polymer matrix composites. This workshop, the second coordinated by NASA Langley, reports progress in measurements and modeling at a number of length scales: atomic, molecular, nano, and continuum. Assembled here are presentations on quantum calculations for force field development, molecular mechanics of interfaces, molecular weight effects on mechanical properties, molecular dynamics applied to poling of polymers for electrets, Monte Carlo simulation of aromatic thermoplastics, thermal pressure coefficients of liquids, ultrasonic elastic constants, group additivity predictions, bulk constitutive models, and viscoplasticity characterization.

  8. Materials Research in Microgravity 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, R. (Editor); Bojarevis, V. (Editor); Downey, J.; Henein, H. (Editor); Matson, D.; Seidel, A. (Editor); Voss, D. (Editor); SanSoucie, M. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Reducing gravitational effects such as thermal and solutal buoyancy enables investigation of a large range of different phenomena in materials science. The Symposium on Materials Research in Microgravity involved 6 sessions composed of 39 presentations and 14 posters with contributions from more than 14 countries. The sessions concentrated on four different categories of topics related to ongoing reduced-gravity research. Highlights from this symposium will be featured in the September 2012 issue of JOM. The TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, Process Technology and Modeling Committee and Solidification Committee sponsored the symposium.

  9. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  10. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  11. Unit Plants, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The Australian Science Education Project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7-10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit introducing the study of plants. The section to be completed by all pupils, contained in the first of the student workbooks, emphasizes observation of specimens on school grounds and on…

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  14. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section... production of plant materials. NRCS can produce plant materials in the quantity required to do a specific conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are...

  15. Luminescence of some airborne plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satterwhite, Melvin B.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the excitation- emission spectra of seed pubescence, pollen and spores, and senesced plant materials that could be carried in the air column. Reference samples were a mature green-colored corn leaf, green-, yellow- and brown-colored soybean leaves, cellulose, commercial grade cotton batting and a soil. Spectral luminescence signatures were collected over the 300 to 800 nanometer region using a scanning spectrofluorometer. The excitation-emission spectra were broadband emission centroids in the 400-nm to 600-nm spectrum. Emission maxima were associated with the 440-nm, 470-nm and 370-nm excitation bands and the 455-nm to 590-nm emission bands. The coma of milkweed, silkvine, cotton (raw), cottonwood seeds and yellow- colored pollen and spores were highly fluorescent. The pappus of thistles, dandelion and goat's beard seeds and newly senesced grass leaves and glumes had moderate to high fluorescence. Dark brown-colored mushroom spores and weathered, senesced plant materials had low fluorescence. The emission spectra resembled that of regent, microcrystalline cellulose although impurities incorporated within the plant materials altered their emission intensities from that of cellulose. Moderate to low emissions were from tan- to dark brown-colored materials, whereas the white-colored or light, tan-colored materials had high emissions.

  16. Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

    SciTech Connect

    CASE JR.,ROGER S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

  17. Materials sciences research. [research facilities, research projects, and technical reports of materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving materials research conducted by various international test facilities are reported. Much of the materials research is classified in the following areas: (1) acousto-optic, acousto-electric, and ultrasonic research, (2) research for elucidating transport phenomena in well characterized oxides, (3) research in semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices, (4) the study of interfaces and interfacial phenomena, and (5) materials research relevant to natural resources. Descriptions of the individual research programs are listed alphabetically by the name of the author and show all personnel involved, resulting publications, and associated meeting speeches.

  18. [Glass fibre HEPA filters. II. Communication: Microbiological and physico-chemical researchs on used and unusued, hydrophilic and hydrophobic filter materials in an air conditioning plant (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rüden, H; Mihm, U; Schoemann, D; Botzenhart, K; Thofern, E

    1975-07-01

    Hydrophobic and hydrophilic, used and unused HEPA filters from various manufacturers, inoculated with vegetative bacteria, bacterial and fungal spores, were exposed to clean outside air for up to 17 weeks in an air conditioning plant. With relative humidities up to 60%, an increase in germ count could not be found. The rate of killing the micro-organisms inoculated were different and were generally higher on used filters. The low water content of the filter material was apparently not sufficient for microbial growth. In addition, the increase in electric conductivity and reduction of pH value resulting from deposition of substances from the outside air with an acid reaction ascertained in the aqueous filter extracts had a negative effect on the living conditions of the microorganisms.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  20. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  1. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  2. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  3. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  4. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  5. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  6. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  7. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  8. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  10. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; J. Sarver; M. Borden; K. Coleman; J. Blough; S. Goodstine; R.W. Swindeman; W. Mohn; I. Perrin

    2003-04-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  11. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  13. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  16. Power plant material characterization by lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The EPRI Nuclear Division undertook examination of the feasibility of utilizing lasers to perform in situ operations within power plants in 1983. The Nd- Yag laser was of particular interest because flexible fiber optics cabling could be utilized for beam transport; the end effectors could be made small enough to access power plant components remotely. Beam management for welding and metal conditioning in confined spaces; the first issue examined, lead to the application for steam generator repairs that is now in common usage. This report examines the laser beam as a source of information about the material property condition; an application made feasible by advances in fiber and laser technology that were achieved beginning in 1989. This work, examines the prospects for determination of material condition properties within power plants because the laser beam can be utilized for sampling and as a source of optical, thermal, ultrasonic, spectrographic and mensuration data that may be obtained nondestructively. Both application evaluations and feasibility testing is described.

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  1. MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is the compiled progress reports of research funded through the Michigan State University/Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory. Fourteen reports are included, covering the molecular basis of plant/microbe symbiosis, cell wall biosynthesis and proteins, gene expression, stress responses, plant hormone biosynthesis, interactions between the nuclear and organelle genomes, sensory transduction and tropisms, intracellular sorting and trafficking, regulation of lipid metabolism, molecular basis of disease resistance and plant pathogenesis, developmental biology of Cyanobacteria, and hormonal involvement in environmental control of plant growth. 320 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs. (MHB)

  2. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  3. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  4. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  5. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  6. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  7. Bioinformatics Approach in Plant Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Ong, Quang; Nguyen, Phuc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Le, Ly

    2016-08-01

    The advance in genomics technology leads to the dramatic change in plant biology research. Plant biologists now easily access to enormous genomic data to deeply study plant high-density genetic variation at molecular level. Therefore, fully understanding and well manipulating bioinformatics tools to manage and analyze these data are essential in current plant genome research. Many plant genome databases have been established and continued expanding recently. Meanwhile, analytical methods based on bioinformatics are also well developed in many aspects of plant genomic research including comparative genomic analysis, phylogenomics and evolutionary analysis, and genome-wide association study. However, constantly upgrading in computational infrastructures, such as high capacity data storage and high performing analysis software, is the real challenge for plant genome research. This review paper focuses on challenges and opportunities which knowledge and skills in bioinformatics can bring to plant scientists in present plant genomics era as well as future aspects in critical need for effective tools to facilitate the translation of knowledge from new sequencing data to enhancement of plant productivity. PMID:27499685

  8. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  9. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  10. Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

  11. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  12. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  13. [Research and development of artificial retina material].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Yang, Jun; Peng, Chenglin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Sijie; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Erxin

    2008-04-01

    The application of artificial retina was introduced. The principal characteristics of artificial retina material were reviewed in particular. Moreover, the recent research development and application prospect were discussed.

  14. Plants growing in Apollo 15 lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close view of germ free plants - lettuce (left), tomato (right center and left center) and citrus (right). This type of testing is an effort at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to grow germ-free plants.

  15. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  16. Prospects for research on semiconductor materials surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Robert W., Jr.; Zavada, John M.; Spielvogel, Bernard F.

    1987-01-01

    The workshop, Prospects for Research on Semiconductor Materials Surfaces, was held at the Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C. on November 12, 1986. It was sponsored by ARO and organized by Robert Shaw, John Zavada, and Bernard Spielvogel. The workshop emphasized experiments to probe surface chemistry of semiconductor materials with the eventual goal of improved devices. Participants came from university, industrial, and Army laboratories and discussed current basic research activities, identified neglected research areas with high potential payoff, and developed specific research recommendations. This report provides the summary notes of the workshop.

  17. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  18. Plant foods for human health: research challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathers, John C

    2006-05-01

    Plants provide the major part of human food intake. Whilst advances in agronomic characteristics (improved yield and better pest and disease resistance) continue to be a very high priority, there is increasing opportunity to enhance the nutritional value of plant based diets by improving the nutritional quality of staple foods. We now have proof of principle that genetic engineering can be used to produce plant-derived human vaccines. In relation to plant foods for human health, the research challenges include understanding: (1) why certain foods cause adverse reactions in some individuals but not in others; (2) the mechanisms of action of apparently 'protective' foods such as fruits and vegetables. There is also a need to develop much more informative and robust methods for measuring dietary exposure to specific plant foods or food constituents, including both recent exposure, for which a metabolomics approach may be particularly helpful, and long-term exposure.

  19. Materials Properties Research at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presson, Joan B.; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MSFC is currently planning, organizing and directing test coupon fabrication and subsequent CTE testing for two mirror materials of specific interest to the AMSD and NGST programs, Beryllium 0-30H (Be 0-30H) and Ultra Low Expansion glass (ULE). The ULE test coupons are being fabricated at MSFC from AMSD core residuals provided by Kodak, The Be 0-30H test coupons are being fabricated at Brush Wellman using residuals from the SBMD. Both sets of test coupons will be sent to a test vendor selected through the NASA competitive proposal process with the test results being provided by written report to MSFC by the end of the fiscal year. The test results will become model input data for the AMSD analysts, both MSFC and contractor, providing an enhancement to the historical CTE data currently available.

  20. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section 613.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.4...

  1. Plant Material Testing: Can we learn from small plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Choosing appropriate plant materials for a rangeland rehabilitation project is critical for long-term success. The question is what species to seed? We find it is first necessary to define objectives and goals before debating plant material choices. For example, our objective is often to suppress...

  2. Method of preparing and handling chopped plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Bransby, David I.

    2002-11-26

    The method improves efficiency of harvesting, storage, transport, and feeding of dry plant material to animals, and is a more efficient method for harvesting, handling and transporting dry plant material for industrial purposes, such as for production of bioenergy, and composite panels.

  3. Commissioning a materials research laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    SAVAGE,GERALD A.

    2000-03-28

    This presentation covers the process of commissioning a new 150,000 sq. ft. research facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The laboratory being constructed is a showcase of modern design methods being built at a construction cost of less than $180 per sq. ft. This is possible in part because of the total commissioning activities that are being utilized for this project. The laboratory's unique approach to commissioning will be presented in this paper. The process will be followed through from the conceptual stage on into the actual construction portion of the laboratory. Lessons learned and cost effectiveness will be presented in a manner that will be usable for others making commissioning related decisions. Commissioning activities at every stage of the design will be presented along with the attributed benefits. Attendees will hear answers to the what, when, who, and why questions associated with commissioning of this exciting project.

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Containment Pressure Boundary Research

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.C.; Costello, J.F.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1999-09-15

    Research to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants is summarized. This research is aimed at understanding the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containment and liners of concrete containment. This understanding will lead to improvements in risk-informed regulatory decision making. Containment pressure boundary components are described and potential aging factors identified. Quantitative tools for condition assessments of aging structures to maintain an acceptable level of reliability over the service life of the plant are discussed. Finally, the impact of aging (i.e., loss of shell thickness due to corrosion) on steel containment fragility for a pressurized water reactor ice-condenser plant is presented.

  5. Lewis materials research and technology: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1987-01-01

    The Materials Division at the Lewis Research Center has a long record of contributions to both materials and process technology as well as to the understanding of key high-temperature phenomena. An overview of the division staff, facilities, past history, recent progress, and future interests is presented.

  6. Granular Materials Research at NASA-Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Daidzic, Nihad; Green, Robert D.; Nakagawa, Masami; Nayagam, Vedha; Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of granular materials research at NASA-Glenn. The topics include: 1) Impulse dispersion of a tapered granular chain; 2) High Speed Digital Images of Tapered Chain Dynamics; 3) Impulse Dispersion; 4) Three Dimensional Granular Bed Experimental Setup; 5) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluid Flow in Porous Media; and 6) Net Charge on Granular Materials (NCharG).

  7. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  8. Materials Research With Neutrons at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, R. L.; Glinka, C. J.; Krueger, S.; Lindstrom, R. A.; Lynn, J. W.; Prask, H. J.; Prince, E.; Rush, J. J.; Rowe, J. M.; Satija, S. K.; Toby, B. H.; Tsai, A.; Udovic, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory works with industry, standards bodies, universities, and other government laboratories to improve the nation’s measurements and standards infrastructure for materials. An increasingly important component of this effort is carried out at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), at present the most productive center of its kind in the United States. This article gives a brief historical account of the growth and activities of the Center with examples of its work in major materials research areas and describes the key role the Center can expect to play in future developments. PMID:27500021

  9. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  10. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  11. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  12. Materials research institute annual report FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H

    1999-11-02

    The Materials Research Institute (MRI) is the newest of the University/LLNL Institutes and began operating in March 1997. The MRI is one of five Institutes reporting to the LLNL University Relations Program (URP), all of which have as their primary goal to facilitate university interactions at LLNL. This report covers the period from the opening of the MRI through the end of FY98 (September 30, 1998). The purpose of this report is to emphasize both the science that has been accomplished, as well as the LLNL and university people who were involved. The MRI is concentrating on projects, which highlight and utilize the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise. Our goal is to enable the best university research to enhance Laboratory programs in the area of cutting-edge materials science. The MRI is focusing on three primary areas of materials research: Biomaterials (organic/inorganic interfaces, biomemetic processes, materials with improved biological response, DNA materials science); Electro/Optical Materials (laser materials and nonlinear optical materials, semiconductor devices, nanostructured materials); and Metals/Organics (equation of state of metals, synthesis of unique materials, high explosives/polymers). In particular we are supporting projects that will enable the MRI to begin to make a distinctive name for itself within the scientific community and will develop techniques applicable to LLNL's core mission. This report is organized along the lines of these three topic areas. A fundamental goal of the MRI is to nucleate discussion and interaction between Lab and university researchers, and among Lab researchers from different LLNL Directorates. This is accomplished through our weekly seminar series, special seminar series such as Biomaterials and Applications of High Pressure Science, conferences and workshops, our extensive visitors program and MRI lunches. We are especially pleased to have housed five graduate students who are performing their thesis

  13. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  14. Recent global trends in structural materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Takahito; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Structural materials support the basis of global society, such as infrastructure and transportation facilities, and are therefore essential for everyday life. The optimization of such materials allows people to overcome environmental, energy and resource depletion issues on a global scale. The creation and manufacture of structural materials make a large contribution to economies around the world every year. The use of strong, resistant materials can also have profound social effects, providing a better quality of life at both local and national levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused significant structural damage in the Tohoku and Kanto regions of Japan. On a global scale, accidents caused by the ageing and failure of structural materials occur on a daily basis. Therefore, the provision and inspection of structural reliability, safety of nuclear power facilities and construction of a secure and safe society hold primary importance for researchers and engineers across the world. Clearly, structural materials need to evolve further to address both existing problems and prepare for new challenges that may be faced in the future. With this in mind, the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) organized the 'NIMS Conference 2012' to host an extensive discussion on a variety of global issues related to the future development of structural materials. Ranging from reconstruction following natural disasters, verification of structural reliability, energy-saving materials to fundamental problems accompanying the development of materials for high safety standards, the conference covered many key issues in the materials industry today. All the above topics are reflected in this focus issue of STAM, which introduces recent global trends in structural materials research with contributions from world-leading researchers in this field. This issue covers the development of novel alloys, current methodologies in the characterization of structural

  15. NASA. Lewis Research Center materials research and technology: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Division at the Lewis Research Center has a long record of contributions to both materials and process technology as well as to the understanding of key high-temperature phenomena. This paper overviews the division staff, facilities, past history, recent progress, and future interests.

  16. Interdisciplinary Research and Training Program in the Plant Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research on plants continued. Topics include: Molecular basis of symbiotic plant-microbe interations; enzymatic mechanisms and regulation of plant cell wall biosynthesis; molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes in plants; resistance of plants to environmental stress; studies on hormone biosynthesis and action; plant cell wall proteins; interaction of nuclear and organelle genomes; sensor transduction in plants; molecular mechanisms of trafficking in the plant cell; regulation of lipid metabolism; molecular bases of plant disease resistance mechanisms; biochemical and molecular aspects of plant pathogenesis; developmental biology of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria; environmental control of plant development and its relation to plant hormones.

  17. Progress in plant research in space.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, F R; Hess, E L; Halstead, T W

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  18. Progress in plant research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutcher, F. Ronald; Hess, Elizabeth L.; Halstead, Thora W.

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  19. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  20. Sources of plant materials for land rehabilitation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.D.; Howard, G.L.; White, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Military land managers and trainers are charged with planning and implementing land rehabilitation and maintenance to minimize environmental degradation and improve the safety and realism of the training mission. One step in the rehabilitation and maintenance process is to purchase appropriate plant materials, particularly locally endemic or adapted species. This report contains a list of plant material vendors in each state. Managers and trainers can contact these vendors for solicitation of bids.

  1. 7 CFR 613.3 - NRCS responsibilities in plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities in plant materials. 613.3 Section 613.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES..., county, and nonprofit agencies or organizations on the selection of plants and evaluation of...

  2. 7 CFR 613.3 - NRCS responsibilities in plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities in plant materials. 613.3 Section 613.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES..., county, and nonprofit agencies or organizations on the selection of plants and evaluation of...

  3. 7 CFR 613.3 - NRCS responsibilities in plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false NRCS responsibilities in plant materials. 613.3 Section 613.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES..., county, and nonprofit agencies or organizations on the selection of plants and evaluation of...

  4. Development of Native Plant Materials for Use in Restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of native plant materials for restoration demands that close attention be paid to the expectations of the specialized customer base of restoration practitioners. Native and introduced plants are not biologically different, but they are usually very different in how they are marketed...

  5. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and medicinal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balandrin, M.F.; Klocke, J.A.; Wurtele, E.S.; Bollinger, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.

  7. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  8. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  9. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-11-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1979 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1979 release data are compared with previous year's releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  10. Microwave dielectric properties of plant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Jedlicka, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Three waveguide transmission systems covering the 1-2, 3.5-6.5, and 7.5-8.5 GHZ bands were used to measure the dielectric properties of vegetation material as a function of moisture content and microwave frequency. The materials measured included, primarily, the leaves and stalks of corn and wheat. Dielectric measurements also were made of the liquid included in the vegetation material after it was extracted from the vegetation by mechanical means. The extracted liquids were found to have an equivalent NaCl salinity of about 10 per mil, which can have a significant effect on the dielectric loss at frequencies below 5 GHz. The results of attempts to model the dielectric constant of the vegetatioon-water mixture in terms of the dielectric constants and volume fractions of its constituent parts (i.e., bulk vegetation, air, bound water, and free water) are discussed. Additionally, measurements of the temporal variations in the total attenuation at 10.2 GHz are presented for a corn canopy and a soybean canopy.

  11. Chemistry and Materials Science research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted during the second half of FY90 under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The results reported here are for work in progress; as such, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Areas covered are as follows: Synchrotron-Radiation-Based Materials Science; Fundamental Aspects of Metal Processing; Energetic Materials; Tritium; High-Transition-Temperature Superconductivity; Plutonium; Interfaces, Adhesion, and Bonding; Photocatalysis on Doped Aerogel; Structural Transformation and Precursor Phenomena in Advanced Materials: Theory and Experiments; Laser-Induced Chemistry; Molecular Plasmas; Chemistry of Defects; The Use of Short Pulses with Energetic Materials; NMR Investigations of Crosslinking in Melamine Formaldehyde Aerogels; Surface Magnetism in Ultrathin Films of Fe/Cu(001); Damage Initiation and Accumulation during Fatigue in Metal-Matrix Composites; Reactivity of the V{double bond}O Bond; The Structure-Property Link in Subnanometer Materials; and Thermodynamic and Mechanical Properties of Al-Li alloys.

  12. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  13. The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2012-11-01

    The cell walls in plants are made up of just four basic building blocks: cellulose (the main structural fibre of the plant kingdom) hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Although the microstructure of plant cell walls varies in different types of plants, broadly speaking, cellulose fibres reinforce a matrix of hemicellulose and either pectin or lignin. The cellular structure of plants varies too, from the largely honeycomb-like cells of wood to the closed-cell, liquid-filled foam-like parenchyma cells of apples and potatoes and to composites of these two cellular structures, as in arborescent palm stems. The arrangement of the four basic building blocks in plant cell walls and the variations in cellular structure give rise to a remarkably wide range of mechanical properties: Young's modulus varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to 30 GPa in the densest palm, while the compressive strength varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to over 300 MPa in dense palm. The moduli and compressive strength of plant materials span this entire range. This study reviews the composition and microstructure of the cell wall as well as the cellular structure in three plant materials (wood, parenchyma and arborescent palm stems) to explain the wide range in mechanical properties in plants as well as their remarkable mechanical efficiency.

  14. The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2012-11-01

    The cell walls in plants are made up of just four basic building blocks: cellulose (the main structural fibre of the plant kingdom) hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Although the microstructure of plant cell walls varies in different types of plants, broadly speaking, cellulose fibres reinforce a matrix of hemicellulose and either pectin or lignin. The cellular structure of plants varies too, from the largely honeycomb-like cells of wood to the closed-cell, liquid-filled foam-like parenchyma cells of apples and potatoes and to composites of these two cellular structures, as in arborescent palm stems. The arrangement of the four basic building blocks in plant cell walls and the variations in cellular structure give rise to a remarkably wide range of mechanical properties: Young's modulus varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to 30 GPa in the densest palm, while the compressive strength varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to over 300 MPa in dense palm. The moduli and compressive strength of plant materials span this entire range. This study reviews the composition and microstructure of the cell wall as well as the cellular structure in three plant materials (wood, parenchyma and arborescent palm stems) to explain the wide range in mechanical properties in plants as well as their remarkable mechanical efficiency. PMID:22874093

  15. The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Lorna J.

    2012-01-01

    The cell walls in plants are made up of just four basic building blocks: cellulose (the main structural fibre of the plant kingdom) hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Although the microstructure of plant cell walls varies in different types of plants, broadly speaking, cellulose fibres reinforce a matrix of hemicellulose and either pectin or lignin. The cellular structure of plants varies too, from the largely honeycomb-like cells of wood to the closed-cell, liquid-filled foam-like parenchyma cells of apples and potatoes and to composites of these two cellular structures, as in arborescent palm stems. The arrangement of the four basic building blocks in plant cell walls and the variations in cellular structure give rise to a remarkably wide range of mechanical properties: Young's modulus varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to 30 GPa in the densest palm, while the compressive strength varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to over 300 MPa in dense palm. The moduli and compressive strength of plant materials span this entire range. This study reviews the composition and microstructure of the cell wall as well as the cellular structure in three plant materials (wood, parenchyma and arborescent palm stems) to explain the wide range in mechanical properties in plants as well as their remarkable mechanical efficiency. PMID:22874093

  16. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic.

  17. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic. PMID:22613222

  18. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

  19. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

  20. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

  1. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  2. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  3. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  4. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Here the transparent furnace is extracted for servicing. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  5. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, and TBD). This composite is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  6. Material and Virtual Workspaces in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Chad; Haas, Christina; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined the potential for computer-based tools to improve the quality and scope of physics education. Yet, few studies have investigated how experienced scientists deploy those tools in the conduct and communication of their work. Based on a study of text production in liquid crystal physics, I will discuss how specific applications, like LabVIEW, mediate the practice of experimental research. Findings suggest that experimentation involves a complex negotiation of material and virtual constraints and that, as a result, a concept of scientific literacy must account for the processes through which scientists visualize, display, and characterize their objects of study symbolically and textually. This approach, in examining the relationship between the material and virtual in a modern scientific workplace, ultimately offers insight into education that prepares students to undertake and communicate research in dynamic, multimedia laboratory environments.

  7. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  8. Interface problems between material recycling systems and plants.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Oguchi, M; Otsubo, K

    1992-01-01

    A most important problem to creating a CELSS system to be used in space, for example, for a Lunar Base or Manned Mars mission, seems to be how to design and operate the various material recycling systems to be used on the missions. Recent studies of a Lunar Base habitat have identified examples of CELSS configurations to be used for the Plant Cultivation Module. Material recycling subsystems to be installed in the Plant Cultivation Modules are proposed to consist of various sub-systems, such as dehumidifiers, oxygen separation systems, catalytic wet oxidation systems, nitrogen adjusting systems, including tanks, and so on. The required performances of such various material recycling subsystems are determined based on precise metabolic data of derived from the various species of plants to be selected and investigated. The plant metabolic data, except that for wheat and potato, has not been fully collected at the present time. Therefore, much additional plant cultivation data is required to determine the performances of each material recycling subsystem introduced in Plant Cultivation Modules. PMID:11537056

  9. Microgravity Materials Research and Code U ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Sibille, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    The NASA microgravity research program, simply put, has the goal of doing science (which is essentially finding out something previously unknown about nature) utilizing the unique long-term microgravity environment in Earth orbit. Since 1997 Code U has in addition funded scientific basic research that enables safe and economical capabilities to enable humans to live, work and do science beyond Earth orbit. This research has been integrated with the larger NASA missions (Code M and S). These new exploration research focus areas include Radiation Shielding Materials, Macromolecular Research on Bone and Muscle Loss, In Space Fabrication and Repair, and Low Gravity ISRU. The latter two focus on enabling materials processing in space for use in space. The goal of this program is to provide scientific and technical research resulting in proof-of-concept experiments feeding into the larger NASA program to provide humans in space with an energy rich, resource rich, self sustaining infrastructure at the earliest possible time and with minimum risk, launch mass and program cost. President Bush's Exploration Vision (1/14/04) gives a new urgency for the development of ISRU concepts into the exploration architecture. This will require an accelerated One NASA approach utilizing NASA's partners in academia, and industry.

  10. Space Research Results Purify Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    While President Obama's news that NASA would encourage private companies to develop vehicles to take NASA into space may have come as a surprise to some, NASA has always encouraged private companies to invest in space. More than two decades ago, NASA established Commercial Space Centers across the United States to encourage industry to use space as a place to conduct research and to apply NASA technology to Earth applications. Although the centers are no longer funded by NASA, the advances enabled by that previous funding are still impacting us all today. For example, the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (SVEC) at the University of Houston, one of the 17 Commercial Space Centers, had a mission to create advanced thin film semiconductor materials and devices through the use of vacuum growth technologies both on Earth and in space. Making thin film materials in a vacuum (low-pressure environment) is advantageous over making them in normal atmospheric pressures, because contamination floating in the air is lessened in a vacuum. To grow semiconductor crystals, researchers at SVEC utilized epitaxy the process of depositing a thin layer of material on top of another thin layer of material. On Earth, this process took place in a vacuum chamber in a clean room lab. For space, the researchers developed something called the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot-diameter disk-shaped platform designed to grow thin film materials using the low-pressure environment in the wake of the space shuttle. Behind an orbiting space shuttle, the vacuum levels are thousands of times better than in the best vacuum chambers on Earth. Throughout the 1990s, the WSF flew on three space shuttle missions as a series of proof-of-concept missions. These experiments are a lasting testament to the success of the shuttle program and resulted in the development of the first thin film materials made in the vacuum of space, helping to pave the way for better thin film development on Earth.

  11. NASA Materials Research for Extreme Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, R. J.; Wright, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum briefly covers various innovations in materials science and development throughout the course of the American Space program. It details each innovation s discovery and development, explains its significance, and describes the applications of this material either in the time period discovered or today. Topics of research include silazane polymers, solvent-resistant elastomeric polymers (polyurethanes and polyisocyanurates), siloxanes, the Space Shuttle thermal protection system, phenolic-impregnated carbon ablator, and carbon nanotubes. Significance of these developments includes the Space Shuttle, Apollo programs, and the Constellation program.

  12. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  13. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    DOEpatents

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  14. Predictive aging results for cable materials in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1990-11-01

    In this report, we provide a detailed discussion of methodology of predicting cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature, and exposure time and its application to data obtained on a number of additional nuclear power plant cable insulation (a hypalon, a silicon rubber and two ethylenetetrafluoroethylenes) and jacket (a hypalon) materials. We then show that the predicted, low-dose-rate results for our materials are in excellent agreement with long-term (7 to 9 years), low dose-rate results recently obtained for the same material types actually aged under nuclear power plant conditions. Based on a combination of the modelling and long-term results, we find indications of reasonably similar degradation responses among several different commercial formulations for each of the following generic'' materials: hypalon, ethylenetetrafluoroethylene, silicone rubber and PVC. If such generic'' behavior can be further substantiated through modelling and long-term results on additional formulations, predictions of cable life for other commercial materials of the same generic types would be greatly facilitated. Finally, to aid utilities in their cable life extension decisions, we utilize our modelling results to generate lifetime prediction curves for the materials modelled to data. These curves plot expected material lifetime versus dose rate and temperature down to the levels of interest to nuclear power plant aging. 18 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Cyberinfrastructure for (Comparative) Plant Genome Research Through PlantGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and comprehensive gene structure annotation in emerging and assembled genomes is fundamental to comparative, functional, and translational genomics. We plan to build the cyberinfrastructure necessary for defining and accessing the plant gene space. Our Plant Genetic Data Base (PlantGDB) r...

  16. Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  17. SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  18. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  19. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  20. Biomedical applications of poisonous plant research.

    PubMed

    James, Lynn F; Panter, Kip E; Gaffield, William; Molyneux, Russell J

    2004-06-01

    Research designed to isolate and identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the toxicity of plants to livestock that graze them has been extremely successful. The knowledge gained has been used to design management techniques to prevent economic losses, predict potential outbreaks of poisoning, and treat affected animals. The availability of these compounds in pure form has now provided scientists with tools to develop animal models for human diseases, study modes of action at the molecular level, and apply such knowledge to the development of potential drug candidates for the treatment of a number of genetic and infectious conditions. These advances are illustrated by specific examples of biomedical applications of the toxins of Veratrum californicum (western false hellebore), Lupinus species (lupines), and Astragalus and Oxytropis species (locoweeds).

  1. Materials dispersion and biodynamics project research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1992-01-01

    The Materials Dispersion and Biodynamics Project (MDBP) focuses on dispersion and mixing of various biological materials and the dynamics of cell-to-cell communication and intracellular molecular trafficking in microgravity. Research activities encompass biomedical applications, basic cell biology, biotechnology (products from cells), protein crystal development, ecological life support systems (involving algae and bacteria), drug delivery (microencapsulation), biofilm deposition by living organisms, and hardware development to support living cells on Space Station Freedom (SSF). Project goals are to expand the existing microgravity science database through experiments on sounding rockets, the Shuttle, and COMET program orbiters and to evolve,through current database acquisition and feasibility testing, to more mature and larger-scale commercial operations on SSF. Maximized utilization of SSF for these science applications will mean that service companies will have a role in providing equipment for use by a number of different customers. An example of a potential forerunner of such a service for SSF is the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) 'mini lab' of Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. (ITA) in use on the Shuttle for the Commercial MDAITA Experiments (CMIX) Project. The MDA wells provide the capability for a number of investigators to perform mixing and bioprocessing experiments in space. In the area of human adaptation to microgravity, a significant database has been obtained over the past three decades. Some low-g effects are similar to Earth-based disorders (anemia, osteoporosis, neuromuscular diseases, and immune system disorders). As new information targets potential profit-making processes, services and products from microgravity, commercial space ventures are expected to expand accordingly. Cooperative CCDS research in the above mentioned areas is essential for maturing SSF biotechnology and to ensure U.S. leadership in space technology

  2. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  3. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  4. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  5. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings

  6. 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Umesh P

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression can be achieved, the utility of the Raman investigations has increased significantly. Moreover, the development of several new capabilities such as estimation of cellulose-crystallinity, ability to analyze changes in cellulose conformation at the local and molecular level, and examination of water-cellulose interactions have made this technique essential for research in the field of plant science. The FT-Raman method has also been applied to research studies in the arenas of biofuels and nanocelluloses. Moreover, the ability to investigate plant lignins has been further refined with the availability of near-IR Raman. In this paper, we present 1064-nm FT-Raman spectroscopy methodology to investigate various compositional and structural properties of plant material. It is hoped that the described studies will motivate the research community in the plant biomass field to adapt this technique to investigate their specific research needs.

  7. 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Umesh P.

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression can be achieved, the utility of the Raman investigations has increased significantly. Moreover, the development of several new capabilities such as estimation of cellulose-crystallinity, ability to analyze changes in cellulose conformation at the local and molecular level, and examination of water-cellulose interactions have made this technique essential for research in the field of plant science. The FT-Raman method has also been applied to research studies in the arenas of biofuels and nanocelluloses. Moreover, the ability to investigate plant lignins has been further refined with the availability of near-IR Raman. In this paper, we present 1064-nm FT-Raman spectroscopy methodology to investigate various compositional and structural properties of plant material. It is hoped that the described studies will motivate the research community in the plant biomass field to adapt this technique to investigate their specific research needs. PMID:25295049

  8. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  9. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  10. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  11. Alkene Metathesis and Renewable Materials: Selective Transformations of Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacea, Raluca; Dixneuf, Pierre H.

    The olefin metathesis of natural oils and fats and their derivatives is the basis of clean catalytic reactions relevant to green chemistry processes and the production of generate useful chemicals from renewable raw materials. Three variants of alkene metathesis: self-metathesis, ethenolysis and cross-metathesis applied to plant oil derivatives will show new routes to fine chemicals, bifunctional products, polymer precursours and industry intermediates.

  12. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  13. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    PubMed Central

    Köhl, Karin I; Basler, Georg; Lüdemann, Alexander; Selbig, Joachim; Walther, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    and barcode labels facilitate identification and management of the material. Web pages are provided as user interfaces to facilitate maintaining the system in an environment with many desktop computers and a rapidly changing user community. Web based search tools are the basis for joint use of the material by all researchers of the institute. Conclusion The Golm Plant Database system, which is based on a relational database, collects the genetic and environmental information on plant material during its production or experimental use at the Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology. It thus provides information according to the MIAME standard for the component 'Sample' in a highly standardised format. The Plant Database system thus facilitates collaborative work and allows efficient queries in data analysis for systems biology research. PMID:18495032

  14. Ammonia And Ethylene Optrodes For Research On Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Quan; Tabacco, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors developed for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia and ethylene near plants during experiments on growth of plants in enclosed environments. Developmental fiber-optic sensors satisfy need to measure concentrations as low as few parts per billion (ppb) and expected to contribute to research on roles of ethylene and ammonia in growth of plants.

  15. Interdisciplinary research and training program in the plant sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    This document is the compiled progress reports from the Interdisciplinary Research and Training Program in the Plant Sciences funded through the MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory. Fourteen reports are included, covering topics such as the molecular basis of plant/microbe symbiosis, cell wall proteins and assembly, gene expression, stress responses, growth regulator biosynthesis, interaction between nuclear and organelle genomes, sensory transduction and tropisms, intracellular sorting and membrane trafficking, regulation of lipid metabolism, the molecular basis of disease resistance and plant pathogenesis, developmental biology of Cyanobacteria and hormonal involvement in environmental control of plant growth. 132 refs. (MHB)

  16. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  17. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  18. Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Sowbhagya, H B; Chitra, V N

    2010-02-01

    From times immemorial, colorants, and flavorings have been used in foods. Color and flavor are the major attributes to the quality of a food product, affecting the appearance and acceptance of the product. As a consequence of the increased demand of natural flavoring and colorant from industries, there is a renewed interest in the research on the composition and recovery of natural food flavors and colors. Over the years, numerous procedures have been proposed for the isolation of aromatic compounds and colors from plant materials. Generally, the methods of extraction followed for aroma and pigment from plant materials are solvent extraction, hydro-distillation, steam distillation, and super critical carbon dioxide extraction. The application of enzymes in the extraction of oil from oil seeds like sunflower, corn, coconut, olives, avocado etc. are reported in literature. There is a great potential for this enzyme-based extraction technology with the selection of appropriate enzymes with optimized operating conditions. Various enzyme combinations are used to loosen the structural integrity of botanical material thereby enhancing the extraction of the desired flavor and color components. Recently enzymes have been used for the extraction of flavor and color from plant materials, as a pre-treatment of the raw material before subjecting the plant material to hydro distillation/solvent extraction. A deep knowledge of enzymes, their mode of action, conditions for optimum activity, and selection of the right type of enzymes are essential to use them effectively for extraction. Although the enzyme hydrolases such as lipases, proteases (chymotrypsin, subtilisin, thermolysin, and papain), esterases use water as a substrate for the reaction, they are also able to accept other nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines, thio-esters, and oximes. Advantages of enzyme-assisted extraction of flavor and color in some of the plant materials in comparison with conventional methods are

  19. Plant seeds in biological research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    Data of 15 years of space flight and laboratory tests of plant seeds of 20 species, mainly on the combined and separate effects of launch vibration, ionizing radiation and weightlessness, are surveyed. It is concluded that plants do not show a pronounced response to space flight factors. Conditions of return to Earth, the number of heavy cosmic ray particles striking biological targets and effects of change in magnetic an electromagnetic fields have been little studied, and that more study of growing plants in space is needed.

  20. Power plant material characterization by lasers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The EPRI Nuclear Division undertook examination of the feasibility of utilizing lasers to perform in situ operations within power plants in 1983. The Nd- Yag laser was of particular interest because flexible fiber optics cabling could be utilized for beam transport; the end effectors could be made small enough to access power plant components remotely. Beam management for welding and metal conditioning in confined spaces; the first issue examined, lead to the application for steam generator repairs that is now in common usage. This report examines the laser beam as a source of information about the material property condition; an application made feasible by advances in fiber and laser technology that were achieved beginning in 1989. This work, examines the prospects for determination of material condition properties within power plants because the laser beam can be utilized for sampling and as a source of optical, thermal, ultrasonic, spectrographic and mensuration data that may be obtained nondestructively. Both application evaluations and feasibility testing is described.

  1. Synchrotron Radiation Sheds Fresh Light on Plant Research: The Use of Powerful Techniques to Probe Structure and Composition of Plants.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Permual; Willick, Ian R; Lahlali, Rachid; Karunakaran, Chithra; Tanino, Karen K

    2015-07-01

    While synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool in material and biomedical sciences, it is still underutilized in plant research. This mini review attempts to introduce the potential of synchrotron-based spectroscopic and imaging methods and their applications to plant sciences. Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray absorption and fluorescence techniques, and two- and three-dimensional imaging techniques are examined. We also discuss the limitations of synchrotron-based research in plant sciences, specifically the types of plant samples that can be used. Despite limitations, the unique features of synchrotron radiation such as high brightness, polarization and pulse properties offer great advantages over conventional spectroscopic and imaging tools and enable the correlation of the structure and chemical composition of plants with biochemical function. Modern detector technologies and experimental methodologies are thus enabling plant scientists to investigate aspects of plant sciences such as ultrafast kinetics of biochemical reactions, mineral uptake, transport and accumulation, and dynamics of cell wall structure and composition during environmental stress in unprecedented ways using synchrotron beamlines. The potential for the automation of some of these synchrotron technologies and their application to plant phenotyping is also discussed.

  2. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation for Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2008-09-01

    There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet, and these have an average age greater than 20 years. These NPPs had design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants and consideration is now being given to the concept of “life-beyond-60,” a further period of license extension from 60 to 80 years, and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. There is a growing urgency as a number of plants face either approvals for license extension or shut down, which will require deployment of new power plants. In support of NPP license extension over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper reports part of the work performed in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program. The paper concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD, its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics and provides an assessment of some the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed.

  3. Ion beam deposition in materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhr, R. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Noggle, T. S.; Herbots, N.; Haynes, T. E.; Appleton, B. R.

    1989-02-01

    Ion beam deposition (IBD) is the direct formation of thin films using a low-energy (tens of eV) mass-analyzed ion beam. The process allows depositions in which the energy, isotopic species, deposition rate, defect production, and many other beam and sample parameters can be accurately controlled. This paper will review recent research at ORNL on the IBD process and the effects of deposition parameters on the materials properties of deposited thin films, epitaxial layers, and isotopic heterostructures. A variety of techniques including ion scattering/channeling, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy has been used for analysis. The fabrication of isotopic heterostructures of 74Ge and 30Si will be discussed, as well as the fabrication of metal and semiconductor overlayers on Si and Ge. The use of IBD for low-temperature epitaxy of 30Si on Si and 76Ge on Ge will be presented. The use of self-ion sputter cleaning and in situ reactive ion cleaning as methods for preparing single-crystal substrates for epitaxial deposition will be discussed. Examples of IBD formation of oxides and suicides on Si at low temperatures will also be presented.

  4. The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, George J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

  5. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  6. USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory: History and current research on western North American rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants on western North American rangelands have historically been troublesome to livestock producers. Research on toxic plants was initiated by U.S. Department of Agriculture in the late 1890’s to solve problems for the livestock industry. The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laborator...

  7. Formation of stable chlorinated hydrocarbons in weathering plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2001-10-01

    Though several chlorinated organic compounds produced by humans are carcinogenic and toxic, some are also produced by the biotic and abiotic processes in the environment. In situ x-ray spectroscopy data indicate that natural organic matter in soils, sediments, and natural waters contain stable, less volatile organic compounds with chlorinated phenolic and aliphatic groups as the principal Cl forms. These compounds are formed at rapid rates from the transformation of inorganic Cl during humification of plant material and, thus, play a critical role in the cycling of Cl and of several major and trace elements in the environment and may influence human health. [References: 19

  8. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  9. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Program application materials-research. 3406.17... FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application materials—research. Program application materials in an...

  10. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Program application materials-research. 3406.17... FOOD AND AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application materials—research. Program application materials in an...

  11. New power plants approved and novel materials -- new problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.R.; Leich, K.

    1996-12-31

    Coal-based power generation during the past decades has increased despite the adoption of nuclear power and the intensified use of oil and natural gas. Even if the primary energy natural gas experienced a greater increase over the past years as compared to coal because of the better calorific value and the lower pollutants emission, in the long run coal will remain the most important fossil energy because of the larger resources, i.e., power generation by coal will not become obsolete. However, the focus will still be on efficiency increase and resulting decrease of fuel demand. That this objective is anything but new is demonstrated by the evolution of the fuel demand and the net efficiency of power plants. While the initial plant efficiency gain was exclusively the result of commercial efficiency and of the natural curiosity of technicians and engineers, present utilities are forced to gain an efficiency increase because of the imminent climate changes due to the green house effect and because of output losses due to pollution control systems operation. In the past 60 years the plant efficiency could be raised from 17% to 45%. fuel demand per kWh decreased by more than 60% since 1930. A further increase of the efficiency and a decrease of the fuel demand per kWh become more and more difficult as the result of the stricter legal emission standards. The above goals may be followed only, as has been done in the past years, by considering the reduction of pollutants emission (also CO{sub 2}). This report will give an overview of the various power plant types, their pollutants emission, and their efficiency by considering the required materials.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  14. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn E.; Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.

    2014-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a highly automated facility developed in a joint venture/partnership between NASA and ESA center dot Allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses onboard the International Space Station (ISS) center dot Multi-user facility for high temperature materials science research center dot Launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module ?Research goals center dot Provide means of studying materials processing in space to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved center dot Benefit materials science research via the microgravity environment of space where the researcher can better isolate the effects of gravity during solidification on the properties of materials center dot Use the knowledge gained from experiments to make reliable predictions about conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and active ingredients of medicinal plants: current research status and prospectives.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Medicinal plants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinal plants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinal plants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinal plants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinal plants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinal plants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinal plants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinal plants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinal plants and mycorrhiza.

  16. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  17. Historical review of research on plant cell dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Munetaka

    2015-05-01

    Plant cell dedifferentiation has long attracted interest as a key process for understanding the plasticity of plant development. In early studies, typical examples of plant cell dedifferentiation were described as physiological and cytological changes associated with wound healing or regenerative development. Subsequently, plant tissue and cell culture techniques, in which exciting progress was achieved after discovery of the hormonal control of cell proliferation and organogenesis in vitro in the 1950s, have been used extensively to study dedifferentiation. The pioneer studies of plant tissue/cell culture led to the hypothesis that many mature plant cells retain totipotency and related dedifferentiation to the initial step of the expression of totipotency. Plant tissue/cell cultures have provided experimental systems not only for physiological analysis, but also for genetic and molecular biological analysis, of dedifferentiation. More recently, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic analyses have been applied to the study of plant cell dedifferentiation. All of these works have expanded our knowledge of plant cell dedifferentiation, and current research is contributing to unraveling the molecular mechanisms. The present article provides a brief overview of the history of research on plant cell dedifferentiation. PMID:25725626

  18. Historical review of research on plant cell dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Munetaka

    2015-05-01

    Plant cell dedifferentiation has long attracted interest as a key process for understanding the plasticity of plant development. In early studies, typical examples of plant cell dedifferentiation were described as physiological and cytological changes associated with wound healing or regenerative development. Subsequently, plant tissue and cell culture techniques, in which exciting progress was achieved after discovery of the hormonal control of cell proliferation and organogenesis in vitro in the 1950s, have been used extensively to study dedifferentiation. The pioneer studies of plant tissue/cell culture led to the hypothesis that many mature plant cells retain totipotency and related dedifferentiation to the initial step of the expression of totipotency. Plant tissue/cell cultures have provided experimental systems not only for physiological analysis, but also for genetic and molecular biological analysis, of dedifferentiation. More recently, proteomic, transcriptomic, and epigenetic analyses have been applied to the study of plant cell dedifferentiation. All of these works have expanded our knowledge of plant cell dedifferentiation, and current research is contributing to unraveling the molecular mechanisms. The present article provides a brief overview of the history of research on plant cell dedifferentiation.

  19. Reclamation on Utah's Emery and Alton coal fields: techniques and plant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, R.B.; Frischknecht, N.C.

    1985-01-01

    The studies reported on in this paper were designed to provide information on methods to establish vegetation on the soils of the semiarid Emery and Alton coal fields in Utah. No large-scale surface mining of coal has occurred in Utah, so research was conducted on typical potential mine sites following severe disturbance of soil materials. At Emery, primary objectives of the several studies were to evaluate the relative merits of site preparation by gouging, harrowing, and cultipacking in conjunction with the use of alfalfa hay or composted conifer bark as soil amendments. Seed was planted by broadcasting in all trials. At Alton, gouging and the use of hay and composted conifer bark was also tested. Wide varieties of plant species, consisting primarily of shrub and grass species but including several forb and tree species, were planted on different soil materials at both coal field locations. Secondary objectives on both study areas were the evaluation of the use of container-grown shrubs and determination of soil water potentials and soil temperature regimes, as well as documentation of air temperature and precipitation amounts received during the study period. During 5 years at Emery and 6 years at Alton, data were obtained on vegetational parameters such as density, percent cover, and plant yield. Data on survival and growth were obtained on planted shrubs.

  20. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  1. Plant virus directed fabrication of nanoscale materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Culver, James N; Brown, Adam D; Zang, Faheng; Gnerlich, Markus; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Bottom-up self-assembly methods in which individual molecular components self-organize to form functional nanoscale patterns are of long-standing interest in the field of materials sciences. Such self-assembly processes are the hallmark of biology where complex macromolecules with defined functions assemble from smaller molecular components. In particular, plant virus-derived nanoparticles (PVNs) have drawn considerable attention for their unique self-assembly architectures and functionalities that can be harnessed to produce new materials for industrial and biomedical applications. In particular, PVNs provide simple systems to model and assemble nanoscale particles of uniform size and shape that can be modified through molecularly defined chemical and genetic alterations. Furthermore, PVNs bring the added potential to "farm" such bio-nanomaterials on an industrial scale, providing a renewable and environmentally sustainable means for the production of nano-materials. This review outlines the fabrication and application of several PVNs for a range of uses that include energy storage, catalysis, and threat detection.

  2. FREEDOM TO OPERATE: Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Biology and Its Implications for the Conduct of Research.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, J A

    1999-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  Research endeavors are being affected by issues involving intellectual property (patents, copyrights, and trademarks). The acquisition of rights in intellectual property by universities can result in the transfer of new innovations to the private sector, with the university recouping a share of the profits for support of further scientific research. Intellectual property rights available for new plant cultivars include plant patents, plant variety protection certificates, plant breeder's rights, and utility patents. Under the patent laws, there is no explicit exemption for research use, so researchers are increasingly being required to execute materials transfer agreements to obtain permission to use patented materials, such as techniques, genes, seeds, and cell lines, in laboratory research and in breeding programs. Research scientists must educate themselves on these issues so that they can make informed decisions regarding their research practices and the licensing of their discoveries. PMID:11701816

  3. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  4. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  5. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  6. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  7. Evaluation of materials for the MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-05-01

    Test data have been obtained on the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762, 593, and 567/degree/C to simulated MHD conditions for the intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), ITAH transition region (transition from a low- to medium-chromium alloy to a high-chromium steel), and secondary superheater (SSH), respectively. This paper discusses, in detail, the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented, and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Corrosion behavior of materials for MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-04-01

    Test data have been developed for the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated MHD environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762,593, and 567/degree/C to simulate intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), transition region and secondary superheater (SSH) conditions, respectively. This report discusses the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 9 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Research on regulating technique of material flow for 2-person and 30-day integrated CELSS test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Ai, Weidang; Feng, Hongqi; Tang, Yongkang; Huang, Zhide; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin; Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Gu; Zhang, Lihong; Zhu, Jingtao; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin

    2014-07-01

    A man-plant integration test was processed using the CELSS integration experiment platform in which 4 kinds of plants were grown (Lactuca sativa L var. Dasusheng, L. sativa L var. Youmaicai, Gynura bicolor and Cichorium endivia L) to exchange material with 2 persons in order to research the dynamic changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in an inclosed system. In the test the material flow was measured so that the dynamically changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in the closed system were mostly mastered. The material closure degree of air, water and food reached 100%, 90% and 13.9% respectively with the whole system closure degree up to 95.1%. Meanwhile, it was proved that a 13.5 m2 planting area could meet the demand of one person for O2 in the system, and the energy efficiency ratio of which reached 59.56 g/(kW m2 day). The material flow dynamic balance-regulating technology was initially mastered between man and plant through the test. The interaction was realized among man, plant and environment in the closed system, which is of great significance to the advancement of long-term manned environment control and life support technology for China.

  10. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  11. Investment in plant research and development bears fruit in China.

    PubMed

    Chong, Kang; Xu, Zhihong

    2014-04-01

    Recent rapid progress in plant science and biotechnology in China demonstrates that China's stronger support for funding in plant research and development (R&D) has borne fruit. Chinese groups have contributed major advances in a range of fields, such as rice biology, plant hormone and developmental biology, genomics and evolution, plant genetics and epigenetics, as well as plant biotechnology. Strigolactone studies including those identifying its receptor and dissecting its complex structure and signaling are representative of the recent researches from China at the forefront of the field. These advances are attributable in large part to interdisciplinary studies among scientists from plant science, chemistry, bioinformatics, structural biology, and agronomy. The platforms provided by national facilities facilitate this collaboration. As well, efficient restructuring of the top-down organization of state programs and free exploration of scientists' interests have accelerated achievements by Chinese researchers. Here, we provide a general outline of China's progress in plant R&D to highlight fields in which Chinese research has made significant contributions.

  12. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  13. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application materials—research... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program application materials-research....

  14. [Research advances in the responses of carbohydrates in grassland plants to environmental stress].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-Zhi; Wang, Yan-Hua; Wang, Jing-Ting; Liu, Ju-Shan; Wang, De-Li

    2009-11-01

    Carbohydrates are the main energy materials for plant metabolic activities. Enough carbohydrates stored in roots are necessary for plant re-growth, its tolerance against environmental stress, and the maintenance of grassland ecosystem stability. This paper summarized the influences of grazing, nitrogen fertilization, salt stress, drought, low temperature, and low oxygen stress on the carbohydrates in grassland plants, and introduced the advanced methods of measuring root carbohydrates. It was suggested that the research emphasis in the future should be paid on the relationships between root soluble sugar components and root physio-ecological functions.

  15. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  16. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  17. NASA Research on General Aviation Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. L.; Weber, R. J.; Willis, E. A.; Sievers, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Propulsion systems are key factors in the design and performance of general aviation airplanes. NASA research programs that are intended to support improvements in these engines are described. Reciprocating engines are by far the most numerous powerplants in the aviation fleet; near-term efforts are being made to lower their fuel consumption and emissions. Longer-term work includes advanced alternatives, such as rotary and lightweight diesel engines. Work is underway on improved turbofans and turboprops.

  18. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  19. Perspectives for genomic selection applications and research in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) has created a lot of excitement and expectations in the animal and plant breeding research communities. In this review, we briefly describe how genomic prediction can be integrated into breeding efforts and point out achievements and areas where more research is needed. GS pro...

  20. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kross, Brian J.; Lee, Seung Joo; McKisson, John E.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, A.S.; Reid, C.D.; Smith, Mark

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  1. DAMAGE RESEARCH WITH P. PENETRANS IN ASPARAGUS PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Hoek, J; Molendijk, L P G

    2014-01-01

    During cultivation of asparagus plants growth can be inhibited and yield can be reduced by plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant raising companies assume that the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) can cause severe yield loss in asparagus plants. However quantitative information about yield reduction in relation to the degree of infestation of this nematode species in the field is lacking. Research was done in The Netherlands by Applied Plant Research (part of Wageningen University and Research Centre) to determine the maximum degree of yield loss of asparagus plants at high infestation levels of P. penetrans and to establish the height of the tolerance limit for this nematode species. Also was investigated whether a field application of a granular nematicide could prevent or reduce yield loss caused by P. penetrans. Research was done in the field at sandy soils at the PPO location near Vredepeel in The Netherlands over a period of two years. In the first year the most suitable field was selected and on this field different infestation levels of P. penetrans were created. In the second year asparagus was cultivated and plant yield (number and quality of deliverable plants and financial yield) was calculated. At high infestation levels of Pratylenchus penetrans maximum yield loss was 12% (which can mean a financial loss of 7.000 C per ha). Yield started to decrease at very low infestation levels of P. penetrans and no statistical reliable tolerance limit could be calculated. Field application of 40 kg per ha of Vydate 10 G just before sowing of asparagus, could almost completely prevent yield loss caused by P. penetrans. After harvest infestation levels of P. penetrans were much lower than could be expected if asparagus was a non-host for this nematode species. In this paper therefore it is suggested that asparagus plants are (actively) controlling P. penetrans.

  2. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  3. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  4. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  5. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  6. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  7. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  8. New directions for nanoscale thermoelectric materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Tang, M. Y.; Yang, R. G.; Lee, H.; Wang, D. Z.; Ren, F.; Fleurial, J. P.; Gogna, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the recent advances in enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit are linked to nanoscale phenomena with both bulk samples containing nanoscale constituents and nanoscale materials exhibiting enhanced thermoelectric performance in their own right. Prior theoretical and experimental proof of principle studies on isolated quantum well and quantum wire samples have now evolved into studies on bulk samples containing nanostructured constituents. In this review, nanostructural composites are shown to exhibit nanostructures and properties that show promise for thermoelectric applications. A review of some of the results obtained to date are presented.

  9. Strategic Research Directions in Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G.; Semmes, Ed; Cook, Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville

    2003-01-01

    The next challenge of space exploration is the development of the capabilities for long-term missions beyond low earth orbit. NASA s scientific advisory groups and internal mission studies have identified several fundamental issues which require substantial advancements in new technology if these goals are to be accomplished. Crews must be protected from the severe radiation environment beyond the earth s magnetic field. Chemical propulsion must be replaced by systems that require less mass and are more efficient. The overall launch complement must be reduced by developing repair and fabrication techniques which utilize or recycle available materials.

  10. Governing the postmortem procurement of human body material for research.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Kristof; Capitaine, Laura; Pennings, Guido; Sterckx, Sigrid

    2015-03-01

    Human body material removed post mortem is a particularly valuable resource for research. Considering the efforts that are currently being made to study the biochemical processes and possible genetic causes that underlie cancer and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, it is likely that this type of research will continue to gain in importance. However, post mortem procurement of human body material for research raises specific ethical concerns, more in particular with regard to the consent of the research participant. In this paper, we attempt to determine which consent regime should govern the post mortem procurement of body material for research. In order to do so, we assess the various arguments that could be put forward in support of a duty to make body material available for research purposes after death. We argue that this duty does in practice not support conscription but is sufficiently strong to defend a policy of presumed rather than explicit consent.

  11. Parameters affecting the efficient delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials and gold nanorods into plant tissues by the biolistic method.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ortigosa, Susana; Valenstein, Justin S; Sun, Wei; Moeller, Lorena; Fang, Ning; Trewyn, Brian G; Lin, Victor S-Y; Wang, Kan

    2012-02-01

    Applying nanotechnology to plant science requires efficient systems for the delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) to plant cells and tissues. The presence of a cell wall in plant cells makes it challenging to extend the NP delivery methods available for animal research. In this work, research is presented which establishes an efficient NP delivery system for plant tissues using the biolistic method. It is shown that the biolistic delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials can be improved by increasing the density of MSNs through gold plating. Additionally, a DNA-coating protocol is used based on calcium chloride and spermidine for MSN and gold nanorods to enhance the NP-mediated DNA delivery. Furthermore, the drastic improvement of NP delivery is demonstrated when the particles are combined with 0.6 μm gold particles during bombardment. The methodology described provides a system for the efficient delivery of NPs into plant cells using the biolistic method. PMID:22174078

  12. Woody Plant Research of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Wright, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes some of the research of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program at ORNL. The focus of the research is to produce wood crops that are highly productive under short rotations with minimal inputs. The research combines the disciplines of forestry and traditional genetics, with the new techniques of molecular biology and plant physiology to develop high yield, stress, insect and disease resistant tree crops adaptable to large scale field trials. 4 figs.

  13. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  14. Method and apparatus for selectively harvesting multiple components of a plant material

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Hess, Richard J.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Svoboda, John M.; Foust, Thomas D.

    2004-05-04

    A method and apparatus for selectively harvesting multiple components of a plant material. A grain component is separated from the plant material such as by processing the plant material through a primary threshing and separating mechanism. At least one additional component of the plant material is selectively harvested such as by subjecting the plant material to a secondary threshing and separating mechanism. For example, the stems of a plant material may be broken at a location adjacent one or more nodes thereof with the nodes and the internodal stem portions being subsequently separated for harvesting. The at least one additional component (e.g., the internodal stems) may then be consolidated and packaged for subsequent use or processing. The harvesting of the grain and of the at least one additional component may occur within a single harvesting machine, for example, during a single pass over a crop field.

  15. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  16. Challenges and Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Materials Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Yogesh; Nordlund, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) offer a broad range of interdisciplinary materials research experiences to undergraduate students with diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, applied mathematics, and engineering. The research projects offered cover a broad range of topics including high pressure physics, microelectronic materials, nano-materials, laser materials, bioceramics and biopolymers, cell-biomaterials interactions, planetary materials, and computer simulation of materials. The students welcome the opportunity to work with an interdisciplinary team of basic science, engineering, and biomedical faculty but the challenge is in learning the key vocabulary for interdisciplinary collaborations, experimental tools, and working in an independent capacity. The career development workshops dealing with the graduate school application process and the entrepreneurial business activities were found to be most effective. The interdisciplinary university wide poster session helped student broaden their horizons in research careers. The synergy of the REU program with other concurrently running high school summer programs on UAB campus will also be discussed.

  17. How can research on plants contribute to promoting human health?

    PubMed

    Martin, Cathie; Butelli, Eugenio; Petroni, Katia; Tonelli, Chiara

    2011-05-01

    One of the most pressing challenges for the next 50 years is to reduce the impact of chronic disease. Unhealthy eating is an increasing problem and underlies much of the increase in mortality from chronic diseases that is occurring worldwide. Diets rich in plant-based foods are strongly associated with reduced risks of major chronic diseases, but the constituents in plants that promote health have proved difficult to identify with certainty. This, in turn, has confounded the precision of dietary recommendations. Plant biochemistry can make significant contributions to human health through the identification and measurement of the many metabolites in plant-based foods, particularly those known to promote health (phytonutrients). Plant genetics and metabolic engineering can be used to make foods that differ only in their content of specific phytonutrients. Such foods offer research tools that can provide significant insight into which metabolites promote health and how they work. Plant science can reduce some of the complexity of the diet-health relationship, and through building multidisciplinary interactions with researchers in nutrition and the pathology of chronic diseases, plant scientists can contribute novel insight into which foods reduce the risk of chronic disease and how these foods work to impact human health.

  18. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  19. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  20. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  1. MIPS PlantsDB: a database framework for comparative plant genome research.

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Martis, Mihaela M; Roessner, Stephan K; Pfeifer, Matthias; Bader, Kai C; Sharma, Sapna; Gundlach, Heidrun; Spannagl, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of plant genome (sequence) data enables powerful comparative analyses and integrative approaches and also requires structured and comprehensive information resources. Databases are needed for both model and crop plant organisms and both intuitive search/browse views and comparative genomics tools should communicate the data to researchers and help them interpret it. MIPS PlantsDB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/genomes.jsp) was initially described in NAR in 2007 [Spannagl,M., Noubibou,O., Haase,D., Yang,L., Gundlach,H., Hindemitt, T., Klee,K., Haberer,G., Schoof,H. and Mayer,K.F. (2007) MIPSPlantsDB-plant database resource for integrative and comparative plant genome research. Nucleic Acids Res., 35, D834-D840] and was set up from the start to provide data and information resources for individual plant species as well as a framework for integrative and comparative plant genome research. PlantsDB comprises database instances for tomato, Medicago, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Sorghum, maize, rice, barley and wheat. Building up on that, state-of-the-art comparative genomics tools such as CrowsNest are integrated to visualize and investigate syntenic relationships between monocot genomes. Results from novel genome analysis strategies targeting the complex and repetitive genomes of triticeae species (wheat and barley) are provided and cross-linked with model species. The MIPS Repeat Element Database (mips-REdat) and Catalog (mips-REcat) as well as tight connections to other databases, e.g. via web services, are further important components of PlantsDB. PMID:23203886

  2. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  3. From plant biomass to bio-based chemicals: latest developments in xylan research.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Rudolf; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    For a hundred years or more, oil and natural gas has supplied fuel and other raw chemicals to support economic growth. In the last decades their shrinking reservoirs and the increasing cost of production has become obvious, leading researchers to look for alternative substitutes of all the chemical materials presently derived from oil and gas. This review is focused on xylan, the second most abundant plant polysaccharide on our planet. Some xylan-derived products have already found commercial applications (ethanol, xylitol, xylo-oligosaccharides) while others could have a great future in a wide range of industries. The chemical and structural variations of xylans produced by different plants, and the concentration of xylan in various plant resources are summarized. This review discusses the latest research developments in extraction and purification methodologies, and chemical modification, as well as the analytical methods necessary for xylan related research. PMID:22776161

  4. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  5. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymurski, S. R.; Hawley, M.; Hourahan, G. C.; Godwin, D. S.

    1994-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  6. PREFACE: MRS International Materials Research Conference (IMRC-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanguo; Qiu, Yong; Li, Yongxiang

    2009-03-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the MRS International Materials Research Conference (IMRC-2008) held in Chongqing, China, 9-12 June 2008. IMRC-2008 included 9 symposia of A. Eco/Environmental Materials, B. Sustainable Energy Materials, C. Electronic Packaging Materials, D. Electronic Materials, E. Materials and Processes for Flat-panel Displays, F. Functional Ceramics, G. Transportation Materials, H. Magnesium and I. Biomaterials for Medical Applications. Nearly 1200 participants from 33 countries attended the conference, and the conference organizers received more than 700 papers. After the peer review processes, 555 papers were selected to be published in 9 Journals or proceedings, including J. of Materials Research (JMR), Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, J. of Univ. Science and Technology Beijing, Biomedical Materials: Materials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Materials Science Forum, and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Among the 555 selected papers, 91 papers are published in this volume, and the topics mainly cover electronic matrials, processes for flat-panel displays and functional ceramics. The editors would like to give special thanks to the graduate students Liwu Jiang, Ming Li and Di He from Beihang University for their hard work compiling and typesetting each paper in this volume. Zhanguo Wang, Yong Qiu and Yongxiang Li Editors

  7. [Research and industrialization of biobased materials in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the research and commercialization progresses of biobased polymeric materials including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polylactides (PLA), poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and its monomer succinate, and CO2 copolymer poly (propylene carbonate), especially these efforts made in China. PMID:26672370

  8. Materials and light thermal structures research for advanced space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Earl A.; Starke, Edgar A., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The Light Thermal Structures Center at the University of Virginia sponsors educational and research programs focused on the development of reliable, lightweight structures to function in hostile thermal environments. Technology advances in materials and design methodology for light thermal structures will contribute to improved space vehicle design concepts with attendant weight savings. This paper highlights current research activities in three areas relevant to space exploration: low density, high temperature aluminum alloys, composite materials, and structures with thermal gradients. Advances in the development of new aluminum-lithium alloys and mechanically alloyed aluminum alloys are described. Material properties and design features of advanced composites are highlighted. Research studies in thermal structures with temperature gradients include inelastic panel buckling and thermally induced unstable oscillations. Current and future research is focused on the integration of new materials with applications to structural components with thermal gradients.

  9. Closed vessel microwave assisted extraction - An innovative method for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeztan, S.; Duering, R.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Determination of metal concentrations in plant samples is important for better understanding of effects of toxic metals that are biologically magnified through the food chain and compose a great danger to all living beings. In recent years the use of microwave assisted extraction for plant samples has shown tremendous research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future. Generally conventional procedures have disadvantages including consuming of time and solvents. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare a new closed vessel microwave extraction (MAE) method with the combination of EDTA (MAE-EDTA) for the determination of metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by ICP-OES. Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another MAE procedure (MAE-H) which is applied with the mixture of 69% nitric acid (HNO3) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, conventional plant extraction (CE) method, for which the dissolution of plant samples were handled in HNO3 after dry ashing at 420° C, was used as a reference method. Approximately 0.5 g of sample was digested in 5 ml HNO3, 3 ml H2O2, and 5 ml deionized H2O for MAE-H and in 8 ml EDTA solution for MAE-EDTA. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. Thereby, the applicability of both MAE-H and MAE-EDTA procedures could be demonstrated. For 58 plant samples MAE-H showed the same extraction yields as CE in the determination of trace metal contents of the investigated elements in plant samples. MAE-EDTA gave similar values when compared to MAE-H and highly linear relationships were found for determination of Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn amounts. The recoveries for the CRMs were within the range 89.6-115%. Finally, strategic characteristics of MAE-EDTA for determination metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples are: (i) applicability to a large set

  10. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  11. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  12. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  13. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica.

  14. High-Resolution DNA Melting Analysis in Plant Research.

    PubMed

    Simko, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Genetic and genomic studies provide valuable insight into the inheritance, structure, organization, and function of genes. The knowledge gained from the analysis of plant genes is beneficial to all aspects of plant research, including crop improvement. New methods and tools are continually being developed to facilitate rapid and accurate mapping, sequencing, and analyzing of genes. Here, I review the recent progress in the application of high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA, a method that allows detecting polymorphism in double-stranded DNA by comparing profiles of melting curves. Use of HRM has expanded considerably in the past few years as the method was successfully applied for high-throughput genotyping, mapping genes, testing food products and seeds, and other areas of plant research. PMID:26827247

  15. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  16. Research and Development in the Educational Materials Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

    Under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation, a study was instituted to examine research and development in the educational materials industry. Using the open-ended interview method, data was collected from executives of major book publishers and their subsidiaries, and producers of materials other than books.…

  17. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Progress made in the following research areas is reported: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid state physics, materials chemistry); chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques); nuclear sciences; fossil energy; advanced isotope separation technology; energy storage; magnetic fusion energy; and nuclear waste management.

  18. Field-based phenomics for plant genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perhaps the greatest challenge for crop research in the 21st century is how to predict crop performance as a function of genetic architecture and climate change. Advances in “next generation” DNA sequencing have greatly reduced genotyping costs. Methods for characterization of plant traits (phenotyp...

  19. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  20. Progress of applied superconductivity research at Materials Research Laboratories, ITRI (Taiwan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R. S.; Wang, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    A status report based on the applied high temperature superconductivity (HTS) research at Materials Research Laboratories (MRL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) is given. The aim is to develop fabrication technologies for the high-TC materials appropriate to the industrial application requirements. To date, the majorities of works have been undertaken in the areas of new materials, wires/tapes with long length, prototypes of magnets, large-area thin films, SQUID's and microwave applications.

  1. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants.

    PubMed

    De Greef, J; Villani, K; Goethals, J; Van Belle, H; Van Caneghem, J; Vandecasteele, C

    2013-11-01

    Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation - before and after optimisation - as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  2. PREFACE: 7th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, Roberts

    2013-12-01

    The 7th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2013) was held at Luleå University of Technology on the 21-22 March 2013 in Luleå, SWEDEN. This conference is intended as a meeting place for researchers involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE). This is great opportunity to present their on-going research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering, exchange ideas, strengthen co-operation as well as establish new contacts. More than 60 participants representing six countries attended the meeting, in total 26 oral talks and 19 posters were presented during two days. This issue of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering presents a selection of articles from EEIGM-7 conference. Following tradition from previous EEIGM conferences, it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering. The papers presented in this issue deal not only with basic research but also with applied problems of materials science. The presented topics include theoretical and experimental investigations on polymer composite materials (synthetic and bio-based), metallic materials and ceramics, as well as nano-materials of different kind. Special thanks should be directed to the senior staff of Division of Materials Science at LTU who agreed to review submitted papers and thus ensured high scientific level of content of this collection of papers. The following colleagues participated in the review process: Professor Lennart Walström, Professor Roberts Joffe, Professor Janis Varna, Associate Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Dr Esa Vuorinen, Professor Aji Mathew, Professor Alexander Soldatov, Dr Andrejs Purpurs, Dr Yvonne Aitomäki, Dr Robert Pederson. Roberts Joffe October 2013, Luleå Conference photograph EEIGM7 conference participants, 22 March 2013 The PDF

  3. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  4. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  5. Geothermal materials survey: Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant, Baca, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II

    1980-10-07

    The results of a materials survey for the Baca 50 MW(e) single flash geothermal plant in the Valles Caldera of New Mexico are presented. From the design documents provided, materials proposed for use in contact with the plant atmosphere, the two-phase geofluid, the separated steam, and the recirculating condensate cooling water were assessed for suitability. Special emphasis was given to records of performance of the materials in other geothermal plants. Based upon these considerations of chemical reactivity and plant operating experience, a number of recommendations were made.

  6. Interdisciplinary research concerning the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. I.

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving the development of ceramic materials are discussed. The following areas of research are reported: (1) refractory structural ceramics, (2) solid electrolyte ceramics, and (3) ceramic processing. The laboratory equipment used and the procedures followed for various development and evaluation techniques are described.

  7. Materials Development and Research--Making the Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack C.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of applied linguistics the activities involved in developing instructional materials and those working in second language research and the more theoretical areas of applied linguistics are often seen to have little connection. This paper is an exploration of some of the kinds of interaction that are possible between research, theory…

  8. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  9. Ice nucleation by plant structural materials and its potential contribution to glaciation in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Hoose, C.; Järvinen, E.; Kiselev, A. A.; Moehler, O.; Schnaiter, M.; Ullrich, R.; Cziczo, D. J.; Felgitsch, L.; Gourihar, K.; Grothe, H.; Reicher, N.; Rudich, Y.; Tobo, Y.; Zawadowicz, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Glaciation of supercooled clouds through immersion freezing is an important atmospheric process affecting the formation of precipitation and the Earth's energy budget. Currently, the climatic impact of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is being reassessed due to increasing evidence of their diversity and abundance in the atmosphere as well as their ability to influence cloud properties. Recently, it has been found that microcrystalline cellulose (MCC; extracted from natural wood pulp) can act as an efficient INP and may add crucial importance to quantify the role of primary biological INP (BINP) in the troposphere. However, it is still unclear if the laboratory results of MCC can be representatively scaled up to the total cellulose content in the atmosphere to assess the overall role of BINPs in clouds and the climate system. Here, we use the AIDA (Aerosol Interaction and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) cloud simulation chamber in Karlsruhe, Germany to demonstrate that several important plant constituents as well as natural plant debris can act as BINPs in simulated super-cooled clouds of the lower and middle troposphere. More specifically, we measured the surface-scaled ice nucleation activity of a total 16 plant structural materials (i.e., celluloses, lignins, lipids and carbohydrates), which were dispersed and immersed in cloud droplets in the chamber, and compared to that of dried leaf powder as a model proxy for atmospheric BINPs. Using these surface-based activities, we developed parameters describing the ice nucleation ability of these particles. Subsequently, we applied them to observed airborne plant debris concentrations and compared to the background INP simulated in a global aerosol model. Our results suggest that cellulose is the most active BINPs amongst the 16 materials and the concentration of ice nucleating cellulose and plant debris to become significant (>0.1 L-1) below about -20 ˚C. Overall, our findings support the view that MCC may be a good proxy

  10. Research on plants for fertility regulation in India.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, V P; Dhawan, B N

    1982-09-01

    This present review of Indian plants investigated for fertility regulation includes published literature of the country and unpublished data of the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), located in Lucknow, India. Publications without supportive experimental data have not been included. It is evident from the data presented in the tables that most of the investigators have failed to include the valuable information on the time and place of collection and proper botanical authentication, if conducted, in their publications. The plants evaluated at the Institute do contain this information and their herbaria sheets are available at CDRI. The plants, with part used, type of extract, isolated compound/chromatographic fraction, dose, route and schedule of administration with animal used, and percentage activity are given in tables. The plants are classified according to their activity profile and presented accordingly. Plants for which the hormonal profile or toxicity data have been reported are dealt with under each type of activity. Most of the investigators did not develop the active plants, probably because of inconsistent results in repeat tests or lack of facilities. Major attention has been devoted to identifying plants with interceptive properties. The schedules used are more or less uniform and acceptable. On the basis of preliminary toxicity data, extracts/compounds from "Aristolochia indica," "Artemisia scoparia," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Laccardia lacca," and "Plumbago zeylanica" exclude themselves from consideration for follow-up. Wherever done, the hormonal profiles revealed estrogenic activity in active extracts/fractions/compounds from "Artabotrys odoratissimus," "Datura quercifolia," "Daucus carota," "Embelia ribes," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Pueraria tuberosa" and "Tabernaemontana heyneana." Thus they are not ideal for follow-up. Some more plants can be excluded initially because of low activity or equivocal reports on activity. The remaining

  11. Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Support Early Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Shaber; G. Baccaglini; S. Ball; T. Burchell; B. Corwin; T. Fewell; M. Labar; P. MacDonald; P. Rittenhouse; Russ Vollam; F. Southworth

    2003-01-01

    The VHTR reference concept is a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an outlet temperature of 1000 C or higher. It is expected that the VHTR will be purchased in the future as either an electricity producing plant with a direct cycle gas turbine or a hydrogen producing (or other process heat application) plant. The process heat version of the VHTR will require that an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) and primary gas circulator be located in an adjoining power conversion vessel. A third VHTR mission - actinide burning - can be accomplished with either the hydrogen-production or gas turbine designs. The first ''demonstration'' VHTR will produce both electricity and hydrogen using the IHX to transfer the heat to either a hydrogen production plant or the gas turbine. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will be designed to assure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage during accidents. The fuel cycle will be a once-through very high burnup low-enriched uranium fuel cycle. The purpose of this report is to identify the materials research and development needs for the VHTR. To do this, we focused on the plant design described in Section 2, which is similar to the GT-MHR plant design (850 C core outlet temperature). For system or component designs that present significant material challenges (or far greater expense) there may be some viable design alternatives or options that can reduce development needs or allow use of available (cheaper) materials. Nevertheless, we were not able to assess those alternatives in the time allotted for this report and, to move forward with this material research and development assessment, the authors of this report felt that it was necessary to use a GT-MHR type design as the baseline design.

  12. Research in active composite materials and structures: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Devendra P.; Anderson, Gary L.

    2000-06-01

    During the past several years, the Materials Science Division and the Mechanical and Environmental Sciences Division of the Army Research Office have been supporting projects focusing on basic resaserch in the area of smart materials and structures. The major emphasis of the ARO Structures and Dynamics Program has been on the theoretical, computational, and experimental analysis of smart structures and structural dynamics, damping, active control, and health monitoring as applied to rotor craft, electromagnetic antenna structures, missiles, land vehicles, and weapon systems. The research projects supported by the program have been primarily directed towards improving the ability to predict, control, and optimize the dynamic response of complex, multi-body deformable structures. The projects in the field of smart materials and structures have included multi-disciplinary research conducted by teams of several faculty members as well as research performed by individual investigators.

  13. Radiation and Nuclear Materials Detection Research and Development at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Jim E; Wright, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Research and development is underway to improve radiation and nuclear detection capabilities. This research and development in radiation and nuclear detection includes areas such as advanced materials, applied research and engineering for designing and fabricating customized detection equipment, and theoretical modeling and computational support. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a distinctive set of detector materials fabrication and characterization capabilities and recently created a Center for Radiation Detection Materials and Systems. Applied research and engineering efforts have led to the development of improved detectors for specific applications including safeguards, treaty monitoring, and science experiments. All sizes, types, and capabilities of detector systems have been addressed from miniature to man-portable and from neutrons to gamma radiation. Dedicated test beds, in-house and in the field, have been established to analyze, characterize, and improve detection systems.

  14. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-01-01

    The materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  15. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1992-10-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR pregrain the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing several research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Preliminary results is from these projects are reported in technical progress reports prepared by each researcher.

  16. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    SciTech Connect

    Godwin, D.A.; Hourahan, G.C.; Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-04-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC-refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. Under the current MCLR program the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) is contracting and managing multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each researcher.

  17. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John; Aicher, Winfried

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1000 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  18. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  19. Engineered Plants Make Potential Precursor to Raw Material for Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Shanklin, John

    2010-11-02

    In a first step toward achieving industrial-scale green production, scientists from BNL and collaborators at Dow AgroSciences report engineering a plant that produces industrially relevant levels of chemicals that could potentially be used to make plastics.

  20. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  1. Physics Education in a Multidisciplinary Materials Research Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, W. D.

    1997-03-01

    The MINT Center, an NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center, is a multidisciplinary research program focusing on materials information storage. It involves 17 faculty, 10 post-doctoral fellows and 25 graduate students from six academic programs including Physics, Chemistry, Materials Science, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Electric al Engineering and Chemical Engineering, whose research is supported by university, federal and industrial funds. The research facilities (15,000 ft^2) which include faculty and student offices are located in one building and are maintained by the university and the Center at no cost to participating faculty. The academic requirements for the students are determined by the individual departments along relatively rigid, traditional grounds although several materials and device courses are offered for students from all departments. Within the Center, participants work in teams assigning responsibilities and sharing results at regularly scheduled meetings. Bi-weekly research seminars for all participants provide excellent opportunities for students to improve their communication skills and to receive critical input from a large, diverse audience. Strong collaboration with industrial partners in the storage industry supported by workshops, research reviews, internships, industrial visitors and participation in industry consortia give students a broader criteria for self-evaluation, higher motivation and excellent career opportunities. Physics students, because of their rigorous basic training, are an important element in a strong materials sciences program, but they often are deficient in the behavior and characterization of real materials. The curriculum for physics students should be broadened to prepare them fully for a rewarding career in this emerging discipline.

  2. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  3. PREFACE: 6th EEIGM International Conference on Advanced Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwat, David; Ayadi, Zoubir; Jamart, Brigitte

    2012-02-01

    The 6th EEIGM Conference on Advanced Materials Research (AMR 2011) was held at the European School of Materials Engineering (EEIGM) on the 7-8 November 2011 in Nancy, France. This biennial conference organized by the EEIGM is a wonderful opportunity for all scientists involved in the EEIGM programme, in the 'Erasmus Mundus' Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Master programme (AMASE) and the 'Erasmus Mundus' Doctoral Programme in Materials Science and Engineering (DocMASE), to present their research in the various fields of Materials Science and Engineering. This conference is also open to other universities who have strong links with the EEIGM and provides a forum for the exchange of ideas, co-operation and future orientations by means of regular presentations, posters and a round-table discussion. This edition of the conference included a round-table discussion on composite materials within the Interreg IVA project '+Composite'. Following the publication of the proceedings of AMR 2009 in Volume 5 of this journal, it is with great pleasure that we present this selection of articles to the readers of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Once again it represents the interdisciplinary nature of Materials Science and Engineering, covering basic and applicative research on organic and composite materials, metallic materials and ceramics, and characterization methods. The editors are indebted to all the reviewers for reviewing the papers at very short notice. Special thanks are offered to the sponsors of the conference including EEIGM-Université de Lorraine, AMASE, DocMASE, Grand Nancy, Ville de Nancy, Region Lorraine, Fédération Jacques Villermaux, Conseil Général de Meurthe et Moselle, Casden and '+Composite'. Zoubir Ayadi, David Horwat and Brigitte Jamart

  4. The Plant Research Unit: An International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Schaefer, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is one of six life science habitats being developed as part of the Space Station Biological Research Program. The PRU is designed for experiments in microgravity and will utilize the ISS Centrifuge Facility to provide gravity levels between microgravity and 29. The PRU will provide and control all aspects of a plant s needs in a nearly closed system. In other words, the shoot and root environments will not be open to the astronaut s environment except for experiment maintenance such as planting, harvesting and plant sampling. This also means that all lighting, temperature and humidity control, "watering," and air filtering and cleaning .must be done within strict limitations of volume, weight, power, and crew time while at the same time providing a very high level of reliability and a service life in excess of 10 years. The PRU will contain two plant chambers 31.5 cm tall, each with independent control of temperature, humidity, light level and photoperiod, CO2 level, nutrient and water delivery, and video and data acquisition. The PRU is currently in the preliminary design phase and a number of subsystem components have been prototyped for testing, including the temperature and humidity control systems, the plant chambers, the LED lighting system, the atmospheric control system and a variety of nutrient delivery systems. The LED prototype provides independent feedback control of 5 separate spectral bands and variable output between 0 and 1000 micro-mol sq m/sec. The water and nutrient delivery system (WNDS) prototypes have been used to test particulate based, thin film, and gel-based WNDS configurations.

  5. NASA Lewis Research Center's Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemets, Steve A.; Ehlers, Robert C.; Parrott, Edith

    1995-01-01

    The Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility (PCMTF) in the Engine Research Building (ERB) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is one of two unique combustor facilities that provide a nonvitiated air supply to two test stands, where the air can be used for research combustor testing and high-temperature materials testing. Stand A is used as a research combustor stand, whereas stand B is used for cyclic and survivability tests of aerospace materials at high temperatures. Both stands can accommodate in-house and private industry research programs. The PCMTF is capable of providing up to 30 lb/s (pps) of nonvitiated, 450 psig combustion air at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 g F. A 5000 gal tank located outdoors adjacent to the test facility can provide jet fuel at a pressure of 900 psig and a flow rate of 11 gal/min (gpm). Gaseous hydrogen from a 70,000 cu ft (CF) tuber is also available as a fuel. Approximately 500 gpm of cooling water cools the research hardware and exhaust gases. Such cooling is necessary because the air stream reaches temperatures as high as 3000 deg F. The PCMTF provides industry and Government with a facility for studying the combustion process and for obtaining valuable test information on advanced materials. This report describes the facility's support systems and unique capabilities.

  6. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The Materials and Components Technology Division (MCT) provides a research and development capability for the design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs related to nuclear energy support the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR): life extension and accident analyses for light water reactors (LWRs); fuels development for research and test reactors; fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology; and safe shipment of hazardous materials. MCT Conservation and Renewables programs include major efforts in high-temperature superconductivity, tribology, nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and thermal sciences. Fossil Energy Programs in MCT include materials development, NDE technology, and Instrumentation design. The division also has a complementary instrumentation effort in support of Arms Control Technology. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the database.

  7. Metrology and Characterization Challenges for Emerging Research Materials and Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, C. Michael; Herr, Dan; Obeng, Yaw

    2011-11-10

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) Emerging Research Materials (ERM) and Emerging Research Devices (ERD) Technology Workgroups have identified materials and devices that could enable continued increases in the density and performance of future integrated circuit (IC) technologies and the challenges that must be overcome; however, this will require significant advances in metrology and characterization to enable progress. New memory devices and beyond CMOS logic devices operate with new state variables (e.g., spin, redox state, etc.) and metrology and characterization techniques are needed to verify their switching mechanisms and scalability, and enable improvement of operation of these devices. Similarly, new materials and processes are needed to enable these new devices. Additionally, characterization is needed to verify that the materials and their interfaces have been fabricated with required quality and performance.

  8. Metrology and Characterization Challenges for Emerging Research Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garner, C. Michael; Herr, Dan; Obeng, Yaw

    2011-11-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) Emerging Research Materials (ERM) and Emerging Research Devices (ERD) Technology Workgroups have identified materials and devices that could enable continued increases in the density and performance of future integrated circuit (IC) technologies and the challenges that must be overcome; however, this will require significant advances in metrology and characterization to enable progress. New memory devices and beyond CMOS logic devices operate with new state variables (e.g., spin, redox state, etc.) and metrology and characterization techniques are needed to verify their switching mechanisms and scalability, and enable improvement of operation of these devices. Similarly, new materials and processes are needed to enable these new devices. Additionally, characterization is needed to verify that the materials and their interfaces have been fabricated with required quality and performance.

  9. Materials management in an internationally safeguarded fuels reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkila, E.A.; Baker, A.L.; Cobb, D.D.

    1980-04-01

    The following appendices are included: aqueous reprocessing and conversion technology, reference facilities, process design and operating features relevant to materials accounting, operator's safeguards system structure, design principles of dynamic materials accounting systems, modeling and simulation approach, optimization of measurement control, aspects of international verification problem, security and reliability of materials measurement and accounting system, estimation of in-process inventory in solvent-extraction contactors, conventional measurement techniques, near-real-time measurement techniques, isotopic correlation techniques, instrumentation available to IAEA inspectors, and integration of materials accounting and containment and surveillance. (DLC)

  10. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210... through the United States, or interstate, must be free of soil, except when the Deputy Administrator approves in the permit the movement of soil with the plant pest. Subject to this exception, only...

  11. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210... through the United States, or interstate, must be free of soil, except when the Deputy Administrator approves in the permit the movement of soil with the plant pest. Subject to this exception, only...

  12. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210... through the United States, or interstate, must be free of soil, except when the Deputy Administrator approves in the permit the movement of soil with the plant pest. Subject to this exception, only...

  13. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210... through the United States, or interstate, must be free of soil, except when the Deputy Administrator approves in the permit the movement of soil with the plant pest. Subject to this exception, only...

  14. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.210... through the United States, or interstate, must be free of soil, except when the Deputy Administrator approves in the permit the movement of soil with the plant pest. Subject to this exception, only...

  15. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie; Aicher, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses onboard the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U. S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly logging more than 550 hours of operating time. Materials science is an integral part of development of new materials for everyday life here on Earth. The goal of studying materials processing in space is to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility containing two furnace inserts in which Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one material sample, can be processed up to temperatures of 1400C. Once an SCA is installed by a Crew Member, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via telemetry commands from the ground. Initially, 12 SCAs were processed in the first furnace insert for a team of European and US investigators. The processed samples have been returned to Earth for evaluation and comparison of their properties to samples similarly processed on the ground. A preliminary examination of the samples indicates that the majority of the desired science objectives have been successfully met leading to significant improvements in the understanding of alloy solidification processes. The second furnace insert will be installed in the facility in January 2011 for processing the remaining SCA currently on orbit. Six SCAs are planned for launch summer 2011, and additional batches are

  16. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  17. ABA and cytokinins: challenge and opportunity for plant stress research.

    PubMed

    Verslues, Paul E

    2016-08-01

    Accumulation of the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) induces many cellular mechanisms associated with drought resistance. Recent years have seen a rapid advance in our knowledge of how increased ABA levels are perceived by ABA receptors, particularly the PYL/RCAR receptors, but there has been relatively less new information about how ABA accumulation is controlled and matched to stress severity. ABA synthesis and catabolism, conjugation and deconjugation to glucose, and ABA transport all are involved in controlling ABA levels. This highly buffered system of ABA metabolism represents both a challenge and opportunity in developing a mechanistic understanding of how plants detect and respond to drought. Recent data have also shown that direct manipulation of cytokinin levels in transgenic plants has dramatic effect on drought phenotypes and prompted new interest in the role of cytokinins and cytokinin signaling in drought. Both ABA and cytokinins will continue to be major foci of drought research but likely with different trajectories both in terms of basic research and in translational research aimed at increasing plant performance during drought. PMID:26910054

  18. Safeguards training course: Nuclear material safeguards for enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this training course is to provide the course participants with the necessary skills to perform their inspection activities at enrichment plants. As background information, a variety of enrichment technologies will first be characterized and compared followed by a review of basic cascade, gas centrifuge, and gaseous diffusion theory. To focus on gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion technology, the major components and systems of gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enrichment plants including their function in routine LEU production will be identified. The objectives of safeguards at an enrichment plant, including those agreed to in the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, will then be described. Discussion will then focus on potential diversion scenarios at both a centrifuge and diffusion enrichment facility and applicable safeguards inspection activities for detecting these scenarios.

  19. Safeguards training course: Nuclear material safeguards for enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this course is to provide the course participants with the necessary skills to perform their inspection activities at enrichment plants. As background information, a variety of enrichment technologies will first be characterized and compared followed by a review of basic cascade, gas centrifuge, and gaseous diffusion theory. To focus on gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion technology, the major components and system of gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion enrichment plants including their function in routine LEU production will be identified. The objectives of safeguards at an enrichment plant, including those agreed to in the Hexapartite Safeguards Project, will then be described. Discussions will then focus on potential diversion scenarios at both a centrifuge and diffusion enrichment facility and applicable safeguards inspection activities for detecting these scenarios. This report presents a discussion on basic separation and cascade theory, uranium hexafluoride, and detailed separation theory, including gas centrifuge and gaseous diffusion.

  20. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, Craig; Kurup, Parthiv; Akar, Sertac; Flores, Francisco

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  1. Materials and Components Technology Division research summary, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This division has the purpose of providing a R and D capability for design, fabrication, and testing of high-reliability materials, components, and instrumentation. Current divisional programs are in support of the Integral Fast Reactor, life extension for light water reactors, fuels development for the new production reactor and research and test reactors, fusion reactor first-wall and blanket technology, safe shipment of hazardous materials, fluid mechanics/materials/instrumentation for fossile energy systems, and energy conservation and renewables (including tribology, high- temperature superconductivity). Separate abstracts have been prepared for the data base.

  2. Minority Summer Research Program in the Plant Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Poff, Kenneth L.

    2004-08-12

    Gutierrez and Larcom (2000) suggest that ''According to the National Science Foundation/Division of Science Resources Studies in 1997, the percentage distribution of scientists and engineers in the labor force by race/ethnicity changed little between 1993 and 1997''. According to this report, Black, non-Hispanic went from 3.6 in 1993 to 3.4 in 1997. Hispanic went from 3.0 in 1993 to 3.1 in 1997; and American Indian/Alaskan Native stayed the same at 0.3 during the same period. The only exceptions were a slight increase in the percentage of Asian from 9.2 in 1993 to 10.4 in 1997, while a slight decrease in percentage White from 83.9 in 1993 to 82.8 in 1997. Overall, no major changes in minorities were present in the science and engineering fields during that period. These data shows that major efforts are needed in order to improve and achieve better results for diversity in the workplace (Gutierrez & Larcom, 2000). This does not mean that major steps have not been taken over this period. For example, the Minority Summer Research Program in Plant Sciences (also funded in part by NSF under the title, ''Undergraduate Researchers in Plant Sciences Program'') was established in an effort to enhance the diversity of the plant science community. The Minority Summer Research Program in Plant Sciences was designed to encourage members of underrepresented groups to seek career opportunities in the plant sciences. To achieve this end, the program contained several components with the primary focus on mentored research for undergraduate students. The research experience was provided during the summer months on the campus of Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. At the end of the summer experience, each participant presented an oral report on their research, and submitted a written paper on the same topic. This was deliberately designed to mimic the plant science professions in which research leads to presentations in the form of reports, papers, etc. In addition

  3. Planting Turf. Competency Based Teaching Materials in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This competency-based curriculum unit on planting turf is one of four developed for classroom use in teaching the turf and lawn services area of horticulture. The eight sections are each divided into teaching content (in a question-and-answer format) and student skills that outline steps and factors for consideration. Topics covered include…

  4. Probing of Metabolites in Finely Powdered Plant Material by Direct Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Ali, Arslan; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2014-04-01

    Natural products continue to serve as an important source of novel drugs since the beginning of human history. High-throughput techniques, such as MALDI-MS, can be techniques of choice for the rapid screening of natural products in plant materials. We present here a fast and reproducible matrix-free approach for the direct detection of UV active metabolites in plant materials without any prior sample preparation. The plant material is mechanically ground to a fine powder and then sieved through different mesh sizes. The collected plant material is dispersed using 1 μL solvent on a target plate is directly exposed to Nd:YAG 335 nm laser. The strategy was optimized for the analysis of plant metabolites after study of the different factors affecting the reproducibility and effectiveness of the analysis, including particle sizes effects, types of solvents used to disperse the sample, and the part of the plant analyzed. Moreover, several plant species, known for different classes of metabolites, were screened to establish the generality of the approach. The developed approach was validated by the characterization of withaferin A and nicotine in the leaves of Withania somnifera and Nicotiana tabacum, respectively, through comparison of its MS/MS data with the standard compound. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques were used for the tissue imaging purposes. This approach can be used to directly probe small molecules in plant materials as well as in herbal and pharmaceutical formulations for fingerprinting development.

  5. The Plant Research Unit: Long-Term Plant Growth Support for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Brown, C. S.; Goins, G. D.; Kliss, M.; Levine, H.; Lomax, P. A.; Porter, R. L.; Wheeler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The specifications of the plant research unit (PRU) plant habitat, designed for space station operations, are presented. A prototype brassboard model of the PRU is described, and the results of the subsystems tests are outlined. The effects of the long term red light emitting diode (LED) illumination as the sole source for plant development were compared with red LEDs supplemented with blue wavelengths, and white fluorescent sources. It was found that wheat and Arabidopsis were able to complete a life cycle under red LEDs alone, but with differences in physiology and morphology. The differences noted were greatest for the Arabidopsis, where the time to flowering was increased under red illumination. The addition of 10 percent of blue light was effective in eliminating the observed differences. The results of the comparative testing of three nutrient delivery systems for the PRU are discussed.

  6. Selected NASA research in composite Materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of the application of composite materials to aircraft structures are considered. Failure prediction techniques, buckling and postbuckling research, laminate fatigue analysis, damage tolerance, high temperature resin matrix composites and electrical hazards of carbon fiber composites are among the topics discussed.

  7. Materials Research Society Proceedings: Interfaces in Composites, volume 170

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, Carlo G.; Chen, Eric J. H.

    1990-11-01

    Reports on the following topics are presented: (1) micromechanics of interfaces; (2) characterization of interfaces; (3) interface reactions in ceramic and metal systems; (4) interface effects in ceramic and metal matrix composites; and (5) interface effects in polymer matrix composites. A list of the materials research society symposium proceedings is also presented.

  8. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…

  9. Action Research to Support Teachers' Classroom Materials Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Language teachers constantly create, adapt and evaluate classroom materials to develop new curricula and meet their learners' needs. It has long been argued (e.g. by Stenhouse, L. [1975]. "An Introduction to Curriculum Research and Development." London: Heinemann) that teachers themselves, as opposed to managers or course book writers,…

  10. The Bias of Materiality in Sociocultural Research: Reconceiving Embodiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheville, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Although language practices must obviously be an empirical focus in sociocultural research, this article suggests that emphasis on the human body's material aspect has not revealed how, in particular communicative contexts, its ideational influence surpasses that of language. This article suggests that in the "social" semiotic, the body's function…

  11. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A B; Tully, C G; Austin, R; Calaprice, F; McDonald, K; Ascione, G; Baker, G; Davidson, R; Dudek, L; Grisham, L; Kugel, H; Pagdon, K; Stevenson, T; Woolley, R; Zwicker, A

    2010-11-17

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m^3) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m^2) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10^13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned... The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new

  12. Development of Course Content Materials For Training Research and Research Related Personnel to Appraise Research Critically. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millman, Jason; Gowin, D. Bob

    A description of the development of the print materials to improve the ability of learners to appraise critically educational research is provided in this report. The completed materials consist of the following: an introductory statement about the nature of criticism, a statement about the contents of the materials and suggestions for use, and…

  13. Appropriate use of genetic manipulation for the development of restoration plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diversity of restoration plant material development approaches reflect a variety of philosophies that represent what should and can be accomplished by restoration. The "natural" approach emphasizes emulation of putative naturally occurring patterns of genetic variation. The "genetically manipu...

  14. Acute cytotoxicity of fossil-energy-related comparative research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid (phenolic) content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base (primary aromatic amines and azaarenes) content.

  15. Acute cytotoxicity of fossil-energy-related comparative research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of five fossil-energy-related comparative research materials have been examined under acute static conditions for toxic effects by use of the Tetrahymena assay system. Cells were exposed to various concentrations of extracts, and cytolysis and population growth impairment were monitored. In addition, chemical class fractionation and major organic elemental analysis were performed. Synthetic fossil fuel materials are more toxic than conventional petroleum crude oils and coal-derived materials are more toxic than crude shale oil. Synthetic fossil-fuel-related materials have a higher nitrogen and oxygen content and a greater aromaticity than do natural crude oils. Acute toxicity appears to be correlated with ether-soluble acid content, mono- and diaromatic hydrocarbon content, and ether-soluble base. 22 refs.

  16. Research on applications of piezoelectric materials in smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli

    2011-03-01

    Piezoelectric materials have become the most attractive functional materials for sensors and actuators in smart structures because they can directly convert mechanical energy to electrical energy and vise versa. They have excellent electromechanical coupling characteristics and excellent frequency response. In this article, some research activities on the applications of piezoelectric materials in smart structures, including semi-active vibration control based on synchronized switch damping using negative capacitance, energy harvesting using new electronic interfaces, structural health monitoring based on a new type of piezoelectric fibers with metal core, and active hysteresis control based on new modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii model at the Aeronautical Science Key Laboratory for Smart Materials and Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics are introduced.

  17. U.S. program on materials technology for ultra-supercritical coal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Henry, J. F.; Tanzosh, J.; Stanko, G.; Shingledecker, J.; Vitalis, B.; Purgert, R.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of conventional fossil power plants is a strong function of the steam temperature and pressure. Research to increase both has been pursued worldwide, since the energy crisis in the 1970s. The need to reduce CO2 emissions has recently provided an additional incentive to increase efficiency. More recently, interest has been evinced in advanced combustion technologies utilizing oxygen instead of air for combustion. The main enabling technology in achieving the above goals is the development of stronger high temperature materials. Extensive research-and-development programs have resulted in numerous high-strength alloys for heavy section piping and for tubing needed to build boilers. The study reported on here is aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers that are capable of operating with steam at temperatures of 760 °C (1400 °F) and pressures of 35 MPa (5000 psi). The economic viability of such a plant has been explored. Candidate alloys applicable to various ranges of temperatures have been identified. Stress rupture tests have been completed on the base metal and on welds to a number of alloys. Steamside oxidation tests in an autoclave at 650 °C (1200 °F) and 800 °C (1475 °F) have been completed. Fireside corrosion tests have been conducted under conditions simulating those of waterwalls and superheater/reheater tubes. The weldability and fabricability of the alloys have been investigated. The capabilities of various overlay coatings and diffusion coatings have been examined. This article provides a status report on the progress achieved to date on this project.

  18. Thermoelectric materials -- New directions and approaches. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 478

    SciTech Connect

    Tritt, T.M.; Kanatzidis, M.G.; Lyon, H.B. Jr.; Mahan, G.D.

    1997-07-01

    Thermoelectric materials are utilized in a wide variety of applications related to solid-state refrigeration or small-scale power generation. Thermoelectric cooling is an environmentally friendly method of small-scale cooling in specific applications such as cooling computer chips and laser diodes. Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide range of applications from beverage coolers to power generation for deep-space probes such as the Voyager missions. Over the past thirty years, alloys based on the Bi-Te systems {l{underscore}brace}(Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2} (Te{sub 1{minus}x}Se{sub x}){sub 3}{r{underscore}brace} and Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} systems have been extensively studied and optimized for their use as thermoelectric materials to perform a variety of solid-state thermoelectric refrigeration and power generation tasks. Despite this extensive investigation of the traditional thermoelectric materials, there is still a substantial need and room for improvement, and thus, entirely new classes of compounds will have to be investigated. Over the past two-to-three years, research in the field of thermoelectric materials has been undergoing a rapid rebirth. The enhanced interest in better thermoelectric materials has been driven by the need for much higher performance and new temperature regimes for thermoelectric devices in many applications. The essence of a good thermoelectric is given by the determination of the material's dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = ({alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}/{lambda})T, where {alpha} is the Seebeck coefficient, {sigma} the electrical conductivity and {lambda} the total thermal conductivity. The best thermoelectric materials have a value of ZT = 1. This ZT = 1 has been an upper limit for more than 30 years, yet no theoretical or thermodynamic reason exits for why it can not be larger. The focus of the symposium is embodied in the title, Thermoelectric Materials: New Directions and Approaches. Many of the researchers in the

  19. Plants of the Olympic Coastal Forests: ancient knowledge of materials and medicines and future heritage.

    PubMed

    Forlines, D R; Tavenner, T; Malan, J C; Karchesy, J J

    1992-01-01

    The indigenous people of the west coast of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula have used a wide variety of forest plants for centuries to make materials and medicines. The late David Forlines shared at least eight generations of the knowledge of uses of these plants for materials and medicines with us in hopes that this information might be used 'to help science catch up with the old people.' Dyes, paints and adhesives were some of the materials made. The medicines were often administered as teas, but in some cases, fresh plant material was required. Some parallels were found to European and Chinese uses of similar species. Plants from the family Rosaceae had the greatest number of medicinal uses, but several other plant families known to contain polyphenols were also encountered. The role of polyphenols in the use of these plants is difficult to estimate because in many cases the plants have not been studied chemically. A preliminary screening indicated that many of the plants were rich in procyanidins and associated compounds. PMID:1417699

  20. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs.

    PubMed

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species.

  1. Resource competition in plant invasions: emerging patterns and research needs

    PubMed Central

    Gioria, Margherita; Osborne, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Invasions by alien plants provide a unique opportunity to examine competitive interactions among plants. While resource competition has long been regarded as a major mechanism responsible for successful invasions, given a well-known capacity for many invaders to become dominant and reduce plant diversity in the invaded communities, few studies have measured resource competition directly or have assessed its importance relative to that of other mechanisms, at different stages of an invasion process. Here, we review evidence comparing the competitive ability of invasive species vs. that of co-occurring native plants, along a range of environmental gradients, showing that many invasive species have a superior competitive ability over native species, although invasive congeners are not necessarily competitively superior over native congeners, nor are alien dominants are better competitors than native dominants. We discuss how the outcomes of competition depend on a number of factors, such as the heterogeneous distribution of resources, the stage of the invasion process, as well as phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary adaptation, which may result in increased or decreased competitive ability in both invasive and native species. Competitive advantages of invasive species over natives are often transient and only important at the early stages of an invasion process. It remains unclear how important resource competition is relative to other mechanisms (competition avoidance via phenological differences, niche differentiation in space associated with phylogenetic distance, recruitment and dispersal limitation, indirect competition, and allelopathy). Finally, we identify the conceptual and methodological issues characterizing competition studies in plant invasions, and we discuss future research needs, including examination of resource competition dynamics and the impact of global environmental change on competitive interactions between invasive and native species. PMID

  2. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  3. New Developments in Spaceflight Hardware for Plant Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform to perform long term and shorter experiments with plants on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for flight 1xg controls and for studies with accelerations from 0.001xg to 2.0xg. Several experiments are in preparation, investigating gravity related gene expressions, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana, fern spores and lentil rots. The experiment specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants, connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides video observation, the experiments will be evaluated on ground by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. Two years after EMCS, ESA's BIOLAB will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, BIOLAB accommodates experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments will be presented in this communication.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  5. Laser-driven flyer plates for reactive materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Hiroki; Brown, Kathryn; Conner, Rusty; Dlott, Dana

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a laser-driven flyer plate apparatus to study shock-induced chemistry of reactive materials (RM) containing Al nanoparticles. Reactive materials are generally composed of fuel and oxidizer particles. Under shock compression these components mix and react to liberate energy and do work. Understanding how shocked nanoparticle compositions undergo exothermic chemistry is a difficult problem in materials science, since the reactivity is a function of both chemical and materials parameters. Laser-launched flyer plates coated with a small amount of the RM are made to impact a window and their emission spectrum is studied. Achieving a good reproducible launch is a problem, and is generally limited by the quality of the laser beam profile and the flyer target. Our approach exploits recent advances in beam shaping and microfabrication. This material is based on work supported by the US Army Research Office under award number W911NF-04-1-0178 and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under award number FA9550-06-1-0235. Kathryn Brown acknowledges support from the Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliance Program from the Carnegie-DOE Alliance Center under grant number DOE CIW 4-3253-13.

  6. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on plant pigments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material returned by Apollo 12 contained 21 to 35% more total pigment than control tissues. This difference is due primarily to increased chlorophyll a concentrations per gram fresh weight of tissue in experimental cultures. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control cultures.

  7. First Materials Science Research Facility Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S.; Higgins, D.; Kitchens, L.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) is the primary facility for U.S. sponsored materials science research on the International Space Station. MSRR-1 is contained in an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for the best possible microgravity environment. MSRR-1 will accommodate dual Experiment Modules and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first Experiment Module for the MSRR-1, the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL), is an international cooperative activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC). The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts which provide distinct thermal processing capabilities. Module Inserts currently planned for the MSL are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, and a Solidification with Quench Furnace. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Development (SPD) Group. Transparent furnace assemblies include capabilities for vapor transport processes and annealing of glass fiber preforms. This Experiment Module is replaceable on-orbit. This paper will describe facility capabilities, schedule to flight and research opportunities.

  8. Optimising energy recovery and use of chemicals, resources and materials in modern waste-to-energy plants

    SciTech Connect

    De Greef, J.; Villani, K.; Goethals, J.; Van Belle, H.; Van Caneghem, J.; Vandecasteele, C.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • WtE plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. • Emission and consumption data before and after 5 technical improvements are discussed. • Plant performance can be increased without introduction of new techniques or re-design. • Diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operation are essential. - Abstract: Due to ongoing developments in the EU waste policy, Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants are to be optimized beyond current acceptance levels. In this paper, a non-exhaustive overview of advanced technical improvements is presented and illustrated with facts and figures from state-of-the-art combustion plants for municipal solid waste (MSW). Some of the data included originate from regular WtE plant operation – before and after optimisation – as well as from defined plant-scale research. Aspects of energy efficiency and (re-)use of chemicals, resources and materials are discussed and support, in light of best available techniques (BAT), the idea that WtE plant performance still can be improved significantly, without direct need for expensive techniques, tools or re-design. In first instance, diagnostic skills and a thorough understanding of processes and operations allow for reclaiming the silent optimisation potential.

  9. Introduction of Soft X-Ray Spectromicroscopy as an Advanced Technique for Plant Biopolymers Research

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R.; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M.; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S.; Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed. PMID:25811457

  10. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Chithra; Christensen, Colleen R; Gaillard, Cedric; Lahlali, Rachid; Blair, Lisa M; Perumal, Vijayan; Miller, Shea S; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm) resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1981-03-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commerical light water reactors during 1978 have been compiled and reported. Data on soild waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1978 release data are compared with previous years releases in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants. Annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Benkovitz, C.

    1983-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1980 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1980 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  13. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1988-01-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1985 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1985 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  14. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants: Annual report, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J.

    1987-08-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1984 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1984 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized.

  15. Research highlights: natural passive samplers--plants as biomonitors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Vivian S

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, interest in boosting the collection of data on environmental pollutants while reducing costs has spurred intensive research into passive samplers, instruments that monitor the environment through the free flow of chemical species. These devices, although relatively inexpensive compared to active sampling technologies, are often tailored for collection of specific contaminants or monitoring of a single phase, typically water or air. Plants as versatile, natural passive samplers have gained increased attention in recent years due to their ability to absorb a diverse range of chemicals from the air, water, and soil. Trees, lichens, and other flora have evolved exquisite biological features to facilitate uptake of nutrients and water from the ground and conduct gas exchange on an extraordinary scale, making them excellent monitors of their surroundings. Sampling established plant specimens in a region also provides both historical and spatial data on environmental contaminants at relatively low cost in a non-invasive manner. This Highlight presents several recent publications that demonstrate how plant biomonitoring can be used to map the distribution of a variety of pollutants and identify their sources. PMID:25980391

  16. [Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.

  17. Research on polycrystalline thin-film materials, cells, and modules

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

    1990-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) supports research activities in polycrystalline thin films through the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). This program includes research and development (R D) in both copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films for photovoltaic applications. The objective of this program is to support R D of photovoltaic cells and modules that meet the DOE long-term goals of high efficiency (15%--20%), low cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and reliability (30-year life time). Research carried out in this area is receiving increased recognition due to important advances in polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules. These have become the leading thin-film materials for photovoltaics in terms of efficiency and stability. DOE has recognized this potential through a competitive initiative for the development of CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe modules. This paper focuses on the recent progress and future directions of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program and the status of the subcontracted research on these promising photovoltaic materials. 26 refs., 12 figs, 1 tab.

  18. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  19. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  20. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-07-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  1. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  2. 7 CFR 613.3 - NRCS responsibilities in plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... where soil, climate, or other conditions differ significantly from those at the Centers. (c) Make... species by working with experiment stations, crop improvement associations, and other State and Federal... allocation to conservation districts, experiment stations, other Federal and State research agencies,...

  3. 7 CFR 613.3 - NRCS responsibilities in plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... where soil, climate, or other conditions differ significantly from those at the Centers. (c) Make... species by working with experiment stations, crop improvement associations, and other State and Federal... allocation to conservation districts, experiment stations, other Federal and State research agencies,...

  4. Electrostatic Levitation: A Tool to Support Materials Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; SanSoucie, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Containerless processing represents an important topic for materials research in microgravity. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container, which permits studies of deeply undercooled melts, and high-temperature, highly reactive materials. Containerless processing provides data for studies of thermophysical properties, phase equilibria, metastable state formation, microstructure formation, undercooling, and nucleation. The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) jointly developed an electromagnetic levitator facility (MSL-EML) for containerless materials processing in space. The electrostatic levitator (ESL) facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center provides support for the development of containerless processing studies for the ISS. Apparatus and techniques have been developed to use the ESL to provide data for phase diagram determination, creep resistance, emissivity, specific heat, density/thermal expansion, viscosity, surface tension and triggered nucleation of melts. The capabilities and results from selected ESL-based characterization studies performed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center will be presented.

  5. Sodium fast reactor fuels and materials : research needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Denman, Matthew R.; Porter, Douglas; Wright, Art; Lambert, John; Hayes, Steven; Natesan, Ken; Ott, Larry J.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Yacout, Abdellatif

    2011-09-01

    An expert panel was assembled to identify gaps in fuels and materials research prior to licensing sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) design. The expert panel considered both metal and oxide fuels, various cladding and duct materials, structural materials, fuel performance codes, fabrication capability and records, and transient behavior of fuel types. A methodology was developed to rate the relative importance of phenomena and properties both as to importance to a regulatory body and the maturity of the technology base. The technology base for fuels and cladding was divided into three regimes: information of high maturity under conservative operating conditions, information of low maturity under more aggressive operating conditions, and future design expectations where meager data exist.

  6. Editorial - Proceedings on Basic Research on Ionic-Covalent Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-05-01

    The third symposium on Basic Research on Ionic-Covalent Materials for Nuclear Applications, originally initiated at the EMRS in Nice (May 2011), attracted 80 registered participants. During 4 days, 54 oral talks and 22 posters were presented. The overall high quality of the majority of the contributions was appreciated, in particular the great efforts of the invited speakers to convey their expertise in an excellent tutorial way.

  7. Research advances in plant-made flavivirus antigens.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C A; Giulietti, A M; Talou, J Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of flaviviruses such as dengue (DV), yellow fever (YFV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) and West Nile (WNV) affect numerous countries around the world. The fast spread of these viruses is the result of increases in the human population, rapid urbanisation and globalisation. While vector control is an important preventive measure against vector-borne diseases, it has failed to prevent the spread of these diseases, particularly in developing countries where the implementation of control measures is intermittent. As antiviral drugs against flaviviruses are not yet available, vaccination remains the most important tool for prevention. Although human vaccines for YFV, TBEV and JEV are available, on-going vaccination efforts are insufficient to prevent infection. No vaccines against DENV and WNV are available. Research advances have provided important tools for flavivirus vaccine development, such as the use of plants as a recombinant antigen production platform. This review summarises the research efforts in this area and highlights why a plant system is considered a necessary alternative production platform for high-tech subunit vaccines. PMID:22480936

  8. Research advances in plant-made flavivirus antigens.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C A; Giulietti, A M; Talou, J Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of flaviviruses such as dengue (DV), yellow fever (YFV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis (TBEV) and West Nile (WNV) affect numerous countries around the world. The fast spread of these viruses is the result of increases in the human population, rapid urbanisation and globalisation. While vector control is an important preventive measure against vector-borne diseases, it has failed to prevent the spread of these diseases, particularly in developing countries where the implementation of control measures is intermittent. As antiviral drugs against flaviviruses are not yet available, vaccination remains the most important tool for prevention. Although human vaccines for YFV, TBEV and JEV are available, on-going vaccination efforts are insufficient to prevent infection. No vaccines against DENV and WNV are available. Research advances have provided important tools for flavivirus vaccine development, such as the use of plants as a recombinant antigen production platform. This review summarises the research efforts in this area and highlights why a plant system is considered a necessary alternative production platform for high-tech subunit vaccines.

  9. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  10. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

    2000-02-25

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  11. Advances in Materials Research: An Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, Elizabeth A.; Roberson, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    My time at Kennedy Space Center. was spent immersing myself in research performed in the Materials Science Division of the Engineering Directorate. My Chemical Engineering background provided me the ability to assist in many different projects ranging from tensile testing of composite materials to making tape via an extrusion process. However, I spent the majority of my time on the following three projects: (1) testing three different materials to determine antimicrobial properties; (2) fabricating and analyzing hydrogen sensing tapes that were placed at the launch pad for STS-133 launch; and (3) researching molten regolith electrolysis at KSC to prepare me for my summer internship at MSFC on a closely related topic. This paper aims to explain, in detail, what I have learned about these three main projects. It will explain why this research is happening and what we are currently doing to resolve the issues. This paper will also explain how the hard work and experiences that I have gained as an intern have provided me with the next big step towards my career at NASA.

  12. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  13. Materials research for passive solar systems: solid-state phase-change materials

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, D.K.; Webb, J.D.; Burrows, R.W.; McFadden, J.D.O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 4/), pentaglycerinve (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 3/), and neopentyl glycol (C/sub 5/H/sub 12/O/sub 2/). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature betweeen 25/sup 0/C and 188/sup 0/C, and have latent heats of transformation between 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier. Nevertheless, a higher cost of the phase-change materials (approx. =$0.70 per pound) is likely to limit their applicability in passive solar systems unless their performance can be significantly improved through further research.

  14. The role of materials R&D in the development of commercial fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. W.

    The introduction of new materials into a commercial fusion power plant is the ultimate goal of any long range materials development program. Success requires interactive communication between the design community and materials community to ensure that the materials being developed meet the requirements of the user or customer. This communication can be in the form of participating in project meetings with the reactor designers and providing supporting data. It can also be in the form of a material properties handbook used by the designers and structural analysts. The R&D activities must also support the development of structural design criteria to ensure the reliability and long-life capability of these new materials. This paper examines the materials development issues, looks at the role of ITER and other experimental facilities in materials development, and shows how ITER can be used to develop confidence in the use of new materials in future fusion reactors.

  15. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  16. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR&TD) Materials Program semiannual progress report for the period ending September 30, 1991. Fossil Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Cole, N.C.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Research is outlined in four areas: Ceramics, New Alloys, Corrosion and Erosion Research, and Technology Development and Transfer. (VC)

  17. Advances in seed conservation of wild plant species: a review of recent research

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Fiona R.; Probert, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Seed banking is now widely used for the ex situ conservation of wild plant species. Many seed banks that conserve wild species broadly follow international genebank guidelines for seed collection, processing, storage, and management. However, over the last 10–20 years, problems and knowledge gaps have been identified, which have led to more focused seed conservation research on diverse species. For example, there is now greater ecogeographic understanding of seed storage behaviour and of the relative longevity of orthodox seeds, and we are therefore able to predict which species should be conserved using cryostorage techniques; seed development studies have identified when seeds should be harvested for maximal tolerance of desiccation and longevity in storage, as well as highlighting how seed development can vary between species; and there is now a wealth of literature on the dormancy-breaking and germination requirements of wild species which, as well as enabling better management of accessions, will also mean that their use in restoration, species reintroduction, or for evaluation for other applications is possible. Future research may be focused, for example, on nursery and plant production systems for wild plant species that maximize genetic diversity, so that introduced seeds and plant materials have the resilience to cope with future environmental stresses. PMID:27293614

  18. Neuromorphic Computing – From Materials Research to Systems Architecture Roundtable

    SciTech Connect

    Schuller, Ivan K.; Stevens, Rick; Pino, Robinson; Pechan, Michael

    2015-10-29

    Computation in its many forms is the engine that fuels our modern civilization. Modern computation—based on the von Neumann architecture—has allowed, until now, the development of continuous improvements, as predicted by Moore’s law. However, computation using current architectures and materials will inevitably—within the next 10 years—reach a limit because of fundamental scientific reasons. DOE convened a roundtable of experts in neuromorphic computing systems, materials science, and computer science in Washington on October 29-30, 2015 to address the following basic questions: Can brain-like (“neuromorphic”) computing devices based on new material concepts and systems be developed to dramatically outperform conventional CMOS based technology? If so, what are the basic research challenges for materials sicence and computing? The overarching answer that emerged was: The development of novel functional materials and devices incorporated into unique architectures will allow a revolutionary technological leap toward the implementation of a fully “neuromorphic” computer. To address this challenge, the following issues were considered: The main differences between neuromorphic and conventional computing as related to: signaling models, timing/clock, non-volatile memory, architecture, fault tolerance, integrated memory and compute, noise tolerance, analog vs. digital, and in situ learning New neuromorphic architectures needed to: produce lower energy consumption, potential novel nanostructured materials, and enhanced computation Device and materials properties needed to implement functions such as: hysteresis, stability, and fault tolerance Comparisons of different implementations: spin torque, memristors, resistive switching, phase change, and optical schemes for enhanced breakthroughs in performance, cost, fault tolerance, and/or manufacturability.

  19. Irradiation creep of candidate materials for advanced nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Jung, P.; Hoffelner, W.

    2013-10-01

    In the present paper, irradiation creep results of an intermetallic TiAl alloy and two ferritic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are summarized. In situ irradiation creep measurements were performed using homogeneous implantation with α- and p-particles to maximum doses of 0.8 dpa at displacement damage rates of 2-8 × 10-6 dpa/s. The strains of miniaturized flat dog-bone specimens were monitored under uniaxial tensile stresses ranging from 20 to 400 MPa at temperatures of 573, 673 and 773 K, respectively. The effects of material composition, ODS particle size, and bombarding particle on the irradiation creep compliance was studied and results are compared to literature data. Evolution of microstructure during helium implantation was investigated in detail by TEM and is discussed with respect to irradiation creep models.

  20. Guidelines for composite materials research related to general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dow, N. F.; Humphreys, E. A.; Rosen, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for research on composite materials directed toward the improvement of all aspects of their applicability for general aviation aircraft were developed from extensive studies of their performance, manufacturability, and cost effectiveness. Specific areas for research and for manufacturing development were identified and evaluated. Inputs developed from visits to manufacturers were used in part to guide these evaluations, particularly in the area of cost effectiveness. Throughout the emphasis was to direct the research toward the requirements of general aviation aircraft, for which relatively low load intensities are encountered, economy of production is a prime requirement, and yet performance still commands a premium. A number of implications regarding further directions for developments in composites to meet these requirements also emerged from the studies. Chief among these is the need for an integrated (computer program) aerodynamic/structures approach to aircraft design.

  1. Earth materials research: Report of a Workshop on Physics and Chemistry of Earth Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The report concludes that an enhanced effort of earth materials research is necessary to advance the understanding of the processes that shape the planet. In support of such an effort, there are new classes of experiments, new levels of analytical sensitivity and precision, and new levels of theory that are now applicable in understanding the physical and chemical properties of geological materials. The application of these capabilities involves the need to upgrade and make greater use of existing facilities as well as the development of new techniques. A concomitant need is for a sample program involving their collection, synthesis, distribution, and analysis.

  2. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  3. Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    2004-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed

  4. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

    2013-09-01

    This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications.

  5. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  6. Safety Monitoring of Materials and Components of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhman, A.; Bergner, F.

    Cluster dynamics (CD) is used to study the evolution of the size distributions of vacancy clusters (VC), self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters (SIAC) and Cr precipitates in neutron irradiated Fe-9at.%Cr and Fe-12.5at.%Cr alloys at T = 573 K with irradiation doses up to 1.5 dpa and a flux of 140 ndpa/s. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data on the defect structure of this material irradiated at doses of 0.6 and 1.5 dpa are used to calibrate the model. For both alloys a saturation behavior has been found by CD for the free vacancy and free SIA concentrations as well as for the number density of the SIAC for the doses above 0.006 dpa. The CD simulations also indicate the presence of VC with radii less than 0.5 nm and a strong SIAC peak with a mean diameter of about 0.5 nm, both invisible in SANS and TEM experiments. CD modeling of Cr precipitates has been made taking into account the deviation of this system from the ideal cluster gas. A specific surface tension of about 0.17 J/m2 between the α matrix and the Cr-rich α' precipitate and the rate at which Cr monomers are absorbed about 7.94 m-1 have been found as best fit values for reproducing the long-term Cr evolution in the irradiated Fe-12.5%Cr alloys observed by SANS. The change of the composition of Fe-Cr precipitates due to irradiation has been found.

  7. CosmoBon, tree research team, for studying utilization of woody plant in space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Baba, Keiichi; Chida, Yukari

    2012-07-01

    We are proposing to raise woody plants in space for several applications and plant science, as Tree research team, TRT. Trees produce excess oxygen, wooden materials for living cabin, and provide biomass for cultivating mushroom and insect as for the space agriculture. Excellent tree shapes which would be deeply related to wood formation improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space. We have the serious problem about their size. Bonsai is one of the Japanese traditional arts. We have been investigating the tension wood formation under exotic gravitational environment using Bonsai. CosmoBon is the small tree Bonsai for our space experiment. The tension wood formation in CosmoBon was confirmed as the same as that in the natural trees. Our goal is to examine feasibility to grow various species of trees in space as bioresource for space agriculture.

  8. [Progress on the research of apomixis related genes in plant].

    PubMed

    Hu, Long-Xing

    2008-02-01

    Apomixis is a special asexual reproduction that plants can form embryo and produce progenies via seeds without sperm-egg fusion. Since apomitic embryo is a complete genetic clone of maternal parent without the participation of sperm, it is an ideal pathway to fix and utilize hybrid vigor and has unpredictable potential value in crop breeding, thus be called "the asexual revolution". According to the formation of the apomitic embryos, apomixis could be divided into three major types: diplospory, apospory and adventive embryony. This review is focused on the recent research progresses of related genes in the development of embryo, endosperm, and miosis, and several genes may involved in the regulation of apomitic development.

  9. Contributive research in compound semiconductor material and related devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twist, James R.

    1988-05-01

    The objective of this program was to provide the Electronic Device Branch (AFWAL/AADR) with the support needed to perform state of the art electronic device research. In the process of managing and performing on the project, UES has provided a wide variety of scientific and engineering talent who worked in-house for the Avionics Laboratory. These personnel worked on many different types of research programs from gas phase microwave driven lasers, CVD and MOCVD of electronic materials to Electronic Device Technology for new devices. The fields of research included MBE and theoretical research in this novel growth technique. Much of the work was slanted towards the rapidly developing technology of GaAs and the general thrust of the research that these tasks started has remained constant. This work was started because the Avionics Laboratory saw a chance to advance the knowledge and level of the current device technology by working in the compounds semiconductor field. UES is pleased to have had the opportunity to perform on this program and is looking forward to future efforts with the Avionics Laboratory.

  10. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  11. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  12. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  13. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  14. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  15. The Plant Organelles Database 3 (PODB3) update 2014: integrating electron micrographs and new options for plant organelle research.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Nakamura, Takanori; Kondo, Maki; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nagatani, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The Plant Organelles Database 2 (PODB2), which was first launched in 2006 as PODB, provides static image and movie data of plant organelles, protocols for plant organelle research and external links to relevant websites. PODB2 has facilitated plant organellar research and the understanding of plant organelle dynamics. To provide comprehensive information on plant organelles in more detail, PODB2 was updated to PODB3 (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome/). PODB3 contains two additional components: the electron micrograph database and the perceptive organelles database. Through the electron micrograph database, users can examine the subcellular and/or suborganellar structures in various organs of wild-type and mutant plants. The perceptive organelles database provides information on organelle dynamics in response to external stimuli. In addition to the extra components, the user interface for access has been enhanced in PODB3. The data in PODB3 are directly submitted by plant researchers and can be freely downloaded for use in further analysis. PODB3 contains all the information included in PODB2, and the volume of data and protocols deposited in PODB3 continue to grow steadily. We welcome contributions of data from all plant researchers to enhance the utility and comprehensiveness of PODB3. PMID:24092884

  16. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  17. Enzyme conversion of lignocellulosic plant materials for resource recovery in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlmann, K. L.; Westgate, P.; Velayudhan, A.; Weil, J.; Sarikaya, A.; Brewer, M. A.; Hendrickson, R. L.; Ladisch, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    A large amount of inedible plant material composed primarily of the carbohydrate materials cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin is generated as a result of plant growth in a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS). Cellulose is a linear homopolymer of glucose, which when properly processed will yield glucose, a valuable sugar because it can be added directly to human diets. Hemicellulose is a heteropolymer of hexoses and pentoses that can be treated to give a sugar mixture that is potentially a valuable fermentable carbon source. Such fermentations yield desirable supplements to the edible products from hydroponically-grown plants such as rapeseed, soybean, cowpea, or rice. Lignin is a three-dimensionally branched aromatic polymer, composed of phenyl propane units, which is susceptible to bioconversion through the growth of the white rot fungus, Pluerotus ostreatus. Processing conditions, that include both a hot water pretreatment and fungal growth and that lead to the facile conversion of plant polysaccharides to glucose, are presented.

  18. Process research on non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with he process for producing photovoltaic modules using non-CZ sheet material are investigated. All investigations are being performed using dendritic web silicon, but all processes are directly applicable to other ribbon forms of sheet material. The technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CZ silicon using liquid dopant techniques was determined. Numerous commercially available liquid phosphorus and boron dopant solutions are investigated. Temperature-time profiles to achieve N(+) and P(+) sheet resistivities of 60 + or - 10 and 40 + or - s10 ohms per square centimeter respectively are established. A study of the optimal method of liquid dopant application is performed. The technical feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask was also determined.

  19. Electrical research on solar cells and photovoltaic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orehotsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    A systematic study of the properties of various polymer pottant materials and of the electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell materials is required for advancing the technology of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. The items of specific concern in this sponsored research activity involve: (1) kinetics of plasticizer loss in PVB, (2) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in PVB, (3) kinetics of water absorption and desorption in EVA, (4) the electrical properties at PVB as a function of temperature and humidity, (5) the electrical properties of EVA as a function of temperature and humidity, (6) solar cell corrosion characteristics, (7) water absorption effects in PVB and EVA, and (8) ion implantation and radiation effects in PVB and EVA.

  20. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  1. Endocytosis of cell surface material mediates cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Dhonukshe, Pankaj; Baluska, Frantisek; Schlicht, Markus; Hlavacka, Andrej; Samaj, Jozef; Friml, Jirí; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2006-01-01

    Dividing plant cells perform a remarkable task of building a new cell wall within the cytoplasm in a few minutes. A long-standing paradigm claims that this primordial cell wall, known as the cell plate, is generated by delivery of newly synthesized material from Golgi apparatus-originated secretory vesicles. Here, we show that, in diverse plant species, cell surface material, including plasma membrane proteins, cell wall components, and exogenously applied endocytic tracers, is rapidly delivered to the forming cell plate. Importantly, this occurs even when de novo protein synthesis is blocked. In addition, cytokinesis-specific syntaxin KNOLLE as well as plasma membrane (PM) resident proteins localize to endosomes that fuse to initiate the cell plate. The rate of endocytosis is strongly enhanced during cell plate formation, and its genetic or pharmacological inhibition leads to cytokinesis defects. Our results reveal that endocytic delivery of cell surface material significantly contributes to cell plate formation during plant cytokinesis.

  2. High-pressure processing as emergent technology for the extraction of bioactive ingredients from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized.

  3. Materials processing research opportunities in powder injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Materials processing is an active area with many research opportunities for advanced instrumentation, control, and modeling. Among new materials processing routes, powder injection molding (PIM) has rapidly grown from a curiosity to a viable production technique over just a few years. This manufacturing technique is applicable to all materials, and is the preferred fabrication route for many complex-shaped, high-performance components for surgical tools, computer hardware, automotive systems, consumer products, and turbine components. This presentation introduces the use of a computer controlled injection molding machine to shape powders (metal, carbide, composite, and ceramic) in a high productivity setting. After molding the organic is extracted and the powder structure is sintered to full density. Much research is needed in process modeling, control, inspection, and optimization. This presentation summarizes the basic technology and several important factors relevant to manufacturing. An important development is in minimization of molding defects via closed-loop feedback control using pressure, temperature, and optical sensors. Recent progress has occurred using in situ guided waves for ultrasonic inspection of the molded part. Neural networks are being generated to allow assessment of processing changes as required from the integrated robot, visual imaging, pressure, and ultrasonic sensors. Similar, but less refined efforts are occurring in die compaction technology. As another example, computer simulation of heat transfer is needed during sintering to understand sources of component warpage during densification. A furnace equipped with visual imaging and residual gas analysis is being used to assist in verification of such computer simulations. These tools are still in the research stage, so future integration into the manufacturing environment will bring new challenges.

  4. The good and the bad of poisonous plants: an introduction to the USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Gardner, Dale R; Stegelmeier, Bryan L

    2012-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory (PPRL), about the unique services and activities of the PPRL and the potential assistance that they can provide to plant poisoning incidences. The PPRL is a federal research laboratory. It is part of the Agricultural Research Service, the in-house research arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The mission of the PPRL is to identify toxic plants and their toxic compounds, determine how the plants poison animals, and develop diagnostic and prognostic procedures for poisoned animals. Furthermore, the PPRL's mission is to identify the conditions under which poisoning occurs and develop management strategies and treatments to reduce losses. Information obtained through research efforts at the PPRL is mostly used by the livestock industry, natural resource managers, veterinarians, chemists, plant and animal scientists, extension personnel, and other state and federal agencies. PPRL currently has 9 scientists and 17 support staff, representing various disciplines consisting of toxicology, reproductive toxicology, veterinary medicine, chemistry, animal science, range science, and plant physiology. This team of scientists provides an interdisciplinary approach to applied and basic research to develop solutions to plant intoxications. While the mission of the PPRL primarily impacts the livestock industry, spinoff benefits such as development of animal models, isolation and characterization of novel compounds, elucidation of biological and molecular mechanisms of action, national and international collaborations, and outreach efforts are significant to biomedical researchers. The staff at the PPRL has extensive knowledge regarding a number of poisonous plants. Although the focus of their knowledge is on plants that affect livestock, oftentimes, these plants are also poisonous to humans, and thus, similar principles could apply for cases of human poisonings. Consequently, the information provided

  5. 2009 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function Gordon Research Conference - February 1- 6 ,2009

    SciTech Connect

    Kent D. Chapman

    2009-02-06

    The Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism and Function' has been instituted to accelerate research productivity in the field of plant lipids. This conference will facilitate wide dissemination of research breakthroughs, support recruitment of young scientists to the field of plant lipid metabolism and encourage broad participation of the plant lipid community in guiding future directions for research in plant lipids. This conference will build upon the strengths of the successful, previous biannual meetings of the National Plant Lipid Cooperative (www.plantlipids.org) that began in 1993, but will reflect a broader scope of topics to include the biochemistry, cell biology, metabolic regulation, and signaling functions of plant acyl lipids. Most importantly, this conference also will serve as a physical focal point for the interaction of the plant lipid research community. Applications to attend this conference will be open to all researchers interested in plant lipids and will provide a venue for the presentation of the latest research results, networking opportunities for young scientists, and a forum for the development and exchange of useful lipid resources and new ideas. By bringing together senior- and junior-level scientists involved in plant lipid metabolism, a broad range of insights will be shared and the community of plant lipid researchers will function more as a network of vested partners. This is important for the vitality of the research community and for the perceived value that will encourage conference attendance into the future.

  6. Research experience for undergraduates in robotics and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yih, T. C.; Tansel, I. N.; Wu, K. H.

    1993-03-01

    Florida International University successfully completed the proposed project entitled, 'Research Experience for Undergraduates in Robotics and Materials.' Nineteen students designed and manufactured a 'user-friendly' industrial robot with three functional axes and an IBM-PC-based C-based controller. The accuracy of the robot is 0.0005 inch when two axes are used. An operator can control the motions of the robot with a few hours of training by using the PC-based controller mouse. The controller also provides graphical simulation of the robot motions.

  7. Materials processing in space programs tasks. [NASA research tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E.

    1981-01-01

    Active research tasks as of the end of fiscal year 1981 of the materials processing in space program, NASA Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications are summarized to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The program, its history, strategy, and overall goal are described the organizational structures and people involved are identified and a list of recent publications is given for each research task. Four categories: Crystal Growth; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluids, Transports, and Chemical Processes, and Ultrahigh Vacuum and Containerless Processing Technologies are used to group the tasks. Some tasks are placed in more than one category to insure complete coverage of each category.

  8. Innovation in use and research on cementitious material

    SciTech Connect

    Scrivener, Karen L. Kirkpatrick, R. James

    2008-02-15

    In this paper we discuss innovations in concrete technology which are currently being applied in the field-namely high and ultra high performance (strength), and self consolidating concrete. We discuss the factors which have enabled these developments and ongoing needs in these areas. The importance of sustainability as the major driver for future innovations and prospects for development of new cementitious materials with lower environmental impact is briefly discussed. Finally the importance of innovation in research is examined. The dramatic development in experimental and computational techniques over recent years opens up wide-ranging possibilities for understanding the micro- and nano- scale chemical and physical processes which underlie performance at a macroscopic level. The example of computational approaches at the atomic and molecular scale is presented in detail. In order to exploit the opportunities presented by such new techniques, there needs to be greater efforts to structure interdisciplinary, multi-group research.

  9. The feasibility of recycling and clearance of active materials from fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, M.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Forrest, R. A.; Marshall, T. D.; Taylor, N. P.; Tobita, K.

    2007-08-01

    In order to minimize the quantity of active materials that require long-term storage, arising during operation and after fusion power plant decommissioning, maximum use should be made of both recycling within the nuclear industry and clearance. For the latter, revised limits have been recently issued at the international level and in the US and Europe. In this paper the implications for fusion materials of these new levels are considered. Concerning recycling, power plant studies have employed criteria based solely on radiological parameters. Reviews of remote procedures currently used within the nuclear industry suggest that these criteria have been unduly conservative and should be revised.

  10. Solar distillation of water from soil and plant materials: a simple desert survival technique.

    PubMed

    Jackson, R D; Van Bavel, C H

    1965-09-17

    Water obtained from soil and plant materials by a simple distillation technique can provide a means for survival under desert conditions. A hemispherical hole in soil (in some cases containing cut plant material) is covered with plastic film formed and held in a conical shape by a rock placed in the center. Water collects on the under side of the plastic, runs to the point of the cone, and drops into the container. A yield of 1.5 liters per day of potable water was obtained from a single "survival still."

  11. ELWIRA "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials": University meets school - science meets high school education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    The research project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" (ELWIRA) is in the framework of the Sparkling Science programme performed by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences together with the Billroth Gymnasium in Vienna. The targets of a Sparkling Science project are twofold (a) research and scientific activities should already be transferred in the education methods of schools in order to fascinate high school students for scientific methods and to spark young people's interest in research, and (b) exciting research questions not solved and innovative findings should be addressed. The high school students work together with the scientists on their existing research questions improve the school's profile and the high school student knowledge in the investigated Sparkling Science topic and can lead to a more diverse viewing by the involvement of the high school students. In the project ELWIRA scientists collaborate with the school to quantify and evaluate the properties of classical building materials like concrete and natural materials like plants and woodlogs in terms of their life cycle through the use of different laboratory and field methods. The collaboration with the high school students is structured in workshops, laboratory work and fieldworks. For an efficient coordination/communication, learning and research progress new advanced electronic media like "Moodle classes/courses" have been used and utilized by the high school students with great interest. The Moodle classes are of high importance in the knowledge transfer in the dialogue with the high school students. The research project is structured into four main areas associated with the efficiencies of building materials: (a) the aesthetic feeling of people in terms of the appearance of materials and associated structures will be evaluated by means of jointly developed and collected questionnaires. The analysis, interpretation and evaluation are carried

  12. Analysis of plant gums and saccharide materials in paint samples: comparison of GC-MS analytical procedures and databases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Saccharide materials have been used for centuries as binding media, to paint, write and illuminate manuscripts and to apply metallic leaf decorations. Although the technical literature often reports on the use of plant gums as binders, actually several other saccharide materials can be encountered in paint samples, not only as major binders, but also as additives. In the literature, there are a variety of analytical procedures that utilize GC-MS to characterize saccharide materials in paint samples, however the chromatographic profiles are often extremely different and it is impossible to compare them and reliably identify the paint binder. Results This paper presents a comparison between two different analytical procedures based on GC-MS for the analysis of saccharide materials in works-of-art. The research presented here evaluates the influence of the analytical procedure used, and how it impacts the sugar profiles obtained from the analysis of paint samples that contain saccharide materials. The procedures have been developed, optimised and systematically used to characterise plant gums at the Getty Conservation Institute in Los Angeles, USA (GCI) and the Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry of the University of Pisa, Italy (DCCI). The main steps of the analytical procedures and their optimisation are discussed. Conclusions The results presented highlight that the two methods give comparable sugar profiles, whether the samples analysed are simple raw materials, pigmented and unpigmented paint replicas, or paint samples collected from hundreds of centuries old polychrome art objects. A common database of sugar profiles of reference materials commonly found in paint samples was thus compiled. The database presents data also from those materials that only contain a minor saccharide fraction. This database highlights how many sources of saccharides can be found in a paint sample, representing an important step forward in the problem of

  13. Removal efficiency of silver impregnated filter materials and performance of iodie filters in the off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Hoeflich, V.

    1997-08-01

    An almost quantitative retention of iodine is required in reprocessing plants. For the iodine removal in the off-gas streams of a reprocessing plant various sorption materials had been tested under realistic conditions in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in cooperation with the Karlsruhe research center FZK. The laboratory results achieved with different iodine sorption materials justified long time performance tests in the WAK Plant. Technical iodine filters and sorption materials for measurements of iodine had been tested from 1972 through 1992. This paper gives an overview over the most important results, Extended laboratory, pilot plant, hot cell and plant experiences have been performed concerning the behavior and the distribution of iodine-129 in chemical processing plants. In a conventional reprocessing plant for power reactor fuel, the bulk of iodine-129 and iodine-127 is evolved into the dissolver off-gas. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and gaseous process and waste streams of the plant. Iodine filters with silver nitrate impregnated silica were installed in the dissolver off-gas of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant WAK in 1975 and in two vessel vent systems in 1988. The aim of the Karlsruhe iodine research program was an almost quantitative evolution of the iodine during the dissolution process to remove as much iodine with the solid bed filters as possible. After shut down of the WAK plant in December 1990 the removal efficiency of the iodine filters at low iodine concentrations had been investigated during the following years. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-07-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  15. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  16. Plant growth response in experimental soilless mixes prepared from coal combustion products and organic waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardhan, S.; Watson, M.; Dick, W.A.

    2008-07-15

    Large quantities of organic materials such as animal manures, yard trimmings, and biosolids are produced each year. Beneficial use options for them are often limited, and composting has been proposed as a way to better manage these organic materials. Similarly, burning of coal created 125 million tons of coal combustion products (CCP) in the United States in 2006. An estimated 53 million tons of CCP were reused, whereas the remainder was deposited in landfills. By combining CCP and composted organic materials (COM), we were able to create soilless plant growth mixes with physicochemical conditions that can support excellent plant growth. An additional benefit is the conservation of natural raw materials, such as peat, which is generally used for making soilless mixes. Experimental mixes were formulated by combining CCP and COM at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (vol/vol), respectively. Water content at saturation for the created mixes was 63% to 72%, whereas for the commercial control, it was 77%. pH values for the best performing mixes ranged between 5.9 and 6.8. Electrical conductivity and concentrations of required plant nutrient were also within plant growth recommendations for container media. Significantly (P < 0.0001) higher plant biomass growth (7%-130%) was observed in the experimental mixes compared with a commercial mix. No additional fertilizers were provided during the experiment, and reduced fertilization costs can thus accrue as an added benefit to the grower. In summary, combining CCP and COM, derived from source materials often viewed as wastes, can create highly productive plant growth mixes.

  17. Deep-sea macrourid fishes scavenge on plant material: Evidence from in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffreys, Rachel M.; Lavaleye, Marc S. S.; Bergman, Magda J. N.; Duineveld, Gerard C. A.; Witbaard, Rob; Linley, Thom

    2010-04-01

    Deep-sea benthic communities primarily rely on an allochthonous food source. This may be in the form of phytodetritus or as food falls e.g. sinking carcasses of nekton or debris of marine macrophyte algae. Deep-sea macrourids are the most abundant demersal fish in the deep ocean. Macrourids are generally considered to be the apex predators/scavengers in deep-sea communities. Baited camera experiments and stable isotope analyses have demonstrated that animal carrion derived from the surface waters is an important component in the diets of macrourids; some macrourid stomachs also contained vegetable/plant material e.g. onion peels, oranges, algae. The latter observations led us to the question: is plant material an attractive food source for deep-sea scavenging fish? We simulated a plant food fall using in situ benthic lander systems equipped with a baited time-lapse camera. Abyssal macrourids and cusk-eels were attracted to the bait, both feeding vigorously on the bait, and the majority of the bait was consumed in <30 h. These observations indicate (1) plant material can produce an odour plume similar to that of animal carrion and attracts deep-sea fish, and (2) deep-sea fish readily eat plant material. This represents to our knowledge the first in situ documentation of deep-sea fish ingesting plant material and highlights the variability in the scavenging nature of deep-sea fishes. This may have implications for food webs in areas where macrophyte/seagrass detritus is abundant at the seafloor e.g. canyon systems and continental shelves close to seagrass meadows (Bahamas and Mediterranean).

  18. Human biological materials in research: ethical issues and the role of stewardship in minimizing research risks.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, B R

    2001-12-01

    Recent scientific and technologic advances generated from the human genome project have increased the ability of researchers to study human biological materials. This has enhanced the ease with which highly personal information such as genetic makeup can be revealed about individuals, families, and communities. In addition, a change in the societal value of human biological tissue from waste to commercial resource has occurred. A new model of stewardship is developed that can be used as a guide for protecting human research participants who are involved in studies that include collecting and handling human biological samples. Nursing implications to ensure protection of human research participants are discussed.

  19. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  20. 78 FR 5505 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...: Name: Site Visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Yale University, also called Center for Research on Interface Structures and Phenomena, by NSF Division of..., Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room...

  1. 77 FR 20852 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory... Wisconsin-Madison by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: May 6, 2012; 4:45 p.m.-8... Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065,...

  2. Constructing wetlands: measuring and modeling feedbacks of oxidation processes between plants and clay-rich material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaltink, Rémon; Dekker, Stefan C.; Griffioen, Jasper; Wassen, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    Interest is growing in using soft sediment as a building material in eco-engineering projects. Wetland construction in the Dutch lake Markermeer is an example: here the option of dredging some of the clay-rich lake-bed sediment and using it to construct 10.000 ha of wetland will soon go under construction. Natural processes will be utilized during and after construction to accelerate ecosystem development. Knowing that plants can eco-engineer their environment via positive or negative biogeochemical plant-soil feedbacks, we conducted a six-month greenhouse experiment to identify the key biogeochemical processes in the mud when Phragmites australis is used as an eco-engineering species. We applied inverse biogeochemical modeling to link observed changes in pore water composition to biogeochemical processes. Two months after transplantation we observed reduced plant growth and shriveling as well as yellowing of foliage. The N:P ratios of plant tissue were low and were affected not by hampered uptake of N but by enhanced uptake of P. Plant analyses revealed high Fe concentrations in the leaves and roots. Sulfate concentrations rose drastically in our experiment due to pyrite oxidation; as reduction of sulfate will decouple Fe-P in reducing conditions, we argue that plant-induced iron toxicity hampered plant growth, forming a negative feedback loop, while simultaneously there was a positive feedback loop, as iron toxicity promotes P mobilization as a result of reduced conditions through root death, thereby stimulating plant growth and regeneration. Given these two feedback mechanisms, we propose that when building wetlands from these mud deposits Fe-tolerant species are used rather than species that thrive in N-limited conditions. The results presented in this study demonstrate the importance of studying the biogeochemical properties of the building material and the feedback mechanisms between plant and soil prior to finalizing the design of the eco-engineering project.

  3. A Role for Assisted Evolution in Designing Native Plant Materials for Domesticated Landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developers of native plant materials for wildland restoration may operate under either the evolutionary paradigm, which seeks to emulate natural genetic patterns, also referred to as genetic identity, or the resource paradigm, which emphasizes empirical performance. We contend that both paradigms a...

  4. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence use of timber and... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial cutting of standing timber by local rural residents for appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood...

  5. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence use of timber and... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial cutting of standing timber by local rural residents for appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood...

  6. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Information DG-5028, was published in the Federal Register on May 14, 2012 (77 FR 28407), for a 60-day public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  7. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... January 1998 (63 FR 2426; January 15, 1998), because the underlying basis standard, ANSI N15.8-1974... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY:...

  8. Use of plant material for the decontamination of water polluted with phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Dec, J.; Bollag, J.M. )

    1994-11-05

    Plant materials were found useful in the decontamination of water polluted with phenolic compounds. The detoxification effect was due to peroxidases contained in the plant tissue. The enzymes mediated oxidative coupling of the pollutants, followed by precipitation of the formed polymers from the aqueous phase. An industrial wastewater contaminated with 2,4-dichlorophenol (up to 850 ppm) and other chlorinated phenols was successfully treated using minced horseradish, potato, or white radish (amended with H[sub 2]O[sub 2]). Horseradish-mediated removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol from model solutions was comparable with that achieved using purified horseradish peroxidase. In addition, horseradish could be reused up to 30 times. Due to the apparent ease of application, the use of plant material may present a breakthrough in the enzyme treatment of contaminated water.

  9. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program: April 1, 1993--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.T.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR and TD) Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with a focus on the longer-term needs for materials with general applicability to the various fossil fuel technologies. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. The scope of the Program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1993, through March 31, 1995, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. It is the intent of this series of bibliographies to list only those publications that can be conveniently obtained by a researcher through relatively normal channels. The publications listed in this document have been limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles. 159 refs.

  10. Advanced research and technology development fossil energy materials program. Quarterly progress report for the period ending September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R.A.

    1981-12-01

    This is the fourth combined quarterly progress report for those projects that are part of the Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. The objective is to conduct a program of research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. Work performed on the program generally falls into the Applied Research and Exploratory Development categories as defined in the DOE Technology Base Review, although basic research and engineering development are also conducted. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating cntractor organizations. All subcontractor work is monitored by Program staff members at ORNL and Argonne National Laboratory. This report is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FY 1981 in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  11. Science and payload options for animal and plant research accommodations aboard the early Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, John D.; Arno, Roger D.; Gustan, Edith; Rudiger, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    The resources to be allocated for the development of the Initial Operational Capability (IOC) Space Station Animal and Plant Research Facility and the Growth Station Animal and Plant Vivarium and Laboratory may be limited; also, IOC accommodations for animal and plant research may be limited. An approach is presented for the development of Initial Research Capability Minilabs for animal and plant studies, which in appropriate combination and sequence can meet requirements for an evolving program of research within available accommodations and anticipated budget constraints.

  12. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.T.

    1993-05-01

    Objective of DOE`s Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with focus on longer-term needs. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. Scope of the program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. Research conducted on the Program is divided among the following areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys, (3) corrosion research, and (4) program development and technology transfer. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. The publications listed are limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles.

  13. Publications of the Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.T.

    1993-01-01

    Objective of DOE's Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications, with focus on longer-term needs. The Program includes research aimed at a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and on the development of new materials capable of substantial improvement in plant operations and reliability. Scope of the program addresses materials requirements for all fossil energy systems, including materials for coal preparation, coal liquefaction, coal gasification, heat engines and heat recovery, combustion systems, and fuel cells. Work on the Program is conducted at national and government laboratories, universities, and industrial research facilities. Research conducted on the Program is divided among the following areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys, (3) corrosion research, and (4) program development and technology transfer. This bibliography covers the period of April 1, 1992, through March 31, 1993, and is a supplement to previous bibliographies in this series. The publications listed are limited to topical reports, open literature publications in refereed journals, full-length papers in published proceedings of conferences, full-length papers in unrefereed journals, and books and book articles.

  14. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  15. Process research of non-CZ silicon material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    High risk, high payoff research areas associated with the Westinghouse process for producing photovoltaic modules using non- CZ sheet material were investigated. All work was performed using dendritic web silicon. The following tasks are discussed and associated technical results are given: (1) determining the technical feasibility of forming front and back junctions in non-CT silicon using dopant techniques; (2) determining the feasibility of forming a liquid applied diffusion mask to replace the more costly chemical vapor deposited SiO2 diffusion mask; (3) determining the feasibility of applying liquid anti-reflective solutions using meniscus coating equipment; (4) studying the production of uniform, high efficiency solar cells using ion implanation junction formation techniques; and (5) quantifying cost improvements associated with process improvements.

  16. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  17. RTNS-II - a fusion materials research tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, C. M.; Heikkinen, D. W.

    1982-09-01

    Rotating Target Neutron Source-II (RTNS-II) is a national facility for fusion materials research. It contains two 14 MeV neutron sources. Deuterons are accelerated to ˜ 400 keV and transported to a rotating titanium tritide target. Present source strength is greater than 1 × 10 13 n/s and source diameter is 1 cm fwhm. An air-levitated vacuum seal permits rotation of the target at 5000 rpm with negligible impact on accelerator vacuum system gas load. Targets are cooled by chilled water flowing through internal channels in a copper alloy substrate. Substrates are produced by solid-state diffusion bonding of two sheets, one containing etched cooling channels. An electroforming process is being developed which will reduce substrate cost and improve reliability. Titanium tritide coating thickness is ˜ 10 μm giving an initial tritium inventory for the present 23 cm diameter targets of 3.7 × 10 7 MBq. Operating interval between target changes is typically about 80 h. Thirteen laboratories and universities have participated in the experimental program at RTNS-II. Most measurements have been directed at understanding defect production and low-dose damage microstructure. The principal diagnostic tools have been cryogenic resistivity measurements, mechanical properties assessment and transmission electron microscopy. Some engineering tests have been conducted in support of near-term magnetic confinement experiments and of reactor materials which will see small lifetime doses.

  18. Use of Animal Models in Plant Sterol and Stanol Research.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zahra; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol-lowering properties of plant sterols were reported approximately six decades ago. However, over the past couple of decades we have learnt more about other cardiovascular benefits of regular consumption of plant sterols and/or plant stanols. In particular a series of animal studies has consistently reported that dietary plant sterols and/or plant stanols or their fatty acid esters can reduce atherogenesis to a different extent in different animal models. Such effects may be mediated not only through reductions in LDL cholesterol levels, but also through other mechanisms including anti-inflammatory effects. In this manuscript, various animal models including mice, rabbits, hamsters, and others which have been used to establish cardiovascular benefits of plant sterols are discussed. PMID:25942701

  19. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The advancement of material performance and design methodology as related to brittle materials was investigated. The processing and properties of ceramic materials as related to design requirements was also studied.

  20. Evaluation of Anticorrosion Performance of New Materials for Alternative Superheater Tubes in Biomass Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuchun; Zhang, Hongliang; He, Yuwu

    2016-09-01

    One way of controlling alkali chloride-induced corrosion in biomass boilers is by designing new alloy materials used as superheater tubes. Four newly designed Cr-Ni alloy was designed and studied for applicability in biomass power plants. High-temperature oxidation experiments and high-temperature corrosion experiments were carried out for evaluation material characterization. Through analysis and discussion of the corrosion kinetics and oxidation kinetics, it can be concluded that materials with series number of "2xx" and "3xx" had better endurance ability in KCl environment under 650°C and 700°C than TP316 material. In the same conditions, 3xx material had better anticorrosion ability in 700°C with KCl environment.

  1. The Role of Materials Research in Ceramics and ARCHAEOLOGY1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandiver, Pamela

    2001-08-01

    Materials research has been applied successfully to the study of archaeological ceramics for the last fifty years. To learn about our history and the human condition is not just to analyze and preserve the objects but also to investigate and understand the knowledge and skills used to produce and use them. Many researchers have probed the limits and methods of such studies, always mindful that a glimpse at ancient reality lies in the details of time and place, context of finds, and experimentally produced data, usually compared with standards that were collected in an equivalent ethnographic setting or that were fabricated in a laboratory in order to elucidate the critical questions in a technology that could be understood in no other way. The basis of most studies of ancient technology has been established as microstructure; composition and firing; methods and sequence of manufacture; differentiation of use; use-wear and post-depositional processes; technological variability that can be interpreted as a pattern of stasis or innovation, which can be related to cultural continuity or change; and interpretation that can involve technology, subsistence trade, organization, and symbolic group- and self-definition.

  2. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    SciTech Connect

    MM Hall

    2006-01-31

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

  3. Opportunities for Materials Science and Biological Research at the OPAL Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, S. J.

    2008-03-17

    Neutron scattering techniques have evolved over more than 1/2 century into a powerful set of tools for determination of atomic and molecular structures. Modern facilities offer the possibility to determine complex structures over length scales from {approx}0.1 nm to {approx}500 nm. They can also provide information on atomic and molecular dynamics, on magnetic interactions and on the location and behaviour of hydrogen in a variety of materials. The OPAL Research Reactor is a 20 megawatt pool type reactor using low enriched uranium fuel, and cooled by water. OPAL is a multipurpose neutron factory with modern facilities for neutron beam research, radioisotope production and irradiation services. The neutron beam facility has been designed to compete with the best beam facilities in the world. After six years in construction, the reactor and neutron beam facilities are now being commissioned, and we will commence scientific experiments later this year. The presentation will include an outline of the strengths of neutron scattering and a description of the OPAL research reactor, with particular emphasis on it's scientific infrastructure. It will also provide an overview of the opportunities for research in materials science and biology that will be possible at OPAL, and mechanisms for accessing the facilities. The discussion will emphasize how researchers from around the world can utilize these exciting new facilities.

  4. Methane production from and beneficiation of anaerobic digestion of aquatic plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L.; Ghosh, S.

    1984-01-03

    A process is disclosed for improved CH/sub 4/ production by anaerobic digestion of aquatic plant material, at least a portion or all which was grown in organically polluted water. Mixtures of aquatic plant material whose 1 portion was grown in nonpolluted and a 2nd portion comprising approximately 10 wt.% or more grown in organically polluted water can be used. The liquid effluent from the digester may be advantageously returned to the aquatic plant-growing pond to maintain the desired organic pollution. The process provides for improved CH/sub 4/ production from aquatic plant material which is, by itself, recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion. Thus, 2 digesters were operated under the same conditions, the 1st being fed with water hyacinth grown in nonorganic polluted hardwater of BOD 5 mg/l and hardness of 20 grains/gal. and the 2nd being fed with water hyacinth grown in sewage-polluted water of BOD 20 mg/l. Each digester was operated in a semicontinuous completely mixed anaerobic manner with a culture volume of 5 liters for a detention time of 12 days, a loading of 0.1 lb volatile solid/cubic feet-day, and 35/sup 0/ at pH of 6.8-7.1. The runs were contained for several detention times and exhibited stable performance. CH/sub 4/ yield increased approximately 69% and the gas-production rate increased approximately 82% by using water hyacinth feed grown in sewage-polluted water.

  5. Using materials research results in new regulations -- The Swedish approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, K.

    1995-12-31

    Swedish regulations are normally divided into two sections: the first part is the compulsory text and the second part explains very briefly the ideas behind the regulations and section consists of an interpretive text. This second part explains very briefly the ideas behind the regulations and gives advice as to how to apply the regulations, acceptable testing and analysis methods, and references to other standards and relevant documents. In the new regulations, which were approved by the Board of SKI in September 1994 and are effective from 1st January 1995, a number of innovations have been included concerning chemistry and environmental degradation of the primary pressure boundary in Light Water Reactors. With regard to chemistry SKI will no longer approve the various parameters in the technical specifications (such as conductivity and impurity concentrations) but will require that the utilities have a chemistry control program in place which ensures the integrity of the primary pressure boundary and does not expose it to environments (such as impurities and decontamination chemicals) for which it was not designed. SKI can at any time control that such a program exists and assess its compatibility with these goals, either during routine inspections or as part of special theme inspections. Crack growth rates have been specified for different materials stainless steels, and the nickel base alloy types 600 and 182. Different environments have also been specified: water chemistry within and outside plant specifications as well as normal and hydrogen water chemistry conditions. Stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactor systems is also treated separately in the regulations, but not discussed specifically here.

  6. The research on Virtual Plants Growth Based on DLA Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, YunLan; Chai, Bencheng

    This article summarizes the separated Evolutionary Algorithm in fractal algorithm of Diffusion Limited Aggregation model (i.e. DLA model) and put forward the virtual plant growth realization in computer based on DLA model. The method is carried out in the VB6.0 environment to achieve and verify the plant growth based on DLA model.

  7. Chamber wall materials response to pulsed ions at power-plant level fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renk, T. J.; Provencio, P. P.; Tanaka, T. J.; Olson, C. L.; Peterson, R. R.; Stolp, J. E.; Schroen, D. G.; Knowles, T. R.

    2005-12-01

    Candidate dry-wall materials for the reactor chambers of future laser-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power plants have been exposed to ion pulses from RHEPP-1, located at Sandia National Laboratories. These pulses simulate the MeV-level ion pulses with fluences of up to 20 J/cm 2 that can be expected to impinge on the first wall of such future plants. Various forms of tungsten and tungsten alloy were subjected to up to 1600 pulses, usually while being heated to 600 °C. Other metals were exposed as well. Thresholds for roughening and material removal, and evolution of surface morphology were measured and compared with code predictions for materials response. Powder-metallurgy (PM) tungsten is observed to undergo surface roughening and subsurface crack formation that evolves over hundreds of pulses, and which can occur both below and above the melt threshold. This roughening is worse than for other metals, and worse than for either tungsten alloyed with rhenium (W25Re), or for CVD and single-crystal forms of tungsten. Carbon, particularly the form used in composite material, appears to suffer material loss well below its sublimation point. Some engineered materials were also investigated. It appears that some modification to PM tungsten is required for its successful use in a reactor environment.

  8. 77 FR 61432 - Proposal Review for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Proposal Review for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Harvard University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. ] Dates & Times: Nov 14, 2012; 7:15 a.m.-6:45...

  9. 78 FR 39017 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Utah by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: July 9, 2013, 7:15...

  10. 77 FR 57161 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Brandeis University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: Oct 11, 2012; 7:15 a.m.--8:30...

  11. 78 FR 30342 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Duke University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: June 13, 2013, 7:15 a.m.-6:45...

  12. 78 FR 40519 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Utah by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203 Dates & Times: July 12, 2013, 7:15...

  13. 75 FR 4876 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the Georgia Institute of Technology by NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: March 2, 2010,...

  14. 77 FR 55863 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Princeton University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: Sept 19, 2012; 6 p.m.-8:30...

  15. 77 FR 25503 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Nebraska Lincoln by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: May 21,...

  16. 75 FR 18240 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Brandeis University by NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Date and Time: Thursday, April 29, 2010; 8:30...

  17. 77 FR 61433 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Massachusetts Amherst by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times:...

  18. 75 FR 9001 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Colorado School of Mines by NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times: Thursday, April...

  19. 77 FR 19362 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research, Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the Pennsylvania State University by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: April 24,...

  20. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at the University of Minnesota by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times: Feb 12, 2012;...

  1. 77 FR 2096 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and...

  2. 77 FR 2095 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at Georgia Tech by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates and Times: Feb. 20, 2012; 7:45 a.m. -6...

  3. 78 FR 4464 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory... Cornell University by the Division of Materials Research, 1203. Dates & Times: February 11, 2013; 7:30 a.m... Meeting: Part open. Contact Person: Dr. Thomas Rieker, Program Director, Materials Research Science...

  4. 77 FR 57162 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory...: Name: Site visit review of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (MRSEC) at The Ohio State University (OSU) by the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203. Dates & Times: Oct 22, 2012,...

  5. [Plants' materials and synthetic agonists of cannabinoid receptors use as a substitute of Marihuana, appearing in a current forensic toxicology practice of evidence materials].

    PubMed

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Florek, Ewa; Zaba, Czesław

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis sativa species Indica (Marihuana) is nowadays one of the most common plant drug, with psychoactive activity, presently appearing on the illegal market in Poland. It is reported that frequency of securing evidential materials so called substitute of Marihuana, is growing rapidly during the last few years. The substitutes of Marihuana occurring on the market are of natural or synthetic origins, for example different species of raw plants' materials having action similar to Cannabis or raw plants' materials with no psychoactive properities but with an addition of components so called synthetic cannabinoids. The review presents recent developments in drug market and current problems of forensic toxicology on the example of Marihuana.

  6. Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buwen, Cheng; Cheng, Li; Zhi, Liu; Chunlai, Xue

    2016-08-01

    Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation (Nos. 61036003, 61435013) and the Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (No. 2013CB632103).

  7. Lab to Farm: Applying Research on Plant Genetics and Genomics to Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Ronald, Pamela C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 300 years, plant science research has provided important knowledge and technologies for advancing the sustainability of agriculture. In this Essay, I describe how basic research advances have been translated into crop improvement, explore some lessons learned, and discuss the potential for current and future contribution of plant genetic improvement technologies to continue to enhance food security and agricultural sustainability. PMID:24915201

  8. Data base on dose reduction research projects for nuclear power plants. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, T.A.; Yu, C.K.; Roecklein, A.K.

    1994-05-01

    This is the fifth volume in a series of reports that provide information on dose reduction research and health physics technology or nuclear power plants. The information is taken from two of several databases maintained by Brookhaven National Laboratory`s ALARA Center for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The research section of the report covers dose reduction projects that are in the experimental or developmental phase. It includes topics such as steam generator degradation, decontamination, robotics, improvements in reactor materials, and inspection techniques. The section on health physics technology discusses dose reduction efforts that are in place or in the process of being implemented at nuclear power plants. A total of 105 new or updated projects are described. All project abstracts from this report are available to nuclear industry professionals with access to a fax machine through the ACEFAX system or a computer with a modem and the proper communications software through the ACE system. Detailed descriptions of how to access all the databases electronically are in the appendices of the report.

  9. Interdisciplinary Research and Training Program in the Plant Sciences. Technical progress report, February 1, 1991--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C.P.

    1992-07-01

    Research on plants continued. Topics include: Molecular basis of symbiotic plant-microbe interations; enzymatic mechanisms and regulation of plant cell wall biosynthesis; molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes in plants; resistance of plants to environmental stress; studies on hormone biosynthesis and action; plant cell wall proteins; interaction of nuclear and organelle genomes; sensor transduction in plants; molecular mechanisms of trafficking in the plant cell; regulation of lipid metabolism; molecular bases of plant disease resistance mechanisms; biochemical and molecular aspects of plant pathogenesis; developmental biology of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria; environmental control of plant development and its relation to plant hormones.

  10. PGSB PlantsDB: updates to the database framework for comparative plant genome research

    PubMed Central

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai C.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Seidel, Michael; Kugler, Karl G.; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology: formerly MIPS) PlantsDB (http://pgsb.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/index.jsp) is a database framework for the comparative analysis and visualization of plant genome data. The resource has been updated with new data sets and types as well as specialized tools and interfaces to address user demands for intuitive access to complex plant genome data. In its latest incarnation, we have re-worked both the layout and navigation structure and implemented new keyword search options and a new BLAST sequence search functionality. Actively involved in corresponding sequencing consortia, PlantsDB has dedicated special efforts to the integration and visualization of complex triticeae genome data, especially for barley, wheat and rye. We enhanced CrowsNest, a tool to visualize syntenic relationships between genomes, with data from the wheat sub-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii and added functionality to the PGSB RNASeqExpressionBrowser. GenomeZipper results were integrated for the genomes of barley, rye, wheat and perennial ryegrass and interactive access is granted through PlantsDB interfaces. Data exchange and cross-linking between PlantsDB and other plant genome databases is stimulated by the transPLANT project (http://transplantdb.eu/). PMID:26527721

  11. 2012 PLANT MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, JULY 15-20, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, Michael

    2013-07-20

    The 2012 Gordon Conference on Plant Molecular Biology will present cutting-edge research on molecular aspects of plant growth and development, with particular emphasis on recent discoveries in molecular mechanisms involved with plant signaling systems. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics in plant molecular biology including hormone receptors and early events in hormone signaling, plant perception of and response to plant pathogen and symbionts, as well as technological and biological aspects of epigenomics particularly as it relates to signaling systems that regulate plant growth and development. Genomic approaches to plant signaling will be emphasized, including genomic profiling technologies for quantifying various biological subsystems, such as the epigenome, transcriptome, phosphorylome, and metabolome. The meeting will include an important session devoted to answering the question, "What are the biological and technological limits of plant breeding/genetics, and how can they be solved"?

  12. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the electrochemical plant

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S.

    1997-11-14

    The Electrochemical Plant (ECP) is the one of the Russian Federation`s four uranium enrichment plants and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. ECP is located approximately 200 km east of Krasnoyarsk in the closed city of Zelenogorsk (formerly Krasnoyarsk- 45). DOE`s MPC&A program first met with ECP in September of 1996. The six national laboratories participating in DOE`s Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with ECP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC&A work at ECP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001.

  13. Repelling properties of some plant materials on the tick Ixodes ricinus L.

    PubMed

    Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Tunón, H

    2006-01-01

    The repellent effects on nymphal stages of Ixodes ricinus L. of some plant materials have been studied in the laboratory. The plant material consisted of an ethanolic extract from Achillea millefolium L., and volatile oils of birch and/or pine tar, citronella, cloves, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lily of the valley and peppermint. The most pronounced effects were observed for the oils of citronella, cloves and lily of the valley. They possessed repelling activities of the same magnitude as the reference repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide). Some major constituents of these oils, e.g. citronellol and geraniol (oil of citronella and lily of the valley) and eugenol (oil of cloves) showed pronounced repelling effects. This was also the case for phenethyl alcohol, a minor component in the oil from lily of the valley. PMID:16360943

  14. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  15. Protein extraction from Ca-alginate encapsulated plant material for comparative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Domżalska, Lucyna; Mikuła, Anna; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2016-10-01

    The extensive use of encapsulation material in biotechnology drove the need to develop analytical techniques for this type of material. This study focuses on the specific problems of protein extraction from Ca-alginate encapsulated plant material. Proteomics is one of the fast-developing analysis categories, specifically for stress resistance and developmental changes in plant material. Sample preparation is a critical step in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteome approach and is essential for good results. The aim was to avoid preliminary manipulations and get good quality material for comparative proteome analysis technique 2DE. The phenol extraction method and the complex method with preliminary TCA precipitation, SDS buffer and phenol phase were compared with respect to the efficiency and quality of the resulting 2DE gel. The most appropriate method turned out to be the TCA/phenol method with the phenol fractioning technique adapted to the gentian cell suspension. It resulted in a high protein concentration and good quality sample that could be analyzed using the standard separation procedures of 2DE and spectrometric identification with high efficiency. The work presented here confirms the possibility of obtaining a sufficient protein sample for effective proteomic analysis from a small number of capsules.

  16. Overview of DOE-NE Structural Materials Research, Materials Challenges and Operating Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, Stuart A.; Busby, Jeremy T.

    2012-06-12

    This presentation summarized materials conditions for application of nanomaterials to reactor components. Material performance is essential to reactor performance, economics, and safety. A modern reactor design utilizes many different materials and material systems to achieve safe and reliable performance. Material performance in these harsh environments is very complex and many different forms of degradation may occur (often together in synergistic fashions). New materials science techniques may also help understand degradation modes and develop new manufacturing and fabrication techniques.

  17. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report

  18. WTEC Panel Report on Internaitonal Assessment of Research and Development in Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Robert J.; Guilants, Vadim V.; Huber, George; Lobo, Raul F.; Neurock, Matthew; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Sharma, Renu; Thompson, Levi

    2009-01-01

    This WTEC panel report assesses the international research and development activities in the field of catalysis by nanostructured materials. Catalysis is important for a wide variety of processes that impact manufacturing, energy conversion, and environmental protection. This study focused specifically on solid catalysts and how nanoscale structures associated with them affect their reactivity. The principal technical areas of the study are (a) design and control of synthetic nanostructures; (b) nanoscale characterization of catalysts in their working state; (c) theory and simulation; and (d) applications. The panel visited over 40 institutions and companies throughout East Asia and Western Europe to explore the active research projects in those institutions, the physical infrastructure used for the projects, the funding schemes that enable the research, and the collaborative interactions among universities, national laboratories, and corporate research centers. A bibliometric analysis of research in catalysis by nanostructured materials published from 1996 to 2005 was conducted as part of this WTEC study. The total number of published papers as well as the expected total number of citations of those papers revealed a growing focus on this subject. Western Europe was the numerical output leader in the world; U.S. output, while published in high-impact journals, was relatively stagnant, and the number of published papers originating from China was growing exponentially and expected to exceed that from the United States in the latter half of this decade. China's rapidly expanding economy together with its growth in large-scale chemical and refining plants motivate its significant commitment to catalysis research. The panel found that cooperation between universities and companies in catalysis R&D is common in Europe and Asia, presumably because of a more favorable intellectual property environment outside of the United States. In the area of catalyst synthesis, there

  19. Oral hepatitis B vaccine candidates produced and delivered in plant material.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, Stephen J

    2005-06-01

    Hepatitis B is a major global health problem; approximately two billion people are infected with the virus worldwide, despite the fact that safe and efficacious vaccines have been developed and used for nearly 20 years. Prohibitive costs for vaccine purchase and administration restrict uptake in many developing nations. Agencies such as the Global Alliance for Vaccination and Immunization are helping to make current vaccines more available, but reduced costs would greatly aid this effort. Oral delivery is an option to reduce the expense of administering hepatitis B vaccines. It may also improve compliance, and orally delivered vaccines may be more efficacious among poor responders to current vaccines. However, to induce protective efficacy, oral administration may require encapsulation of antigen and delivery of large doses. Plant-based expression systems offer an oral delivery alternative with low production costs, and they also encapsulate the antigen. Some plant-based systems also stabilize antigen and therefore reduce storage and distribution costs. The hepatitis B major surface antigen has been expressed in several plant systems. A variety of regulatory sequences and subcellular targets have been used to achieve expression suitable for early stage clinical trials. However, further increase in expression will be necessary for practical and efficacious products. Appropriate processing can yield palatable products with uniform antigen concentration. The antigen expressed in plant systems shows extensive disulphide cross-linking and oligomerization and forms virus-like particles. Oral delivery of the antigen in plant material can induce a serum antibody response, prime the immune system for a subsequent injection of antigen and give a boosted response to a prior injection. Small scale clinical trials in which the antigen has been delivered orally in edible plant material indicate safety and immunogenicity.

  20. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several investigations concerning the properties and processing of brittle ceramic materials as related to design considerations are briefly described. Surface characterization techniques, fractography, high purity materials, creep properties, impact and thermal shock resistance, and reaction bonding are discussed.

  1. Modified application of HS-SPME for quality evaluation of essential oil plant materials.

    PubMed

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Szewczyk, Joanna; Dybowski, Michal P

    2016-01-01

    The main limitation in the standard application of head space analysis employing solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the evaluation of plants as sources of essential oils (EOs) are different quantitative relations of EO components from those obtained by direct analysis of EO which was got in the steam distillation (SD) process from the same plant (EO/SD). The results presented in the paper for thyme, mint, sage, basil, savory, and marjoram prove that the quantitative relations of EO components established by HS-SPME procedure and direct analysis of EO/SD are similar when the plant material in the HS-SPME process is replaced by its suspension in oil of the same physicochemical character as that of SPME fiber coating. The observed differences in the thyme EO composition estimated by both procedures are insignificant (F(exp)plant material quality and thus may improve the efficiency of analytical laboratories. PMID:26695252

  2. Roadmap for future research on plant pathogen effectors

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, James R.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial and eukaryotic plant pathogens deliver effector proteins into plant cells to promote pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems are known to inject many of these effectors into plant cells. More recently, oomycete pathogens have been shown to possess a large family of effectors containing the RXLR motif, and many effectors are also being discovered in fungal pathogens. Although effector activities are largely unknown, at least a subset suppress plant immunity. A plethora of new plant pathogen genomes that will soon be available thanks to next-generation sequencing technologies will allow the identification of many more effectors. This article summarizes the key approaches used to identify plant pathogen effectors, many of which will continue to be useful for future effector discovery. Thus, it can be viewed as a ‘roadmap’ for effector and effector target identification. Because effectors can be used as tools to elucidate components of innate immunity, advances in our understanding of effectors and their targets should lead to improvements in agriculture. PMID:19849786

  3. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  4. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Searcy, A.W.; Muller, R.H.; Peterson, C.V.

    1984-07-01

    Progress is reported in the following fields: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid-state physics, materials chemistry), chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques), actinide chemistry, fossil energy, electrochemical energy storage systems, superconducting magnets, semiconductor materials and devices, and work for others. (DLC)

  5. Evolution of sourdough microbiota in spontaneous sourdoughs started with different plant materials.

    PubMed

    Ripari, Valery; Gänzle, Michael G; Berardi, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The preparation of sourdough in bakeries may include the use of inocula, e.g. fruits, flowers or rumen cuts to accelerate the process of selection of suitable microorganisms. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of these inocula on the microbial evolution in sourdoughs. First, the microbiota of nineteen traditional sourdoughs that were initially started with diverse inocula was identified. Second, de novo sourdoughs were started with plant materials and the evolution of sourdough microbiota was investigated by culture, and by high-resolution melting curve quantitative PCR (HRM-qPCR). This study developed a new protocol for HRM-qPCR analysis of yeast microbiota in sourdough, and indicates this independent culture method suitable for characterization of yeasts. Microbiota of traditional sourdoughs were largely independent from the use of inoculum, however, Acetobacter spp. were identified only in sourdoughs started with apple flowers or apple pulp. In de novo sourdoughs started with plant materials, microbiota rapidly stabilized, and were characterized by Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus graminis, or Lactobacillus rossiae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as dominant species. Competition experiments revealed that the ecological fitness of L. plantarum, L. graminis, and L. rossiae in wheat or rye malt sourdoughs was lower when compared to L. sanfranciscensis, demonstrating that their presence in de novo sourdoughs reflects dispersal limitation. In conclusion, establishment of microbiota in de novo sourdoughs is dispersal limited. This study provides scientific support for the artisanal practice to inoculate de novo sourdoughs with flowers, berries, or related plant material. PMID:27240218

  6. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  7. 2012 PLANT CELL WALLS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE AND GORDON RESEARCH SEMINAR, AUGUST 4-10, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Jocelyn

    2012-08-10

    The sub-theme of this year’s meeting, ‘Cell Wall Research in a Post-Genome World’, will be a consideration of the dramatic technological changes that have occurred in the three years since the previous cell wall Gordon Conference in the area of DNA sequencing. New technologies are providing additional perspectives of plant cell wall biology across a rapidly growing number of species, highlighting a myriad of architectures, compositions, and functions in both "conventional" and specialized cell walls. This meeting will focus on addressing the knowledge gaps and technical challenges raised by such diversity, as well as our need to understand the underlying processes for critical applications such as crop improvement and bioenergy resource development.

  8. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA.

  9. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA. PMID:15880904

  10. New Optical Sensing Materials for Application in Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S.; Klimant, I.

    2012-04-01

    Optical chemosensors are versatile analytical tools which find application in numerous fields of science and technology. They proved to be a promising alternative to electrochemical methods and are applied increasingly often in marine research. However, not all state-of-the- art optical chemosensors are suitable for these demanding applications since they do not fully fulfil the requirements of high luminescence brightness, high chemical- and photochemical stability or their spectral properties are not adequate. Therefore, development of new advanced sensing materials is still of utmost importance. Here we present a set of novel optical sensing materials recently developed in the Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry which are optimized for marine applications. Particularly, we present new NIR indicators and sensors for oxygen and pH which feature high brightness and low level of autofluorescence. The oxygen sensors rely on highly photostable metal complexes of benzoporphyrins and azabenzoporphyrins and enable several important applications such as simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and chlorophyll or ultra-fast oxygen monitoring (Eddy correlation). We also developed ulta-sensitive oxygen optodes which enable monitoring in nM range and are primary designed for investigation of oxygen minimum zones. The dynamic range of our new NIR pH indicators based on aza-BODIPY dyes is optimized for the marine environment. A highly sensitive NIR luminescent phosphor (chromium(III) doped yttrium aluminium borate) can be used for non-invasive temperature measurements. Notably, the oxygen, pH sensors and temperature sensors are fully compatible with the commercially available fiber-optic readers (Firesting from PyroScience). An optical CO2 sensor for marine applications employs novel diketopyrrolopyrrol indicators and enables ratiometric imaging using a CCD camera. Oxygen, pH and temperature sensors suitable for lifetime and ratiometric imaging of analytes

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis for sustainable cultivation of Chinese medicinal plants: a promising research direction.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Chen, Bao-Dong; Hao, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Ji-Yong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yang, Guang; Cui, Xiu-Ming; Yang, Li; Wu, Zhao-Xiang; Chen, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) are symbiotic systems in nature and have great significance in promoting the growth and stress resistance of medicinal plants. During our literature search from the Chinese Scientific Information Database (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, CNKI) we obtained 65 articles with "AM fungi" and "medicinal plant" as the key words, which indicates that in China, research efforts on these topics have been increasing. The main purposes of this review are to discuss the effects of mycorrhiza on the active ingredients of Chinese medicinal plants in comparison with results obtained in other plants in studies conducted by the international research community, and to introduce works published in Chinese journals to international colleagues.

  12. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  13. Carbon isotopic constraints on the contribution of plant material to the natural precursors of trihalomethanes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Aiken, G.R.; Fujii, R.

    1999-01-01

    The ??13C values of individual trihalomethanes (THM) formed on reaction of chlorine with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from maize (corn, Zea maize L) and Scirpus acutus (an aquatic bulrush), and with DOC extracted from agricultural drainage waters were determined using purge and trap introduction into a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. We observed a 1-6.8??? difference between the ??13C values of THM produced from the maize and Scirpus leachates, similar to the isotopic difference between the whole plant materials. Both maize and Scirpus formed THM 12??? lower in 13C than whole plant material. We suggest that the low value of the THM relative to the whole plant material is evidence of distinct pools of THM-forming DOC, representing different biochemical types or chemical structures, and possessing different environmental reactivity Humic extracts of waters draining an agricultural field containing Scirpus peat soils and planted with maize formed THM with isotopic values intermediate between those of maize and Scirpus leachates, indicating maize may contribute significantly to the THM-forming DOC. The difference between the ??13C values of the whole isolate and that of the THM it yielded was 3 9???, however, suggesting diagenesis plays a role in determining the ??13C value of THM-forming DOC in the drainage waters, and precluding the direct use of isotopic mixing models to quantitatively attribute sources.The ??13C values of individual trihalomethanes (THM) formed on reaction of chlorine with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from maize (corn; Zea maize L.) and Scirpus acutus (an aquatic bulrush), and with DOC extracted from agricultural drainage waters were determined using purge and trap introduction into a gas chromatograph-combustion-isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometer. We observed a 16.8qq difference between the ??13C values of THM produced from the maize and Scirpus leachates, similar to the isotopic

  14. Monitoring Thermal Fatigue Damage In Nuclear Power Plant Materials Using Acoustic Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Pitman, Stan G.; Roosendaal, Timothy J.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-04-26

    Proactive aging management of nuclear power plant passive components requires technologies to enable monitoring and accurate quantification of material condition at early stages of degradation (i.e., pre-macrocrack). Acoustic emission (AE) is well-suited to continuous monitoring of component degradation and is proposed as a method to monitor degradation during accelerated thermal fatigue tests. A key consideration is the ability to separate degradation responses from external sources such as water spray induced during thermal fatigue testing. Water spray provides a significant background of acoustic signals, which can overwhelm AE signals caused by degradation. Analysis of AE signal frequency and energy is proposed in this work as a means for separating degradation signals from background sources. Encouraging results were obtained by applying both frequency and energy filters to preliminary data. The analysis of signals filtered using frequency and energy provides signatures exhibiting several characteristics that are consistent with degradation accumulation in materials. Future work is planned to enable verification of the efficacy of AE for thermal fatigue crack initiation detection. While the emphasis has been placed on the use of AE for crack initiation detection during accelerated aging tests, this work also has implications with respect to the use of AE as a primary tool for early degradation monitoring in nuclear power plant materials. The development of NDE tools for characterization of aging in materials can also benefit from the use of a technology such as AE which can continuously monitor and detect crack initiation during accelerated aging tests.

  15. Aging effects on fire-retardant additives in organic materials for nuclear-plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clough, R.L.

    1982-08-01

    Inhibiting fire is a major concern of nuclear safety. One of the most widely used commercial fire-retardant additives incorporated into cable insulation and other organic materials to reduce their flammability has been the halocarbon (usually a chlorinated hydrocarbon), typically in combination with antimony oxide. Such materials may be installed for the design lifetime of a nuclear plant; this report describes an investigation of the long-term aging behavior of these fire-retardant additives in polymeric materials. Extensive aging experiments on fire-retarded formulations of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and of chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) have been carried out, with chemical analysis of halogen and antimony content performed as a function of aging time and conditions. Oxygen index flammability measurements were also performed on selected samples. Significant fire-retardant losses (both chlorine (Cl) and antimony (Sb)) were found to occur in certain of the fire-retardant materials but not in others, depending on the molecular structure of the particular halogen-containing component. The data indicate that the loss of halogen- and antimony-based fire retardants appears to be insignificant under ambient conditions expected for nuclear plants.

  16. Research progress of pharmacological activities and analytical methods for plant origin proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-hong; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-ning; Yang, Feng-qing

    2015-07-01

    As one of the important active components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), plant origin active proteins have many significant pharmacological functions. According to researches on the plant origin active proteins reported in recent years, pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, immune regulation, anti-oxidant, anti-pathogeny microorganism, anti-thrombus, as well as hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of plant origin were reviewed, respectively. On the other hand, the analytical methods including chromatography, spectroscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for plant origin proteins analysis were also summarized. The main purpose of this paper is providing a reference for future development and application of plant active proteins.

  17. Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) - Survey of Materials Research and Development Needs to Assess Viability

    SciTech Connect

    Philip E. MacDonald

    2003-09-01

    Supercritical water-cooled reactors (SCWRs) are among the most promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency [i.e., about 45% vs. 33% of current light water reactors (LWRs)] and considerable plant simplification. SCWRs achieve this with superior thermodynamic conditions (i.e., high operating pressure and temperature), and by reducing the containment volume and eliminating the need for recirculation and jet pumps, pressurizer, steam generators, steam separators and dryers. The reference SCWR design in the U.S. is a direct cycle, thermal spectrum, light-water-cooled and moderated reactor with an operating pressure of 25 MPa and inlet/outlet coolant temperature of 280/500 °C. The inlet flow splits, partly to a down-comer and partly to a plenum at the top of the reactor pressure vessel to flow downward through the core in special water rods to the inlet plenum. This strategy is employed to provide good moderation at the top of the core, where the coolant density is only about 15-20% that of liquid water. The SCWR uses a power conversion cycle similar to that used in supercritical fossil-fired plants: high- intermediate- and low-pressure turbines are employed with one moisture-separator re-heater and up to eight feedwater heaters. The reference power is 3575 MWt, the net electric power is 1600 MWe and the thermal efficiency is 44.8%. The fuel is low-enriched uranium oxide fuel and the plant is designed primarily for base load operation. The purpose of this report is to survey existing materials for fossil, fission and fusion applications and identify the materials research and development needed to establish the SCWR viabilitya with regard to possible materials of construction. The two most significant materials related factors in going from the current LWR designs to the SCWR are the increase in outlet coolant temperature from 300 to 500 °C and the possible compatibility issues associated with the supercritical water environment.

  18. Structural materials research for lighter-than-air systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, V. L., Jr.; Mchatton, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Inflatable systems have widespread applications in military, government, and industrial sectors. Improvements in inflatable materials have followed each salient advancement in textiles. The new organic fiber, Kevlar, is a recent and most significant advancement that justified reexamination of old and new inflatable materials' applications. A fertile frontier exists in integrating Kevlar with various other material combinations, in optimization of geometric features, and in selection of thermomechanical characteristics' compatibility with the environment. Expectations regarding Kevlar have been justified by the performance of two experimental materials. Styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymers appear promising as a constituent adhesive for low temperature applications. Biaxial testing for both strength and material elastic properties is a technology area needing greater awareness and technology growth along with improved facilities. Because of dramatic materials' advancements, inflatable systems appear to be moving toward an increased position in tomorrow's aerospace industry.

  19. Carbon isotopic fractionation during decomposition of plant materials of different quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, I.; Mahieu, N.; Cadisch, G.

    2003-09-01

    Changes in isotopic 13C composition of solid residues and CO2 evolved during decomposition of C3 and C4 plant materials were monitored over 10 months to determine carbon isotopic fractionation at successive stages of biodegradation. We selected plant materials of different chemical quality, e.g., Zea mays (leaves, stems, coarse roots, and fine roots), Lolium perenne (leaves and roots), Pinus pinaster (needles), and Cocos nucifera (coconut shell) and also characterized these by solid-state 13C NMR. Roots were more lignified than aerial parts of the same species. Lignin was always depleted in 13C (up to 5.2‰) as compared with cellulose from the same sample. Proteins were enriched in 13C in C3 plants but depleted in maize. Cumulative CO2 evolved fitted a double-exponential model with two C pools of different lability. During early stages of decomposition, the CO2-C released was usually 13C depleted as compared with the initial substrate but enriched at posterior stages. Consequently, with ongoing decomposition, the solid residue became 13C depleted, which could only partly be explained by an accumulation of lignin-C. The extension of the initial 13C depleted CO2-C phase was significantly correlated with the labile substrate C content, acid-detergent soluble fraction, and total N, pointing to a direct influence of plant quality on C isotopic dynamics during early stages of biodegradation. This isotopic fractionation can also lead to an underestimation of the contribution of plant residues to CO2-C when incubated in soils. We discuss possible implications of these mechanisms of 13C fractionation in ecosystems.

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution. PMID:16303218

  2. Recycled materials in kentucky highway construction. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsucker, D.Q.; Whayne, L.

    1992-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and list waste materials which should be recycled to reduce solid waste disposal; report current and past efforts of the Kentucky Department of Highways to utilize recycled and waste materials; determine through a thorough literature search and review, the efforts of other local, state, national and international transportation agencies to utilize recycled materials; and, present preliminary recommendations listing areas where additional recycling efforts appear promising, feasible and needed.

  3. 78 FR 19535 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory... the Division of Materials Research (DMR) 1203 Dates & Times: April 28, 2013; 5:45 p.m.-8:30 p.m. April..., NY Type of Meeting: Part open Contact Person: Dr. Thomas Rieker, Program Director, Materials...

  4. Scientific Applications of Optical Instruments to Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherow, William K.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity is a unique environment for materials and biotechnology processing. Microgravity minimizes or eliminates some of the effects that occur in one g. This can lead to the production of new materials or crystal structures. It is important to understand the processes that create these new materials. Thus, experiments are designed so that optical data collection can take place during the formation of the material. This presentation will discuss scientific application of optical instruments at MSFC. These instruments include a near-field scanning optical microscope, a miniaturized holographic system, and a phase-shifting interferometer.

  5. Influence of weight and type of planting material on fruit quality and its heterogeneity in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill].

    PubMed

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Cultural practices can affect the quality of pineapple fruits and its variation. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) effects of weight class and type of planting material on fruit quality, heterogeneity in quality and proportion and yield of fruits meeting European export standards, and (b) the improvement in quality, proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards when flowering was induced at optimum time. Experiments were conducted in Benin with cvs Sugarloaf (a Perola type) and Smooth Cayenne. In cv. Sugarloaf, experimental factors were weight class of planting material (light, mixed, heavy) and time of flowering induction (farmers', optimum) (Experiment 1). In cv. Smooth Cayenne an additional experimental factor was the type of planting material (hapas, ground suckers, a mixture of the two) (Experiment 2). Fruits from heavy planting material had higher infructescence and fruit weights, longer infructescences, shorter crowns, and smaller crown: infructescence length than fruits from light planting material. The type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not significantly affect fruit quality except crown length: fruits from hapas had shorter crowns than those from ground suckers. Crops from heavy planting material had a higher proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards than those from other weight classes in Experiment 1 only; also the type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not affect these variates. Heterogeneity in fruit quality was usually not reduced by selecting only light or heavy planting material instead of mixing weights; incidentally the coefficient of variation was significantly reduced in fruits from heavy slips only. Heterogeneity was also not reduced by not mixing hapas and ground suckers. Flowering induction at optimum time increased the proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards in fruits from light and mixed slip weights and in those from the mixture of heavy hapas plus ground suckers.

  6. Catalyzing plant science research with RNA-seq

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next generation DNA sequencing technologies are driving increasingly rapid, affordable and high resolution analyses of plant transcriptomes through sequencing of the associated cDNA populations; an analytical platform commonly referred to as RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Since its first adoption only a ...

  7. Carnivorous plants--classic perspectives and new research.

    PubMed

    Rice, Barry

    2002-12-01

    The ranks of known carnivorous plants have grown to approximately 600 species. We are learning that the relationships between these feeders and their prey are more complex, and perhaps gentler, than previously suspected. Unfortunately, these extraordinary life forms are becoming extinct before we can even document them PMID:12486299

  8. Carnivorous plants--classic perspectives and new research.

    PubMed

    Rice, Barry

    2002-12-01

    The ranks of known carnivorous plants have grown to approximately 600 species. We are learning that the relationships between these feeders and their prey are more complex, and perhaps gentler, than previously suspected. Unfortunately, these extraordinary life forms are becoming extinct before we can even document them

  9. Medicinal Plant Curation and New Crop Development Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NPGS is a cooperative effort by public (State and Federal) and private organizations to preserve the genetic diversity of plants by long-term storage of germplasm, primarily in the form of seeds. The mission of the NPGS includes: 1.) the conservation of diverse crop germplasm through collect...

  10. Severe particulate pollution from the deposition practices of the primary materials of a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Kourtidis, K; Rapsomanikis, S; Zerefos, C; Georgoulias, A K; Pavlidou, E

    2014-01-01

    Global cement production has increased twofold during the last decade. This increase has been accompanied by the installation of many new plants, especially in Southeast Asia. Although various aspects of pollution related to cement production have been reported, the impact of primary material deposition practices on ambient air quality has not yet been studied. In this study, we show that deposition practices can have a very serious impact on levels of ambient aerosols, far larger than other cement production-related impacts. Analyses of ambient particulates sampled near a cement plant show 1.3-30.4 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates in the air and concentrations of particles with a diameter of 10 μm or less at 0.04-3 mg/m(3). These concentrations are very high and seriously exceed air quality standards. We unequivocally attribute these levels to outdoor deposition of cement primary materials, especially clinker, using scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We also used satellite-derived aerosol optical depth maps over the area of study to estimate the extent of the spatial impact. The satellite data indicate a 33% decrease in aerosol optical depth during a 10-year period, possibly due to changing primary material deposition practices. Although the in situ sampling was performed in one location, primary materials used in cement production are common in all parts of the world and have not changed significantly over the last decades. Hence, the results reported here demonstrate the dominant impact of deposition practices on aerosol levels near cement plants.

  11. Research on medium and high temperature solar heat storage materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Jucker, J.; Koch, D.; Krahling, H.; Supper, W.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solar heat storage materials, preliminary tests in which melting and solidification characteristics are tested, and service life and cycling tests are reported. Various aspects of corrosion are discussed as well as decision about ultimate selection of materials. A program for storage and evaluation of data is included.

  12. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  13. Innovations in thermoelectric materials research: Compound agglomeration, testing and preselection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez de Cardenas, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    Thermoelectric materials have the capacity to convert a temperature differential into electrical power and vice versa. They will represent the next revolution in alternative energies once their efficiencies are enhanced so they can complement other forms of green energies that depend on sources other than a temperature differential. Progress in materials science depends on the ability to discover new materials to eventually understand them and to finally improve their properties. The work presented here is aimed at dynamizing the screening of materials of thermoelectric interest. The results of this project will enable: theoretical preselection of thermoelectric compounds based on their bandgap and a rapid agglomeration method that does not require melting or sintering. A special interest will be given to Iodine-doped TiSe2 that generated extraordinary results and a new set of equations are proposed to accurately describe the dependence of the power factor and the figure of merit on the intrinsic properties of the materials.

  14. 34 CFR 98.3 - Access to instructional material used in a research or experimentation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access to instructional material used in a research or... RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.3 Access to instructional material used in a research or experimentation program. (a) All instructional material—including teachers' manuals,...

  15. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This interdisciplinary laboratory in the College of Engineering support research in areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. These research programs are developed with the assistance of faculty, students, and research associates in the departments of Physics, Materials Science and Engineering, chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Nuclear Engineering.

  16. 75 FR 18241 - Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Proposal Review Panel for Materials Research Notice of Meeting In accordance with the Federal Advisory... Research Science and Engineering Centers Program, Division of Materials Research, Room 1065, National... associated with the proposals. These matters are exempt under 5 U.S.C. 552 b(c), (4) and (6) of...

  17. 34 CFR 98.3 - Access to instructional material used in a research or experimentation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Access to instructional material used in a research or... RIGHTS IN RESEARCH, EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMS, AND TESTING § 98.3 Access to instructional material used in a research or experimentation program. (a) All instructional material—including teachers' manuals,...

  18. James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials Lecture: New Superconductors and other Research in New Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cava, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Superconductors and other electronic materials can often display subtle relationships between their structural characteristics and their electronic properties. Though the primary interest in these relationships is within the condensed matter physics community, often at their foundation are the concepts of bonding and structure familiar to inorganic and solid state chemists. Thus a hybridized view, combining physics and chemistry, is one way of approaching the discovery and characterization of new materials. In this talk I will describe some of our research in this context and comment on some broader aspects of interdisciplinary research in new materials.

  19. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  20. A New Direction for the NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 NASA created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new Enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. The Enterprise has recently completed an assessment of the science prioritization from which the future materials science ISS type payloads will be implemented. Science accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight and ground investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS lab facilities to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on radiation shielding, nanomaterials, propulsion materials, and biomaterials type research. The Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human

  1. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-07-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  2. Plant genome size research: a field in focus.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M D; Leitch, I J

    2005-01-01

    This Special Issue contains 18 papers arising from presentations at the Second Plant Genome Size Workshop and Discussion Meeting (hosted by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 8-12 September, 2003). This preface provides an overview of these papers, setting their key contents in the broad framework of this highly active field. It also highlights a few overarching issues with wide biological impact or interest, including (1) the need to unify terminology relating to C-value and genome size, (2) the ongoing quest for accurate gold standards for accurate plant genome size estimation, (3) how knowledge of species' DNA amounts has increased in recent years, (4) the existence, causes and significance of intraspecific variation, (5) recent progress in understanding the mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of genome size change, and (6) the impact of genome size knowledge on related biological activities such as genetic fingerprinting and quantitative genetics. The paper offers a vision of how increased knowledge and understanding of genome size will contribute to holisitic genomic studies in both plants and animals in the next decade.

  3. Catalyzing plant science research with RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Laetitia B. B.; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2013-01-01

    Next generation DNA sequencing technologies are driving increasingly rapid, affordable and high resolution analyses of plant transcriptomes through sequencing of their associated cDNA (complementary DNA) populations; an analytical platform commonly referred to as RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Since entering the arena of whole genome profiling technologies only a few years ago, RNA-seq has proven itself to be a powerful tool with a remarkably diverse range of applications, from detailed studies of biological processes at the cell type-specific level, to providing insights into fundamental questions in plant biology on an evolutionary time scale. Applications include generating genomic data for heretofore unsequenced species, thus expanding the boundaries of what had been considered “model organisms,” elucidating structural and regulatory gene networks, revealing how plants respond to developmental cues and their environment, allowing a better understanding of the relationships between genes and their products, and uniting the “omics” fields of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics into a now common systems biology paradigm. We provide an overview of the breadth of such studies and summarize the range of RNA-seq protocols that have been developed to address questions spanning cell type-specific-based transcriptomics, transcript secondary structure and gene mapping. PMID:23554602

  4. The role of chemistry in poisonous plant research: Current status and future prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants are a major cause of economic loss to livestock producers in many parts of the world. Losses include deaths, abortions, birth defects, reduced production and lost forage value. The USDA-ARS-Poisonous Plant Research Lab in collaboration with the Inner Mongolia Agricultural Univers...

  5. Management of Biological Materials in Wastewater from Research & Development Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Raney, Elizabeth A.; Moon, Thomas W.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2011-04-01

    PNNL has developed and instituted a systematic approach to managing work with biological material that begins in the project planning phase and carries through implementation to waste disposal. This paper describes two major processes used at PNNL to analyze and mitigate the hazards associated with working with biological materials and evaluate them for disposal to the sewer, ground, or surface water in a manner that protects human health and the environment. The first of these processes is the Biological Work Permit which is used to identify requirements for handling, storing, and working with biological materials and the second is the Sewer Approval process which is used to evaluate discharges of wastewaters containing biological materials to assure they meet industrial wastewater permits and other environmental regulations and requirements.

  6. Interdisciplinary research concerning the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The nature and properties of ceramic materials as they relate to solid state physics and metallurgy are studied. Special attention was given to the applications of ceramics to NASA programs and national needs.

  7. Imaging of radioactive material and its host particle from the nuclear power plant accident in Japan by using imaging plate and electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Kouji; Zaizen, Yuji; Kimura, Tohru; Sakoh, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2013-04-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in Japan on March, 2012, dispersed radioactive materials. In the Meteorological Research Institute, where locates 170 km south west from the power plant, we collected two types of filter aerosol samples and wet and dry deposition particles before and after the accident. Using these samples, we analyzed 1) radioactivity using an imaging plate (IP), which visualizes the radioactivity of samples in a two-dimensional plane with space resolution ~0.05 mm and 2) shape and compositions of particles that host radioactive materials using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). From the samples collected on March 15 and 21, we found radioactive spots on the filter samples using the IP, suggesting that radioactive materials, presumably Cs, were carried from the power plant. Radioactivity was also detected over the aggregates of dust particles in wet and dry deposition samples collected from March 2011. We did not find any detectable radioactive materials after the April when using the IP. We further investigated the radioactive spots using the SEM to identify the host particles of the radioactive materials and to detect radioactive materials from the EDS analysis. From the SEM analysis, we found that the particles on the filters include sulfate, mineral dust, and metals, but there were no particular particles or materials in the radioactive spots comparing to those in other area. The result suggests that the radioactive materials are hosted on the surface of other particles or inside them. We, so far, did not obtain any evidences that the radioactive materials are particulate with larger than 0.1 micro meter. Further analysis will need to identify the source of radioactive spots from individual particles using a manipulator as well as SEM and IP. Such studies will reveal where the radioactive materials exist in the environment, how they resuspend in the air, and how they could

  8. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    PubMed

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). PMID:23747375

  9. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    PubMed

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1).

  10. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-06-11

    Research dedicated to rare endemic plants is usually focused on one given aspect. However, holistic studies, addressing several key issues, might be more useful, supporting management programmes while unravelling basic knowledge about ecological and population-level processes. A more comprehensive approach to research is proposed, encompassing: phylogenetics/systematics, pollination biology and seed dispersal, propagation, population genetics, species distribution models (SDMs), threats and monitoring. We present a holistic study dedicated to Veronica dabneyi Hochst. ex Seub., an endangered chamaephyte endemic to the Azores. Veronica dabneyi was mainly found associated with other endemic taxa; however, invasive plants were also present and together with introduced cattle, goats and rabbits are a major threat. Most populations grow at somewhat rocky and steep locations that appeared to work as refuges. Seed set in the wild was generally high and recruitment of young plants from seed seemed to be frequent. In the laboratory, it was possible to germinate and fully develop V. dabneyi seedlings, which were planted at their site of origin. No dormancy was detected and time for 50 % germination was affected by incubation temperature. Eight new microsatellite markers were applied to 72 individuals from 7 sites. A considerable degree of admixture was found between samples from the two islands Flores and Corvo, with 98 % of the genetic variability allocated within populations. Levels of heterozygosity were high and no evidence of inbreeding was found. Species distribution models based on climatic and topographic variables allowed the estimation of the potential distribution of V. dabneyi on Flores and Corvo using ecological niche factor analysis and Maxent. The inclusion of land-use variables only slightly increased the information explained by the models. Projection of the expected habitat in Faial largely coincided with the only historic record of V. dabneyi on that island

  11. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Research dedicated to rare endemic plants is usually focused on one given aspect. However, holistic studies, addressing several key issues, might be more useful, supporting management programmes while unravelling basic knowledge about ecological and population-level processes. A more comprehensive approach to research is proposed, encompassing: phylogenetics/systematics, pollination biology and seed dispersal, propagation, population genetics, species distribution models (SDMs), threats and monitoring. We present a holistic study dedicated to Veronica dabneyi Hochst. ex Seub., an endangered chamaephyte endemic to the Azores. Veronica dabneyi was mainly found associated with other endemic taxa; however, invasive plants were also present and together with introduced cattle, goats and rabbits are a major threat. Most populations grow at somewhat rocky and steep locations that appeared to work as refuges. Seed set in the wild was generally high and recruitment of young plants from seed seemed to be frequent. In the laboratory, it was possible to germinate and fully develop V. dabneyi seedlings, which were planted at their site of origin. No dormancy was detected and time for 50 % germination was affected by incubation temperature. Eight new microsatellite markers were applied to 72 individuals from 7 sites. A considerable degree of admixture was found between samples from the two islands Flores and Corvo, with 98 % of the genetic variability allocated within populations. Levels of heterozygosity were high and no evidence of inbreeding was found. Species distribution models based on climatic and topographic variables allowed the estimation of the potential distribution of V. dabneyi on Flores and Corvo using ecological niche factor analysis and Maxent. The inclusion of land-use variables only slightly increased the information explained by the models. Projection of the expected habitat in Faial largely coincided with the only historic record of V. dabneyi on that island

  12. Towards a more holistic research approach to plant conservation: the case of rare plants on oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luís; Dias, Elisabete Furtado; Sardos, Julie; Azevedo, Eduardo Brito; Schaefer, Hanno; Moura, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Research dedicated to rare endemic plants is usually focused on one given aspect. However, holistic studies, addressing several key issues, might be more useful, supporting management programmes while unravelling basic knowledge about ecological and population-level processes. A more comprehensive approach to research is proposed, encompassing: phylogenetics/systematics, pollination biology and seed dispersal, propagation, population genetics, species distribution models (SDMs), threats and monitoring. We present a holistic study dedicated to Veronica dabneyi Hochst. ex Seub., an endangered chamaephyte endemic to the Azores. Veronica dabneyi was mainly found associated with other endemic taxa; however, invasive plants were also present and together with introduced cattle, goats and rabbits are a major threat. Most populations grow at somewhat rocky and steep locations that appeared to work as refuges. Seed set in the wild was generally high and recruitment of young plants from seed seemed to be frequent. In the laboratory, it was possible to germinate and fully develop V. dabneyi seedlings, which were planted at their site of origin. No dormancy was detected and time for 50 % germination was affected by incubation temperature. Eight new microsatellite markers were applied to 72 individuals from 7 sites. A considerable degree of admixture was found between samples from the two islands Flores and Corvo, with 98 % of the genetic variability allocated within populations. Levels of heterozygosity were high and no evidence of inbreeding was found. Species distribution models based on climatic and topographic variables allowed the estimation of the potential distribution of V. dabneyi on Flores and Corvo using ecological niche factor analysis and Maxent. The inclusion of land-use variables only slightly increased the information explained by the models. Projection of the expected habitat in Faial largely coincided with the only historic record of V. dabneyi on that island

  13. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    SciTech Connect

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  14. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  15. Extractable sulphate-sulphur, total sulphur and trace-element determinations in plant material by flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heanes, D.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reproducible procedure for determining total sulphur(S) and trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and iron) in plant material is described. Plant material is digested in culture tubes with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids containing ammonium metavanadate and calcium chloride. In the acid digest, concentrations of total-S as sulphate are determined by turbidimetry and trace-elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using flow injection analysis. The results for a range of plant materials compare well with those obtained by conventional procedures for the same elements. The microprocessor controlled digestion and multielement assay procedure described here offers improved laboratory efficiencies in materials, time and cost effectiveness. The techniques should be particularly useful when plant tissues are in limited supply.

  16. A New Direction for NASA Materials Science Research Using the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Trach, Brian; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA recently created a fifth Strategic Enterprise, the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR), to bring together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to foster interdisciplinary research. The Materials Science Program is one of five Microgravity Research disciplines within this new enterprise's Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program will participate within this new enterprise structure in order to facilitate effective use of ISS facilities, target scientific and technology questions and transfer scientific and technology results for Earth benefits. The Materials Science research will use a low gravity environment for flight and ground-based research in crystallization, fundamental processing, properties characterization, and biomaterials in order to obtain fundamental understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. Completion of the International Space Station's (ISS) first major assembly, during the past year, provides new opportunities for on-orbit research and scientific utilization. Accommodations will support a variety of Materials Science payload hardware both in the US and international partner modules with emphasis on early use of Express Rack and Glovebox facilities. This paper addresses the current scope of the flight investigator program. These investigators will use the various capabilities of the ISS to achieve their research objectives. The type of research and classification of materials being studied will be addressed. This includes the recent emphasis being placed on nanomaterials and biomaterials type research. Materials Science Program will pursue a new, interdisciplinary approach, which contributes, to Human Space Flight Exploration research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and other related American and International experiment modules will serve as the foundation for this research. Discussion will be

  17. Research on infrared imaging illumination model based on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hai-he; Feng, Chao-yin; Guo, Chang-geng; Zheng, Hai-jing; Han, Qiang; Hu, Hai-yan

    2013-09-01

    In order to effectively simulate infrared features of the scene and infrared high light phenomenon, Based on the visual light illumination model, according to the optical property of all material types in the scene, the infrared imaging illumination models are proposed to fulfill different materials: to the smooth material with specular characteristic, adopting the infrared imaging illumination model based on Blinn-Phone reflection model and introducing the self emission; to the ordinary material which is similar to black body without highlight feature, ignoring the computation of its high light reflection feature, calculating simply the material's self emission and its reflection to the surrounding as its infrared imaging illumination model, the radiation energy under zero range of visibility can be obtained according to the above two models. The OpenGl rendering technology is used to construct infrared scene simulation system which can also simulate infrared electro-optical imaging system, then gets the synthetic infrared images from any angle of view of the 3D scenes. To validate the infrared imaging illumination model, two typical 3D scenes are made, and their infrared images are calculated to compare and contrast with the real collected infrared images obtained by a long wave infrared band imaging camera. There are two major points in the paper according to the experiment results: firstly, the infrared imaging illumination models are capable of producing infrared images which are very similar to those received by thermal infrared camera; secondly, the infrared imaging illumination models can simulate the infrared specular feature of relative materials and common infrared features of general materials, which shows the validation of the infrared imaging illumination models. Quantitative analysis shows that the simulation images are similar to the collected images in the aspects of main features, but their histogram distribution does not match very well, the

  18. The Global Plant Council: Increasing the impact of plant research to meet global challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists and world leaders are realizing that that we have little time to radically transform agriculture, work out how to grow more food on a sustainable basis without further degrading the environment, and improve our crop plants to cope with climate changes. But how can we increase the impact ...

  19. Recent progress in injectable bone repair materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Zhang, Xiuli; Kang, Lingzhi; Xu, Fei; Wang, Zhaoling; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive injectable self-setting materials are useful for bone repairs and for bone tissue regeneration in situ. Due to the potential advantages of these materials, such as causing minimal tissue injury, nearly no influence on blood supply, easy operation and negligible postoperative pain, they have shown great promises and successes in clinical applications. It has been proposed that an ideal injectable bone repair material should have features similar to that of natural bones, in terms of both the microstructure and the composition, so that it not only provides adequate stimulus to facilitate cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation but also offers a satisfactory biological environment for new bone to grow at the implantation site. This article reviews the properties and applications of injectable bone repair materials, including those that are based on natural and synthetic polymers, calcium phosphate, calcium phosphate/polymer composites and calcium sulfate, to orthopedics and bone tissue repairs, as well as the progress made in biomimetic fabrication of injectable bone repair materials.

  20. Highlights of Recent Progress in Plant Lipid Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raw fossil material reserves are not inexhaustible and as prices continue to raise it is necessary to find new sources of alternative and renewable energy. Oils from oleaginous field crops (sunflower and rape) with properties close to those of fossil fuel could constitute an alternative source of en...