Science.gov

Sample records for plant origin part

  1. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  2. Pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical evaluation of extracts from different plant parts of indigenous origin for their hypoglycemic responses in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Barkat Ali; Majid, Abdul; Khan, Haji M Shoaib; Mahmood, Tariq; Gulfishan; Saeed, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of different plant extracts in single and in combined formulation, in experimentally induced "diabetic rabbits". The extracts were obtained from seeds of Syzygium jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia and leaves of Azadirachta indica. Treatment of diabetes with plant extracts was started at 8 days after alloxan injection. Rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, each group consisting of six rabbits. Each group of rabbits was given a dose of granules containing 200 mg/kg b.w. concentrated ethanolic extract of a plant while the fourth group was given a dose of granules consisting of combined extract of all three folk plants. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. Serum glucose estimation was done by glucose oxidase kit method. Anti-diabetic effect was produced after 72 h in groups 1, 2 and 3 that were administered with a dose of granules of ethanolic extract of single plant but in group 4, treated with 200 mg/kg body weight of combined extract of all three plants, hypoglycemic effect was produced after 96 h. Hypoglycemic effects may be induced in rabbits by administration of extracts of various plant parts. The hypoglycemic effect produced by granules of single plant extract was more pronounced than antidiabetic effect produced by combining three extracts in a single formulation.

  3. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush.

  4. Susceptibility of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origins towards acetone:water extracts of polyphenol-rich plants. Part 2: Infective L3 larvae.

    PubMed

    Chan-Pérez, J I; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Castañeda-Ramírez, G S; Vilarem, G; Mathieu, C; Hoste, H

    2017-06-15

    This study explored the variation in susceptibility to acetone:water plant extracts between infective larvae (L3) of ten Haemonchus contortus isolates from different geographical origin. The L3 of 10 different isolates were exposed either to the acetone:water extract of a temperate plant (Onobrychis viciifolia) or a tropical plant (Acacia pennatula) and were evaluated with the larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). The L3 of each isolate were incubated with different concentrations of each extract (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200μg/mL of phosphate buffered saline (PBS)). After incubation, the exsheathment process of L3 was induced using a solution with sodium hypochlorite (2%) and sodium chloride (16.5%). The proportion of exsheathed L3 was determined for each concentration at 0, 20, 40 and 60min. Effective concentrations 50% (EC50) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for every isolate with both extracts. Moreover, a resistance ratio (RR) was calculated for each extract to compare isolates, using the most susceptible isolate as the respective reference for each extract. To determine the role of polyphenols on the reported effect, a second set of incubations was made for each isolate and each extract, using the extracts at a concentration of 1200μg/mL PBS with or without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP), a polyphenol blocking agent, and controls without extract. The ten different H. contortus isolates showed variation in susceptibility for each of the 2 extracts tested (P<0.05). The EC50 values for A. pennatula extract ranged from 36 to 501μg/mL (RR: 2.11-13.68). Meanwhile, the EC50 values for O. viciifolia extract ranged from 128 to 1003μg/mL (RR: 1.25-7.82). The use of PVPP revealed that polyphenols were responsible for the anthelmintic activity recorded for both extracts. However, tested H. contortus isolates suggested that susceptibility to one polyphenol-rich extract did not determine the

  5. Origin and early evolution of land plants

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The origin of the sporophyte in land plants represents a fundamental phase in plant evolution. Today this subject is controversial, and scarcely considered in textbooks and journals of botany, in spite of its importance. There are two conflicting theories concerning the origin of the alternating generations in land-plants: the “antithetic” theory and the “homologous” theory. These have never been fully resolved, although, on the ground of the evidences on the probable ancestors of land plants, the antithetic theory is considered more plausible than the homologous theory. However, additional phylogenetic dilemmas are the evolution of bryophytes from algae and the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes. All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualist neo-Darwinian theory and other genetic evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:19513262

  6. Origin of the Autophagosomal Membrane in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Xiaohong; Chung, Kin Pan; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    During autophagy, cargo molecules destined for degradation are sequestrated into a double-membrane structure called autophagosome, which subsequently fuses with the vacuole. An isolation membrane structure (also called the phagophore) initiates from the platform termed PAS (phagophore assembly site or preautophagosomal structure), which then elongates and expands to become the completed autophagosome. The origin of the membrane for autophagosome formation has been extensively investigated but remains an enigma in the field of autophagy. In yeast and mammalian cells multiple membrane sources have been suggested to contribute to autophagosome formation at different steps, from initiation through expansion and maturation. Recent studies in plants have provided a significant advance in our understanding of the conserved role of autophagy and the underlying mechanism for autophagosome formation. Here, we will discuss and evaluate these new findings on autophagosome formation in plants, with a particular focus on the origin of plant autophagosomal membranes. PMID:27867391

  7. Plant Parts: Common Scents and Good Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in an investigation of the usefulness of plant parts as a food source. An introduction discusses the dependence of animal life on plants. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  8. 3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWEST. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 181 - Rules of Origin Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rules of Origin Regulations Appendix to Part 181 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Pt. 181, App. Appendix to Part 181—Rules of Origin Regulations SECTION 1. CITATION This...

  10. Air and the origin of the experimental plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that oxygen and carbon dioxide are two chemicals which enter the plant metabolism as nutrients. The bases of this nowadays obvious statement were placed in the 18th century by means of the works of ingenious naturalists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Hales, Joseph Priestley, Jam Ingenhousz, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodore De Saussure. Till the end of the 17th century, the atmospheric air was considered as an ineffable spirit, the function of which was of physical nature. Boyle was the first naturalist to admit the possibility that respiration were an exchange of vapours occurring in the blood. Stephen Hales realised that air could be fixed by plants under the influence of solar light. Priestley showed that plants could regenerate the bad air making it breathable. Ingenhousz demonstrated that the green parts of plants performed the complete purification of air only under the influence of the light. Spallanzani discovered that plants respire and guessed that the good air (oxygen) originated from the fixed air (carbon dioxide). Finally, Theodore De Saussure showed that plants were able to adsorb carbon dioxide and to release oxygen in a proportional air. All these discoveries benefited of the results coming from investigations of scholars of the so-called "pneumatic chemistry" (Boyle himself, George Ernst Stahl, Joseph Black, Priestley himself, and many more others. But among all the eminent scientists above mentioned stands out the genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who revolutionised the chemistry of the 18th century ferrying it towards the modern chemistry.

  11. 6. Photocopy of Historic Plan. PUMPING PLANT (Original plan, U. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of Historic Plan. PUMPING PLANT (Original plan, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yakima, WA., December 21, 1914) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  12. 4. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT (Original print, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT (Original print, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yakima, WA., ca. 1915) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  13. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 12. SOUTH END OF ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING BEFORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH END OF ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING BEFORE RENOVATIONS TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS. December 6, 1940 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH LOOKING WEST TO FOUNTAIN. STAIRWAY RUNS DOWN TO FILTRATION BAYS. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM EAST FRONT LEADING TO CENTRAL CAMPUS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  17. 13. FIRST FLOOR, BEDROOM ADJOINING THE LIVING ROOM, ORIGINALLY PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. FIRST FLOOR, BEDROOM ADJOINING THE LIVING ROOM, ORIGINALLY PART OF THE LIVING ROOM (NOTE THE BOXED BEAM) - Union Tavern, Main Street between Lee Street & Farmer's Alley, Milton, Caswell County, NC

  18. The Origin of Land Plants: A Phylogenomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bojian; Sun, Linhua; Penny, David

    2015-01-01

    Land plants are a natural group, and Charophyte algae are the closest lineages of land plants and have six morphologically diverged groups. The conjugating green algae (Zygnematales) are now suggested to be the extant sister group to land plants, providing the novel understanding for character evolution and early multicellular innovations in land plants. We review recent molecular phylogenetic work on the origin of land plants and discuss some future directions in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:26244002

  19. [Researches and applications on pesticides from Chinese medicine plant origin].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen; Mo, Xiao-lu; Wang, Yu-sheng

    2005-11-01

    The research progress on Chinese medicine plant resources with pesticide activities, the active components and their reaction mechanism as well as the application and prospect were reviewed in this paper. Some proposals on the exploitation of traditional Chinese medicine plant origin pesticide were given. It is suggested to found compounds with pesticide activities from heat clearing and toxic clearing medicinal plants.

  20. AoB PLANTS: origins and features.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael B

    2009-01-01

    AoB PLANTS is a peer reviewed, Open Access (OA) journal owned and run by plant biologists and published by Oxford University Press. The journal publishes research papers, reviews and opinion papers on all aspects of land based plant biology. They are made available rapidly online and can be accessed without the need for subscriptions or payment. Several difficulties in conventional publishing of peer-reviewed manuscripts encouraged AoB PLANTS to adopt OA. Open Access helps sidestep library budgets which are struggling to purchase the increasing numbers of journals. Open Access makes research freely available both to the academic community and beyond while publishing online only eliminates the need to reject good manuscripts simply to control the size of the printed journal. Finally, the journal chose to go OA to ensure the widest possible international readership for the growing amount of high-quality plant science research being carried out worldwide in response to problems such as climate change and food shortages. Responses to a wide-ranging online questionnaire indicated strong international support for a journal such as AoB PLANTS. AoB PLANTS strives for fair and rapid peer review followed by fast publication of accepted papers. For an initial period, there will be no OA fees, and fees will remain modest once introduced. AoB PLANTS adopts double-blind peer review using published criteria for acceptability as a basis for decision-making. Accepted papers are published shortly after acceptance together with referees' analyses using Stanford University Libraries High Wire Press H2O platform. Authors retain ownership of the copyright in their papers.

  1. Development Of Software To Recognize Parts Of Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Despain, Ronald R.; Tharpe, Roy, Jr.; Davis, Leon; Hauss, Sharon; Shawaga, Larry; Biro, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Report describes first phase in development of digital image-processing subsystem recognizing parts of plants. Subsystem part of robotic system tending and harvesting plants in automated plant-growth chamber. Initial focus on image-processing software that distinguishes among seed heads, stems, and leaves of wheat plants and further distinguishes between these parts and background. Software adaptable to other types of plants.

  2. The origin of modern plant virology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, S; Conti, M

    2002-10-01

    Plant virology, born with Mayer's work, saw a first (embryonic) phase of development during two decades (1900-1920) with outstanding contributions from Dimitri Ivanovski, Martinus Beijerinck, Erwin Baur and Harry Allard. Between 1920 and 1930 a second phase saw the elaboration of surprising hypotheses concerning the enigmatic nature of viruses and experimental evidence of great stress was obtained. Revolutionary renewal began from the mid-1930s on the basis of a body of knowledge which was organically assembled into the first textbook of plant virology published by Kenneth Smith in 1933. In 1922, the geneticist Hermann Muller put forward the hypothesis that considered viruses as possible genes. The theory was resumed in an apparently independent way by Benjamin Duggar and Joanne Karrer Armstrong in 1923, who considered TMV a biocolloidal self-reproducing protein, like genes appeared to be. This hypothesis, even if neglected by virologists, anticipated by some decades the functional nature of viruses and represented the first conceptual response to virus enigma. Considerable experimental results were obtained by James Johnson, who showed that plants could be infected by different viruses and who introduced a first rational system of plant virus classification. Harold McKinney showed that TMV could mutate. Harold Storey, Kenneth Smith and Harry Severin demonstrated that several viruses could be transmitted by insects and supplied the first interpretation of the relationship between virus and insect. Mayme Dvorak and Helen Purdy obtained the first experimental evidence of the antigenic power of plant viruses. Virus purification, first tentatively accomplished with physical methods, was brilliantly performed by chemical means. Finally, Francis Holmes elaborated the first suitable test to estimate virus infectivity. The evolution of plant virology from an empirical discipline to a biological science took place thanks to the work of one group of American and English

  3. Highly sweet compounds of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Cheol; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2002-12-01

    The demand for new alternative "low calorie" sweeteners for dietetic and diabetic purposes has increased worldwide. Although the currently developed and commercially used highly sweet sucrose substitutes are mostly synthetic compounds, the search for such compounds from natural sources is continuing. As of mid-2002, over 100 plant-derived sweet compounds of 20 major structural types had been reported, and were isolated from more than 25 different families of green plants. Several of these highly sweet natural products are marketed as sweeteners or flavoring agents in some countries as pure compounds, compound mixtures, or refined extracts. These highly sweet natural substances are reviewed herein.

  4. IMMUNOMODULATORS OF PLANT ORIGIN – A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, D.N.K.; Khosa, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The immunomodulatory property of plants is being studied with greater interest in recent years. This is more so because of the growing awareness regarding the need to modulate the immune system to achieve the desirable effects of preventing an infection rather than treating it at an advanced state. The recent advances in this field are summarized in this article. PMID:22556667

  5. Natural toxins of plant origin (phytotoxins)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Over 100,000 secondary compounds have been identified in plants including alkaloids, glycosides, proteins, polypeptides, amines and non-protein amino acids, organic acids, alcohols, polyacetylenes, resinous toxins and mineral toxins. For thousands of years man has used some of these compounds as fl...

  6. [Cardioprotective effects of adaptogens of plant origin].

    PubMed

    Maslova, L V; Lishmanov, Iu B; Maslov, L N

    1993-03-01

    The experiments performed on emotional--painful stress model in rats demonstrated cardioprotective activity of adaptogens of vegetable origin (rodiolae, eleutherococcus, levsea, p-tyrosol). Preliminary injection of rodiolae extract was found to prevent stress--induced increase in cAMP level and cGMP content decrease in heart. We can conclude that adaptogens cardioprotective effect may be the drugs to prevent stressor change in cyclic nucleotides level in myocardium.

  7. [Studies on the original plants of nuoteng, hanshuiteng and dahuteng].

    PubMed

    Zheng, J S

    1989-03-01

    By studying the origin of the three herbs: Nuoteng, Hanshuiteng and Dahuteng recorded in medical books before the Tang Dynasty, it has been verified that all these three plants Maimateng (Gnetum montanum) or Xiaoye Maimateng (G. parvifolium).

  8. Haploids in flowering plants: origins and exploitation.

    PubMed

    Dunwell, Jim M

    2010-05-01

    The first haploid angiosperm, a dwarf form of cotton with half the normal chromosome complement, was discovered in 1920, and in the ninety years since then such plants have been identified in many other species. They can occur either spontaneously or can be induced by modified pollination methods in vivo, or by in vitro culture of immature male or female gametophytes. Haploids represent an immediate, one-stage route to homozygous diploids and thence to F(1) hybrid production. The commercial exploitation of heterosis in such F(1) hybrids leads to the development of hybrid seed companies and subsequently to the GM revolution in agriculture. This review describes the range of techniques available for the isolation or induction of haploids and discusses their value in a range of areas, from fundamental research on mutant isolation and transformation, through to applied aspects of quantitative genetics and plant breeding. It will also focus on how molecular methods have been used recently to explore some of the underlying aspects of this fascinating developmental phenomenon.

  9. Origin and radiation of the earliest vascular land plants.

    PubMed

    Steemans, Philippe; Hérissé, Alain Le; Melvin, John; Miller, Merrell A; Paris, Florentin; Verniers, Jacques; Wellman, Charles H

    2009-04-17

    Colonization of the land by plants most likely occurred in a stepwise fashion starting in the Mid-Ordovician. The earliest flora of bryophyte-like plants appears to have been cosmopolitan and dominated the planet, relatively unchanged, for some 30 million years. It is represented by fossilized dispersed cryptospores and fragmentary plant remains. In the Early Silurian, cryptospore abundance and diversity diminished abruptly as trilete spores appeared, became abundant, and underwent rapid diversification. This change coincides approximately with the appearance of vascular plant megafossils and probably represents the origin and adaptive radiation of vascular plants. We have obtained a diverse trilete spore occurrence from the Late Ordovician that suggests that vascular plants originated and diversified earlier than previously hypothesized, in Gondwana, before migrating elsewhere and secondarily diversifying.

  10. Evolutionary origin of phytochrome responses and signaling in land plants.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keisuke; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2017-01-18

    Phytochromes comprise one of the major photoreceptor families in plants, and they regulate many aspects of plant growth and development throughout the plant life cycle. A canonical land plant phytochrome originated in the common ancestor of streptophytes. Phytochromes have diversified in seed plants and some basal land plants because of lineage-specific gene duplications that occurred during the course of land plant evolution. Molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis thaliana suggested that there are two types of phytochromes in angiosperms, light-labile type I and light-stable type II, which have different signaling mechanisms and which regulate distinct responses. In basal land plants, little is known about molecular mechanisms of phytochrome signaling, although red light/far-red photoreversible physiological responses and the distribution of phytochrome genes are relatively well documented. Recent advances in molecular genetics using the moss Physcomitrella patens and the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha revealed that basal land plants show far-red-induced responses and that the establishment of phytochrome-mediated transcriptional regulation dates back to at least the common ancestor of land plants. In this review, we summarize our knowledge concerning functions of land plant phytochromes, especially in basal land plants, and discuss subfunctionalization/neofunctionalization of phytochrome signaling during the course of land plant evolution. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews.

  12. Part 3: Urban Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Jennifer Tomlinson; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual provides detailed guidance on urban tree planting that applies at both the development site and the watershed scale. Topics covered include: species selection, site preparation, tree planting and maintenance techniques, and special considerations for urban tree planting.

  13. Molecular adaptation and the origin of land plants.

    PubMed

    Waters, Elizabeth R

    2003-12-01

    The origin and diversification of land plants was one of the most important biological radiations. Land plants are crucial components of all modern terrestrial ecosystems. The first land plants had to adapt to a wide array of new environmental challenges including desiccation, varying temperatures, and increased UV radiation. There have been numerous studies of the morphological adaptations to life on land. However the molecular adaptations to life on land have only recently gained attention. These studies have greatly benefited from the recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic relationships between and among the charophycean algae and the basal land plant groups. In this review I summarize the current knowledge of a variety of physiological and biochemical adaptations to land including plant growth hormones, isoprene, phenolics, and heat shock proteins.

  14. [Pharmacognostical study on four origin plants of folk medicine Sikuaiwa].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Peng, Yu-jiao; Wu, Zhi-gui; Lin, Gui-bing; Xu, Yan-qin; Luo, Yong-ming

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop characteristic folk medicine resources in Jiangxi, a pharmacognostical study was systematically performed for four different origin plants of Sikuaiwa, the result of study provides the microscopic features of powder and tissue of the crude drug. The research provided reference for the identification of Sikuaiwa, as well as a theoretical basis for the further development and the formulation of quality standards.

  15. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  16. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLANS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  17. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 3: Urban Tree Planting Guide

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright; Jennifer Tomlinson

    2006-01-01

    This is the third in a three-manual series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 3. Urban Tree Planting Guide provides detailed guidance on urban tree planting that is applicable at both the development site and the watershed scales. Topics covered include site assessment, planting design, site...

  18. Elemental and nutrient composition of cotton plant parts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To increase the knowledge on chemical composition of different cotton plant parts, cotton plants collected in mid-season and just before harvest (pre-defoliation) were analyzed for elemental and nutritional contents in different biomass parts. The plant samples were separated into six (mid-season) o...

  19. Phytochrome diversity in green plants and the origin of canonical plant phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fay-Wei; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Pryer, Kathleen M; Mathews, Sarah

    2015-07-28

    Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is highly conserved. Liverworts, hornworts and Selaginella apparently possess a single phytochrome, whereas independent gene duplications occurred within mosses, lycopods, ferns and seed plants, leading to diverse phytochrome families in these clades. Surprisingly, the phytochrome portions of algal and land plant neochromes, a chimera of phytochrome and phototropin, appear to share a common origin. Our results reveal novel phytochrome clades and establish the basis for understanding phytochrome functional evolution in land plants and their algal relatives.

  20. Phytochrome diversity in green plants and the origin of canonical plant phytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fay-Wei; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J.; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Graham, Sean W.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Mathews, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is highly conserved. Liverworts, hornworts and Selaginella apparently possess a single phytochrome, whereas independent gene duplications occurred within mosses, lycopods, ferns and seed plants, leading to diverse phytochrome families in these clades. Surprisingly, the phytochrome portions of algal and land plant neochromes, a chimera of phytochrome and phototropin, appear to share a common origin. Our results reveal novel phytochrome clades and establish the basis for understanding phytochrome functional evolution in land plants and their algal relatives. PMID:26215968

  1. Traits, not origin, explain impacts of plants on larval amphibians.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jillian S; Maerz, John C; Blossey, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Managing habitats for the benefit of native fauna is a priority for many government and private agencies. Often, these agencies view nonnative plants as a threat to wildlife habitat, and they seek to control or eradicate nonnative plant populations. However, little is known about how nonnative plant invasions impact native fauna, and it is unclear whether managing these plants actually improves habitat quality for resident animals. Here, we compared the impacts of native and nonnative wetland plants on three species of native larval amphibians; we also examined whether plant traits explain the observed impacts. Specifically, we measured plant litter quality (carbon : nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, and percentages of lignin and soluble phenolics) and biomass, along with a suite of environmental conditions known to affect larval amphibians (hydroperiod, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH). Hydroperiod and plant traits, notably soluble phenolics, litter C:N ratio, and litter N:P ratio, impacted the likelihood that animals metamorphosed, the number of animals that metamorphosed, and the length of larval period. As hydroperiod decreased, the likelihood that amphibians achieved metamorphosis and the percentage of tadpoles that successfully metamorphosed also decreased. Increases in soluble phenolics, litter N:P ratio, and litter C:N ratio decreased the likelihood that tadpoles achieved metamorphosis, decreased the percentage of tadpoles metamorphosing, decreased metamorph production (total metamorph biomass), and increased the length of larval period. Interestingly, we found no difference in metamorphosis rates and length of larval period between habitats dominated by native and nonnative plants. Our findings have important implications for habitat management. We suggest that to improve habitats for native fauna, managers should focus on assembling a plant community with desirable traits rather than focusing only on plant origin.

  2. Autosomal origin of sex chromosome in a polyploid plant

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    While theory on sex chromosome evolution is well developed, evidence of the early stages of this process remains elusive, in part because this process unfolded in many animals so long ago. The relatively recent and repeated evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) and sex chromosomes in plants, however,...

  3. Plants Poisonous to Your Horse - Part I

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horses are relatively selective grazers and generally are poisoned less frequently than other livestock. However there are exceptions. Some poisonous plants are palatable to horses and exposed horses readily eat them. Most equine poisonings occur as result to toxic plants contaminating feeds. Mo...

  4. Charles Darwin and the Origins of Plant Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, William E.; Diggle, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form. PMID:21515816

  5. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  6. 12. POWER PLANT PART OF BUILDING SHOWING RELATION TO ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. POWER PLANT PART OF BUILDING SHOWING RELATION TO ADDITION AND EQUIPMENT PART OF BUILDING - Boswell Bay White Alice Site, Radio Relay Building, Chugach National Forest, Cordova, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  7. Strigolactones as Part of the Plant Defence System.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Marek

    2016-11-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones, described as regulators of plant growth and development. Recently, it was proposed that these hormones might also be involved in the biotic stress response. However, SLs do not have a universal role in plant protection, instead only playing a part in resistance to specific pathogens.

  8. Chemical characterization of cotton plant parts for multiple uses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton is an important crop in the southern and southeastern parts of USA, but cotton plant residues are under utilized. In this study, whole cotton plants were collected at mid season and just before harvest and chemically characterized to explore multiple uses. These plant samples were separated i...

  9. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  10. Parts of Plants. Hawaii Nature Study Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This teaching guide is one of a series developed by the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the University of Hawaii. The program is laboratory and field oriented for elementary students. The focus of study for the project is the plant and animal life and the physical components of the Hawaiian environment, and their ecological…

  11. Parts of Plants. Hawaii Nature Study Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This teaching guide is one of a series developed by the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the University of Hawaii. The program is laboratory and field oriented for elementary students. The focus of study for the project is the plant and animal life and the physical components of the Hawaiian environment, and their ecological…

  12. The origins of plant pathogens in agro-ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; McDonald, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens can emerge in agricultural ecosystems through several mechanisms, including host-tracking, host jumps, hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. High-throughput DNA sequencing coupled with new analytical approaches make it possible to differentiate among these mechanisms and to infer the time and place where pathogens first emerged. We present several examples to illustrate the different mechanisms and timescales associated with the origins of important plant pathogens. In some cases pathogens were domesticated along with their hosts during the invention of agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago. In other cases pathogens appear to have emerged very recently and almost instantaneously following horizontal gene transfer or hybridization. The predominant unifying feature in these examples is the environmental and genetic uniformity of the agricultural ecosystem in which the pathogens emerged. We conclude that agro-ecosystems will continue to select for new pathogens unless they are re-engineered to make them less conducive to pathogen emergence.

  13. Multitarget drugs of plants origin acting on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Frustaci, A; Del Bufalo, A; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2013-01-01

    The etiopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is extremely complex and heterogeneous, often associated with comorbidities. As a result it may be unlikely that AD may be mitigated by drug acting on a single specific target. The current tendency in drug design and discovery in AD is the rational design or "serendipitous" discovery of new drug entities challenging multiple targets. Since two of the presently approved drugs for AD are based on natural products (galantamine and the physostigmine-derivative rivastigmine), many plants are now under investigation as a potential source of new drugs. Multifunctional drugs often have their origin in natural sources. This review is limited to plant chemicals having different targets with actual (galantamine) or promising (drugs from Crocus sativus, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia species, and Huperzia serrata) clinical evidence in people with dementia or AD.

  14. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  15. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  16. Nutrient leaching when soil is part of plant growth media

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soils can serve as sorbents for phosphorus (P) within plant growth media, negating the need for artificial sorbents. The purpose of this study was to compare soils with different properties, as part of plant growth media, for their effect on nutrient levels in effluent. Four soils were mixed with sa...

  17. Do plant parts compete for resources? An evolutionary viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Sadras, Victor O; Denison, R Ford

    2009-08-01

    Simultaneously growing sinks are thought to compete for plant resources. Negative correlations, for example between grain number and stem mass in cereals, indeed resemble competition; but is the notion of intra-plant competition evolutionarily justified? Here we review intra-plant competition in light of two aspects of evolutionary biology: (a) major transitions that led to the reorganization of evolutionary individuals (e.g. isolated DNA molecules and independent cells) into new units of adaptation (e.g. chromosomes and multicellular organisms) with associated constraints to intra-individual conflict; and (b) genomic conflicts within individual plants with implications for resource allocation. Against this background, we look at apparent competition among genetically identical plant parts, and conclude that plants might use competition-like mechanisms to allocate resources, but only to the extent that these proximate mechanisms enhance overall plant fitness. In dealing with apparent competition among genetically different plant structures, we emphasize developing seeds attached to the same maternal plant, and the determination of yield components in annual crops. We propose that competition-like mechanisms among genetically different plant parts have been strongly shaped by the evolution of genomic conflict between parent and offspring, between female and male parents, and among siblings. By defining the number and potential size of grain simultaneously and before fertilization, a strong maternal control of resource allocation is exerted that favours uniform offspring size and partially counteracts genomic conflict.

  18. Proanthocyanidins in common food products of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jarkko K; Törrönen, A Riitta; Mattila, Pirjo H

    2009-09-09

    The contents of extractable and unextractable proanthocyanidins were determined in a large number of commercial food products of plant origin available in Finland. Proanthocyanidins were extracted with aqueous acetone-methanol and quantified by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) according to their degree of polymerization. Unextractable proanthocyanidins were analyzed from the extraction residue by reversed phase HPLC after acid-catalyzed depolymerization as free flavan-3-ols (terminal units) and benzylthioethers (extension units). Proanthocyanidins were detected in 49 of 99 selected food items. The highest contents per fresh weight were determined in chokeberries, rose hips, and cocoa products. Berries and fruits were generally the best sources of proanthocyanidins, whereas most of the vegetables, roots, and cereals lacked them completely. Many of the samples contained a significant proportion of insoluble proanthocyanidins, which need to be quantified as well if total proanthocyanidins are studied. Considerable variation was observed in proanthocyanidin contents in berries, which requires further research.

  19. Plants and Chemistry: A Teaching Course Based on the Chemistry of Substances of Plant Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Katia; Calascibetta, Franco; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Occhionero, Francesca

    2002-08-01

    Over the past few years, we developed an idea about the teaching of chemistry by determining the links between theory and the real world. The principles, concepts, and experimental procedures of chemistry were illustrated through an original approach based on useful substances obtained from plants. The starting point was substances that have always been obtained from trees and vegetables. The approach was implemented during many refresher courses for secondary school teachers of chemistry. The courses were divided into sections, each called "Plants and ...", dedicated to colors, odors, tastes, medicines and drugs, fibers, soaps, and alcoholic beverages. Each section consisted of a theoretical lesson followed by a laboratory session.

  20. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 3. On the Origin of Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The origin of non-integer overtone peaks in overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) spectra is investigated by ion trajectory simulations. Simulations indicate that these OMS features arise from higher-order overtone series. An empirically-derived formula is presented as a means of describing the positions of peaks. The new equation makes it possible to determine collision cross sections from any OMS peak. Additionally, it is extended as a means of predicting the resolving power for any peak in an OMS distribution.

  1. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained.

  2. Research progress of pharmacological activities and analytical methods for plant origin proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-hong; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-ning; Yang, Feng-qing

    2015-07-01

    As one of the important active components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), plant origin active proteins have many significant pharmacological functions. According to researches on the plant origin active proteins reported in recent years, pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, immune regulation, anti-oxidant, anti-pathogeny microorganism, anti-thrombus, as well as hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of plant origin were reviewed, respectively. On the other hand, the analytical methods including chromatography, spectroscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for plant origin proteins analysis were also summarized. The main purpose of this paper is providing a reference for future development and application of plant active proteins.

  3. CE: The obesity epidemic, part 1: understanding the origins.

    PubMed

    Budd, Geraldine M; Peterson, Jane Anthony

    2014-12-01

    The obesity epidemic remains a significant health problem in the United States and worldwide, with multiple associated physical and societal costs. To contribute to obesity's treatment and prevention, nurses must be conversant in a wide range of theoretical and clinical perspectives on the problem. This article, the first in a two-part series, defines the terms used in the treatment of obesity and outlines pathophysiologic, psychological, and social factors that influence weight control. Part 2, which will appear in next month's issue, presents a theoretical framework that can be used to guide nursing assessment of both patient and family, thereby informing intervention.

  4. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 3. On the Origin of Peaks

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of non-integer overtone peaks in overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) spectra is investigated by ion trajectory simulations. Simulations indicate that these OMS features arise from higher-order overtone series. An empirically-derived formula is presented as a means of describing the positions of peaks. The new equation makes it possible to determine collision cross sections from any OMS peak. Additionally, it is extended as a means of predicting the resolving power for any peak in an OMS distribution. PMID:21472515

  5. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  6. Insights into the Origin and Evolution of the Plant Hormone Signaling Machinery1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Si-Shen; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones modulate plant growth, development, and defense. However, many aspects of the origin and evolution of plant hormone signaling pathways remain obscure. Here, we use a comparative genomic and phylogenetic approach to investigate the origin and evolution of nine major plant hormone (abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid, cytokinin, ethylene, gibberellin, jasmonate, salicylic acid, and strigolactone) signaling pathways. Our multispecies genome-wide analysis reveals that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone signaling pathways originated in charophyte lineages; (2) abscisic acid, jasmonate, and salicylic acid signaling pathways arose in the last common ancestor of land plants; (3) gibberellin signaling evolved after the divergence of bryophytes from land plants; (4) the canonical brassinosteroid signaling originated before the emergence of angiosperms but likely after the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms; and (5) the origin of the canonical ethylene signaling pathway postdates shortly the emergence of angiosperms. Our findings might have important implications in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of land plants. PMID:25560880

  7. Insights into the origin and evolution of the plant hormone signaling machinery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Si-Shen; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Plant hormones modulate plant growth, development, and defense. However, many aspects of the origin and evolution of plant hormone signaling pathways remain obscure. Here, we use a comparative genomic and phylogenetic approach to investigate the origin and evolution of nine major plant hormone (abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid, cytokinin, ethylene, gibberellin, jasmonate, salicylic acid, and strigolactone) signaling pathways. Our multispecies genome-wide analysis reveals that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone signaling pathways originated in charophyte lineages; (2) abscisic acid, jasmonate, and salicylic acid signaling pathways arose in the last common ancestor of land plants; (3) gibberellin signaling evolved after the divergence of bryophytes from land plants; (4) the canonical brassinosteroid signaling originated before the emergence of angiosperms but likely after the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms; and (5) the origin of the canonical ethylene signaling pathway postdates shortly the emergence of angiosperms. Our findings might have important implications in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of land plants.

  8. The Origin of Monsoon Onset. Part 2; Rotational ITCZ Attractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Through various specially designed numerical experiments with an aqua-planet general circulation model and theoretical arguments. Chao showed the existence of multiple quasi-equilibria of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). He also showed that monsoon onset could be interpreted as an abrupt transition between the quasi-equilibria of the ITCZ. He further showed that the origin of these quasi-equilibria is related to two different types of attraction pulling the ITCZ in opposite directions. One type of attraction on the ITCZ is due to earth's rotation, which pulls the ITCZ toward the equator or two equatorial latitudes symmetric with respect to the equator depending on the choice of convection scheme, and the other due to the peak of the sea surface temperature (SST, which is given in the experiments a Gaussian profile in latitude and is uniform in longitude), which pulls the ITCZ toward a latitude just poleward of the SST peak. The strength of the attraction due to the earth's rotation has a highly nonlinear dependence on the latitude and that due to the SST peak has a linear (at least in a relative sense) dependence on the latitude.

  9. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi F.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Dantonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands. PMID:26173623

  10. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi F; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M; MacDougall, Andrew S; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter B; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana M; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Dantonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-07-15

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands.

  11. Distribution of seven heavy metals among hot pepper plant parts.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to monitor concentrations of seven metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Mo, Cu, Zn, and Cr) in the fruits, leaves, stem, and roots of Capsicum annuum L. (cv. Xcatic) plants grown under four soil management practices: yard waste (YW), sewage sludge (SS), chicken manure (CM), and no-much (NM) bare soil. Elemental analyses were conducted using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Pb and Cd concentrations in soil amended with YW, SS, and CM were not significantly different (P < 0.05) compared to NM soil, whereas Mo and Cu concentrations were significantly greater in YW compared to SS, CM, and NM treatments. Concentrations of Cd in the fruits of plants grown in NM soil were greater compared to the fruits of plants grown in other treatments. Total Ni concentration (sum of Ni in all plant parts) in plants grown in NM bare soil was greater than in plants grown in SS-, YW-, and CM-amended soils. Values of the bioaccumulation factor indicated that pepper fruits of plants grown in YW, SS, and CM did not show any tendency to accumulate Pb, Cr, and Ni in their edible fruits.

  12. Origin of tryptophan fluorescence lifetimes. Part 2: fluorescence lifetimes origin of tryptophan in proteins.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence intensity decays of L-tryptophan in proteins dissolved in pH 7 buffer, in ethanol and in 6 M guanidine pH 7.8 and in lyophilized proteins were measured. In all protein conditions, three lifetimes were obtained along the emission spectrum (310-410 nm). The two shortest lifetimes are in the same range of those obtained for L-Trp in water or in ethanol. Thus, these two lifetimes originate from specific two sub-structures existing in the excited state and are inherent to the tryptophan structure independently of the surrounding environment (amino acids residues, solvent, etc.) In proteins, the third lifetime originates from the interactions that are occurring between tryptophan residues and neighboring amino acids. Populations of these lifetimes are independent of the excitation wavelength and thus originate from pre-defined sub structures existing in the excited state and put into evidence after tryptophan excitation. Fluorescence decay studies of different tripeptides having a tryptophan residue in second position show that the best analysis is obtained with two fluorescence lifetimes. Consequently, this result seems to exclude the possibility that peptide bond induces the third fluorescence lifetimes. Indole dissolved in water and/or in ethanol emits with two fluorescence lifetimes that are completely different from those observed for L-Trp. Absence of the third lifetime in ethanol demonstrates that indole behaves differently when compared to tryptophan. Thus, it seems not adequate to attribute fluorescence lifetime or fluorescence properties of tryptophan to indole ring and to compare tryptophan fluorescence properties in proteins to molecules having close structures such as NATA which fluoresces with one lifetime.

  13. Plant origin and ploidy influence gene expression and life cycle characteristics in an invasive weed.

    PubMed

    Broz, Amanda K; Manter, Daniel K; Bowman, Gillianne; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2009-03-23

    Ecological, evolutionary and physiological studies have thus far provided an incomplete picture of why some plants become invasive; therefore we used genomic resources to complement and advance this field. In order to gain insight into the invasive mechanism of Centaurea stoebe we compared plants of three geo-cytotypes, native Eurasian diploids, native Eurasian tetraploids and introduced North American tetraploids, grown in a common greenhouse environment. We monitored plant performance characteristics and life cycle habits and characterized the expression of genes related to constitutive defense and genome stability using quantitative PCR. Plant origin and ploidy were found to have a significant effect on both life cycle characteristics and gene expression, highlighting the importance of comparing appropriate taxonomic groups in studies of native and introduced plant species. We found that introduced populations of C. stoebe exhibit reduced expression of transcripts related to constitutive defense relative to their native tetraploid counterparts, as might be expected based on ideas of enemy release and rapid evolution. Measurements of several vegetative traits were similar for all geo-cytotypes; however, fecundity of tetraploids was significantly greater than diploids, due in part to their polycarpic nature. A simulation of seed production over time predicts that introduced tetraploids have the highest fecundity of the three geo-cytotypes. Our results suggest that characterizing gene expression in an invasive species using populations from both its native and introduced range can provide insight into the biology of plant invasion that can complement traditional measurements of plant performance. In addition, these results highlight the importance of using appropriate taxonomic units in ecological genomics investigations.

  14. Plant origin and ploidy influence gene expression and life cycle characteristics in an invasive weed

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Amanda K; Manter, Daniel K; Bowman, Gillianne; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2009-01-01

    Background Ecological, evolutionary and physiological studies have thus far provided an incomplete picture of why some plants become invasive; therefore we used genomic resources to complement and advance this field. In order to gain insight into the invasive mechanism of Centaurea stoebe we compared plants of three geo-cytotypes, native Eurasian diploids, native Eurasian tetraploids and introduced North American tetraploids, grown in a common greenhouse environment. We monitored plant performance characteristics and life cycle habits and characterized the expression of genes related to constitutive defense and genome stability using quantitative PCR. Results Plant origin and ploidy were found to have a significant effect on both life cycle characteristics and gene expression, highlighting the importance of comparing appropriate taxonomic groups in studies of native and introduced plant species. We found that introduced populations of C. stoebe exhibit reduced expression of transcripts related to constitutive defense relative to their native tetraploid counterparts, as might be expected based on ideas of enemy release and rapid evolution. Measurements of several vegetative traits were similar for all geo-cytotypes; however, fecundity of tetraploids was significantly greater than diploids, due in part to their polycarpic nature. A simulation of seed production over time predicts that introduced tetraploids have the highest fecundity of the three geo-cytotypes. Conclusion Our results suggest that characterizing gene expression in an invasive species using populations from both its native and introduced range can provide insight into the biology of plant invasion that can complement traditional measurements of plant performance. In addition, these results highlight the importance of using appropriate taxonomic units in ecological genomics investigations. PMID:19309502

  15. Differential allelopathic expression of different plant parts of Achillea biebersteinii.

    PubMed

    Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root.

  16. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly M.; Bergmann, Erik J.; Venugopal, P. Dilip; Riley, Christopher B.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.; Raupp, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  17. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests.

  18. Anthocyanins as antimicrobial agents of natural plant origin.

    PubMed

    Cisowska, Agnieszka; Wojnicz, Dorota; Hendrich, Andrzej B

    2011-01-01

    Anthocyanins are particularly abundant in different fruits, especially in berries. The beneficial effects of these compounds for human health have been known from at least the 16th century. Despite the great number of papers devoted to the different biological effects exerted by anthocyanins only a limited number of studies is focused on the antimicrobial activity of these compounds. Anthocyanin content of berry fruits varies from 7.5 mg/100 mg fresh fruit in redcurrant (Ribes rubum) up to 460 mg/100 g fresh fruit in chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa). After consumption, anthocyanins are intensively metabolized, mainly in the intestines and liver. Glucorination, methylation and sulfation are the most typical metabolic reactions. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plant phenolic compounds against human pathogens has been intensively studied to characterize and develop new healthy food ingredients as well as medical and pharmaceutical products. However, there is very little information available about the antimicrobial activity of the pure anthocyanins. In the last part of this review we present the collection of papers describing the anthocyanin profiles of different fruits (mainly berries) and the antimicrobial properties of the identified compounds. Generally, anthocyanins are active against different microbes, however Gram-positive bacteria usually are more susceptible to the anthocyanin action than Gram-negative ones. Mechanisms underlying anthocyanin activity include both membrane and intracellular interactions of these compounds. Antimicrobial activity of berries and other anthocyanin-containing fruits is likely to be caused by multiple mechanisms and synergies because they contain various compounds including anthocyanins, weak organic acids, phenolic acids, and their mixtures of different chemical forms. Therefore, the antimicrobial effect of chemically complex compounds has to be critically analyzed.

  19. [Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.

  20. Pharmacognostic standardization with various plant parts of Desmostachya bipinnata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anupama; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Bhandari, Anil

    2014-03-01

    Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf [Gramineae (Poaceae)] has been traditionally used to treat various disorders such as asthma, kidney stone, diarrhea, wound healing, etc. The present study involves pharmacognostic, botanical, and preliminary phytochemical examination of various plant parts and powders of D. bipinnata. Leaves, stem, roots, underground and aerial part powders were microscopically examined. Pharmacognostic standardization parameters were determined as per the WHO guidelines. Parameters, including extractive value in different solvents, ash values, and loss on drying, were determined. Preliminary phytochemical studies, fluorescence analysis, and chromatographic profiling were performed for the correct identification of this crude drug and some of its phytoconstituents. Microscopical studies showed various characteristic features including, collateral vascular bundle, bundle sheath cells, and bulliform cells in leaf, conjoint, collateral and closed vascular bundles, and sclerenchymatous sheath in stem; and silica bodies in root. Phytochemical screening and chromatographic profile of aerial plant parts revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, glycosides, and coumarins. Underground plants parts indicated the presence of glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, coumarins, and alkaloids. The results of the performed studies are helpful in correct identification, characterisation of D. bipinnata. Preliminary phytochemical studies and chromatographic profiling may be helpful in further isolation and purification of lead compounds from different extracts.

  1. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.

  2. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    PubMed Central

    van ‘t Klooster, Charlotte I. E. A.; Towns, Alexandra M.; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World. PMID:25453066

  3. The plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians colonizes the exterior and interior of the aerial parts of plants.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, K; Ritsema, T; Nijsse, J; Holsters, M; Goethals, K; Jaziri, M

    2001-05-01

    Rhodococcus fascians is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes malformations on aerial plant parts, whereby leafy galls occur at axillary meristems. The colonization behavior on Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants was examined. Independent of the infection methods, R. fascians extensively colonized the plant surface where the bacteria were surrounded by a slime layer. R. fascians caused the collapse of epidermal cells and penetrated intercellularly into the plant tissues. The onset of symptom development preceded the extensive colonization of the interior. The meristematic regions induced by pathogenic strain D188 were surrounded by bacteria. The nonpathogenic strain, D188-5, colonized the exterior of the plant equally well, but the linear plasmid (pFiD188) seemed to be involved in the penetration efficiency and colonization of tobacco tissues.

  4. Passive origins of stomatal control in vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, Tim J; McAdam, Scott A M

    2011-02-04

    Carbon and water flow between plants and the atmosphere is regulated by the opening and closing of minute stomatal pores in surfaces of leaves. By changing the aperture of stomata, plants regulate water loss and photosynthetic carbon gain in response to many environmental stimuli, but stomatal movements cannot yet be reliably predicted. We found that the complexity that characterizes stomatal control in seed plants is absent in early-diverging vascular plant lineages. Lycophyte and fern stomata are shown to lack key responses to abscisic acid and epidermal cell turgor, making their behavior highly predictable. These results indicate that a fundamental transition from passive to active metabolic control of plant water balance occurred after the divergence of ferns about 360 million years ago.

  5. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 610 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGISTRATION OF MORTGAGE LOAN ORIGINATORS Pt. 610, App. A Appendix A to Part 610—Examples of Mortgage Loan... institution's Web site, for specific types of loan products without communicating to the consumer...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1007 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 1007, App. A Appendix A to Part 1007—Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities This appendix... publicly available, such as on the covered financial institution's Web site, for specific types of...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1007 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1007, App. A Appendix A to Part 1007—Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities This appendix... publicly available, such as on the covered financial institution's Web site, for specific types of...

  9. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 610 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGISTRATION OF MORTGAGE LOAN ORIGINATORS Pt. 610, App. A Appendix A to Part 610—Examples of Mortgage Loan... institution's Web site, for specific types of loan products without communicating to the consumer...

  10. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Devis, Deborah; Shi, Jianxin; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-09-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Methylated arsenic species in plants originate from soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Charlotte; Liu, Wen-Ju; Wu, Liyou; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A; Miller, Anthony J; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2012-02-01

    • Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a ubiquitous human carcinogen, and rice (Oryza sativa) is the main contributor to iAs in the diet. Methylated pentavalent As species are less toxic and are routinely found in plants; however, it is currently unknown whether plants are able to methylate As. • Rice, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) were exposed to iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), under axenic conditions. Rice seedlings were also grown in two soils under nonsterile flooded conditions, and rice plants exposed to arsenite or DMA(V) were grown to maturity in nonsterile hydroponic culture. Arsenic speciation in samples was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS. • Methylated arsenicals were not found in the three plant species exposed to iAs under axenic conditions. Axenically grown rice was able to take up MMA(V) or DMA(V), and reduce MMA(V) to MMA(III) but not convert it to DMA(V). Methylated As was detected in the shoots of soil-grown rice, and in rice grain from nonsterile hydroponic culture. GeoChip analysis of microbial genes in a Bangladeshi paddy soil showed the presence of the microbial As methyltransferase gene arsM. • Our results suggest that plants are unable to methylate iAs, and instead take up methylated As produced by microorganisms. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Independent origins of syringyl lignin in vascular plants

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Li, Xu; Stout, Jake; Chapple, Clint

    2008-01-01

    Lycophytes arose in the early Silurian (≈400 Mya) and represent a major lineage of vascular plants that has evolved in parallel with the ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. A hallmark of vascular plants is the presence of the phenolic lignin heteropolymer in xylem and other sclerified cell types. Although syringyl lignin is often considered to be restricted in angiosperms, it has been detected in lycophytes as well. Here we report the characterization of a cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii. Gene expression data, cross-species complementation experiments, and in vitro enzyme assays indicate that this P450 is a ferulic acid/coniferaldehyde/coniferyl alcohol 5-hydroxylase (F5H), and is capable of diverting guaiacyl-substituted intermediates into syringyl lignin biosynthesis. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the Selaginella F5H represents a new family of plant P450s and suggests that it has evolved independently of angiosperm F5Hs. PMID:18505841

  14. A common origin of rickettsiae and certain plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Weisburg, W G; Woese, C R; Dobson, M E; Weiss, E

    1985-11-01

    On the basis of ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons, the rickettsia Rochalimaea quintana has been found to be a member of subgroup 2 of the alpha subdivision of the so-called purple bacteria, which is one of about ten major eubacterial divisions. Within subgroup alpha-2, R. quintana is specifically related to the agrobacteria and rhizobacteria, organisms that also have close associations with eukaryotic cells. This genealogical grouping of the rickettsiae with certain plant pathogens and intracellular symbionts suggests a possible evolution of the rickettsiae from plant-associated bacteria.

  15. Plant reproductive organs and the origin of terrestrial insects

    Treesearch

    Georgy V. Stadnitsky

    1991-01-01

    It is widely believed that plants facilitated the evolution of terrestrial insects (Southwood 1973). However, the mechanisms by which this evolution occurred are not yet fully understood. I therefore propose a hypothesis about one possible mode of formation of terrestrial insects and fauna. The soil, warm shallow lagoons, tidal zones, and accumulations of detritus are...

  16. The chemical structures, plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities of homoisoflavanones.

    PubMed

    du Toit, Karen; Drewes, Siegfried E; Bodenstein, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the four basic structural types of homoisoflavanones. The relationships between the various structures of homoisoflavanones and their plant origins, ethnobotany and biological activities are put into perspective.

  17. Plant origin of Okinawan propolis: honeybee behavior observation and phytochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakamura, Jun; Murase, Masayo; Miyagawa, Mariko; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Fukumoto, Shuichi

    2008-08-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous product collected by honeybees from certain plants. It has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Poplar and Baccharis are well known as the source plants of European and Brazilian propolis, respectively. However, the propolis from Okinawa, Japan, contains some prenylflavonoids not seen in other regions such as Europe and Brazil, suggesting that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is a particular plant that grows in Okinawa. To identify the plant origin of Okinawan propolis, we observed the behavior of honeybees as they collected material from plants and caulked it inside the hive. Honeybees scraped resinous material from the surface of plant fruits of Macaranga tanarius and brought it back to their hive to use it as propolis. We collected samples of the plant and propolis, and compared their constituents by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photo-diode array detector. We also compared their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The chemical constituents and biological activity of the ethanol extracts of the plant did not differ from those of propolis. This indicates directly that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is M. tanarius.

  18. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  19. Phenotypic correlations among plant parts in Iberian Papilionoideae (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Different plant organs may show varying degrees of form diversification or conservatism across phylogenetically related taxa. The present study uses data from a recent systematic study of Iberian Papilionoideae to investigate diversification and covariation in reproductive and vegetative plant parts. The appropriateness of imprecise (but comprehensive) taxonomic quantitative information is tested. Organ size covariation and phenotypic correlations were studied among tribes, genera and species. Scale relationships were investigated by Reduced Major Axis regression. Variables used were the maximum dimensions of calyx, corolla, keel petal, fruit, seed, stipule, leaflet and petiole. As regards tribe averages, the length of the corolla and that of calyx correlated positively and significantly. In contrast, pod length was unrelated to corolla size and largely tribe-specific. Within genera, the sizes of calyx, corolla and fruit sometimes covaried linearly (e.g. Lathyrus species) and other times did not (Genista, Astragalus). Information from taxonomic studies can be useful to establish major phenotypic correlations in plants. Results underscore the implications of tribal ownership in the Papilionoideae and illustrate the extensive morphological diversification of pods relative to flowers in this group.

  20. Delat9-tetrahydrocannabinol content in cannabis plants of greek origin.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, M; Athanaselis, S; Alevisopoulos, G; Papoutsis, J; Koutselinis, A

    2000-05-01

    The delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) content was identified and determined quantitatively using a Gas Chromatography Detector (Gas Chromatography-Electron Ion Detector) instrument in samples of illicit herbal cannabis. Law enforcement authorities sent the samples to the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, University of Athens, for toxicological analysis. The concentrations of delta9-THC in these samples ranged from 0.08% to 4.41%. Such concentrations suggest that Greece might be at high risk, as an area for the illicit cultivation of "pedigree" cannabis plants. The forensic aspects of cannabis classification are discussed.

  1. [Investigation on Wild Original Plant Species of Chinese Medicinal Herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiu-zhen; Zou, Xiu-hong

    2014-12-01

    To explore the original plants of wild medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province and find out the species of these plants. Based on the field investigation, specimen collection and literature reference, inductive analysis of the wild original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City had been carried out. After investigation, it was discovered that there were 84 families 155 genera 184 species of original plants of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, of which 6 families 7 genera 9 species belonged to pteridophytes; 2 families 2 genera 2 species belonged to gymnosperms; and the rest were angio-sperms. Among the angiosperms, dicotyledons accounted for 62 families 117 genera 139 species; monocotyledons took up 14 families 29 genera 34 species. The plants mentioned above were the original plants of the 186 Chinese medicinal herbs and decoction pieces in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). This paper has explored the wild original plant species of Chinese medicinal herbs in Quanzhou City, Fujian Province to provide not only the basis for the local government's development and utilization of wild Chinese medicinal herbs but also the data for the fourth national survey of Chinese medicinal herb resources.

  2. Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Davies, T Jonathan; Hempson, Gareth P; Bezeng, Bezeng S; Daru, Barnabas H; Kabongo, Ronny M; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A Muthama; van der Bank, Michelle; Bond, William J

    2016-09-20

    Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times. The diversification of spiny plants occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans and hyracoids. However, it is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids, the lineage including the antelope that predominantly browse these plants today. Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several million years before fire-maintained savannas and probably, in different environmental conditions. Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates and on nutrient-rich soils, whereas fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor soils.

  3. Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas

    PubMed Central

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Davies, T. Jonathan; Hempson, Gareth P.; Bezeng, Bezeng S.; Kabongo, Ronny M.; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A. Muthama; van der Bank, Michelle; Bond, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times. The diversification of spiny plants occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans and hyracoids. However, it is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids, the lineage including the antelope that predominantly browse these plants today. Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several million years before fire-maintained savannas and probably, in different environmental conditions. Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates and on nutrient-rich soils, whereas fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor soils. PMID:27601649

  4. Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  5. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110... Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note: Uranium conversion plants... feed for electromagnetic enrichment. Note: Plutonium conversion plants and systems may perform one...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110... Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—Uranium conversion plants and... feed for electromagnetic enrichment. Note: Plutonium conversion plants and systems may perform one...

  7. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... your mercury cell chlor-alkali plant is existing if you commenced construction of the affected source... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What parts of my plant does...

  8. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... your mercury cell chlor-alkali plant is existing if you commenced construction of the affected source... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What parts of my plant does...

  9. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... your mercury cell chlor-alkali plant is existing if you commenced construction of the affected source... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... your mercury cell chlor-alkali plant is existing if you commenced construction of the affected source... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true What parts of my plant does...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... your mercury cell chlor-alkali plant is existing if you commenced construction of the affected source... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What parts of my plant does...

  12. Common Origins and Host-Dependent Diversity of Plant and Animal Viromes

    PubMed Central

    Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    Many viruses infecting animals and plants share common cores of homologous genes involved in the key processes of viral replication. In contrast, genes that mediate virus – host interactions including in many cases capsid protein genes are markedly different. There are three distinct scenarios for the origin of related viruses of plants and animals: i) evolution from a common ancestral virus predating the divergence of plants and animals; ii) horizontal transfer of viruses, for example, through insect vectors; iii) parallel origin from related genetic elements. We present evidence that each of these scenarios contributed, to a varying extent, to the evolution of different groups of viruses. PMID:22408703

  13. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B.; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant ‘abundance’ and ‘origin’. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  14. Plant medicines of Indian origin for wound healing activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2003-03-01

    Research on wound healing drugs is a developing area in modern biomedical sciences. Scientists who are trying to develop newer drugs from natural resources are looking toward the Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties under the term Vranaropaka. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models and patients, but the potential of most remains unexplored. In a few cases, active chemical constituents were identified. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants, namely, Ficus bengalensis, Cynodon dactylon, Symplocos racemosa, Rubia cordifolia, Pterocarpus santalinus, Ficus racemosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Berberis aristata, Curcuma longa, Centella asiatica, Euphorbia nerifolia, and Aloe vera, were found to be effective in experimental models. This paper presents a limited review of plants used in Ayurvedic medicine.

  15. Effect of EDTA washing of metal polluted garden soils. Part II: Can remediated soil be used as a plant substrate?

    PubMed

    Jelusic, Masa; Vodnik, Dominik; Macek, Irena; Lestan, Domen

    2014-03-15

    In a field experiment on metal contaminated and EDTA-remediated soil we studied plant performance, mycorrhizal associations and prospects of potential re-use of remediated soil as a garden substrate. Two experimental plots of 4 × 1 × 0.3 m were filled, one with remediated and the other with original contaminated soil. Selected cultivars were rotated over the course of 16months. Pb, Zn, Cd and micronutrient plant uptake was measured and their phytoaccessibility was analyzed by the DTPA method. Plant fitness was assessed by chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange measurements and evaluation of root colonization were analyzed with mycorrhizal fungi. Remediation reduced Pb and Cd concentrations in roots, green parts and fruits in most of the plants. Phytoaccumulation of Zn was reduced in one half of the cultivars. Some plants suffered from Mn deficiency as total soil Mn was reduced 4-fold and phytoaccessibility of micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn for 54, 26 and 79%, respectively. Plant biomass was reduced. Photosynthetic parameters of plants grown in original and remediated soil were similar, except for the reduction in Spinacia oleracea. The frequency of mycorrhizal colonization in the roots of Pisum sativum was reduced five-fold and no significant changes were found in Allium cepa roots. Remediation reduced plant uptake of Pb below the concentration stipulated by legislation. Measures to reduce plant accumulation of other toxic metals and to revitalize remediated soil are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Buzz in Paris: flower production and plant-pollinator interactions in plants from contrasted urban and rural origins.

    PubMed

    Desaegher, James; Nadot, Sophie; Dajoz, Isabelle; Colas, Bruno

    2017-09-23

    Urbanisation, associated with habitat fragmentation, affects pollinator communities and insect foraging behaviour. These biotic changes are likely to select for modified traits in insect-pollinated plants from urban populations compared to rural populations. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment involving four plant species commonly found in both urban and rural landscapes of the Île-de-France region (France): Cymbalaria muralis, Geranium robertianum, Geum urbanum and Prunella vulgaris. The four species were grown in four urban and four rural experimental sites in 2015. For each species and each experimental site, plants were grown from seeds collected in five urban and five rural locations. During flowering, we observed flower production and insect-flower interactions during 14 weeks and tested for the effects of experimental site location and plant origin on flower production and on the number of floral visits. The study species had various flower morphology and hence were visited by different floral visitors. The effect of experimental sites and seed origin also varied among study species. We found that (1) insect visits on P. vulgaris were more frequent in rural than in urban sites; (2) for C. muralis, the slope relating the number of pollinator visits to the number of flowers per individual was steeper in urban versus rural sites, suggesting a greater benefit in allocating resources to flower production in urban conditions; (3) as a likely consequence, C. muralis tended to produce more flowers in plants from urban versus rural origin.

  17. Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Bladé, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

  18. Molecular data from 27 proteins do not support a Precambrian origin of land plants.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    Heckman et al. (Science 293: 1129-1133) used sequences obtained from GenBank to infer divergence times in fungi and green plants. They estimated that the crown group of land plants originated in the Precambrian, at 703 ± 45 mya, a date much older than dates implied by the fossils, which are no older than about 450 mya. This paper presents an analysis of an entirely different set of sequence data from 27 plastid protein-coding genes in 10 land plants and a green algal outgroup. It uses a calibration point closer to the origin of land plants and inference methods that do not assume a molecular clock. This leads to estimates ranging from 425 to 490 mya, which brackets the age suggested by the fossil record. Possible explanations for the differing conclusions in the two studies include differences in calibration points and use of single-copy plastid genes rather than nuclear gene families.

  19. Swainsonine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine accumulates in all parts of the plant with the highest concentrations found in the above ground parts of the plant. A fungal endophyte, Undifilum oxytropis, found in locoweed plant species has...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and...

  1. The Nitrogen Contribution of Different Plant Parts to Wheat Grains: Exploring Genotype, Water, and Nitrogen Effects

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Serret, M. Dolors; Araus, José L.

    2017-01-01

    The flag leaf has been traditionally considered as the main contributor to grain nitrogen. However, during the reproductive stage, other organs besides the flag leaf may supply nitrogen to developing grains. Therefore, the contribution of the ear and other organs to the nitrogen supplied to the growing grains remains unclear. It is important to develop phenotypic tools to assess the relative contribution of different plant parts to the N accumulated in the grains of wheat which may helps to develop genotypes that use N more efficiently. We studied the effect of growing conditions (different levels of water and nitrogen in the field) on the nitrogen contribution of the spike and different vegetative organs of the plant to the grains. The natural abundance of δ15N and total N content in the flag blade, peduncle, whole spike, glumes and awns were compared to the δ15N and total N in mature grains to trace the origin of nitrogen redistribution to the grains. The δ15N and total N content of the different plant parts correlated positively with the δ15N and total N content of mature grains suggesting that all organs may contribute a portion of their N content to the grains. The potential contribution of the flag blade to grain N increased (by 46%) as the growing conditions improved, whereas the potential contribution of the glumes plus awns and the peduncle increased (46 and 31%, respectively) as water and nitrogen stress increased. In general, potential contribution of the ear providing N to growing grains was similar (42%) than that of the vegetative parts of the plants (30–40%), regardless of the growing conditions. Thus, the potential ear N content could be a positive trait for plant phenotyping, especially under water and nitrogen limiting conditions. In that sense, genotypic variability existed at least between old (tall) and modern (semidwarf) cultivars, with the ear from modern genotypes exhibiting less relative contribution to the total grain N. The combined

  2. The Nitrogen Contribution of Different Plant Parts to Wheat Grains: Exploring Genotype, Water, and Nitrogen Effects.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Serret, M Dolors; Araus, José L

    2016-01-01

    The flag leaf has been traditionally considered as the main contributor to grain nitrogen. However, during the reproductive stage, other organs besides the flag leaf may supply nitrogen to developing grains. Therefore, the contribution of the ear and other organs to the nitrogen supplied to the growing grains remains unclear. It is important to develop phenotypic tools to assess the relative contribution of different plant parts to the N accumulated in the grains of wheat which may helps to develop genotypes that use N more efficiently. We studied the effect of growing conditions (different levels of water and nitrogen in the field) on the nitrogen contribution of the spike and different vegetative organs of the plant to the grains. The natural abundance of δ(15)N and total N content in the flag blade, peduncle, whole spike, glumes and awns were compared to the δ(15)N and total N in mature grains to trace the origin of nitrogen redistribution to the grains. The δ(15)N and total N content of the different plant parts correlated positively with the δ(15)N and total N content of mature grains suggesting that all organs may contribute a portion of their N content to the grains. The potential contribution of the flag blade to grain N increased (by 46%) as the growing conditions improved, whereas the potential contribution of the glumes plus awns and the peduncle increased (46 and 31%, respectively) as water and nitrogen stress increased. In general, potential contribution of the ear providing N to growing grains was similar (42%) than that of the vegetative parts of the plants (30-40%), regardless of the growing conditions. Thus, the potential ear N content could be a positive trait for plant phenotyping, especially under water and nitrogen limiting conditions. In that sense, genotypic variability existed at least between old (tall) and modern (semidwarf) cultivars, with the ear from modern genotypes exhibiting less relative contribution to the total grain N. The

  3. Origin of a novel regulatory module by duplication and degeneration of an ancient plant transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Sandra K; Ryan, Joseph G; Conway, Stephanie J; Brenner, Eric; Burris, Kellie P; Burris, Jason N; Chen, Tao; Edger, Patrick P; Graham, Sean W; Leebens-Mack, James H; Pires, J Chris; Rothfels, Carl J; Sigel, Erin M; Stevenson, Dennis W; Neal Stewart, C; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Bowman, John L

    2014-12-01

    It is commonly believed that gene duplications provide the raw material for morphological evolution. Both the number of genes and size of gene families have increased during the diversification of land plants. Several small proteins that regulate transcription factors have recently been identified in plants, including the LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) proteins. ZPRs are post-translational negative regulators, via heterodimerization, of class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (C3HDZ) proteins that play a key role in directing plant form and growth. We show that ZPR genes originated as a duplication of a C3HDZ transcription factor paralog in the common ancestor of euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants). The ZPRs evolved by degenerative mutations resulting in loss all of the C3HDZ functional domains, except the leucine zipper that modulates dimerization. ZPRs represent a novel regulatory module of the C3HDZ network unique to the euphyllophyte lineage, and their origin correlates to a period of rapid morphological changes and increased complexity in land plants. The origin of the ZPRs illustrates the significance of gene duplications in creating developmental complexity during land plant evolution that likely led to morphological evolution.

  4. Hazards Analysis of Large Caliber Munitions Metal Parts Plants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Furnace Types Used Rotary Hearth - 4 plants Roller, Hearth - 1 plant Induction - 3 plants Hydraulic... Rotary hearth furnace with atmos. 1,000 Roller hearth furnace with atmos. 1,700 Induction heating 500 Batch furnace with atmos. 200 Roller type tempering...3) the typical working environment in the plants. A brief analysis of each is shown below. 15 Rotary Hearth Furnace The following diagram is

  5. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution by aboveground plant parts.

    PubMed

    Rossini Oliva, S; Mingorance, M D

    2006-10-01

    Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and oleander (Nerium oleander L.) leaves, bark and wood samples were collected at different sites around an industrial area (Huelva, SW Spain) and compared with samples of the same species from a background site. Samples were analysed with respect to the following pollutants: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb by ICP-AES. The suitability of different plant parts as biomonitors of pollution was investigated. In pine samples from the polluted sites the ratio of concentrations between bark and wood was high for Al, Ba, Cu and Fe, whereas no differences were found in samples from the unpolluted area. No differences were detected in oleander for the same ratio. In the oleander species, the ratio between leaves and wood concentration allowed to distinguish between control and polluted sites. The ratio of the concentration between leaves and wood was elevated for Al, Ba and Fe in pine samples from the polluted sites. The ratio of the concentration in bark or leaves to their concentration in wood might be useful to detect inorganic atmospheric pollutants.

  6. Modelling utility-scale wind power plants. Part 1: Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Michael R.

    1999-10-01

    As the worldwide use of wind turbine generators continues to increase in utility-scale applications, it will become increasingly important to assess the economic and reliability impact of these intermittent resources. Although the utility industry in the United States appears to be moving towards a restructured environment, basic economic and reliability issues will continue to be relevant to companies involved with electricity generation. This article is the first of two which address modelling approaches and results obtained in several case studies and research projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This first article addresses the basic economic issues associated with electricity production from several generators that include large-scale wind power plants. An important part of this discussion is the role of unit commitment and economic dispatch in production cost models. This paper includes overviews and comparisons of the prevalent production cost modelling methods, including several case studies applied to a variety of electric utilities. The second article discusses various methods of assessing capacity credit and results from several reliability-based studies performed at NREL.

  7. The origin of the sporophyte shoot in land plants: a bryological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.; Renzaglia, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Land plants (embryophytes) are monophyletic and encompass four major clades: liverworts, mosses, hornworts and polysporangiophytes. The liverworts are resolved as the earliest divergent lineage and the mosses as sister to a crown clade formed by the hornworts and polysporangiophytes (lycophytes, monilophytes and seed plants). Alternative topologies resolving the hornworts as sister to mosses plus polysporangiophytes are less well supported. Sporophyte development in liverworts depends only on embryonic formative cell divisions. A transient basal meristem contributes part of the sporophyte in mosses. The sporophyte body in hornworts and polysporangiophytes develops predominantly by post-embryonic meristematic activity. Scope This paper explores the origin of the sporophyte shoot in terms of changes in embryo organization. Pressure towards amplification of the sporangium-associated photosynthetic apparatus was a major driver of sporophyte evolution. Starting from a putative ancestral condition in which a transient basal meristem produced a sporangium-supporting seta, we postulate that in the hornwort–polysporangiophyte lineage the basal meristem acquired indeterminate meristematic activity and ectopically expressed the sporangium morphogenetic programme. The resulting sporophyte body plan remained substantially unaltered in hornworts, whereas in polysporangiophytes the persistent meristem shifted from a mid-embryo to a superficial position and was converted into an ancestral shoot apical meristem with the evolution of sequential vegetative and reproductive growth. Conclusions The sporophyte shoot is interpreted as a sterilized sporangial axis interpolated between the embryo and the fertile sporangium. With reference to the putatively ancestral condition found in mosses, the sporophyte body plans in hornworts and polysporangiophytes are viewed as the product of opposite heterochronic events, i.e. an anticipation and a delay, respectively, in the

  8. Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues. Results Fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci were employed to determine the genetic diversity and domestication origin of C. taliensis, which were represented by 587 individuals from 25 wild, planted and recently domesticated populations. C. taliensis showed a moderate high level of overall genetic diversity. The greater reduction of genetic diversity and stronger genetic drift were detected in the wild group than in the recently domesticated group, indicating the loss of genetic diversity of wild populations due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation. Instead of the endangered wild trees, recently domesticated individuals were used to compare with the planted trees for detecting the genetic consequence of domestication. A little and non-significant reduction in genetic diversity was found during domestication. The long life cycle, selection for leaf traits and gene flow between populations will delay the emergence of bottleneck in planted trees. Both phylogenetic and assignment analyses suggested that planted trees may have been domesticated from the adjacent central forest of western Yunnan and dispersed artificially to distant places. Conclusions This study contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity of C. taliensis and provides new insights into genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of planted trees of this species. As an endemic tea source plant, wild, planted and recently domesticated C. taliensis trees should all be protected for their unique

  9. Research on Plants for the Understanding of Diseases of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia P.; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.

    2012-01-01

    Different model organisms, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mouse, cultured human cell lines, among others, were used to study the mechanisms of several human diseases. Since human genes and proteins have been structurally and functionally conserved in plant organisms, the use of plants, especially Arabidopsis thaliana, as a model system to relate molecular defects to clinical disorders has recently increased. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of human diseases of nuclear and mitochondrial origin and summarize the experimental findings of plant homologs implicated in each process. PMID:22690124

  10. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  11. [Tobacco plant parts similarity analysis based on near-infrared spectroscopy and SIMCA algorithm].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Xia; Ma, Xiang; Zhang, Ye-Hui; Li, Jun-Hui; Zhao, Long-Lian; Xu, Li; Wen, Ya-Dong; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Lu-Da

    2011-04-01

    The appearance features of tobacco reflect its inner quality. Many factors, such as different plant parts, variety and maturity, provide standard and foundation for tobacco production processing. According to the different position of tobacco plant parts, tobacco plants leaves can be divided into five parts as tip, upper-middle, middle, lower-middle and priming leaf respectively. Five hundred tobacco leaf samples (100 each for one of five tobacco plant parts) from Yunnan province in 2008 were collected using near infrared spectroscopy, which all belong to tobacco varieties of K326. The similarity analysis of tobacco plant parts was carried out using mathematical model of SIMCA similarity analysis. The conclusion showed that the tobacco plant parts similarity results based on near-infrared spectroscopy corresponded to the relative tobacco plant parts in Yunnan province. The farther two tobacco plant parts were away from each other, the lower the similarity of corresponding parts was. And the similarity results of adjacent tobacco plant parts were different. The study discussed a method of confirming PC numbers and realized the quantitative similarity analysis between classes. It is instructive in replacement or adjustment of tobacco leaf blending and evaluation of tobacco industrial grading.

  12. Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids

    Treesearch

    Thomas Larsen; D. Lee Taylor; Mary Beth Leigh; Diane M. O' Brien

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids play an important role in ecology as essential nutrients for animals and as currencies in symbiotic associations. Here we present a new approach to tracing the origins of amino acids by identifying unique patterns of carbon isotope signatures generated by amino acid synthesis in plants, fungi, and bacteria ("13C fingerprints...

  13. Identification of the plant origin of propolis from Jeju Island, Korea, by observation of honeybee behavior and phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Inui, Saori; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kurosawa, Miho; Nakamura, Jun; Choi, Su-Jin; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Propolis collected on Jeju Island, Korea, contains characteristic components not present in propolis from other regions. Hence, the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island can be expected to be a novel plant. To identify the plant origin of this propolis, first we observed honeybee behavior, and found them collecting the resin from Angelica keiskei. Then comparative analyses of chemical and biological properties of the resin from the plant and propolis from hives of nearby apiaries were performed. Alcoholic extracts showed entirely identical HPLC profiles and closely similar antioxidant activities. These results indicate that A. keiskei is the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island, Korea.

  14. Geographic and habitat origin influence biomass production and storage translocation in the clonal plant Aegopodium podagraria.

    PubMed

    D'Hertefeldt, Tina; Eneström, Johanna M; Pettersson, Lars B

    2014-01-01

    Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more (14)C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants.

  15. Geographic and Habitat Origin Influence Biomass Production and Storage Translocation in the Clonal Plant Aegopodium podagraria

    PubMed Central

    D′Hertefeldt, Tina; Eneström, Johanna M.; Pettersson, Lars B.

    2014-01-01

    Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more 14C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants. PMID:24427305

  16. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991...

  17. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  18. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  19. Part 2: Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses on protecting existing trees, planting trees in storm water treatment practices, and planting trees in other open spaces at the development site. This manual introduces conceptual designs for storm...

  20. MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH – PART I

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico – Ethno – Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 – 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

  1. Different responses of Molinia caerulea plants from three origins to CO 2 enrichment and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzaring, J.; Holz, I.; Fangmeier, A.

    2008-03-01

    The global environmental change factors eutrophication and CO 2 enrichment will affect carbon and nutrient cycling in plants and ecosystems. In order to study their interactions on plant performance, growth chamber experiments were performed with plants from three origins of the common but ecologically variable Purple Moor Grass ( Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench) grown in a bi-factorial combination of two levels of nutrients (for N: 31 or 62 kg ha -1 year -1) and CO 2 (400 or 600 μmol mol -1 CO 2). Plants were established from ramets with known start weights so that total biomass accumulation of each plant over time could be analysed. Plant phenology, leaf properties and the biomass of different fractions (inflorescences, leaves, stems and rootstocks) were investigated to identify treatment effects on plant development and allocation patterns. The few consistent responses identified in the plants were a significant increase in leaf biomass by doubling the nutrient supply and plants exposed to elevated CO 2 showing a reduced specific leaf area (SLA), an increased number of senescent leaves and increased rootstock growth. Increasing the nutrient supply had greater effects on aboveground biomass than raising the CO 2 concentrations but significant interactions between the two plant fertilisers were absent. The variable responses of the ramets to the addition of resources were largely modified by their phenology and their readiness to switch from vegetative to reproductive growth. We conclude that differences in phenology and ecological behaviour of ecotypes of the same plant species will largely affect their response to environmental change.

  2. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  3. Potential of ozone utilization for reduction of pesticide residue in food of plant origin. A review.

    PubMed

    Balawejder, Maciej; Antos, Piotr; Sadło, Stanisław

    2013-01-01

    Residues of plant protection products can be nowadays found in almost all samples of fruits as even if their application was carried out with respect to standards of Good Agricultural Practice. The intake of these compounds with food of plant origin may result in various disorders and diseases. Since the use of plant protection agents seems unavoidable, it is necessary to treat contaminated food material to eliminate or reduce residues content within food products. Ozone is utilized for elimination of biological and chemical contaminants in various environmental matrixes. Since its utilization in food industry has been permitted many experiments were conducted in order to determine its efficiency and side effects on food quality. The goal of this paper is to contribute to a discussion on the ozonization as a process leading to reduction of pesticide residues on plant surface.

  4. Origins of native vascular plants of Antarctica: comments from a historical phytogeography viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Mosyakin, S L; Bezusko, L G; Mosyakin, A S

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the problem of origin of the only native vascular plants of Antarctica, Deschampsia antartica (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae), from the viewpoint of modern historical phytogeography and related fields of science. Some authors suggested the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica, while others favour their recent Holocene immigration. Direct data (fossil or molecular genetic ones) for solving this controversy is still lacking. However, there is no convincing evidence supporting the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica. Most probably D. antarctica and C. quitensis migrated to Antarctica in the Holocene or Late Pleistocene (last interglacial?) through bird-aided long-distance dispersal. It should be critically tested by (1) appropriate methods of molecular phylogeography, (2) molecular clock methods, if feasible, (3) direct paleobotanical studies, (4) paleoclimatic reconstructions, and (5) comparison with cases of taxa with similar distribution/dispersal patterns. The problem of the origin of Antarctic vascular plants is a perfect model for integration of modern methods of molecular phylogeography and phylogenetics, population biology, paleobiology and paleogeography for solving a long-standing enigma of historical plant geography and evolution.

  5. Tracing the origin and evolution of plant TIR-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Pang, Hui; Li, Mimi; Chen, Jianqun; Hang, Yueyu

    2014-08-10

    Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-encoding proteins represent one of the most important families of disease resistance genes in plants. Studies that have explored the functional details of these genes tended to focus on only a few limited groups; the origin and evolutionary history of these genes were therefore unclear. In this study, focusing on the four principal groups of TIR-encoding genes, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of 32 fully sequenced plant genomes and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the gymnosperm Pinus taeda and explored the origins and evolution of these genes. Through the identification of the TIR-encoding genes, the analysis of chromosome positions, the identification and analysis of conserved motifs, and sequence alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction, our results showed that the genes of the TIR-X family (TXs) had an earlier origin and a wider distribution than the genes from the other three groups. TIR-encoding genes experienced large-scale gene duplications during evolution. A skeleton motif pattern of the TIR domain was present in all spermatophytes, and the genes with this skeleton pattern exhibited a conserved and independent evolutionary history in all spermatophytes, including monocots, that followed their gymnosperm origin. This study used comparative genomics to explore the origin and evolutionary history of the four main groups of TIR-encoding genes. Additionally, we unraveled the mechanism behind the uneven distribution of TIR-encoding genes in dicots and monocots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273...

  7. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants S... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. S Appendix S to Part 50—Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants... nuclear power plant structures, systems, and components important to safety to withstand the effects...

  13. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands What This Subpart Covers § 63.9290 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands What This Subpart Covers § 63.9290 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart applies to... cells/stands do not have to meet the requirements of this subpart but may have to meet the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart... category would require an initial notification. (5) Combustion turbine engine test cells/stands do not...

  17. Perspective: the origin of flowering plants and their reproductive biology--a tale of two phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W E; Floyd, S K

    2001-02-01

    Recently, two areas of plant phylogeny have developed in ways that could not have been anticipated, even a few years ago. Among extant seed plants, new phylogenetic hypotheses suggest that Gnetales, a group of nonflowering seed plants widely hypothesized to be the closest extant relatives of angiosperms, may be less closely related to angiosperms than was believed. In addition, recent phylogenetic analyses of angiosperms have, for the first time, clearly identified the earliest lineages of flowering plants: Amborella, Nymphaeales, and a clade that includes Illiciales/ Trimeniaceae/Austrobaileyaceae. Together, the new seed plant and angiosperm phylogenetic hypotheses have major implications for interpretation of homology and character evolution associated with the origin and early history of flowering plants. As an example of the complex and often unpredictable interplay of phylogenetic and comparative biology, we analyze the evolution of double fertilization, a process that forms a diploid embryo and a triploid endosperm, the embryo-nourishing tissue unique to flowering plants. We demonstrate how the new phylogenetic hypotheses for seed plants and angiosperms can significantly alter previous interpretations of evolutionary homology and firmly entrenched assumptions about what is synapomorphic of flowering plants. In the case of endosperm, a solution to the century-old question of its potential homology with an embryo or a female gametophyte (the haploid egg-producing generation within the life cycle of a seed plant) remains complex and elusive. Too little is known of the comparative reproductive biology of extant nonflowering seed plants (Gnetales, conifers, cycads, and Ginkgo) to analyze definitively the potential homology of endosperm with antecedent structures. Remarkably, the new angiosperm phylogenies reveal that a second fertilization event to yield a biparental endosperm, long assumed to be an important synapomorphy of flowering plants, cannot be

  18. Revisiting the origin and diversification of vascular plants through a comprehensive Bayesian analysis of the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, Daniele; Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Bacon, Christine D; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    Plants have a long evolutionary history, during which mass extinction events dramatically affected Earth's ecosystems and its biodiversity. The fossil record can shed light on the diversification dynamics of plant life and reveal how changes in the origination-extinction balance have contributed to shaping the current flora. We use a novel Bayesian approach to estimate origination and extinction rates in plants throughout their history. We focus on the effect of the 'Big Five' mass extinctions and on estimating the timing of origin of vascular plants, seed plants and angiosperms. Our analyses show that plant diversification is characterized by several shifts in origination and extinction rates, often matching the most important geological boundaries. The estimated origin of major plant clades predates the oldest macrofossils when considering the uncertainties associated with the fossil record and the preservation process. Our findings show that the commonly recognized mass extinctions have affected each plant group differently and that phases of high extinction often coincided with major floral turnovers. For instance, after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary we infer negligible shifts in diversification of nonflowering seed plants, but find significantly decreased extinction in spore-bearing plants and increased origination rates in angiosperms, contributing to their current ecological and evolutionary dominance.

  19. Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants.

    PubMed

    Price, Dana C; Chan, Cheong Xin; Yoon, Hwan Su; Yang, Eun Chan; Qiu, Huan; Weber, Andreas P M; Schwacke, Rainer; Gross, Jeferson; Blouin, Nicolas A; Lane, Chris; Reyes-Prieto, Adrián; Durnford, Dion G; Neilson, Jonathan A D; Lang, B Franz; Burger, Gertraud; Steiner, Jürgen M; Löffelhardt, Wolfgang; Meuser, Jonathan E; Posewitz, Matthew C; Ball, Steven; Arias, Maria Cecilia; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro M; Rensing, Stefan A; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Green, Beverley R; Rajah, Veeran D; Boore, Jeffrey; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2012-02-17

    The primary endosymbiotic origin of the plastid in eukaryotes more than 1 billion years ago led to the evolution of algae and plants. We analyzed draft genome and transcriptome data from the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa and provide evidence for a single origin of the primary plastid in the eukaryote supergroup Plantae. C. paradoxa retains ancestral features of starch biosynthesis, fermentation, and plastid protein translocation common to plants and algae but lacks typical eukaryotic light-harvesting complex proteins. Traces of an ancient link to parasites such as Chlamydiae were found in the genomes of C. paradoxa and other Plantae. Apparently, Chlamydia-like bacteria donated genes that allow export of photosynthate from the plastid and its polymerization into storage polysaccharide in the cytosol.

  20. Effective Medicinal Plant in Cancer Treatment, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Kooti, Wesam; Servatyari, Karo; Behzadifar, Masoud; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Nouri, Bijan; Zare Marzouni, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases. With due attention to rapid progress in the phytochemical study of plants, they are becoming popular because of their anticancer effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effective medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer and study their mechanism of action. In order to gather information the keywords "traditional medicine," "plant compounds," "medicinal plant," "medicinal herb," "toxicity," "anticancer effect," "cell line," and "treatment" were searched in international databases such as ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Scopus and national databases such as Magiran, Sid, and Iranmedex, and a total of 228 articles were collected. In this phase, 49 nonrelevant articles were excluded. Enhancement P53 protein expression, reducing the expression of proteins P27, P21, NFκB expression and induction of apoptosis, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway, and reduction of the level of acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation are the most effective mechanisms of herbal plants that can inhibit cell cycle and proliferation. Common treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy can cause some complications. According to results of this study, herbal extracts have antioxidant compounds that can induce apoptosis and inhibit cell proliferation by the investigated mechanisms.

  1. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain: from the origins to our days and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, José-Pío

    2009-01-01

    The origins of modern Plant Developmental Biology in Spain can be traced back to a handful of scientists settled in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla, who devoted themselves to plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and also to Drosophila developmental biology, which influenced, often unintentionally, the pioneers of this field. To reach the present day situation, the experience acquired in centres abroad has also been important, especially in plant research institutes in the USA, Germany (Max-Planck Institute für Züchtungsforschung) and United Kingdom (John Innes Centre). The contributions of Spanish scientists to the advancement of Plant Developmental Biology appears to be imbalanced towards reproductive biology, although relevant publications have also been reported on embryogenesis and seed development, shoot branching, tuberization, vascular morphogenesis, leaf development, regulation of development by light, signal transduction and hormone action and the connection between growth and development. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain is going through a flourishing time, with its future being highly dependent on i) appropriate funding conditions to its young scientists, ii) the opening of new areas of research, iii) the incorporation of technological breakthroughs into laboratories and iv) the carrying out of cooperative research by means of networking. Currently, besides many Departments of the Spanish universities, several centres in which competitive research in plant Developmental Biology can be accomplished, exist: the CNB and CBGP in Madrid, the LGMV CSIC-IRTA in Barcelona, the IBMCP CSIC-UPV, in Valencia and the IBVF CSIC-USE in Sevilla. Let's go for more!

  2. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control methods...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control methods...

  4. "Out of pollen" hypothesis for origin of new genes in flowering plants: study from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Wang, Xin; Li, Yan; Zeng, Lin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-09-17

    New genes, which provide material for evolutionary innovation, have been extensively studied for many years in animals where it is observed that they commonly show an expression bias for the testis. Thus, the testis is a major source for the generation of new genes in animals. The source tissue for new genes in plants is unclear. Here, we find that new genes in plants show a bias in expression to mature pollen, and are also enriched in a gene coexpression module that correlates with mature pollen in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transposable elements are significantly enriched in the new genes, and the high activity of transposable elements in the vegetative nucleus, compared with the germ cells, suggests that new genes are most easily generated in the vegetative nucleus in the mature pollen. We propose an "out of pollen" hypothesis for the origin of new genes in flowering plants.

  5. [Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.

  6. Origins.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, S

    1985-10-04

    The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the origin of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the origins of the physical laws that govern the universe.

  7. Carbohydrate structure database merged from bacterial, archaeal, plant and fungal parts

    PubMed Central

    Toukach, Philip V.; Egorova, Ksenia S.

    2016-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, http://csdb.glycoscience.ru) store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998). CSDB is regularly updated via manual expert annotation of original publications. Both newly annotated data and data imported from other databases are manually curated. The CSDB data are exportable in a number of modern formats, such as GlycoRDF. CSDB provides additional services for simulation of 1H, 13C and 2D NMR spectra of saccharides, NMR-based structure prediction, glycan-based taxon clustering and other. PMID:26286194

  8. Carbohydrate structure database merged from bacterial, archaeal, plant and fungal parts.

    PubMed

    Toukach, Philip V; Egorova, Ksenia S

    2016-01-04

    The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, http://csdb.glycoscience.ru) store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998). CSDB is regularly updated via manual expert annotation of original publications. Both newly annotated data and data imported from other databases are manually curated. The CSDB data are exportable in a number of modern formats, such as GlycoRDF. CSDB provides additional services for simulation of (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectra of saccharides, NMR-based structure prediction, glycan-based taxon clustering and other.

  9. Distribution of 15N Among Plant Parts of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Isolines of Soybeans 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Kohl, Daniel H.; Harper, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Differences among plant parts in the natural abundance of 15N are of interest from the point of view of developing a sampling strategy for using 15N measurements to estimate the contribution of symbiotically fixed N to N2 fixing plants, and because they reflect isotopic fractionation associated with degradation, transport, and resynthesis of N-bearing molecules. This paper reports such differences in nodulating and nonnodulating isolines of soybeans (Glycine max [L] (Merrill, variety Harosoy)) grown under several different conditions. Nodules were strikingly enriched in 15N compared to other plant parts (by an average of 8.3‰ excess 15N), and the enrichment increased with time during the growing season. 15N was much more uniformly distributed among other plant parts. Although there were significant differences among other plant parts, the maximum deviation of the 15N abundance of any plant part from that of the entire plant was about 2‰ 15N excess. The 15N abundance of the seed N was most representative of the whole plant. There were significant differences between isolines in the distribution of 15N. The distribution of 15N within plants also varied with experimental conditions. The implications of these results for estimation of N2 fixation from measurements of the natural abundance of 15N are discussed. PMID:16661393

  10. [Probe excavations about using gene chip to identify original plants in Chinese pharmacopoeia based on NCBI sequence database].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-jin; Zhang, Jian-yong; Nie, Xu-qiang; Yao, Xiao-dong; Kuang, Ju-xiang; Yang, Jian-wen

    2014-11-01

    Based on the DNA fragments of medicinal plants of NCBJ database, the DNA Probe,which can be used to identify original plants in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), was got. First of all, get the Latin name of the original plants by collating the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Next,download the medicinal plants' DNA fragments from the NCBI database, including ITS, matK, rbcL, psbK-psbI and trnH-psbA, then design probe by using Array Designer 4. 2. Finally, analyze each probe's versatility in the same kind of original plant and conservatism in different kinds of original plants by using Matlab, then determine the specificity of the probe. Regarding the Latin name of 586 original plants in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition) and the above five gene fragments as retrieval condition, 7 613 sequences were downloaded from NCBI, then 315 436 probes were got in total by analyzing. What's more, after analyzing versatility and conservatism of the probes,13 814 specific probes were got. Furthermore,in theory, 376 kinds of original plants could be detected. Because there existed the lack of related gene fragments in the NCBI database,or the sequences were short of specificity,210 species of original plants which were involved in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia didn't receive the corresponding probe. The results of the study can provide the further development of medicinal plants' identification chip with vital information support,and the excavation methods of probe can be widely used. Furthermore,the results of the study indicate the original plants which need sequencing importantly in the future.

  11. Combined ESTs from plant-microbe interactions: using GC counting to determine the species of origin.

    PubMed

    Huitema, Edgar; Torto, Trudy A; Styer, Allison; Kamoun, Sophien

    2003-01-01

    A diversity of microorganisms establishes intimate associations with plants. Whether pathogenic or symbiotic, such interactions are the result of complex recognition events between plants and microbes, leading to signaling cascades and regulation of countless genes involved in the interaction. A key step in unraveling the mysteries of plant-microbe interactions lies in defining the transcriptional changes that occur in both the host and the microbe during their association. The sum of the transcripts, from both host and microbe, which are produced during their association, has been defined as the interaction transcriptome. One approach to analyze interaction transcriptomes is to perform large-scale sequencing of cDNAs (expressed sequence tags or ESTs) obtained from infected plant tissue and representing a mixture of host and microbe sequences. In some cases, the two organisms have markedly different GC content, allowing most ESTs to be easily distinguished on this basis. In this chapter, we describe a GC counting method to determine the species of origin of ESTs obtained from interactions between plants and oomycetes or other high GC content microbes.

  12. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such engines under this part. (1) A new or reconstructed stationary RICE located at an area source; (2) A...

  13. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such engines under this part....

  14. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... subpart IIII, for compression ignition engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such engines under this part. (1) A new or reconstructed...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... subpart IIII, for compression ignition engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such engines under this part. (1) A new or reconstructed...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such engines under this part. (1) A new or reconstructed stationary RICE located at an area source; (2) A...

  17. Urban Watershed Forestry Manual Part 2 Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites

    Treesearch

    Karen Cappiella; Tom Schueler; Tiffany Wright

    2006-01-01

    This manual is the second in a three-part series on using trees to protect and restore urban watersheds. A brief description of each part follows. Part 2. Conserving and Planting Trees at Development Sites presents specific ways to enable developers, engineers, or landscape architects to incorporate more trees into a development site. The proposed approach focuses...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Plastic Parts and Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4482 What parts of my plant does this subpart... plastic parts and products within each subcategory. (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.4581; (2... cleaning materials are stored or mixed; (3) All manual and automated equipment and containers used...

  19. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Metal Parts and Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.3882 What parts of my plant does this subpart... miscellaneous metal parts and products within each subcategory. (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63..., and cleaning materials are stored or mixed; (3) All manual and automated equipment and containers...

  20. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.3882 What parts of my plant does this... coating of miscellaneous metal parts and products within each subcategory. (1) All coating operations as... other additives, and cleaning materials are stored or mixed; (3) All manual and automated equipment...

  1. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  2. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M.; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039

  3. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants

    PubMed Central

    Wickett, Norman J.; Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Warnow, Tandy; Carpenter, Eric; Matasci, Naim; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Barker, Michael S.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Wafula, Eric; Graham, Sean W.; Mathews, Sarah; Melkonian, Michael; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Miles, Nicholas W.; Rothfels, Carl J.; Pokorny, Lisa; Shaw, A. Jonathan; DeGironimo, Lisa; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Surek, Barbara; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Chen, Tao; Deyholos, Michael K.; Baucom, Regina S.; Kutchan, Toni M.; Augustin, Megan M.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Yan, Zhixiang; Wu, Xiaolei; Sun, Xiao; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leebens-Mack, James

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated. PMID:25355905

  4. Genomic Insights into the Origin of Parasitism in the Emerging Plant Pathogen Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Cotton, James A.; Dalzell, Jonathan J.; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kanzaki, Natsumi; McVeigh, Paul; Takanashi, Takuma; Tsai, Isheng J.; Assefa, Samuel A.; Cock, Peter J. A.; Otto, Thomas Dan; Hunt, Martin; Reid, Adam J.; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Tsuchihara, Kazuko; Yokoi, Toshiro; Larsson, Mattias C.; Miwa, Johji; Maule, Aaron G.; Sahashi, Norio; Jones, John T.; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is the nematode responsible for a devastating epidemic of pine wilt disease in Asia and Europe, and represents a recent, independent origin of plant parasitism in nematodes, ecologically and taxonomically distinct from other nematodes for which genomic data is available. As well as being an important pathogen, the B. xylophilus genome thus provides a unique opportunity to study the evolution and mechanism of plant parasitism. Here, we present a high-quality draft genome sequence from an inbred line of B. xylophilus, and use this to investigate the biological basis of its complex ecology which combines fungal feeding, plant parasitic and insect-associated stages. We focus particularly on putative parasitism genes as well as those linked to other key biological processes and demonstrate that B. xylophilus is well endowed with RNA interference effectors, peptidergic neurotransmitters (including the first description of ins genes in a parasite) stress response and developmental genes and has a contracted set of chemosensory receptors. B. xylophilus has the largest number of digestive proteases known for any nematode and displays expanded families of lysosome pathway genes, ABC transporters and cytochrome P450 pathway genes. This expansion in digestive and detoxification proteins may reflect the unusual diversity in foods it exploits and environments it encounters during its life cycle. In addition, B. xylophilus possesses a unique complement of plant cell wall modifying proteins acquired by horizontal gene transfer, underscoring the impact of this process on the evolution of plant parasitism by nematodes. Together with the lack of proteins homologous to effectors from other plant parasitic nematodes, this confirms the distinctive molecular basis of plant parasitism in the Bursaphelenchus lineage. The genome sequence of B. xylophilus adds to the diversity of genomic data for nematodes, and will be an important resource in understanding the

  5. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Warnow, Tandy; Carpenter, Eric; Matasci, Naim; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Barker, Michael S; Burleigh, J Gordon; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Ruhfel, Brad R; Wafula, Eric; Der, Joshua P; Graham, Sean W; Mathews, Sarah; Melkonian, Michael; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Miles, Nicholas W; Rothfels, Carl J; Pokorny, Lisa; Shaw, A Jonathan; DeGironimo, Lisa; Stevenson, Dennis W; Surek, Barbara; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; dePamphilis, Claude W; Chen, Tao; Deyholos, Michael K; Baucom, Regina S; Kutchan, Toni M; Augustin, Megan M; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Yan, Zhixiang; Wu, Xiaolei; Sun, Xiao; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leebens-Mack, James

    2014-11-11

    Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated.

  6. Extensive Overlap of Tropical Rainforest Bacterial Endophytes between Soil, Plant Parts, and Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Emmanuel; Zin, Noraziah M; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Adams, Jonathan M

    2017-06-22

    The extent to which distinct bacterial endophyte communities occur between different plant organs and species is poorly known and has implications for bioprospecting efforts. Using the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we investigated the diversity patterns of bacterial endophyte communities of three rainforest plant species, comparing leaf, stem, and root endophytes plus rhizosphere soil community. There was extensive overlap in bacterial communities between plant organs, between replicate plants of the same species, between plant species, and between plant organ and rhizosphere soil, with no consistent clustering by compartment or host plant species. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis highlighted an extensively overlapping bacterial community structure, and the β-nearest taxon index (βNTI) analysis revealed dominance of stochastic processes in community assembly, suggesting that bacterial endophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were randomly distributed among plant species and organs and rhizosphere soil. Percentage turnover of OTUs within pairs of samples was similar both for plant individuals of the same species and of different species at around 80-90%. Our results suggest that sampling extra individuals, extra plant organs, extra species, or use of rhizosphere soil, might be about equally effective for obtaining new OTUs for culture. These observations suggest that the plant endophyte community may be much more diverse, but less predictable, than would be expected from culturing efforts alone.

  7. Early sexual origins of homeoprotein heterodimerization and evolution of the plant KNOX/BELL family.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lin, Huawen; Joo, Sunjoo; Goodenough, Ursula

    2008-05-30

    Developmental mechanisms that yield multicellular diversity are proving to be well conserved within lineages, generating interest in their origins in unicellular ancestors. We report that molecular regulation of the haploid-diploid transition in Chlamydomonas, a unicellular green soil alga, shares common ancestry with differentiation pathways in land plants. Two homeoproteins, Gsp1 and Gsm1, contributed by gametes of plus and minus mating types respectively, physically interact and translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus upon gametic fusion, initiating zygote development. Their ectopic expression activates zygote development in vegetative cells and, in a diploid background, the resulting zygotes undergo a normal meiosis. Gsm1/Gsp1 dyads share sequence homology with and are functionally related to KNOX/BELL dyads regulating stem-cell (meristem) specification in land plants. We propose that combinatorial homeoprotein-based transcriptional control, a core feature of the fungal/animal radiation, may have originated in a sexual context and enabled the evolution of land-plant body plans.

  8. Late Pleistocene origin of the entire circumarctic range of the arctic-alpine plant Kalmia procumbens.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hajime; Eidesen, Pernille Bronken; Yakubov, Valentin; Barkalov, Vyacheslav; Brochmann, Christian; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-08-16

    The circumarctic ranges of arctic-alpine plants are thought to have been established in the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene, when the modern arctic tundra was formed in response to climate cooling. Previous findings of range-wide genetic structure in arctic-alpine plants have been thought to support this hypothesis, but few studies have explicitly addressed the temporal framework of the genetic structure. Here, we estimated the demographic history of the genetic structure in the circumarctic Kalmia procumbens using sequences of multiple nuclear loci and examined whether its genetic structure reflects prolonged isolation throughout the Pleistocene. Both Bayesian clustering and phylogenetic analyses revealed genetic distinction between alpine and arctic regions, whereas detailed groupings were somewhat discordant between the analyses. By assuming a population grouping based on the phylogenetic analyses, which likely reflects a deeper intraspecific divergence, we conducted model-based analyses and demonstrated that the intraspecific genetic divergence in K. procumbens likely originated during the last glacial period. Thus, there is no need to postulate range separation throughout the Pleistocene to explain the current genetic structure in this species. This study demonstrates that range-wide genetic structure in arctic-alpine plants does not necessarily result from the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene origin of their circumarctic ranges and emphasizes the importance of a temporal framework of the current genetic structure for understanding the biogeographic history of the arctic flora. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessments.

    PubMed

    Carratù, Brunella; Federici, Elena; Gallo, Francesca R; Geraci, Andrea; Guidotti, Marco; Multari, Giuseppina; Palazzino, Giovanna; Sanzini, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian Ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the Ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  10. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees.

  11. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  12. The analysis of plant-based raw materials of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Wasek, Marek; Wroczyński, Piotr; Sołobodowska, Sylwia; Lal, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Chosen aspects of the safety of use of several herbs received from National Medicines Institute, which came from smuggling, have been examined. The analysis has been conducted in three different aspects: (1) Possibilities of contamination of plant-based raw materials by metals of heavy elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb). (2) Conscious smuggling of intoxicating preparation or narcotics in plant-based raw materials. (3) Radioactive contamination originating mostly from 137Cs isotope. To solve the problem, analytical methods of GFAAS and ICP-MS, X-ray diffraction and high-distributive spectrometry of gamma-radiation have been applied. Determined concentration of arsenic in all analyzed samples and the concentration of lead in one sample exceeded allowable concentration recommended by WHO. In analyzed materials, no presence of narcotics or radioactive contamination of 137Cs isotope has been detected.

  13. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Introduction to Aphids - Part 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides visual instruction on important subject areas for aphid examination and identification. Aphid topics such as classification, morphology, plant disease transmission, and references are discussed. This dis...

  14. Does the Data Resolution/origin Matter? Satellite, Airborne and Uav Imagery to Tackle Plant Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Dvořák, Petr; Bartaloš, Tomáš; Vítková, Michaela

    2016-06-01

    Invasive plant species represent a serious threat to biodiversity and landscape as well as human health and socio-economy. To successfully fight plant invasions, new methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring, such as remote sensing, are needed. In an ongoing project, optical remote sensing (RS) data of different origin (satellite, aerial and UAV), spectral (panchromatic, multispectral and color), spatial (very high to medium) and temporal resolution, and various technical approaches (object-, pixelbased and combined) are tested to choose the best strategies for monitoring of four invasive plant species (giant hogweed, black locust, tree of heaven and exotic knotweeds). In our study, we address trade-offs between spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions required for balance between the precision of detection and economic feasibility. For the best results, it is necessary to choose best combination of spatial and spectral resolution and phenological stage of the plant in focus. For species forming distinct inflorescences such as giant hogweed iterative semi-automated object-oriented approach was successfully applied even for low spectral resolution data (if pixel size was sufficient) whereas for lower spatial resolution satellite imagery or less distinct species with complicated architecture such as knotweed, combination of pixel and object based approaches was used. High accuracies achieved for very high resolution data indicate the possible application of described methodology for monitoring invasions and their long-term dynamics elsewhere, making management measures comparably precise, fast and efficient. This knowledge serves as a basis for prediction, monitoring and prioritization of management targets.

  15. Satellite RNA pathogens of plants: impacts and origins-an RNA silencing perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Bo; Smith, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    Viral satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are among the smallest RNA pathogens in plants. They have little or no protein-coding capacity but can have a major impact on the host plants through trilateral interactions with helper viruses and host plants. Studies around the 1980s revealed much of what we know about satRNAs: they can affect helper virus accumulation, modulate helper virus-induced disease symptoms, and induce their own symptoms with the assistance of helper viruses which depend on specific nucleotide sequences of their genome and host species. The molecular basis of these satRNA-caused impacts and the origin of satRNAs have yet to be fully understood and revealed, but recent understanding of the antiviral RNA silencing pathways and advancement in RNA and DNA sequencing technologies have provided new avenues and opportunities to examine these unanswered questions. These RNA silencing-based studies have revealed the existence of cross silencing between some satRNAs and helper viruses, the downregulation of helper virus-encoded suppressor (VSR) of RNA silencing or inhibition/enhancement of VSR activity by satRNAs, the silencing of host-encoded genes by satRNA-derived small interfering RNA (siRNAs), and the presence of satRNA-like small RNAs in uninfected host plants. These findings have provided alternative RNA silencing-based models to explain the pathogenicity and origin of satRNAs. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:5-16. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1311 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Unresolved problems on the origin and early evolution of land plants.

    PubMed

    Bennici, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The origin of land plants or embryophytes from the Charophyceae is generally accepted today by the botanists. In fact, numerous morphological, cytological, ultrastructural, biochemical and molecular characters are shared in these organisms. A fundamental problem is still constituted by the evolution of the sporophyte, i.e. the appearance of two different phase cycles (gametophyte/sporophyte alternance), although two theories ("antithetic" and "homologous") try to explain this evolutionary event.However, another phylogenetic dilemma is represented, in my opinion, either by the formation of bryophytes or by the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes, considering them at whole organism level. The bryophyte gametophyte is the most elaborate of the land plants. It presents several complex characters, principally the growth developmental form, the appearance of multicellular sex organs, antheridia and archegonia. Also the sporophyte shows a complicated structure that is not found in the other land plants or tracheophytes. The sporangium, in particular, exhibits some intricate morphological traits such as the peristome of true mosses for spore dispersion, the elaters of liverworts and the indeterminate growth in the hornworts. The pteridophytes are represented especially by their dominant sporophyte. This latter has the capacity to produce multiple sporangia and, in many cases, two kinds of spores which develop in male and female gametophyte (heterosporous pteridophytes). Another important characteristic of this sporophyte is its ability to become independent of the gametophyte. However, one of the most innovative character is the formation of true vascular elements (xylem and phloem). All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualistic neo-Darwinian theory and the punctuated equilibrium theory of Eldredge and Gould. In this context other genetic evolutionary mechanisms are also considered.Nevertheless, the

  17. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  18. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  19. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing... subpart apply to each new and existing portland cement plant which is a major source or an area source as... this part; (2) Each clinker cooler at any portland cement plant; (3) Each raw mill at any portland...

  1. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing... subpart apply to each new and existing portland cement plant which is a major source or an area source as... this part; (2) Each clinker cooler at any portland cement plant; (3) Each raw mill at any portland...

  2. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement... this subpart apply to each new and existing portland cement plant which is a major source or an area... to and regulated under subpart EEE of this part; (2) Each clinker cooler at any portland cement plant...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement... this subpart apply to each new and existing portland cement plant which is a major source or an area... to and regulated under subpart EEE of this part; (2) Each clinker cooler at any portland cement plant...

  4. Camden Cogeneration Plant, Order Granting In Part and Denying In Part Petition for Objection to Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Order Granting in Part and Denying in Part Petition for Objection to Permit for WE Energies Oak Creek Power Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. [Family models and mental anorexia. Part I. Patterns in patient's family origin].

    PubMed

    Józefik, B

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents family models which associate the development of anorexia nervosa with the specific functioning of the patient's family of origin. The described conceptions are based on systems theory which assumes circular conception of family relations. This allows for avoiding one-sidedness of approach, i.e. perceiving a patient as a victim of the family system. In fact, these models emphasize the patient's part in the specific "game" taking place within the family. The conceptions indicate a number of characteristic patterns of relations between the patient's parents as a married couple as well as between the patient and her parents, which, in the period of adolescence become the source of a crisis that assumes the form of anorexia nervosa. The presented approach, focussed on an analysis of family relations, does not question the importance of other aetiological factors. It only points out that the dynamics of mutual relations within a family is an important mechanism influencing the development of the patient's identification and her psychosexual role as well as the course of the separation/individuation process. These aspects seem pivotal for understanding and treatment of anorexia nervosa.

  7. Comprehensive database of Manufactured Gas Plant tars. Part A. Database.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, Christopher; Thomas, Russell; Lord, Richard; Kalin, Robert M; Taylor, Chris

    2017-08-15

    Coal tars are a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds that were by-products from the manufactured gas and coke making industries. Different manufacturing processes have resulted in the production of distinctly different tar compositions. This study presents a comprehensive database of compounds produced using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS), analysing 16 tar samples produced by five distinct production processes. Samples of coal tar were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and derivatised post-extraction using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The derivatised samples were analysed using two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS). A total of 16 tar samples originating from five different production processes: Low Temperature Horizontal Retorts, Horizontal Retorts, Vertical Retorts, Carbureted Water Gas and Coke Ovens, were analysed. A total of 2369 unique compounds were detected with 948 aromatic compounds, 196 aliphatic compounds, 380 sulfur-containing compounds, 209 oxygen-containing compounds, 262 nitrogen-containing compounds and 15 mixed heterocycles. Derivatisation allowed the detection of 359 unique compounds, the majority in the form of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, many of which would not have been detected without derivatisation. Of the 2369 unique compounds detected, 173 were found to be present within all samples. A unique comprehensive database of compounds detected within 16 tar samples from five different production processes was produced. The 173 compounds identified within every sample may be of particular importance from a regulatory standpoint. This initial study indicates that different production processes produce tars with different chemical signatures and it can be further expanded upon by in-depth analysis of the different compound

  8. Impact of drought on plant populations of native and invasive origins.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Weissinger, Lisa; Müller, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Invasive populations often shift phenotypically during introduction. Moreover, they are postulated to show an increased phenotypic plasticity compared with their native counterparts, which could be advantageous. However, less is known about trait selection across populations along the invasion gradient in response to environmental factors, such as increasing drought caused by climate change. In this study, we investigated the impacts of drought on growth, regrowth, and various leaf traits in plants of different origin. Therefore, seeds of 18 populations of the perennial Tanacetum vulgare were collected along the invasion gradient (North America, invasive; West Europe, archaeophyte; East Europe, native) and grown in competition with the grass Poa pratensis under control or dry conditions in a common garden. Above-ground biomass was cut once and the regrowth was measured as an indicator for tolerance over a second growth period. Initially, drought had little effects on growth of T. vulgare, but after cutting, plants grew more vigorously. Against expectations, phenotypic plasticity was not higher in invasive populations, but even reduced in one trait, which may be attributable to ecological constraints imposed by multiple stress conditions. Trait responses reflected the range expansion and invasion gradient and were influenced by the latitudinal origin of populations. Populations of invaded ranges may be subject to faster and more extensive genetic mixing or had less time to undergo and reflect selective processes.

  9. Health and environmental impacts of a fertilizer plant--Part I: assessment of radioactive pollution.

    PubMed

    Righi, Serena; Lucialli, Patrizia; Bruzzi, Luigi

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this investigation is to assess the radioactive pollution caused by a production plant of complex fertilizers (that is to say containing nitrogen, phosphorus and, in some cases, potassium). Firstly, the authors determine the concentrations of natural radioactivity present in raw materials, end products and wastes of the industrial plant. Then, they carry out an assessment of radioactive releases into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere as well as of their significance from the environmental point of view. The second part of the investigation will be aimed at assessing the annual effective doses to plant workers and to members of the population surrounding the industrial site.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA FOR THE CERTIFICATION AND RE-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4482 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of plastic parts and products... and mixing vessels in which coatings, thinners and/or other additives, and cleaning materials...

  15. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Legislative Authority A Appendix A to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part 273... Stat. 1092) states as follows: Sec. 302(a) There is hereby authorized a comprehensive program...

  16. Ruderal plants in remaining Cerrado areas: floristic survey, origin and mycorrhization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Neto, Maria; de Cássia Brassaloti Otsubo, Helena; Luciene Maltoni, Kátia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    The urbanization process creates new ecosystems that harbor flora which has specialized in living in anthropogenically altered environments, since the advent of agriculture and urbanization. Plant specialization in new ecosystems has been due to accelerated population growth and extensive occupied spaces on the planet surface. This study was looking at the floristic survey and origin, as well as arbuscular mycorrhization of ruderal plants, in remaining Cerrado areas in the city of Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil. It was also to expand knowledge about native and introduced vegetation in anthropogenic environments. The survey was conducted for a year. From all species ruderal plants founded, plants from 49 species were collected with the purpose of this study and report the occurrence or not of AM colonization, by classifying root colonization, of the species as: very high; high; medium; low and absent when presented a index of colonization> 80%, 79-50%, 49-20%, 19-1% and 0%, respectively. Two hundred sixty-six species, distributed into 53 botanical families were found. The flora of Três Lagoas-MS is composed of native and exotic plants (82.72% from the Americas and 17.28% from the Old World and Australia). There were 220 species native to the America's, but the largest amount (60.45%) were Brazil native growing plants. Smaller percentage of this (28.63%) was found to come from the cerrado, which indicates that the ruderal vegetation was well represented by native species. Of the 49 species chosen for verification of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, 27 exhibited very high colonization; two were high; two were medium; eleven were low and seven species showed no mycorrhizal colonization, leading to the conclusion that most ruderal plants showed mycorrhizal colonization. The soil fertility, for both area, were considered higher than the typical cerrado, and by the average number of AMF spores (152 per 100 g of dry soil-1) may not even be considered degraded. This urban

  17. Introduction and synthesis: Plant phylogeny and the origin of major biomes.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, R Toby; Cronk, Quentin C B; Richardson, James A

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees based upon DNA sequence data, when calibrated with a dimension of time, allow inference of: (i) the pattern of accumulation of lineages through time; (ii) the time of origin of monophyletic groups; (iii) when lineages arrived in different geographical areas; (iv) the time of origin of biome-specific morphologies. This gives a powerful new view of the history of biomes that in many cases is not provided by the incomplete plant fossil record. Dated plant phylogenies for angiosperm families such as Leguminoaceae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae sensu stricto, Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae indicate that long-distance, transoceanic dispersal has played an important role in shaping their distributions, and that this can obscure any effect of tectonic history, previously assumed to have been the major cause of their biogeographic patterns. Dispersal from other continents has also been important in the assembly of the Amazonian rainforest flora and the Australian flora. Comparison of dated biogeographic patterns of plants and animals suggests that recent long-distance dispersal might be more prevalent in plants, which has major implications for community assembly and coevolution. Dated plant phylogenies also reveal the role of past environmental changes on the evolution of lineages in species-rich biomes, and show that recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification has contributed substantially to their current species richness. Because of the critical role of fossils and morphological characters in assigning ages to nodes in phylogenetic trees, future studies must include careful morphological consideration of fossils and their extant relatives in a phylogenetic context. Ideal study systems will be based upon DNA sequence data from multiple loci and multiple fossil calibrations. This allows cross-validation both of age estimates from different loci, and from different fossil calibrations. For a more complete view of biome history, future studies should emphasize full

  18. [Biologically active substances of plant origin. Flavonols and flavones: prevalence, dietary sourses and consumption].

    PubMed

    Tutel'ian, V A; Lashneva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are the most numerous group of natural polyphenolic compounds, the secondary metabolites of plants that may play an important role in human health protection. Flavonols and flavones constitute the main two classes of flavonoids, whose antioxidant properties and high biological activity have been proofed both in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes data, concerning the structure, occurrence and content of the main flavonols (quercetin, kaempherol, myricetin, isorhamnetin) and flavones (apigenin, luteolin) in some most widely consumed foodstuffs, including vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, beverages and other products of plant origin. The products with high content of these biologically active food compounds--the major dietary sources of them--are noted. Forms of flavonols and flavones more often distributed among edible plants are characterized and some of their known glycosides occurred in foods are enumerated. Some peculiarities, characteristic to flavonol sand flavones glycosilation (O- and/or C-glycosides formation) are described. The data for flavonol and flavone glycosides composition (profiles) of some commonly consumed commodities rich by these flavonoids (onions, cabbage, apples at al.) are shown. Information about levels of daily dietary intake of total and individual flavonols and flavones in several countries is presented. The questions about dietary habits and lifestyle factors and the contribution of certain foods to flavonols and flavones in daily dietary consumption values are also discussed.

  19. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I.; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world. PMID:26989640

  20. Phytochemistry, Bioactivity and Potential Impact on Health of Juglans: the Original Plant of Walnut.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dongdong; Zhao, Yicheng; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Tian, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; She, Gaimei

    2016-06-01

    Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes. The diarylheptanoids and quinones have notable antitumor activity, supplying new lead compounds for preparing antitumor drugs. The potent pain-relieving, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities of these plants are significant. In the review, comprehensive information on the nutritional characteristics, traditional functions, chemical constituents, and biological activities of the Juglans species, together with the seeds used as walnuts is provided to explore their potential and to advance research.

  1. Origin and Evolution of The Early- Silurian Land Vascular Plants: Evidence From Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, R.

    2016-12-01

    Origin and early evolution of land vascular plants, is one of the most intriguing hotspots in the life science research. During the 1970s and 1980s,Pinnatiramosus qianensis was found in early-Silurian strata in guizhou of south China.43 years have passed. But so far, the biological characteristics and belonging of the age of this unique plant have been debated again and again, up in the air.Biomarkers have a good stability in the process of organic evolution, no more or less changed, so they have a special `function of mark'. While biomarkers can provide information about organic matter of hydrocarbon source rock (the source), the period of deposition and burial (diagenesis) environmental conditions, and many other aspects of information.This paper obtained the sedimentary environment, source of organic matter input and other relevant information, through extracting and analyzing biomarkers of the 26 samples in the late Ordovician to early Silurian strata in NorthGuizhou areas. According to the results, Pr/Ph of late Ordovician Meitan Fm-early Silurian Hanjiadian Fm is high.It manifests more pristane, characterized by reductive environment. At the bottom of the Hanjiadian Fm, Pr/Ph has a volatility.Some huge environmental changes may have taken place in the corresponding period. N-alkanes do not have parity advantage or has even carbon advantage slightly.The peak carbon is mainly in low carbon number.(C21 + C22)/(C28 + C29) is high.Aquatic organisms is a major source of organic matter during this period,C21-/C22+ is low.This may be caused by the relatively serious loss of light hydrocarbon during the separation of components. In the Hanjiadian Fm,information of C29/C27 sterane ratios and oleanane index showed a trend of rising at the same time, indicating that during this period, there was a gradual increase input in the number of higher plants.The stable carbon isotope of saturated hydrocarbon and aromatic hydrocarbon in the Hanjiadian Fm also gradually become

  2. Plant parts substitution based approach as a viable conservation strategy for medicinal plants: A case study of Premna latifolia Roxb.

    PubMed

    Jena, Ashish Kumar; Karan, Maninder; Vasisht, Karan

    Rapid population growth and catastrophic harvesting methods of wild medicinal plants especially trees, result in the exploitation of natural sources and its management is the need of the hour. Dashamoolarishta is an amalgam of roots of ten plants of a popular Ayurvedic FDC formulation consisting of the root of Premna latifolia Roxb. as one of its ingredients. Presently, their populations like many other trees are under threat due to extensive use of the roots by the herbal drug industry. With an aim to conserve the biodiversity, a systematic study based on a rational approach by substituting root/root bark with alternative and renewable parts was conducted. The fingerprint profile together with anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of different parts of the plant was established for comparison. The results based on chemical and biological study indicated close similarity between the roots and the leaves and suggest the possible use of latter over root/root bark. The study proposes that the substitution of the root with alternate renewable parts of the same plant shall form the best strategy towards conservation of the trees like P. latifolia. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Salmonellae in food stuffs of plant origin and their implications on human health.

    PubMed

    Krtinić, G; Durić, P; Ilić, S

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella enterica is one of the most common causes of food-borne infection in human beings. Cases of Salmonella infection have been decreasing in Europe in the last ten years, yet, Salmonella infections are still the main cause of acute diarrhea syndrome. Globalization has caused the international food industry to increase the production of collective nutrition produce and products. This has intensified the need for authorized and accredited laboratories to monitor microbiological food safety. All parameters indicate the necessity of a multi-sector approach to this problem. Food safety supervision involves the analysis and identification of risk management, as well as the monitoring, evaluating, and regulating of crop irrigation. We can be more certain with a multi-sector approach that the number of Salmonella infections caused by plant-originated food stuffs will not increase in the future.

  4. Evolutionary origins of a novel host plant detoxification gene in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Hanna M; Wheat, Christopher W; Heckel, David G; Vogel, Heiko

    2008-05-01

    Chemical interactions between plants and their insect herbivores provide an excellent opportunity to study the evolution of species interactions on a molecular level. Here, we investigate the molecular evolutionary events that gave rise to a novel detoxifying enzyme (nitrile-specifier protein [NSP]) in the butterfly family Pieridae, previously identified as a coevolutionary key innovation. By generating and sequencing expressed sequence tags, genomic libraries, and screening databases we found NSP to be a member of an insect-specific gene family, which we characterized and named the NSP-like gene family. Members consist of variable tandem repeats, are gut expressed, and are found across Insecta evolving in a dynamic, ongoing birth-death process. In the Lepidoptera, multiple copies of single-domain major allergen genes are present and originate via tandem duplications. Multiple domain genes are found solely within the brassicaceous-feeding Pieridae butterflies, one of them being NSP and another called major allergen (MA). Analyses suggest that NSP and its paralog MA have a unique single-domain evolutionary origin, being formed by intragenic domain duplication followed by tandem whole-gene duplication. Duplicates subsequently experienced a period of relaxed constraint followed by an increase in constraint, perhaps after neofunctionalization. NSP and its ortholog MA are still experiencing high rates of change, reflecting a dynamic evolution consistent with the known role of NSP in plant-insect interactions. Our results provide direct evidence to the hypothesis that gene duplication is one of the driving forces for speciation and adaptation, showing that both within- and whole-gene tandem duplications are a powerful force underlying evolutionary adaptation.

  5. Phenylpropanoids of plant origin as inhibitors of biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Shinde, Ravikumar Bapurao; Chauhan, Nitin Mahendra; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2014-09-01

    Biofilm-related infections of Candida albicans are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, especially those with immunocompromised status. Options of the antifungal drugs available for successful treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are very few, and as such, new strategies need to be explored against them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phenylpropanoids of plant origin against planktonic cells, important virulence factors, and biofilm forms of C. albicans. Standard susceptibility testing protocol was used to evaluate the activities of 13 phenylpropanoids against planktonic growth. Their effects on adhesion and yeast-to-hyphae morphogenesis were studied in microplate-based methodologies. An in vitro biofilm model analyzed the phenylpropanoid-mediated prevention of biofilm development and mature biofilms using XTT-metabolic assay, crystal violet assay, and light microscopy. Six molecules exhibited fungistatic activity at ≤0.5 mg/ml, of which four were fungicidal at low concentrations. Seven phenylpropanoids inhibited yeast-to-hyphae transition at low concentrations (0.031-0.5 mg/ml), whereas adhesion to the solid substrate was prevented in the range of 0.5-2 mg/ml. Treatment with ≤0.5 mg/ml concentrations of at least six small molecules resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation by C. albicans. Mature biofilms that are highly resistant to antifungal drugs were susceptible to low concentrations of 4 of the 13 molecules. This study revealed phenylpropanoids of plant origin as promising candidates to devise preventive strategies against drug-resistant biofilms of C. albicans.

  6. Characterization of the origin recognition complex (ORC) from a higher plant, rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoko; Yamamoto, Taichi; Sakaguchi, Norihiro; Ishibashi, Toyotaka; Furukawa, Tomoyuki; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Junji; Kimura, Seisuke; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2005-06-20

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) protein plays a critical role in DNA replication through binding to sites (origins) where replication commences. The protein is composed of six subunits (ORC1 to 6) in animals and yeasts. Our knowledge of the ORC protein in plants is, however, much less complete. We have performed cDNA cloning and characterization of ORC subunits in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) in order to facilitate study of plant DNA replication mechanisms. Our previous report provided a description of a gene, ORC1 (OsORC1), that encodes one of the protein subunits. The present report extends this initial analysis to include the genes that encode four other rice ORC subunits, OsORC2, 3, 4 and 5. Northern hybridization analyses demonstrated the presence of abundant transcripts for all OsORC subunits in shoot apical meristems (SAM) and cultured cells, but not in mature leaves. Interestingly, only OsORC5 showed high levels of expression in organs in which cell proliferation is not active, such as flag leaves, the ears and the non-tip roots. The pattern of expression of OsORC2 also differed from other OsORC subunits. When cell proliferation was temporarily halted for 6-10 days by removal of sucrose from the growth medium, expression of OsORC1, OsORC3, OsORC4 and OsORC5 was substantially reduced. However, the level of expression of OsORC2 remained constant. We suggest from these results that expression of OsORC1, 3, 4 and 5 are correlated with cell proliferation, but the expression of OsORC2 is not.

  7. Difference of ITS sequences of Akebia plants growing in various parts of Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Fumiyo; Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Long, Changfeng; Itoga, Mai; Yoshimatsu, Hideki; Mitsue, Akihiro; Atsumi, Toshiyuki; Mouri, Chika; Mikage, Masayuki

    2009-07-01

    The stem of the Akebia plant, "Mokutsu", is a crude diuretic and antiphlogistic drug. Japanese products prepared from wild Akebia plants cover most of the Mokutsu market. Two Akebia plants, Akebia quinata Decaisne (Aq) and A. trifoliata Koidzumi (At) of Lardizabalaceae, are standardized as Mokutsu in Japanese pharmacopoeia. These two Akebia plants along with A. x pentaphylla Makino (Ap), which is considered a hybrid with the morphology of Aq and At, can be distinguished by DNA sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS) of nuclear ribosome DNA. Here, we report the results of molecular genetic analysis of Akebia plants grown in various wild habitats in Japan. We found that each of three Akebia plants could be distinguished in terms of their locality according to their nucleotide sequence in ITS, specifically at positions 91, 128, 133, 134, and 221. Plants with a comparable habitat had similar nucleotide sequences at these five points. We also found Aq with ITS and nucleotide deletion at position 86 that was distributed only around Awajishima in Shikoku (A), Harimanada (B), and Kinki (C), including the chief production center of Akebia Caulis. The results of these ITS sequences enabled discrimination of plants originating from Akebia Caulis.

  8. Determining the Origin and Fate of Particulate Plant-Derived Organic Matter in the Rhone River (France) : A Lipid Tracer Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeron, M. A.; Amiraux, R.; Charriere, B.; Radakovitch, O.; Raimbault, P.; Garcia, N.; Lagadec, V.; Vaultier, F.; Rontani, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of lipid tracers including fatty acids, hydroxyacids, n-alkanols, sterols and triterpenoids were used to determine the origin and fate of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) collected in the Rhone River (France), with a main focus on phytosterols, such as sitosterol, desmosterol, brassicasterol and cholesterol. This seasonal survey (April 2011 to May 2013) revealed a year-round strong terrigenous contribution to the plant derived particulate organic matter (POM) with significant algal inputs observed in March and attributed to phytoplanktonic blooms likely dominated by diatoms. Specific sitosterol and cholesterol degradation products were quantified and used to estimate the part of biotic and abiotic degradation of POM within the river. Plant-derived organic matter appears to be mainly affected by photo-oxidation and autoxidation (free radical oxidation), while organic matter of human origin, evidenced by the presence of coprostanol, is clearly more prone to bacterial degradation. Despite the involvement of an intense autoxidation inducing homolytic cleavage of peroxy bonds, a significant proportion of hydroperoxides is still intact in higher plant debris. These compounds could play a role in the degradation of terrestrial material by inducing an intense autoxidation upon its arrival at sea. Although sitosterol has been commonly used as a tracer of the terrestrial origin of POM in rivers, we show here that is it also found in phytoplankton, which highlights the need to use different tracers to determine the origin of POM in rivers. As part of the set of tracers we use, we have identified betulin to be an interesting candidate, although limited to a number of angiosperms species. Not only can we trace betulin to an unequivocal terrestrial origin, we also identified its specific degradation products, allowing us to trace the degradation state of angiosperm particulate debris in rivers, as well as the type of degradation undergone.

  9. Allopatric genetic origins for sympatric host-plant shifts and race formation in Rhagoletis

    PubMed Central

    Feder, Jeffrey L.; Berlocher, Stewart H.; Roethele, Joseph B.; Dambroski, Hattie; Smith, James J.; Perry, William L.; Gavrilovic, Vesna; Filchak, Kenneth E.; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2003-01-01

    Tephritid fruit flies belonging to the Rhagoletis pomonella sibling species complex are controversial because they have been proposed to diverge in sympatry (in the absence of geographic isolation) by shifting and adapting to new host plants. Here, we report evidence suggesting a surprising source of genetic variation contributing to sympatric host shifts for these flies. From DNA sequence data for three nuclear loci and mtDNA, we infer that an ancestral, hawthorn-infesting R. pomonella population became geographically subdivided into Mexican and North American isolates ≈1.57 million years ago. Episodes of gene flow from Mexico subsequently infused the North American population with inversion polymorphism affecting key diapause traits, forming adaptive clines. Sometime later (perhaps ±1 million years), diapause variation in the latitudinal clines appears to have aided North American flies in adapting to a variety of plants with differing fruiting times, helping to spawn several new taxa. Thus, important raw genetic material facilitating the adaptive radiation of R. pomonella originated in a different time and place than the proximate ecological host shifts triggering sympatric divergence. PMID:12928500

  10. An uncorrelated relaxed-clock analysis suggests an earlier origin for flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen A; Beaulieu, Jeremy M; Donoghue, Michael J

    2010-03-30

    We present molecular dating analyses for land plants that incorporate 33 fossil calibrations, permit rates of molecular evolution to be uncorrelated across the tree, and take into account uncertainties in phylogenetic relationships and the fossil record. We attached a prior probability to each fossil-based minimum age, and explored the effects of relying on the first appearance of tricolpate pollen grains as a lower bound for the age of eudicots. Many of our divergence-time estimates for major clades coincide well with both the known fossil record and with previous estimates. However, our estimates for the origin of crown-clade angiosperms, which center on the Late Triassic, are considerably older than the unequivocal fossil record of flowering plants or than the molecular dates presented in recent studies. Nevertheless, we argue that our older estimates should be taken into account in studying the causes and consequences of the angiosperm radiation in relation to other major events, including the diversification of holometabolous insects. Although the methods used here do help to correct for lineage-specific heterogeneity in rates of molecular evolution (associated, for example, with evolutionary shifts in life history), we remain concerned that some such effects (e.g., the early radiation of herbaceous clades within angiosperms) may still be biasing our inferences.

  11. [Role of transposons in origin and evolution of plant XY sex chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Shufen, Li; Sha, Li; Chuanliang, Deng; Longdou, Lu; Wujun, Gao

    2015-02-01

    The XY sex-determination system is crucial for plant reproduction. However, little is known about the mechanism of the origin and evolution of the XY sex chromosomes. It has been believed that a pair of autosomes is evolved to produce young sex chromosomes (neo-X chromosome and neo-Y chromosome) by loss of function or gain of function mutation, which influences the development of pistil or stamen. With the aggravation of the recombination suppression between neo-X and neo-Y and consequent expanding of the non-recombination region, the proto-sex chromosomes were finally developed to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences and DNA methylation were probably involved in this process. Transposons, as the most abundant repetitive sequences in the genome, might be the initial motivation factors for the evolution of sex chromosome. Moreover, transposons may also increase heterochromatin expansion and recombination suppression of sex chromosome by local epigenetics modification. In this review, we summarize the function of transposon accumulation and the relationship between transposon and heterochromatization in the evolution of plant sex chromosome.

  12. Agricultural origins from the ground up: archaeological approaches to plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Langlie, BrieAnna S; Mueller, Natalie G; Spengler, Robert N; Fritz, Gayle J

    2014-10-01

    The timing, geographical locations, causes, and consequences of crop domestication have long been major concerns of archaeologists, and agricultural origins and dispersals are currently more relevant than ever to scientists seeking solutions to elusive problems involving food insecurity and global health disparities. Perennial research issues that archaeologists continue to tackle include (1) thinking outside centers of origin that were based on limited and insufficient past knowledge; (2) distinguishing between single and multiple domestications of specific crops; (3) measuring the pace of domestication; and (4) decoupling domestication from agricultural economies. Paleoethnobotanists have expanded their toolkits to include analysis of ancient and modern DNA and have added increasingly sophisticated techniques in the field and the laboratory to derive precise chronological sequences to assess morphological changes in ancient and often fragmentary archaeobotanical remains and to correctly interpret taphonomy and context. Multiple lines of archaeological evidence are ideally brought together, and whenever possible, these are integrated with information from complementary sources. We discuss current perspectives and anthropological approaches to research that have as their goals the fuller and broader understanding of ancient farming societies, the plants that were domesticated, the landscapes that were created, and the culinary legacies that were passed on.

  13. On the origin of microcraters on the surface of ion beam bombarded plant cell walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2006-01-01

    Ion bombardment of plant and bacterial cellular material has recently been used as a tool for the transfer of exogenous DNA macromolecules into the cell interior region. The precise mechanism that leads to the transfer of macromolecules through the cell envelope is not yet clear, however it has been observed that the ion bombardment is accompanied by the formation of "microcraters" on the cell wall, and it is possible that these features provide channels for the macromolecule transfer. Thus the nature and origin of the microcraters is of importance to understanding the DNA transfer phenomenon as well as being of fundamental interest. We report here on some scanning electron microscope observations we have made of onion skin cells that have been subjected to electron beam bombardment of sufficiently high power density to damage the cell wall. The damage seen is much less than and different from the microcraters formed subsequent to ion bombardment. We speculate that the microcraters may originate from the explosive release of gas generated in the biomaterial by ion bombardment.

  14. Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Karremans, Adam P; Bogarín, Diego; Matzke, Nicholas J; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20-15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Irini F.; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J.; Kora, Lintita; Miniadis-Meimaroglou, Sofia; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose) egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers) were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices. PMID:28239091

  16. Origin of leaf rust adult plant resistance gene Rph20 in barley.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Lee T; Lawson, Wendy; Platz, Greg J; Dieters, Mark; Franckowiak, Jerome

    2012-05-01

    Rph20 is the only reported, simply inherited gene conferring moderate to high levels of adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Key parental genotypes were examined to determine the origin of Rph20 in two-rowed barley. The Dutch cultivar 'Vada' (released in the 1950s) and parents, 'Hordeum laevigatum' and 'Gull' ('Gold'), along with the related cultivar 'Emir' (a derivative of 'Delta'), were assessed for APR to P. hordei in a disease screening nursery. The marker bPb-0837-PCR, co-located with Rph20 on the short arm of chromosome 5H (5HS), was used to screen genotypes for the resistance allele, Rph20.ai. Results from phenotypic assessment and DNA analysis confirmed that Rph20 originated from the landrace 'H. laevigatum' (i.e., Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare). Tracing back this gene through the pedigrees of two-rowed barley cultivars, indicated that Rph20 has contributed APR to P. hordei for more than 60 years. Although there have been no reports of an Rph20-virulent pathotype, the search for alternative sources of APR should continue to avoid widespread reliance upon a single resistance factor.

  17. Subpallial origin of part of the calbindin-positive neurons of the claustral complex and piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Legaz, Isabel; García-López, Margarita; Medina, Loreta

    2005-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether part of the calbindin-positive neurons of the claustral complex and piriform cortex originate in the subpallium. To that end, we prepared organotypic cultures of embryonic telencephalic slices, and applied the cell tracker CMTMR to the ventricular/subventricular zone of the lateral or medial ganglionic eminence. Following 48 h of incubation, we observed a number of CMTMR-labeled cells (showing red fluorescence) of subpallial origin in the claustral complex and piriform cortex. To know whether some of these cells of subpallial origin were calbindin-positive, we performed immunofluorescence for calbindin using an Alexa 488-conjugated secondary antiserum (green fluorescence). Our results showed that some of the CMTMR-labeled cells of subpallial origin in the claustral complex and piriform cortex are calbindin-positive (and possibly GABAergic). The subpallial origin of part of these cells was confirmed by observation of double labeled neurons in the claustral complex that expressed both Lhx6 mRNA (a marker of cells derived from the medial ganglionic eminence) and calbindin. Future studies will be required to analyze the existence of a subpopulation of non-GABAergic calbindin cells in the claustral complex and piriform cortex, and to know their origin.

  18. Metal/metalloid content in plant parts and soils of Corylus spp. influenced by mining-metallurgical production of copper.

    PubMed

    Radojevic, Ana A; Serbula, Snezana M; Kalinovic, Tanja S; Kalinovic, Jelena V; Steharnik, Mirjana M; Petrovic, Jelena V; Milosavljevic, Jelena S

    2017-03-08

    The town of Bor and its surroundings (Serbia) have been under environmental pollution for more than a century, due to exploitation of large copper deposits. Naturally present Corylus spp. were sampled in the surroundings of the mine and flotation tailings at 12 sites distributed in six zones with different pollution loads, under the assumption that all the zones were endangered except for the background. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn inputs from soil and the air were evaluated in plant parts, in terms of absorption, accumulation and indication abilities of Corylus spp. The obtained results showed that As and Cu were the most enriched elements in soil, and their concentration exceeded the limit and remediation values proposed by the regulation. Plant parts (root, branch, leaf and catkin) also showed enrichment of most studied elements in wide ranges. According to the enrichment factor for plant, metal/metalloid inputs, particularly in leaves, were from anthropogenic origin. Plant absorption which occurred at the soil-root interface was low, based on the bioaccumulation factor, which could be indicative of resistance mechanisms of root to abiotic stress induced by a high content of elements in soil substrate. The values of bioaccumulation coefficient suggested weak and intermediate absorption and exclusion abilities of Corylus spp. to the studied elements. Element concentrations differ in unwashed and washed leaves, as well as pollution loads in plant and soil samples from the background, traffic and the sites with clear mining-metallurgical influence. Therefore, Corylus spp. could be promising in biomonitoring studies.

  19. Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling. Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origins of electronegativity as a qualitative concept in the period between 1809 and 1813. Outlines the contributions of Amedeo Avogadro and Jons Jakob Berzelius to the development of this concept. Contains 53 references. (JRH)

  20. Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling. Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origins of electronegativity as a qualitative concept in the period between 1809 and 1813. Outlines the contributions of Amedeo Avogadro and Jons Jakob Berzelius to the development of this concept. Contains 53 references. (JRH)

  1. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  2. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  3. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority N Appendix N to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  4. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-08-27

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  5. Chromatographic and spectroscopic profiles of Cannabis of different origins: Part I.

    PubMed

    Brenneisen, R; elSohly, M A

    1988-11-01

    High-resolution capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry (GC and GC/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to establish complex chemical profiles (chemical signatures) of Cannabis samples of known origin. Over 100 compounds could be differentiated, including noncannabinoids (terpenes, alkanes) as well as minor and major cannabinoids and their acids. A characteristic peak pattern was found within a limited number of specimens of identical origin. Correlation studies on the basis of peak area ratios [A(x)/A(i.s.)] showed the feasibility of tracing Cannabis chemically to its country of origin. Several forensic science applications for the chromatographic and spectroscopic profiles of confiscated Cannabis samples are discussed, such as detection of additives (phencyclidine), differentiation of chemotypes, and monitoring of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) potency.

  6. Methods of Science Investigation Part 2: Results of Implementation of a Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Originally designed to allow secondary students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Methods of Science Curriculum was piloted in 2008. Students participating included those with special needs, English language learners, and the general population. Students were incrementally graduated from traditional inquiry activities towards authentic student-generated research projects. Students were evaluated via class work grades, an in-school symposium and a pre/post test. 100 percent of participants successfully completed and presented their original research. The pre/post evaluation demonstrated improvement for 91 percent of participants. An unanticipated result was the performance and growth of English language learners, possibly because of the emphasis on the creative and active process of science rather than vocabulary. A teacher-training program is being developed for expansion of the curriculum to additional schools in 2009.

  7. Identifying the material of original and restored parts of a 14^{th} century alabaster annunciation group through stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Leroux, Lise; Le Pogam, Pierre-Yves; Bromblet, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The origin of raw materials for sculpture is often obscure before the 17th century due to the scarcity of written sources. Identifying this origin provides hints to economic exchanges but also, potentially, allows for attributing sculptures to a specific context of creation (regional workshops, artists). Another challenge for art historians is the identification of restorations and their potential chronology. We present an example of a 14th century group of two statues, made of gypsum alabaster, representing an annunciation group, with the Virgin Mary and the angel Gabriel. Their original position was a near Troyes in the eastern Paris Basin, they are now separated being conserved at the Louvre Museum (Virgin Mary) and the Cleveland Museum of Art (Gabriel). Our multi-isotope study revealed the common origin of the material used for both sculptures, their isotope fingerprints being identical within the analytical error. These fingerprints are highly specific and point to an origin in a historical gypsum and alabaster quarry in the northern part of Provence, France, first mentioned at the end of the 13th century. We were also able to identify an unknown restoration of lower part of the Virgin Mary statue with an optically undistinguishable material, using Tuscan alabaster, most likely in the 19th century. This underlines the potential and usefulness of independent geochemical evidence to underpin stylistic hypotheses on grouping of individual artworks, historical economic relationships between regions and on past restoration activities.

  8. Degradation kinetics and pathways of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant and in the soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Meng, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanyan; Gu, Haotian; Ren, Yajun; Lu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    Spirotetramat is a new pesticide against a broad spectrum of sucking insects and exhibits a unique property with a two-way systemicity. In order to formulate a scientific rationale for a reasonable spray dose and the safe interval period of 22.4 % spirotetramat suspension concentrate on controlling vegetable pests, we analyzed degradation dynamics and pathways of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant (leaf, stalk, and root) and in the soil. We conducted experimental trials under field conditions and adopted a simple and reliable method (dispersive solid phase extraction) combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate the dissipation rates of spirotetramat residue and its metabolites. The results showed that the spirotetramat was degraded into different metabolite residues in different parts of spinach plant (leaf, stalk, and root) and in the soil. Specifically, spirotetramat was degraded into B-keto, B-glu, and B-enol in the leaf; B-glu and B-enol in the stalk; and only B-enol in the root. In the soil where the plants grew, spirotetramat followed a completely different pathway compared to the plant and degraded into B-keto and B-mono. Regardless of different degradation pathways, the dissipation dynamic equations of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant and in the soil were all based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations. This work provides guidelines for the safe use of spirotetramat in spinach fields, which would help prevent potential health threats to consumers.

  9. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... section that are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated... dyeing materials to the substrate, to rinse the textile substrate, or to dry or cure the dyeing or...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover... are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated materials for... dyeing materials to the substrate, to rinse the textile substrate, or to dry or cure the dyeing or...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover... are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated materials for... dyeing materials to the substrate, to rinse the textile substrate, or to dry or cure the dyeing or...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... section that are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated... dyeing materials to the substrate, to rinse the textile substrate, or to dry or cure the dyeing or...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power.... 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i... seismic and geologic considerations which guide the Commission in its evaluation of the suitability of...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power.... 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i... seismic and geologic considerations which guide the Commission in its evaluation of the suitability of...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power.... 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i... seismic and geologic considerations which guide the Commission in its evaluation of the suitability of...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power.... 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i... seismic and geologic considerations which guide the Commission in its evaluation of the suitability of...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power.... 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants i... seismic and geologic considerations which guide the Commission in its evaluation of the suitability of...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... changeovers to a different liquid stored in a storage tank. (d) An affected source is a new affected source if... HAP. The affected source is composed of: (1) All storage tanks storing organic liquids. (2) All... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... changeovers to a different liquid stored in a storage tank. (d) An affected source is a new affected source if... HAP. The affected source is composed of: (1) All storage tanks storing organic liquids. (2) All... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... changeovers to a different liquid stored in a storage tank. (d) An affected source is a new affected source if... HAP. The affected source is composed of: (1) All storage tanks storing organic liquids. (2) All... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... changeovers to a different liquid stored in a storage tank. (d) An affected source is a new affected source if... HAP. The affected source is composed of: (1) All storage tanks storing organic liquids. (2) All... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... changeovers to a different liquid stored in a storage tank. (d) An affected source is a new affected source if... HAP. The affected source is composed of: (1) All storage tanks storing organic liquids. (2) All... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this...

  3. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at asphalt...

  4. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at asphalt...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at asphalt...

  6. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at asphalt...

  7. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... surface coating of wood building products: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.4781; (2) All storage containers and mixing vessels in which coatings, thinners, and cleaning materials are stored or...

  8. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... source for the dyeing and finishing subcategory is the collection of all of the items listed in paragraphs (d)(1) through (5) of this section that are used in dyeing and finishing operations. The...

  9. 40 CFR 63.9882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Refining What This Subpart Covers § 63.9882 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) The affected sources are each new and existing primary magnesium refining facility. (b) This subpart covers... stack, and launder off-gas system stack at your primary magnesium refining facility. This subpart also...

  10. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  11. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cans What This Subpart Covers § 63.3482 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... surface coating of metal cans and ends (including decorative tins), or metal crowns or closures: (1) All... coating operation. (c) An affected source is a new affected source if you commenced its construction...

  14. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... surface coating of wood building products: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.4781; (2) All storage containers and mixing vessels in which coatings, thinners, and cleaning materials are stored...

  15. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a... are used for surface coating of wood building products: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.4781; (2) All storage containers and mixing vessels in which coatings, thinners, and cleaning...

  16. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  17. Fumonisins in plant-origin food and fodder--a review.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Sękul, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the Fusarium group of fungi commonly found on crops, mainly on maize. Some data suggest that as much as 25% of world crops may be lost because of mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, researchers in many countries (particularly in those in which relatively large amounts of maize are directly consumed by humans) are concerned with fumonisin levels in plant-origin foodstuffs and feeds available in their local markets. There is no doubt the levels are strongly correlated with the climate conditions prevailing in the region in which the maize was cultivated: the hotter the climate, the more serious the problem. Negative consequences of consumption of fumonisin-contaminated food by humans include an increased risk of oesophagus cancer and decreased body mass growth. In recent years some trials have been undertaken to reduce fumonisin levels in food and feed by the application of isothiocyanates naturally occurring in plants or peptidoglycans isolated from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The results of these studies suggested that some reduction in contamination levels might be achieved. Additionally, some recent studies indicate that Sphingopyxis sp. bacteria produce enzymes that are able to break down the fumonisin molecule. Some fumonisins present in food may be bound/coupled with other compounds, and therefore difficult to detect. Such complexes in which the toxins are masked or hidden may even be at higher levels than the not-bound (free) molecules. The problem of how to evaluate effectively and efficiently the concentration of fumonisins in various foodstuffs is therefore a real-life challenge for scientists.

  18. Experimental investigation of the origin of fynbos plant community structure after fire.

    PubMed

    Silvertown, Jonathan; Araya, Yoseph N; Linder, H Peter; Gowing, David J

    2012-11-01

    Species in plant communities segregate along fine-scale hydrological gradients. Although this phenomenon is not unique to fynbos, this community regenerates after fire and therefore provides an opportunity to study the ecological genesis of hydrological niche segregation. Following wildfires at two field sites where we had previously mapped the vegetation and monitored the hydrology, seeds were moved experimentally in >2500 intact soil cores up and down soil-moisture gradients to test the hypothesis that hydrological niche segregation is established during the seedling phase of the life cycle. Seedling numbers and growth were then monitored and they were identified using DNA bar-coding, the first use of this technology for an experiment of this kind. At the site where niche segregation among Restionaceae had previously been found, the size of seedlings was significantly greater, the wetter the location into which they were moved, regardless of the soil moisture status of their location of origin, or of the species. Seedling weight was also significantly greater in a competition treatment where the roots of other species were excluded. No such effects were detected at the control site where niche segregation among Restionaceae was previously found to be absent. The finding that seedling growth on hydrological gradients in the field is affected by soil moisture status and by root competition shows that hydrological niche segregation could potentially originate in the seedling stage. The methodology, applied at a larger scale and followed-through for a longer period, could be used to determine whether species are differently affected by soil moisture.

  19. Polysaccharides, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activities in different parts of Silybum marianum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Xinhua; Yu, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    Silybum marianum L. is used for the production of silymarin, a flavonoid utilized for regenerating damaged hepatic tissues. Herein, the total flavonoid content (TFC) and polysaccharides content (PC) in the roots, main stems, leaves, fruit receptacles, and pappi of Silybum marianum were determined. The antioxidant activities of plant ethanol extracts were assessed to validate the medicinal potential of the various plant parts. The pappi exhibited the highest TFC (17.10 mg rutin/g of dry plant material), followed by the fruit receptacles (15.34 mg/g). The PC varied from 3.57±0.23 to 11.02±0.35 mg glucose /g dry plant material; the highest PC was obtained from the roots. At 50 ug/mL, the pappi ethanol extract showed the highest 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (69.68%), followed by the roots (66.02%).

  20. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using plant parts and topsoil.

    PubMed

    Serbula, Snezana M; Miljkovic, Dusanka Dj; Kovacevic, Renata M; Ilic, Ana A

    2012-02-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) was evaluated as a possible bioindicator of airborne heavy metal pollution, which originates from mining and pyrometallurgical copper production in Bor (Eastern Serbia). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in different plant organs (washed/unwashed leaves, branches, roots) and topsoil of R. pseudoacacia by ICP-AES and by AAS. Sampling was carried out during 2008 at ten selected sites distributed in five zones with different levels of pollution. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg did not exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (MAC) in soils at any of the sampling sites. Cu and As were present only at two sites within the MAC, whereas Zn exceeded the MAC at two sampling sites. Although present in the soil, As, Cd and Hg were below limit of detection in all parts of R. pseudoacacia. The rest of the studied elements, collected at the sites closest to the copper smelter or in the directions of the prevailing winds, were found to be at high levels. The higest Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in branches of R. pseudoacacia at the site Krivelj in the rural zone (6418.2±355.4 mg kg⁻¹ and 4699.8±320.8 mg kg⁻¹, respectively). Pb was present in similar amounts in all parts of R. pseudoacacia in the concentration ranging from 4.9 ± 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in washed leaves, at tourist zone) to 66.9±5.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in roots, at urban-industrial zone). According to the mobility ratio, leaves and branches of R. pseudoacacia acted as excluders of Cu, Zn and Pb, except for the branches which acted as indicators of Zn. Although As is present in high concentrations in the air and topsoil of the examined area, results show that R. pseudoacacia is not a suitable indicator of environmental pollution with As. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical engineering of rhizosphere by plant exudates varies with species, origin and microbial decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Brown, Lawrie; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Roose, Tiina; Sinclair, Ian; Koebernick, Nicolai; Cooper, Laura; Hallett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Rhizosphere physical conditions are continually modified by the release of plant root exudates and microbial metabolites. Separate studies have shown that model root exudates influence surface tension, contact angle, water retention and soil stability, but an integrated assessment of these properties for different real root exudates is absent. We hypothesise that influence of root exudates on soil physical properties depends on the physico-chemical characteristics of the exudates itself. The first part of this study examines the physico-chemical characteristics of barley root exudate, maize root exudate, and chia seed exudate. The second part of the study has shown the influence of these root exudates on micromechanics (dispersion and aggregation), water retention, hysteresis and shrinkage-swelling of soils. Highest amount of amino acids and organic acids were observed for barley root exudate followed by maize root and chia seed, respectively. Conversely, the reverse is true for sugars i.e. chia seed exudate > maize root exudate > barley root exudate. We found that barley root exudates have the capacity to weaken soil followed by strengthening after biological decomposition. The initial weakening of soil by barley root exudation may ease root penetration through soil and help in releasing nutrients from soil that were initially not accessible. Maize root exudates and chia seed exudates, on the other hand, strengthen soil from the onset, with biological decomposition decreasing strength that was still significantly higher compared to that of control soil. This strengthening of soil by maize root and chia seed exudation could drive more stable soil structure near roots. Under drying conditions both maize root and chia seed exudates were acted as a gel that retained more water but also enhanced hysteresis during rewetting. On the other hand barely root exudate more acted as a surfactant that decreased soil water retention as well as hysteresis compared to the control

  2. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences confirms independent origins of plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Tahera; Kim, Jiyeon; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Han, Hyerim; Kim, Sanghee; Min, Gi-Sik; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joogn-Ki

    2013-01-18

    The nematode infraorder Tylenchomorpha (Class Chromadorea) includes plant parasites that are of agricultural and economic importance, as well as insect-associates and fungal feeding species. Among tylenchomorph plant parasites, members of the superfamily Tylenchoidea, such as root-knot nematodes, have great impact on agriculture. Of the five superfamilies within Tylenchomorpha, one (Aphelenchoidea) includes mainly fungal-feeding species, but also some damaging plant pathogens, including certain Bursaphelenchus spp. The evolutionary relationships of tylenchoid and aphelenchoid nematodes have been disputed based on classical morphological features and molecular data. For example, similarities in the structure of the stomatostylet suggested a common evolutionary origin. In contrast, phylogenetic hypotheses based on nuclear SSU ribosomal DNA sequences have revealed paraphyly of Aphelenchoidea, with, for example, fungal-feeding Aphelenchus spp. within Tylenchomorpha, but Bursaphelenchus and Aphelenchoides spp. more closely related to infraorder Panagrolaimomorpha. We investigated phylogenetic relationships of plant-parasitic tylenchoid and aphelenchoid species in the context of other chromadorean nematodes based on comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome data, including two newly sequenced genomes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchoidea) and Pratylenchus vulnus (Tylenchoidea). The complete mitochondrial genomes of B. xylophilus and P. vulnus are 14,778 bp and 21,656 bp, respectively, and identical to all other chromadorean nematode mtDNAs in that they contain 36 genes (lacking atp8) encoded in the same direction. Their mitochondrial protein-coding genes are biased toward use of amino acids encoded by T-rich codons, resulting in high A+T richness. Phylogenetic analyses of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods did not support B. xylophilus as most closely related to Tylenchomorpha (Tylenchoidea

  3. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome sequences confirms independent origins of plant-parasitic nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The nematode infraorder Tylenchomorpha (Class Chromadorea) includes plant parasites that are of agricultural and economic importance, as well as insect-associates and fungal feeding species. Among tylenchomorph plant parasites, members of the superfamily Tylenchoidea, such as root-knot nematodes, have great impact on agriculture. Of the five superfamilies within Tylenchomorpha, one (Aphelenchoidea) includes mainly fungal-feeding species, but also some damaging plant pathogens, including certain Bursaphelenchus spp. The evolutionary relationships of tylenchoid and aphelenchoid nematodes have been disputed based on classical morphological features and molecular data. For example, similarities in the structure of the stomatostylet suggested a common evolutionary origin. In contrast, phylogenetic hypotheses based on nuclear SSU ribosomal DNA sequences have revealed paraphyly of Aphelenchoidea, with, for example, fungal-feeding Aphelenchus spp. within Tylenchomorpha, but Bursaphelenchus and Aphelenchoides spp. more closely related to infraorder Panagrolaimomorpha. We investigated phylogenetic relationships of plant-parasitic tylenchoid and aphelenchoid species in the context of other chromadorean nematodes based on comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genome data, including two newly sequenced genomes from Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Aphelenchoidea) and Pratylenchus vulnus (Tylenchoidea). Results The complete mitochondrial genomes of B. xylophilus and P. vulnus are 14,778 bp and 21,656 bp, respectively, and identical to all other chromadorean nematode mtDNAs in that they contain 36 genes (lacking atp8) encoded in the same direction. Their mitochondrial protein-coding genes are biased toward use of amino acids encoded by T-rich codons, resulting in high A+T richness. Phylogenetic analyses of both nucleotide and amino acid sequence datasets using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods did not support B. xylophilus as most closely related to

  4. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant S; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Chauhan, Nitin M; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections caused by Candida albicans and associated drug resistant micro-organisms are serious problems for immunocompromised populations. Molecules which can prevent or remove biofilms are needed. Twenty-eight terpenoids of plant origin were analysed for their activity against growth, virulence attributes, and biofilms of C. albicans. Eighteen molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of <2 mg ml(-1) for planktonic growth. Selected molecules inhibited yeast to hyphal dimorphism at low concentrations (0.031-0.5 mg ml(-1)), while adhesion to a solid surface was prevented at 0.5-2 mg ml(-1). Treatment with 14 terpenoids resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation, and of these, linalool, nerol, isopulegol, menthol, carvone, α-thujone, and farnesol exhibited biofilm-specific activity. Eight terpenoids were identified as inhibitors of mature biofilms. This study demonstrated the antibiofilm potential of terpenoids, which need to be further explored as therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated infections of C. albicans.

  5. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R.; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. PMID:27189548

  6. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) in plants: origin, classification, and use as phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Deragon, Jean-Marc; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2006-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermediate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their use as molecular makers to retrace phylogenetic relations among wild and cultivated Oryza and Brassica species. In Brassicaceae, further use of SINE markers is limited by our partial knowledge of endogenous SINE families (their origin and evolution histories) and by the absence of a clear classification. To solve this problem, phylogenetic relations among all known Brassicaceae SINEs were analyzed and a new classification, grouping SINEs in 15 different families, is proposed. The relative age and size of each Brassicaceae SINE family was evaluated and new phylogenetically supported subfamilies were described. We also present evidence suggesting that new potentially active SINEs recently emerged in Brassica oleracea from the shuffling of preexisting SINE portions. Finally, the comparative evolution history of SINE families present in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea revealed that SINEs were in general more active in the Brassica lineage. The importance of these new data for the use of Brassicaceae SINEs as molecular markers in future applications is discussed.

  7. The charophycean green algae provide insights into the early origins of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A; Bacic, Antony; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Fei, Zhangzhun; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2011-10-01

    Numerous evolutionary innovations were required to enable freshwater green algae to colonize terrestrial habitats and thereby initiate the evolution of land plants (embryophytes). These adaptations probably included changes in cell-wall composition and architecture that were to become essential for embryophyte development and radiation. However, it is not known to what extent the polymers that are characteristic of embryophyte cell walls, including pectins, hemicelluloses, glycoproteins and lignin, evolved in response to the demands of the terrestrial environment or whether they pre-existed in their algal ancestors. Here we show that members of the advanced charophycean green algae (CGA), including the Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, but not basal CGA (Klebsormidiales and Chlorokybales), have cell walls that are comparable in several respects to the primary walls of embryophytes. Moreover, we provide both chemical and immunocytochemical evidence that selected Coleochaete species have cell walls that contain small amounts of lignin or lignin-like polymers derived from radical coupling of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. Thus, the ability to synthesize many of the components that characterize extant embryophyte walls evolved during divergence within CGA. Our study provides new insight into the evolutionary window during which the structurally complex walls of embryophytes originated, and the significance of the advanced CGA during these events.

  8. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

  9. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered.

  10. Multi-element concentrations in plant parts and fluids of Malaysian nickel hyperaccumulator plants and some economic and ecological considerations.

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Mulligan, David

    2015-04-01

    Information about multi-elemental concentrations in different plant parts of tropical Ni hyperaccumulator species has the potential to provide insight into their unusual metabolism relative to a range of essential and non-essential elements, but this information is scant in the literature. As Ni hyperaccumulation, and possibly co-accumulation of other toxic elements, has been hypothesized to provide herbivore (insect) protection, there is a need to quantify a range of these elements in plant tissues and transport fluids to at least verify the possibility of this explanation. In this study, multiple elements were analyzed in a range of different plant parts and transport fluids from Ni hyperaccumulator species collected from Sabah (Malaysia). The results show preferential accumulation of Ni in leaves over woody parts, but the highest concentrations were found in the phloem tissue (up to 7.9 % in Rinorea bengalensis) and phloem sap (up to 16.9 % in Phyllanthus balgooyi), visible by a bright green coloration in the field fresh material. The amount of Ni contained in one mature R. bengalensis tree was calculated at 4.77 kg. The high Ni concentration in the flowers of Phyllanthus securinegoides could affect insect floral visitors and pollination. High concentrations of Ni in the seeds of this species also could supply the seedling with Ni and aid in herbivory protection during the first stages of development. Foliar Ca and Ni in P. cf. securinegoides and R. bengalensis are positively correlated. Low accumulation of Ca is desirable for phytomining but concentrations of Ca are high in most Ni hyperaccumulators examined, and this could have consequences for the economic viability of Ni extraction from bio ore if these species were to be used as 'metal crops'.

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  12. Comprehensive Compositional Analysis of Plant Cell Walls (Lignocellulosic biomass) Part II: Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Cliff E.; Martin, Tina M.; Pauly, Markus

    2010-01-01

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation2 and other products such as biocomposite materials6. Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet4. It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin5 and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation5. Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant4. Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose7. The protocol for analyzing the

  13. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (lignocellulosic biomass) part II: carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-12

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(2) and other products such as biocomposite materials(6). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin(5) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation(5). Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose(7). The protocol for

  14. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    PubMed

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  15. New GLC analysis of urushiol congeners in different plant parts of poison ivy, Toxicodendron radicans.

    PubMed

    Craig, J C; Waller, C W; Billets, S; Elsohly, M A

    1978-04-01

    Methods are presented for the direct GLC analysis of the catechol C15 alkenyl side-chain congeners contained in the urushiol fraction of poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans) and the C17 homologs of poison oak (Toxicodendron diversilobum). A number of liquid phases were investigated and demonstrated varying degrees of separation. The methods developed were applied to the analysis of the urushiol fractions obtained from different plant parts of poison ivy. The effects of extraction before and after drying demonstrated tht a larger percentage of urushiol was obtained when the fresh plant material was extracted with ethanol.

  16. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  17. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1008 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... A Appendix A to Part 1008 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 1008, App. A... interpretation is consistent with the definition of “loan originator” in section 1503(3) of the S.A.F.E. Act. (B...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1008 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... A Appendix A to Part 1008 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 1008, App. A... interpretation is consistent with the definition of “loan originator” in section 1503(3) of the S.A.F.E. Act. (B...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 1008 - Examples of Mortgage Loan Originator Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... A Appendix A to Part 1008 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 1008, App. A... interpretation is consistent with the definition of “loan originator” in section 1503(3) of the S.A.F.E. Act. (B...

  1. Screening and purification of catechins from underutilized tea plant parts and their bioactivity studies.

    PubMed

    Rana, Ajay; Sharma, Eshita; Rawat, Kiran; Sharma, Ranjana; Verma, Sarika; Padwad, Yogendra; Gulati, Ashu

    2016-11-01

    Comparative investigation of major phytoconstituents was performed from various parts of tea plant viz. apical bud, subtending 1st-5th leaf, stem, coarse leaves, flowers, fruits and roots. From the results of comparative RP-HPLC-DAD analysis it was found that underutilized tea parts especially coarse leaves, flowers and fruits contains abundant amount of phenolics (17.5%) and catechins (4-5%). From these underutilized tea plant parts the catechins were extracted and purified and then screened for their anticancer, immunomodulatory effect and antimicrobial activity against food borne pathogens. The results showed that tea fruit extract exhibited higher toxicity against oral cancer cells and also promotes proliferation of mice splenocytes. The results of antimicrobial studies revealed the inhibitory effect of these extracts against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. These investigations clearly demonstrated that the underutilized tea plant parts could act as economical and sustainable bioresource of functionally active constituents which further lead to the development of new cost-effective nutraceuticals and other formulations.

  2. The quest for regolithic howardites. Part 2: Surface origins highlighted by noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Ott, U.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-09-01

    We report noble gas data of helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe), cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages and nominal gas retention (K-Ar, U-Th-He) ages for seven howardites (CRE 01400, EET 87513, EET 87518, EET 99400, GRO 95535, GRO 95602, SAN 03472), in continuing research to identify regolithic samples, and better understand the vestan regolith. In our previous work, we found little correlation between suggested regolith parameters of Ni > 300 μg/g, Al2O3 8-9 wt% and eucrite/diogenite (E:D) ratio of 2:1 (Warren et al., 2009), and trapped solar wind (SW), fractionated solar wind (FSW) or planetary noble gas components (from impacted material) - noble gas indicators of a regolithic origin. Here, we have expanded our data set to include samples outside of these parameters to further explore composition, and the differences in Ni content as indicators for the presence of non-Vesta material. In addition, our sample set includes two potentially paired meteorites from the GRO suite. Finally, in our petrographic studies, the samples selected showed no evidence for carbonaceous chondrite fragments, which should reduce the effect of "contamination" by planetary noble gas components, and will allow us to better identify SW/FSW components, where present. Of the samples studied here, three howardites GRO 95535, GRO 95602 and EET 87513 show evidence for a regolithic origin, with both isotopic and element noble gas ratios clearly pointing to the presence of trapped components similar to SW/FSW or planetary. The two GRO howardites, GRO 95535 and GRO 95602, show similar noble gas ratios to our previously defined SW/FSW dominated regolithic group (LEW 85313 and MET 00423), suggesting a surface origin for these samples. However, interestingly, the GRO samples show vastly different cosmogenic noble gas abundances, and thus different CRE ages, which suggests that they are not paired. For howardite EET 87513, the data hint to the presence of CM-material, with a

  3. Drawing siRNAs of viral origin out from plant siRNAs libraries.

    PubMed

    Miozzi, Laura; Pantaleo, Vitantonio

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are obligate intracellular entities that infect all forms of life. In plants, invading viral nucleic acids trigger RNA silencing machinery and it results in the accumulation of viral short interfering RNAs (v-siRNAs). The study of v-siRNAs population in biological samples has become a major part of many research projects aiming to identify viruses infecting them, including unknown viruses, even at extremely low titer. Currently, siRNA populations are investigated by high-throughput sequencing approaches, which generate very large data sets. The major difficulty in these studies is to properly analyze such huge amount of data. In this regard, easy-to-use bioinformatics tools to groom and decipher siRNA libraries and to draw out v-siRNAs are needed. Here we describe a workflow, which permit users with little experience in bioinformatics to draw out v-siRNAs from raw data sequences obtained by Illumina technology. Such pipeline has been released in the context of Galaxy, an open source Web-based platform for bioinformatics analyses.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040) implementation in foods of animal and plant origin: review.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Veikou, Agapi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of environmental protection has been recently upgraded due to the continuously increasing environmental pollution load. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), wellknown as ISO 14040, has been repeatedly shown to be a useful and powerful tool for assessing the environmental performance of industrial processes, both in the European and American continents as well as in many Asian countries (such as Japan and China). To the best of our knowledge, almost no information is provided in relation to LCA implementation in Africa apart from an article related to Egypt. Although food industries are not considered to be among the most heavily polluting ones, for some like olive oil, wine, dairy, and meat processing, their impact on the environment is a heavy burden. The introduction of LCA aimed at identifying both inputs and outputs to find out which are the most detrimental to the environment in terms of water/energy consumption and solid/liquid and gas releases. In this review, a thorough coverage of literature was made in an attempt to compare the implementation of LCA to a variety of products of both plant and animal origin. It was concluded that there is a high number of subsystems suggested for the same product, thereby, occasionally leading to confusion. An idea toward solving the problem is to proceed to some sort of standardization by means of several generic case studies of LCA implementation, similarly to what had happened in the case of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, and other countries.

  5. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues from foods of plant origin and drinks in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Rehaime, Maria; Kassaify, Zeina; Rechmany, Roula; Jaber, Farouk

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the dietary exposure of Lebanese adults to 47 pesticide residues from both foods of plant origin and drinks. The study was conducted using the Total Diet Study protocol in two different areas of Lebanon: Greater Beirut (urban) and Keserwan (semi-rural). A total of 1860 individual foods were collected, prepared, and cooked prior to analysis. Composite samples of similar foods were analyzed, following the QuEChERS Multiresidue method. Eighteen residues were detected/quantified on at least one composite sample, with 66.7 % of the results being quantifiable and 33.3 % detectable. Quantifiable levels ranged between 10.3 and 208 μg/kg. For the composite samples where residues were detected, 55 % had one residue, while 45 % had 2-4 residues. The most frequently detected/quantified pesticide residues included Chlorpyrifos, Procymidone, Primiphos methyl, Dimethoate, and Dieldrin. The dietary exposure assessment was conducted using the deterministic approach with two scenarios: (1) the lower bound (LB) approach and (2) the upper bound (UB) approach. Using the LB approach, mean estimated daily exposures were far below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for all investigated residues. Using the UB approach, which tends to overestimate exposure, mean estimated daily exposures were below the ADIs for all residues except for Dieldrin (semi-rural: 128.7 % ADI; urban: 100.7 % ADI). Estimates of mean exposure to Diazinon reached 50.3 % of ADI in the urban diet and 61.9 % in the semi-rural diet. Findings of this study identify specific pesticide residues as monitoring priorities for which more comprehensive and sensitive analyses are needed in order to refine exposure assessment.

  6. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements.

    PubMed

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Protein-carbohydrate interactions as part of plant defense and animal immunity.

    PubMed

    De Schutter, Kristof; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-05-19

    The immune system consists of a complex network of cells and molecules that interact with each other to initiate the host defense system. Many of these interactions involve specific carbohydrate structures and proteins that specifically recognize and bind them, in particular lectins. It is well established that lectin-carbohydrate interactions play a major role in the immune system, in that they mediate and regulate several interactions that are part of the immune response. Despite obvious differences between the immune system in animals and plants, there are also striking similarities. In both cases, lectins can play a role as pattern recognition receptors, recognizing the pathogens and initiating the stress response. Although plants do not possess an adaptive immune system, they are able to imprint a stress memory, a mechanism in which lectins can be involved. This review will focus on the role of lectins in the immune system of animals and plants.

  8. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme.

    PubMed

    Bryn, Anders; Kristoffersen, Hans-Petter; Angeloff, Michael; Nystuen, Ingvild; Aune-Lundberg, Linda; Endresen, Dag; Svindseth, Christian; Rekdal, Yngve

    2015-12-01

    Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server.

  9. Location of plant species in Norway gathered as a part of a survey vegetation mapping programme

    PubMed Central

    Bryn, Anders; Kristoffersen, Hans-Petter; Angeloff, Michael; Nystuen, Ingvild; Aune-Lundberg, Linda; Endresen, Dag; Svindseth, Christian; Rekdal, Yngve

    2015-01-01

    Georeferenced species data have a wide range of applications and are increasingly used for e.g. distribution modelling and climate change studies. As an integrated part of an on-going survey programme for vegetation mapping, plant species have been recorded. The data described in this paper contains 18.521 registrations of plants from 1190 different circular plots throughout Norway. All species localities are georeferenced, the spatial uncertainty is provided, and additional ecological information is reported. The published data has been gathered from 1991 until 2015. The entries contain all higher vascular plants and pteridophytes, and some cryptogams. Other ecological information is also provided for the species locations, such as the vegetation type, the cover of the species and slope. The entire material is stored and available for download through the GBIF server. PMID:26958614

  10. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Gifty E.; Via, Brian K.; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O.; Eckhardt, Lori G.

    2016-01-01

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  11. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  12. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  13. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  14. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  16. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  17. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Lignocellulosic biomass) part I: lignin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-11

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(1) and other products such as biocomposite materials(7). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses (matrix polysaccharides, and the polyphenol lignin(6) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls provide tensile strength to cells and the entire plants, ward off pathogens, and allow water to be transported throughout the plant; in the case of trees up to more the 100 m above ground level. Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerization by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis. In this first part we focus on the analysis of the polyphenol lignin (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its lignin content by acetylbromide solubilization(3), and its lignin composition in terms of its syringyl, guaiacyl- and p-hydroxyphenyl units(5

  18. SO{sub 3}'s impacts on plant O & M: part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, R.E.

    2006-10-15

    The visible consequences of sulfuric acid aerosol emissions, opaque stack emissions called 'blue plumes', are merely the tip of an iceberg. In sufficient concentration, SO{sub 3} also can increase corrosion and fouling of equipment and components downstream of the furnace while decreasing their efficiency and penalizing overall plant heat rate. This article, the first in a three part series, details the negative impacts of SO{sub 3} on operations and maintenance of back-end plant equipment. These include: reduction of unit heat rate and increased corrosion of downstream equipment due to the raising of dew point by SO{sub 3}; fouling of air heaters and SCR catalysts due to the reaction of SO{sub 3} with ammonia and competition of SO{sub 3} with mercury for adsorption sites on carbon particles, reducing the effectiveness of mercury emissions control. Part II will explain and quantify the potential benefits of limiting the concentration of SO{sub 3} in flue gas to 3ppm at the entrance to the air heater. Part III will describe the characteristics of an optimal SO{sub 3} removal technology and present the technical details and operating experience of one patented process that has worked successfully at a half dozen plants for up to three years. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  19. Seasonal shifts in giant panda feeding behavior: relationships to bamboo plant part consumption.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Rachel L; Carr, Meghan M; Apanavicius, Carolyn J; Jiang, Pingping; Bissell, Heidi A; Gocinski, Barbara L; Maury, Frances; Himmelreich, Marian; Beard, Sara; Ouellette, John R; Kouba, Andy J

    2010-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is classified as a carnivore, yet subsists on a diet comprised almost exclusively of bamboo. Wild and captive giant pandas use highly selective foraging behaviors for processing and consuming bamboo. These behaviors are for the first time quantified in captive giant pandas over a 5-year period of time showing highly specific seasonal trends. Giant panda feeding behavior was recorded using live video observations of two giant pandas housed at the Memphis Zoo from November 2003 to June 2008. Leaf was the primary plant part consumed from June to December, whereas culm was consumed primarily from February to May, with both bears displaying similar seasonal shifts in plant part consumption. From May to June, leaf consumption increased significantly (P-values<0.001); from June to August, leaf consumption remained high and stable. From December to March, leaf consumption decreased significantly (P-values<0.001). Specific behaviors for bamboo leaf and culm consumption were also observed. Both bears formed wads of leaves before ingestion while feeding on leaf, but the male employed this feeding behavior more often than the female (54 and 33%, respectively). Both bears used similar culm-stripping behavior (26 and 25%), used to remove the outer layer and isolate the pith for consumption. This study indicates that unique seasonal foraging behaviors observed in wild pandas are also apparent in captive animals in relation to plant part selectivity and feeding behaviors.

  20. Origin of pitcher plant mosquitoes in Aedes (Stegomyia): a molecular phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Sota, Teiji; Mogi, Motoyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Two mosquito species of the subgenus Stegomyia (genus Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) on the islands of Palau and Yap (Aedes dybasi Bohart and Aedes maehleri Bohart) are adapted to aquatic habitats occupied by Nepenthes pitcher plants. To reveal the origin of these pitcher plant mosquitoes, we attempted a molecular phylogenetic analysis with 11 Stegomyia species by using sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I and 16SrRNA genes as well as the nuclear 28SrRNA gene. Ae. dybasi, a pitcher plant specialist, was sister to Aedes palauensis Bohart within the scutellaris group from the same islands. Ae. maehleri, an opportunistic pitcher plant mosquito, was in a distinct lineage related to the scutellaris group. The adaptation to pitcher plants could have occurred independently in these two species, and recent differentiation of the pitcher plant mosquito Ae. dybasi from the nonpitcher plant mosquito Ae. palauensis was suggested by a relatively small sequence divergence between these species. We also discuss the implications of this analysis for the phylogeny of some other Stegomyia species.

  1. Host-plants shape insect diversity: phylogeny, origin, and species diversity of native Hawaiian leafhoppers (Cicadellidae: Nesophrosyne).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gordon M; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2012-11-01

    Herbivorous insects and the plants on which they specialize, represent the most abundant terrestrial life on earth, yet their inter-specific interactions in promoting species diversification remains unclear. This study utilizes the discreet geologic attributes of Hawai'i and one of the most diverse endemic herbivore radiations, the leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Nesophrosyne), as a model system to understand the role of host-plant use in insect diversification. A comprehensive phylogeny is reconstructed to examine the origins, species diversification, and host-plant use of the native Hawaiian leafhoppers. Results support a monophyletic Nesophrosyne, originating from the Western Pacific basin, with a sister-group relationship to the genus Orosius. Nesophrosyne is characterized by high levels of endemicity according to individual islands, volcanoes, and geologic features. Clades demonstrate extensive morphologically cryptic diversity among allopatric species, utilizing widespread host-plant lineages. Nesophrosyne species are host-plant specific, demonstrating four dominant patterns of specialization that shape species diversification: (1) diversification through host switching; (2) specialization on widespread hosts with allopatric speciation; (3) repeated, independent shifts to the same hosts; and, (4) absence or low abundance on some host. Finally, evidence suggests competing herbivore radiations limit ecological opportunity for diversifying insect herbivores. Results provide evolutionary insights into the mechanisms that drive and shape this biodiversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The origin and function of calmodulin regulated Ca2+ pumps in plants.

    PubMed

    Boursiac, Yann; Harper, Jeffrey F

    2007-12-01

    While Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in both plants and animals, the machinery that codes and decodes these signals have evolved to show interesting differences and similarities. For example, typical plant and animal cells both utilize calmodulin (CaM)-regulated Ca2+ pumps at the plasma membrane to help control cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. However, in flowering plants this family of pumps has evolved with a unique structural arrangement in which the regulatory domain is located at the N-terminal instead of C-terminal end. In addition, some of the plant isoforms have evolved to function at endomembrane locations. For the 14 Ca2+ pumps present in the model plant Arabidopsis, molecular genetic analyses are providing exciting insights into their function in diverse aspects of plant growth and development.

  3. The origin and early evolution of tracheids in vascular plants: integration of palaeobotanical and neobotanical data.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, W E; Cook, M E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is clear evidence for the establishment of terrestrial plant life by the end of the Ordovician, the fossil record indicates that land plants remained extremely small and structurally simple until the Late Silurian. Among the events associated with this first major radiation of land plants is the evolution of tracheids, complex water-conducting cells defined by the presence of lignified secondary cell wall thickenings. Recent palaeobotanical analyses indicate that Early Devonian tracheids appear to possess secondary cell wall thickenings composed of two distinct layers: a degradation-prone layer adjacent to the primary cell wall and a degradation-resistant (possibly lignified) layer next to the cell lumen. In order to understand better the early evolution of tracheids, developmental and comparative studies of key basal (and potentially plesiomorphic) extant vascular plants have been initiated. Ultrastructural analysis and enzyme degradation studies of wall structure (to approximate diagenetic alterations of fossil tracheid structure) have been conducted on basal members of each of the two major clades of extant vascular plants: Huperzia (Lycophytina) and Equisetum (Euphyllophytina. This research demonstrates that secondary cell walls of extant basal vascular plants include a degradation-prone layer ('template layer') and a degradation-resistant layer ('resistant layer'). This pattern of secondary cell wall formation in the water-conducting cells of extant vascular plants matches the pattern of wall thickenings in the tracheids of early fossil vascular plants and provides a key evolutionary link between tracheids of living vascular plants and those of their earliest fossil ancestors. Further studies of tracheid development and structure among basal extant vascular plants will lead to a more precise reconstruction of the early evolution of water-conducting tissues in land plants, and will add to the current limited knowledge of spatial, temporal and

  4. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and... Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants Introduction. Every applicant for a..., and components of the reactor. Nuclear power plants and fuel reprocessing plants include...

  9. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals.

  10. Functional screening of a cDNA library from the desiccation-tolerant plant Selaginella lepidophylla in yeast mutants identifies trehalose biosynthesis genes of plant and microbial origin.

    PubMed

    Pampurova, Suzana; Verschooten, Katrien; Avonce, Nelson; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that accumulates to large quantities in microbial cells, but in plants it is generally present in very low, barely-detectible levels. A notable exception is the desiccation-tolerant plant Selaginella lepidophylla, which accumulates very high levels of trehalose in both the hydrated and dehydrated state. As trehalose is known to protect membranes, proteins, and whole cells against dehydration stress, we have been interested in the characterization of the trehalose biosynthesis enzymes of S. lepidophylla; they could assist in engineering crop plants towards better stress tolerance. We previously isolated and characterized trehalose-6-phosphate synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana (desiccation sensitive) and S. lepidophylla (desiccation tolerant) and found that they had similar enzymatic characteristics. In this paper, we describe the isolation and characterization of trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase from S. lepidophylla and show that its catalytic activities are also similar to those of its homolog in A. thaliana. Screening of an S. lepidophylla cDNA library using yeast trehalose biosynthesis mutants resulted in the isolation of a large number of trehalose biosynthesis genes that were of microbial rather than plant origin. Thus, we suggest that the high trehalose levels observed in S. lepidophylla are not the product of the plant but that of endophytes, which are known to be present in this plant. Additionally, the high trehalose levels in S. lepidophylla are unlikely to account for its desiccation tolerance, because its drought-stress-sensitive relative, S. moellendorffii, also accumulated high levels of trehalose.

  11. Survey of Fusarium toxins in foodstuffs of plant origin marketed in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, Margit; Müller, H-M; Rüfle, Melanie; Suchy, Sybille; Planck, Susanne; Drochner, W

    2005-01-01

    A total of 219 samples of foodstuffs of plant origin, consisting of grain-based food, pseudocereals and gluten-free food as well as vegetables, fruits, oilseeds and nuts, were randomly collected during 2000 and 2001 in food and health food stores. A spectra of 13 trichothecene toxins including diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), scirpentriol (SCIRP), T-2 and HT-2 toxins (T-2, HT-2), T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol (NEO) of the A-type as well as deoxynivalenol (DON), 3- and 15-acetyl-DON (3-, 15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and fusarenon-X (FUS-X) of the B-type were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analysis of zearalenone (ZEA), alpha- and beta-zearalenol (alpha- and beta-ZOL) was made by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV-detection. Detection limits ranged between 1 and 19 microg/kg. Out of 84 samples of cereal-based including gluten-free foods, 60 samples were positive for at least one of the toxins DON, 15-ADON, 3-ADON, NIV, T-2, HT-2, T-2 tetraol and ZEA, with incidences at 57%, 13%, 1%, 10%, 12%, 37%, 4% and 38%, respectively, whereas SCIRP and its derivatives MAS and DAS, T-2 triol, Fus-X as well as alpha- and beta-ZOL were not detected in any sample of this subgroup. Contents of DON ranged between 8 and 389 microg/kg, for all other toxins determined concentrations were below 100 microg/kg. The pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were free of the toxins investigated. Ten of 85 samples of vegetables and fruits were toxin positive. ZEA and the type A trichothecenes MAS, SCIRP, DAS, HT-2 were detected in 7, 3, 2, 1 and 1 samples, respectively. Out of 35 samples of oilseeds and nuts, 7 samples were toxin positive. HT-2, T-2 and ZEA were detected in 4, 3 and 4 samples, respectively. In vegetables and fruits as well as in oilseeds and nuts, toxin levels were below 50 microg/kg. None of the B-type trichothecenes analysed was found for both subgroups.

  12. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    PubMed

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  13. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH.

  14. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from aerial parts of Korean salad plants.

    PubMed

    Heo, Buk-Gu; Park, Yong-Seo; Chon, Sang-Uk; Lee, Sook-Young; Cho, Ja-Yong; Gorinstein, Shela

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the content of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of methanol extracts from the aerial parts of 11 Korean medicinal salad plants. The highest total phenolic content of the methanol extracts was found in Aster scaber (17.1 mg 100 g(-1)), followed by Ixeris dentate (16.4 mg 100 g(-1)), Aster yomena (12.0 mg 100 g(-1)) and Sedum sarmentosum (9.1 mg 100 g(-1)) of FW. Methanol extracts of Ixeris dentate and Aster scaber at 50 microg mL(-1) exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity by 86.4 and 83.3%, respectively. It was registered a dose-dependent increase of DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Total phenolic content of the studied plant extracts was correlated with the DPPH radical scavenging activity. It was found by means of MTT assay, that cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts was the highest against HCT-116. Methanol extracts from Petasites japonicus (IC(50)<25.0 microg mL(-1)) showed the highest activity against HCT-116, following by Angelica gigas (34.75 microg mL(-1)), Erythronium japonicum (44.06 microg mL(-1)), and Aster scaber (54.87 microg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the studied salad plants have high total phenolics content and high antioxidant activity. These plants dose-dependently increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity. The total phenolics level was highly correlated with the free radical scavenging activity. Most of the studied salad plants have potent cytotoxicity activity. The results of this investigation suggest that the extracts of studied salad plants could be an addition to basic medicine for some diseases.

  15. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C.; Reichlin, Thomas S.; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe. PMID:26230115

  16. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    PubMed

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C; Reichlin, Thomas S; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  17. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  18. Effects of shading and removal of plant parts on growth of Trema micrantha seedlings.

    PubMed

    Valio, I F

    2001-01-01

    Effects of artificial shading and removal of plant parts on growth of Trema micrantha (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae) seedlings were studied. Seedlings were grown in pots in a greenhouse in 45, 30, 10.6, 4.8 and 1.8% of full sunlight. Shading for 60 days had no effect on survival, but it influenced all growth parameters measured. Total biomass decreased with decreasing irradiance, reflecting reductions in dry mass of leaves, stems and roots. In response to shading, allocation of biomass to leaves increased, while allocation of biomass to roots decreased. Specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and leaf mass ratio increased with decreasing irradiance. Decreases in relative growth rate were caused by reductions in net assimilation rate rather than leaf area ratio. Photosynthetic efficiency, as determined by the Fv/Fm ratio (Fv = variable fluorescence, Fm = maximal fluorescence), was unaffected by the shading treatments. Partial removal of leaves, stem or roots did not affect seedling survival. Seedlings responded to removal of plant parts by compensatory growth. Topophysis was observed when the apex was removed: the lateral buds developed only as new plagiotropic lateral shoots; consequently, the decapitated plant ceased height growth and was unable to compete with its neighbors for light.

  19. Phytobarriers: Plants capture particles containing potentially toxic elements originating from mine tailings in semiarid regions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen Angeles; Rosas-Saito, Greta Hanako; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-10-01

    Retention of particles containing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) on plants that spontaneously colonize mine tailings was studied through comparison of washed and unwashed shoot samples. Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Mn concentrations were determined in plant samples. Particles retained on leaves were examined by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis. Particles containing PTEs were detected on both washed and unwashed leaves. This indicates that the thorough washing procedure did not remove all the particles containing PTEs from the leaf surface, leading to an overestimation of the concentrations of PTEs in plant tissues. Particularly trichomes and fungal mycelium were retaining particles. The quantity and composition of particles varied among plant species and place of collection. It is obvious that plants growing on toxic mine tailings form a physical barrier against particle dispersion and hence limit the spread of PTEs by wind.

  20. Influence of clinorotation on the resistance to the viral disease of wheat plants of different geographical origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Mishchenko, I. A.

    In the development of controlled ecological systems of life supply for spacecrafts of great importance are the living plants particularly wheat. There exits a high probability of the appearance of viral disease during the space flight, whereas the virus may remain latent under terrestrial conditions. We investigated the varieties of wheat of different ecologo-geographic origin: Chaika and Sarativska-29 (steppe zone of Ukraine), Colectivna-3 (forest - steppe zone of Ukraine) and Apogee (bred in the USA for the needs of space research activities). The growth reactions of different varieties of plants were connected with variety specificities, presence and concentration of viral infection and clinostating. Spring wheat Sarativska-29 stored by 32 % more above - ground biomass and by 45% more of the roots in virus infected horizontally clinostated plants compared with stationary ones, both infected and healthy. In clinostated WSMV-infected wheat plants of Chaika variety there were increases in the concentrations of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids compared with stationary plants. The clinostated Apogee variety plants proved the most responsive to viral infection. Indirect IFA detected the reduction of viral reproduction of the WSMV with prolonged clinostating. The reduction of viral reproduction in various varieties causes variety - specific physiologo-biochemical processes in ontogenesis. Photosynthetic pigment content in clinostated Apogee wheat increased on the 15th day after inoculation by 50 % and the content of carotenoids nearly twice compared with non infected clinostated plants. Clinostating of healthy plants decreased their concentrations of carotenoids and the sum of chlorophylls. The interaction of two factors: viral infection and clinostating alleviates the negative impact of each of them on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat. WSMV - infected Apogee wheat plants displayed a specific response a reaction opposite to that of noninfected ones towards the

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of folk plants for the treatment of snakebites in Southern part of Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Gopalakrishnakone, Ponnampalam; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2008-01-17

    Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in four different indigenous groups in Southern parts of Tamilnadu, India, using a questionnaire. The herbal practitioners in the study area were interviewed, and information on medicinal plants was collected from the traditional healers called "Vaidyars". This survey covers 72 medicinal plants belonging to 53 families that are used for the treatment of snakebite in a traditional way. Traditional approach was evaluated scientifically with some selected plant extracts (7.2 mg/kg bw) and partially purified fractions (2.4 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice experimentally envenomed with rattlesnake venom s.c. injection (2.5-15 microg/kg bw). Tested fractions (Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata) showed potent neutralizing effect against the venom. Compared to the extracts, administration of purified fractions was more effective in increasing the body weight. Control mice injected with the venom alone showed weight loss and severe toxicity at 15 microg/kg bw. The purified fractions (2.4 mg/kg bw) produced significant protection against venom induced changes in serum SOD and LPx levels. The isolated fractions effectively inhibited the toxic effect of snake venoms in vitro than in vivo. The above observations confirmed the protective activity of plants-Aristolochia indica, Hemidesmus indicus, Gloriosa superba, Strychnos nux-vomica, Eclipta prostrata, and Andrographis paniculata against the lethal action of snake venom and need further investigation.

  2. Plant competitive interactions and invasiveness: searching for the effects of phylogenetic relatedness and origin on competition intensity.

    PubMed

    Dostál, Petr

    2011-05-01

    The invasion success of introduced plants is frequently explained as a result of competitive interactions with native flora. Although previous theory and experiments have shown that plants are largely equivalent in their competitive effects on each other, competitive nonequivalence is hypothesized to occur in interactions between native and invasive species. Small overlap in resource use with unrelated native species, improved competitiveness, and production of novel allelochemicals are all believed to contribute to the invasiveness of introduced species. I tested all three assumptions in a common-garden experiment by examining the effect of plant origin and relatedness on competition intensity. Competitive interactions were explored within 12 triplets, each consisting of an invasive species, a native congeneric (or confamilial) species, and a native heterogeneric species that are likely to interact in the field. Plants were grown in pots alone or in pairs and in the absence or the presence of activated carbon to control for allelopathy. I found that competition intensity was not influenced by the relatedness or origin of competing neighbors. Although some exotic species may benefit from size advantages and species-specific effects in competitive interactions, none of the three mechanisms investigated is likely to be a principal driver of their invasiveness.

  3. Origin of the plant Tm-1-like gene via two independent horizontal transfer events and one gene fusion event

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zefeng; Liu, Li; Fang, Huimin; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Shuhui; Cao, Wei; Xu, Chenwu; Huang, Jinling; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a direct inhibitor of ToMV RNA replication to protect tomato from infection. The plant Tm-1-like (Tm-1L) protein is predicted to contain an uncharacterized N-terminal UPF0261 domain and a C-terminal TIM-barrel signal transduction (TBST) domain. Homologous searches revealed that proteins containing both of these two domains are mainly present in charophyte green algae and land plants but absent from glaucophytes, red algae and chlorophyte green algae. Although Tm-1 homologs are widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi, UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins are generally encoded by different genes in these linages. A co-evolution analysis also suggested a putative interaction between UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins. Phylogenetic analyses based on homologs of these two domains revealed that plants have acquired UPF0261- and TBST-domain-encoding genes through two independent horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events before the origin of land plants from charophytes. Subsequently, gene fusion occurred between these two horizontally acquired genes and resulted in the origin of the Tm-1L gene in streptophytes. Our results demonstrate a novel evolutionary mechanism through which the recipient organism may acquire genes with functional interaction through two different HGT events and further fuse them into one functional gene. PMID:27647002

  4. Arctic plant origins and early formation of circumarctic distributions: a case study of the mountain sorrel, Oxyria digyna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Jianquan; Allen, Geraldine A; Ma, Yazhen; Yue, Wei; Marr, Kendrick L; Abbott, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species comprising the present-day Arctic flora are thought to have originated in the high mountains of North America and Eurasia, migrated northwards as global temperatures fell during the late Tertiary period, and thereafter attained a circumarctic distribution. However, supporting evidence for this hypothesis that provides a temporal framework for the origin, spread and initial attainment of a circumarctic distribution by an arctic plant is currently lacking. Here we examined the origin and initial formation of a circumarctic distribution of the arctic mountain sorrel (Oxyria digyna) by conducting a phylogeographic analysis of plastid and nuclear gene DNA variation. We provide evidence for an origin of this species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of southwestern China, followed by migration into Russia c. 11 million yr ago (Ma), eastwards into North America by c. 4 Ma, and westwards into Western Europe by c. 1.96 Ma. Thereafter, the species attained a circumarctic distribution by colonizing Greenland from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Following the arrival of the species in North America and Europe, population sizes appear to have increased and then stabilized there over the last 1 million yr. However, in Greenland a marked reduction followed by an expansion in population size is indicated to have occurred during the Pleistocene. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. SO{sub 3}'s impacts on plant O & M: part II

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, R.E.

    2007-02-15

    Part 1 of this three-part series (Power, October 2006, Coal Abstracts entry Jan 2007 00224) explored the negative impacts of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) on the operation and maintenance of back-end plant equipment. This article lists and quantifies the likely and potential benefits of limiting the concentration of SO{sub 3} in flue gas to 3 ppm at the entrance to the air heater. Benefits include: reduced acid dew point and back-end corrosion; reduced heat rate and fuel costs; reduced or eliminated ABS fouling of air heaters; reduced fireside corrosion; enabling the use of lower-oxidation catalysts; higher mercury removal efficiency; and lower temperature SCR operation. Part III, to appear in April 2007, will describe the characteristics of an optimal SO{sub 3} removal technology and present the technical details and operating experience of one patented process that has worked successfully at a half-dozen plants for up to three years. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Multigene phylogeny of the green lineage reveals the origin and diversification of land plants.

    PubMed

    Finet, Cédric; Timme, Ruth E; Delwiche, Charles F; Marlétaz, Ferdinand

    2010-12-21

    The Viridiplantae (green plants) include land plants as well as the two distinct lineages of green algae, chlorophytes and charophytes. Despite their critical importance for identifying the closest living relatives of land plants, phylogenetic studies of charophytes have provided equivocal results [1-5]. In addition, many relationships remain unresolved among the land plants, such as the position of mosses, liverworts, and the enigmatic Gnetales. Phylogenomics has proven to be an insightful approach for resolving challenging phylogenetic issues, particularly concerning deep nodes [6-8]. Here we extend this approach to the green lineage by assembling a multilocus data set of 77 nuclear genes (12,149 unambiguously aligned amino acid positions) from 77 taxa of plants. We therefore provide the first multigene phylogenetic evidence that Coleochaetales represent the closest living relatives of land plants. Moreover, our data reinforce the early divergence of liverworts and the close relationship between Gnetales and Pinaceae. These results provide a new phylogenetic framework and represent a key step in the evolutionary interpretation of developmental and genomic characters in green plants.

  7. Identification of the plant origin of the botanical biomarkers of Mediterranean type propolis.

    PubMed

    Popova, Milena; Trusheva, Boryana; Cutajar, Simone; Antonova, Daniela; Mifsud, David; Farrugia, Claude; Bankova, Vassya

    2012-05-01

    Propolis is a honeybee product which bees produce by collecting resins from various botanical sources. The chemical composition of propolis is directly dependant on the availability of resinous plant materials in different geographic regions. This study was undertaken to evaluate the resinous plant sources used by bees to produce Mediterranean type propolis. Although this propolis type has already been the subject of numerous studies, its major botanical source had not yet been identified. In this study, using GC-MS analysis, we identify the resin of the common cypress, Cupressus_sempervirens, as the major plant source of the characteristic diterpene fingerprint profile of Mediterranean propolis.

  8. Profiling and elucidation of the phenolic compounds in the aerial parts of Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata collected from different Chinese origins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Mangelinckx, Sven; Lü, Han; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Li, Wei-Lin; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Gynura bicolor and G. divaricata are not only known to be nutritive as cultured vegetables, but also beneficial as folk medicines in East Asia. As demonstrated by the current phytochemical knowledge, the genus Gynura is a promising source of phenolics with multiple medicinal activities. To expand this phytochemical knowledge, the phenolic secondary metabolites of G. bicolor and G. divaricata were studied. From the aerial parts of these two species, collected in five different Chinese locations, two fractions of phenolic compounds with different polarity were obtained by extraction and chromatographic separation. Using UPLC/MS/MS analysis, a total of 53 phenolics were either identified by comparison with respective reference compounds or tentatively characterized by their chromatographic behavior, UV-absorption patterns, and MS fragmentations. Some naturally existing positional isomers of O-caffeoylquinic acid, O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, O-feruloylquinic acid, and dicaffeoylquinic acid as well as their methyl esters were qualitatively characterized by their specific fragmentation patterns in targeted MS/MS. In addition, the aerial parts of the two Gynura species contained kaempferol, quercetin oligoglycosides, and a variety of derivatives of benzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, and caffeic acid. Furthermore, the distribution of phenolic compounds in the two species from different Chinese origins was discussed. Finally, an investigation of the total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity of the various phenolic fractions was completed, to evaluate the potential of the extracts of these species for medicinal development. The free-radical-scavenging activities of the extracts derived from plants originating from Nanjing were proven to be higher than those of the other extracts, which correlated well with their total phenolic content.

  9. Trypanocidal constituents in plants 4. Withanolides from the aerial parts of Physalis angulata.

    PubMed

    Nagafuji, Shinya; Okabe, Hikaru; Akahane, Hiroshige; Abe, Fumiko

    2004-02-01

    The constituents of the aerial parts of Physalis angulata (Solanaceae) were investigated based on the plant's trypanocidal activity against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent for Chagas' disease. Four new withanolides were isolated, along with six known ones, from the active fraction. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. Trypanocidal activity against trypomastigotes, an infectious form of T. cruzi, was also estimated, as well as cytotoxic activity against human uterine carcinoma (HeLa) cells in vitro. Evaluation of trypanocidal activity using the colorimetric reagent Cell Counting Kit-8 was also examined.

  10. Seasonal Variations of Mercury Levels in Selected Medicinal Plants Originating from Poland.

    PubMed

    Ordak, M; Wesolowski, M; Radecka, I; Muszynska, E; Bujalska-Zazdrozny, M

    2016-10-01

    The presence of mercury in the living cells may be caused by environmental pollution with this element, which is referred to as a toxic xenobiotic. Many literature reports have provided evidence for toxic effects of low levels of mercury in the human body. Therefore, it seems essential to investigate mercury content in food and in natural environment, particularly its seasonal variations. The objective of this study was to determine trace amounts of mercury in 45 samples of 20 medicinal plant species collected in northern Poland, in various seasons of the year, i.e., in autumn 2012 and then spring 2013. The results obtained showed that the levels of mercury in the herbs were lower in spring (3.66-34.89 ng/g) than in autumn (4.55-81.54 ng/g). The statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05) between the levels of mercury in herbs collected in spring and autumn indicates hazardous accumulation of the element in plants in autumn. The highest levels of mercury were found in leaves and plants growing in the vicinity of busy streets. Perennials plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those of monocarpic plants. Furthermore, commonly used herbal plants have a significantly higher mercury levels as compared to those less common.

  11. Alternative treatment strategies for neuropathic pain: Role of Indian medicinal plants and compounds of plant origin-A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hasandeep; Bhushan, Sakshi; Arora, Rohit; Singh Buttar, Harpal; Arora, Saroj; Singh, Balbir

    2017-08-01

    Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state accompanied by tissue injury and nerve damage. This important health issue constitutes a challenge for the modern medicine worldwide. The management of neuropathic pain remains a major clinical challenge, pertaining to an inadequate understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Various classes of drugs have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain viz. opiates, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic agents. However, association of adverse effects with these drugs hinders their confident prescription in people with neuropathic pain. Recently, various medicinal plants have been reported effective for the management of neuropathic pain. So, it may be prudent to look beyond synthetic drugs pertaining to their unprecedented pharmacotherapeutic effects with lesser adverse effects. The extensive literature review has been carried out from databases such as Science direct, Scifinder, Wiley online library, PubMed, Research gate, Google scholar and Chemical Abstracts. The list of Traditional Indian Medicinal plants (TIMPs) and isolated compounds have been compiled which have been reported effective as an alternative therapy for the management of neuropathic pain. This helps the researchers to discover some novel therapeutic agents against neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Does leaf photosynthesis adapt to CO2-enriched environments? An experiment on plants originating from three natural CO2 springs.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Yusuke; Hirose, Tadaki; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 elevation may act as a selective agent, which consequently may alter plant traits in the future. We investigated the adaptation to high CO2 using transplant experiments with plants originating from natural CO2 springs and from respective control sites. We tested three hypotheses for adaptation to high-CO2 conditions: a higher photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE); a higher photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE); and a higher capacity for carbohydrate transport from leaves. Although elevated growth CO2 enhanced both PNUE and WUE, there was no genotypic improvement in PNUE. However, some spring plants had a higher WUE, as a result of a significant reduction in stomatal conductance, and also a lower starch concentration. Higher natural variation (assessed by the coefficient of variation) within populations in WUE and starch concentration, compared with PNUE, might be responsible for the observed population differentiation. These results support the concept that atmospheric CO2 elevation can act as a selective agent on some plant traits in natural plant communities. Reduced stomatal conductance and reduced starch accumulation are highlighted for possible adaptation to high CO2.

  13. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  14. Cloning of the Arabidopsis and Rice Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Implications for the Origin of Plant Adh Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R.; Osterman, J. C.; Peacock, W. J.; Dennis, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the cloning of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis and rice class III ADH enzymes, members of the alcohol dehydrogenase or medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase superfamily of proteins with glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (GSH-FDH). Both genes contain eight introns in exactly the same positions, and these positions are conserved in plant ethanol-active Adh genes (class P). These data provide further evidence that plant class P genes have evolved from class III genes by gene duplication and acquisition of new substrate specificities. The position of introns and similarities in the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the different classes of ADH enzymes in plants and humans suggest that plant and animal class III enzymes diverged before they duplicated to give rise to plant and animal ethanol-active ADH enzymes. Plant class P ADH enzymes have gained substrate specificities and evolved promoters with different expression properties, in keeping with their metabolic function as part of the alcohol fermentation pathway. PMID:9215914

  15. Understanding the Diversity and Distribution of Cyclotides from Plants of Varied Genetic Origin.

    PubMed

    Ravipati, Anjaneya S; Poth, Aaron G; Troeira Henriques, Sónia; Bhandari, Murari; Huang, Yen-Hua; Nino, Jaime; Colgrave, Michelle L; Craik, David J

    2017-05-26

    Cyclotides are a large family of naturally occurring plant-derived macrocyclic cystine-knot peptides, with more than 400 having been identified in species from the Violaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae families. Nevertheless, their specialized distribution within the plant kingdom remains poorly understood. In this study, the diversity of cyclotides was explored through the screening of 197 plants belonging to 43 different families. In total, 28 cyclotides were sequenced from 15 plant species, one of which belonged to the Rubiaceae and 14 to the Violaceae. Every Violaceae species screened contained cyclotides, but they were only sparsely represented in Rubiaceae and nonexistent in other families. The study thus supports the hypothesis that cyclotides are ubiquitous in the Violaceae, and it adds to the list of plants found to express kalata S and cycloviolacin O12. Finally, previous studies suggested the existence of cyclotide isoforms with either an Asn or an Asp at the C-terminal processing site of the cyclotide domain within the precursor proteins. Here we found that despite the discovery of a few cyclotides genuinely containing an Asp in loop 6 as evidenced by gene sequencing, deamidation of Asn during enzymatic digestion resulted in the artifactual presence of Asp isoforms. This result is consistent with studies suggesting that peptides can undergo deamidation after being subjected to external factors, including pH, temperature, and enzymatic digestion.

  16. Spores before sporophytes: hypothesizing the origin of sporogenesis at the algal-plant transition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Roy C; Lemmon, Betty E

    2011-06-01

    Fossil spores from mid-Ordovician deposits (475 million yr old) are the first indication of plants on land and predate megafossils of plants by 30-50 million yr. Sporopollenin-walled spores distinguish land plants from algae, which typically have heavy-walled zygotes that germinate via meiosis into motile or protonemal cells. All land plants are embryophytes with spores produced by the sporophyte generation. It is generally assumed that retention of the zygote and delay in meiosis led to matrotrophic embryo development and intercalation of the diploid sporophyte before spore production. However, new data on the cell biology of sporogenesis in extant bryophytes suggest that spores were produced directly from zygotes in protoembryophytes. The mechanism of wall transfer from zygote to meiospores was a three-phase heterochrony involving precocious initiation of cytokinesis, acceleration of meiosis, and concomitant delay in wall deposition. In bryophyte sporogenesis, cytokinesis is typically initiated in advance of meiosis, and quadrilobing of the cytoplasm is followed by development of a bizarre quadripolar spindle that assures coordination of nuclear distribution with predetermined spore domains. This concept of the innovation of sporogenesis at the onset of terrestrialization provides a new perspective for interpreting fossil evidence and understanding the evolution of land plants.

  17. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  18. Antiproliferative effects of different plant parts of Panax notoginseng on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Xie, Jing-Tian; Fishbein, Anna; Aung, Han H; He, Hui; Mehendale, Sangeeta R; He, Tong-Chuan; Du, Wei; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2009-01-01

    The chemical constituents and antiproliferative effects on SW480 human colorectal cancer cells of different plant parts of P. notoginseng were evaluated. The contents of saponins in extracts from root, rhizome, flower and berry of P. notoginseng were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The contents and proportions of saponins were different among the four plant parts. Using the cell counting method, the antiproliferative effects were evaluated and the results indicated all four extracts, at 0.05-1.0 mg/mL, showed concentration-related antiproliferative effects on the cancer cells. The flower extract had stronger effects compared with the other three extracts; at 1.0 mg/mL, it inhibited the cell growth by 93.1% (p < 0.01). The antiproliferative effects of major saponins in notoginseng, notoginsenoside R1, ginsenosides Rb1, Rb3 and Rg1, were also evaluated, and the observed effects of major constituents support the pharmacological activities of extracts. The effects of notoginseng extracts on cell cycle and apoptosis of SW480 cells were determined using flow cytometry. Notoginseng extract can arrest the cells in S and G2/M phases. Remarkably apoptosis induction activities of notoginseng extracts were observed with the flower extract possessing the most potent effect, supporting the antiproliferative effect. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Translocation of metal ions from soil to tobacco roots and their concentration in the plant parts.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cleber Pinto; de Almeida, Thiago E; Zittel, Rosimara; de Oliveira Stremel, Tatiana R; Domingues, Cinthia E; Kordiak, Januário; de Campos, Sandro Xavier

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the translocation factors (TFs) and bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) ions in roots, stems, and leaves of tobacco. The results revealed that during the tobacco growth, the roots are able to increase the sensitiveness of the physiological control, reducing the translocation of the metals Ni (0.38) and Pb (0.48) to the leaves. Cd and Zn presented factors TF and BCF >1 in the three tissues under analysis, which indicates the high potential for transportation and accumulation of these metals in all plant tissues. The TF values for Cr (0.65) and As (0.63) revealed low translocation of these ions to the aerial parts, indicating low mobility of ions from the roots. Therefore, tobacco can be considered an efficient accumulator of Ni, Cr, As and Pb in roots and Cd and Zn in all plant parts.

  20. [Thalidomide: Drug of horror and last resort. A review. Part 1: Origin, molecular structure and first pattern of use.].

    PubMed

    Jóhannesson, Thornorkell

    2003-10-01

    Thalidomide was originally a hypnotic, sedative and anxiolytic drug that was first used in 1955. It was considered to have little toxicity and have smooth activity. Thalidomide was in fact poorly studied both in animals and for therapeutic purposes. It was nevertheless agressively advertised, and inter alia for use in pregnancy, and accordingly it was a much used drug. During the year 1961 it became evident that intake of thalidomide in therapeutic doses could result in severe peripheral neuritis and, when taken early in pregnancy, in horrendous damage to the fetus. Thalidomide was thus shortly afterwards generally removed from the market and its use prohibited. Nevertheless, interest rose a few years later to use thalidomide on other indications than before. This is the topic of Part 2 of this review as well as discussion of studies pertinent to the mechanisms of action of thalidomide.

  1. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

    2012-08-16

    Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant... Appendix O to Part 110—Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority Note: Nuclear fuel elements are manufactured from source or...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power...

  6. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes. b...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes. b...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions...

  11. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note: In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium ions...

  13. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  14. Origin of variolitic lavas: Evidence for variolites in axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii; Krssivskaya, Irina; Chistyakov, Alexei

    2010-05-01

    globules with careless boundaries. Effect of thermal diffusion in more important for Fe; as a result #mg in trachyandesite rims higher than in andesite cores of globules. It suggests that origin of variolites was linked with intersection by ascended column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor.. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia, which are also pillow-lavas. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  15. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  16. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exotic species currently dominate many communities, but it is unclear if the significance of a species’ origin merely reflects our societal values or if exotic species function differently from the native, resident species. The difficulty in separating these perspectives derives from a lack of syst...

  17. Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales). For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins) from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae) including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the conquest of land. Clearly

  18. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Joann A.; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding. PMID:26305939

  19. Origin of land plants: do conjugating green algae hold the key?

    PubMed

    Wodniok, Sabina; Brinkmann, Henner; Glöckner, Gernot; Heidel, Andrew J; Philippe, Hervé; Melkonian, Michael; Becker, Burkhard

    2011-04-18

    The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales). For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins) from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae) including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the conquest of land. Clearly, the biology of the Zygnematales

  20. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant.

    PubMed

    Conner, Joann A; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-09-08

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding.

  1. Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from conifers

    PubMed Central

    Chaw, Shu-Miaw; Parkinson, Christopher L.; Cheng, Yuchang; Vincent, Thomas M.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the five groups of extant seed plants are presently quite unclear. For example, morphological studies consistently identify the Gnetales as the extant sister group to angiosperms (the so-called “anthophyte” hypothesis), whereas a number of molecular studies recover gymnosperm monophyly, and few agree with the morphology-based placement of Gnetales. To better resolve these and other unsettled issues, we have generated a new molecular data set of mitochondrial small subunit rRNA sequences, and have analyzed these data together with comparable data sets for the nuclear small subunit rRNA gene and the chloroplast rbcL gene. All nuclear analyses strongly ally Gnetales with a monophyletic conifers, whereas all mitochondrial analyses and those chloroplast analyses that take into account saturation of third-codon position transitions actually place Gnetales within conifers, as the sister group to the Pinaceae. Combined analyses of all three genes strongly support this latter relationship, which to our knowledge has never been suggested before. The combined analyses also strongly support monophyly of extant gymnosperms, with cycads identified as the basal-most group of gymnosperms, Ginkgo as the next basal, and all conifers except for Pinaceae as sister to the Gnetales + Pinaceae clade. According to these findings, the Gnetales may be viewed as extremely divergent conifers, and the many morphological similarities between angiosperms and Gnetales (e.g., double fertilization and flower-like reproductive structures) arose independently. PMID:10760277

  2. Mitochondrial DNA suggests at least 11 origins of parasitism in angiosperms and reveals genomic chimerism in parasitic plants

    PubMed Central

    Barkman, Todd J; McNeal, Joel R; Lim, Seok-Hong; Coat, Gwen; Croom, Henrietta B; Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2007-01-01

    Background Some of the most difficult phylogenetic questions in evolutionary biology involve identification of the free-living relatives of parasitic organisms, particularly those of parasitic flowering plants. Consequently, the number of origins of parasitism and the phylogenetic distribution of the heterotrophic lifestyle among angiosperm lineages is unclear. Results Here we report the results of a phylogenetic analysis of 102 species of seed plants designed to infer the position of all haustorial parasitic angiosperm lineages using three mitochondrial genes: atp1, coxI, and matR. Overall, the mtDNA phylogeny agrees with independent studies in terms of non-parasitic plant relationships and reveals at least 11 independent origins of parasitism in angiosperms, eight of which consist entirely of holoparasitic species that lack photosynthetic ability. From these results, it can be inferred that modern-day parasites have disproportionately evolved in certain lineages and that the endoparasitic habit has arisen by convergence in four clades. In addition, reduced taxon, single gene analyses revealed multiple horizontal transfers of atp1 from host to parasite lineage, suggesting that parasites may be important vectors of horizontal gene transfer in angiosperms. Furthermore, in Pilostyles we show evidence for a recent host-to-parasite atp1 transfer based on a chimeric gene sequence that indicates multiple historical xenologous gene acquisitions have occurred in this endoparasite. Finally, the phylogenetic relationships inferred for parasites indicate that the origins of parasitism in angiosperms are strongly correlated with horizontal acquisitions of the invasive coxI group I intron. Conclusion Collectively, these results indicate that the parasitic lifestyle has arisen repeatedly in angiosperm evolutionary history and results in increasing parasite genomic chimerism over time. PMID:18154671

  3. Tobacco plants carrying a tms locus of Ti-plasmid origin and the Hl-1 allele are tumor prone.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A D; Aebi, R; Meins, F

    1997-05-01

    The autonomous growth of plant tumor cells is believed to result from their persistent loss of the requirement for growth hormones such as auxin and cytokinin. The partially dominant gene Habituated leaf-1 (Hl-1) regulates the requirement of cultures tissues of Havana 425 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) for cytokinins. The Hl-1 allele can partially restore the tumor phenotype in tobacco cells transformed with a Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid defective in the isopentenyl transferase locus, which encodes a key enzyme in cytokinin biosynthesis and is required for neoplastic growth. To investigate the oncogenic function of Hl-1, we transformed wild-type (hl-1/hl-1) and Hl-1/Hl-1 tobacco plants with the tms locus derived from the limited-host-range Ti plasmid pTiAg162. This locus encodes enzymes for biosynthesis of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid. Grafting tests and measurements of the hormone requirement of cultured explants show that wound-induced overgrowths arising in tms transformed Hl-1 plants are tumorous. While some wound-induced overgrowths also formed in hl-1/hl-1 transformants, these showed slight hormone-autotrophic growth and weak tumorigenicity in grafting tests. In addition, Hl-1/Hl-1 tms/tms plants, but not hl-1/hl-1 tms/tms plants, spontaneously developed rooty teratomatous overgrowths, showed flowering abnormalities, and formed calli at the base of the stem in young seedlings. Thus, Hl-1 tms plants exhibit a tumor-prone phenotype, and in this regard closely resemble tumor-prone hybrids that arise in certain interspecific crosses of Nicotiana species. Our results show that the interaction of just two genetic elements-the mutant Hl-1 allele of the tobacco host with tms genes of Ti plasmid origin-are sufficient for a tumor-prone phenotype.

  4. Plants used for stress-related ailments in traditional Zulu, Xhosa and Sotho medicine. Part 1: Plants used for headaches.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, A; van Staden, J

    1994-07-08

    The usage and indications of possible therapeutic and harmful effects of 96 plants reported to be used for headaches in traditional Zulu, Xhosa and Sotho medicine are reviewed. Although few pharmacological studies have been undertaken on the plants used, related usage by other ethnic groups and known properties in related plants indicate significant possible analgesic, decongestant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic or sedative properties. Observations made by healers indicate an acute awareness of some of the potentially toxic compounds likely to be found in the plants. Most of the medicines are snuffed or inhaled. Both the routes of administration and the plants used merit further investigation.

  5. The chestnut blight fungus world tour: successive introduction events from diverse origins in an invasive plant fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Dutech, C; Barrès, B; Bridier, J; Robin, C; Milgroom, M G; Ravigné, V

    2012-08-01

    Clonal expansion has been observed in several invasive fungal plant pathogens colonizing new areas, raising the question of the origin of clonal lineages. Using microsatellite markers, we retraced the evolutionary history of introduction of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, in North America and western Europe. Combining discriminant analysis of principal components and approximate Bayesian computation analysis, we showed that several introduction events from genetically differentiated source populations have occurred in both invaded areas. In addition, a low signal of genetic recombination among different source populations was suggested in North America. Finally, two genetic lineages were present in both invaded areas as well as in the native areas, suggesting the existence of genetic lineages with a high capacity to establish in diverse environments and host species. This study confirmed the importance of multiple introductions, but questioned the role of genetic admixture in the success of introduction of a fungal plant pathogen. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  7. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  8. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  9. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  10. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  11. Excess of polonium-210 activity in the surface urban atmosphere. Part 2: origin of ²¹⁰Po excess.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    The presence of significant (210)Po activity, unsupported by its grandparent radionuclide (210)Pb, in the surface atmosphere of industrialized regions can originate from human technical activities. In urban air, the activity ratio of (210)Po to (210)Pb might increase as a result of natural condensation and coagulation processes of relatively volatile (210)Po-containing species emitted during coal combustion processes. The presence of excess of (210)Po cannot be explained by its in-growth from radioactive decay of (210)Bi. About 50% of (210)Po radionuclide released during coal combustion processes can be emitted into air as gaseous or ultrafine products. Subsequently, these products are quickly attached to the surface of fine particles suspended in the air. As a result, an excess of (210)Po activity in aerosols has been reported. However, in this manner, As much as 11 GBq of (210)Po per year can enter the urban air from the local coal power plants in Lodz city, Poland.

  12. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  13. Exploring anti-TB leads from natural products library originated from marine microbes and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Chen, Caixia; He, Wenni; Huang, Pei; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Qian; Guo, Hui; Bolla, Krishna; Lu, Yan; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and TB-HIV co-infection have become a great threat to global health. However, the last truly novel drug that was approved for the treatment of TB was discovered 40 years ago. The search for new effective drugs against TB has never been more intensive. Natural products derived from microbes and medicinal plants have been an important source of TB therapeutics. Recent advances have been made to accelerate the discovery rate of novel TB drugs including diversifying strategies for environmental strains, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, and chemical diversity. This review will discuss the challenges of finding novel natural products with anti-TB activity from marine microbes and plant medicines, including biodiversity- and taxonomy-guided microbial natural products library construction, target- and cell-based HTS, and bioassay-directed isolation of anti-TB substances from traditional medicines.

  14. Green algae and the origins of multicellularity in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Umen, James G

    2014-10-16

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Seed origin and size of ponderosa pine planting stock grown at several California nurseries

    Treesearch

    Frank J. Baron; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1963-01-01

    Ponderosa pine planting stock (1-0 and 2-0) grown from five different seed collection zones in the California pine region differed noticeably in size. On the west side of the Sierra Nevada, seeds from zones above 4,000 feet yielded smaller seedlings than those from lower zones, but larger seedlings than those from east-side sources. Average dimensions (seedling weight...

  16. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    PubMed

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2017-09-27

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines (< 35kV/m), the available data provide reliable evidence that static EF can trigger behavioral responses in invertebrates, but they do not provide evidence for adverse effects of static EF on other biological functions in invertebrates and plants. At far higher field

  17. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-11-15

    A limited seismic reassessment of Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safety and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented. 86 refs., 44 figs., 19 tabs.

  18. Multiple Quasi-Equilibria of the ITCZ and the Origin of Monsoon Onset. Part 2; Rotational ITCZ Attractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Chao's numerical and theoretical work on multiple quasi-equilibria of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the origin of monsoon onset is extended to solve two additional puzzles. One is the highly nonlinear dependence on latitude of the "force" acting on the ITCZ due to earth's rotation, which makes the multiple quasi-equilibria of the ITCZ and monsoon onset possible. The other is the dramatic difference in such dependence when different cumulus parameterization schemes are used in a model. Such a difference can lead to a switch between a single ITCZ at the equator and a double ITCZ, when a different cumulus parameterization scheme is used. Sometimes one of the double ITCZ can diminish and only the other remain, but still this can mean different latitudinal locations for the single ITCZ. A single idea based on two off-equator attractors for the ITCZ, due to earth's rotation and symmetric with respect to the equator, and the dependence of the strength and size of these attractors on the cumulus parameterization scheme solves both puzzles. The origin of these rotational attractors, explained in Part I, is further discussed. The "force" acting on the ITCZ due to earth's rotation is the sum of the "forces" of the two attractors. Each attractor exerts on the ITCZ a "force" of simple shape in latitude; but the sum gives a shape highly varying in latitude. Also the strength and the domain of influence of each attractor vary, when change is made in the cumulus parameterization. This gives rise to the high sensitivity of the "force" shape to cumulus parameterization. Numerical results, of experiments using Goddard's GEOS general circulation model, supporting this idea are presented. It is also found that the model results are sensitive to changes outside of the cumulus parameterization. The significance of this study to El Nino forecast and to tropical forecast in general is discussed.

  19. A Bayesian approach for discriminating among alternative inheritance hypotheses in plant polyploids: the allotetraploid origin of genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae).

    PubMed

    Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Palop-Esteban, Marisa; Moreno, Carlos; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-03-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon occurring in a vast number of land plants. Investigations of patterns of inheritance and the origins of plants (i.e., autopolyploidy vs. allopolyploidy) usually involve cytogenetic and molecular studies of chromosome pairing, chromosome mapping, and marker segregation analysis through experimental crosses and progeny tests. Such studies are missing for most wild species, for which artificial crosses are difficult, not feasible, or unaffordable. We report here a Bayesian method to discriminate between alternative inheritance patterns in the two extant, tetraploid species of the monocot genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae), which does not involve progeny array tests. Our approach is based on the screening of a large number of SSR genotypes, which were obtained from successful amplifications of 17 microsatellite regions in individuals of both B. chouardii and B. pyrenaica. We tested for tetrasomic vs. disomic modes of inheritance, using the Bayes factor test. Assignment of genotypes under both alternatives could be unequivocally done for 14 and 11 of the 17 studied microsatellite regions in B. chouardii and B. pyrenaica, respectively, totaling 9502 analyzed genotypes. The comparison of posterior probabilities for the two competing hypotheses across the surveyed loci clearly favored a disomic inheritance pattern. Linkage tests indicated that none of the studied SSR loci were in linkage disequilibrium, thus representing independent samples of the Borderea genome. These results, along with previous allozyme data, support the allotetraploid origin of this paleoendemic genus and reveal the lowest reported chromosome base number for the family of the yams.

  20. Pantoea agglomerans as an indicator of a foreign body of plant origin in cases of wound infection.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, M; Lazarovich, T; Lotan, G

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of Pantoea agglomerans as an infectious agent that causes infection in a wound even after the wound was managed at the emergency department. A retrospective cohort study, reviewing the medical records of patients with traumatic wounds that were admitted to the emergency department from 2007-20 12 and had signs of wound infection for more than I 0 days after the wound was managed. Bacteriological results, clinical picture,and treatment results were obtained. Nine cases were identified. Pantoea agglomerans was detected in all cases. After 1-2 months of ineffective treatment, patients were hospitalised and surgical revisions of the wounds were performed.In all cases, small foreign bodies of plant origin were detected. After surgical revision, wounds were healed in 2-3 days. In cases of prolonged healing of post-traumatic wounds, the presence of foreign bodies of plant origin infected with Pantoea agglomerans should be taken into account. Removal of such foreign bodies leads to rapid healing of the wounds.

  1. A Bayesian Approach for Discriminating Among Alternative Inheritance Hypotheses in Plant Polyploids: The Allotetraploid Origin of Genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Palop-Esteban, Marisa; Moreno, Carlos; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon occurring in a vast number of land plants. Investigations of patterns of inheritance and the origins of plants (i.e., autopolyploidy vs. allopolyploidy) usually involve cytogenetic and molecular studies of chromosome pairing, chromosome mapping, and marker segregation analysis through experimental crosses and progeny tests. Such studies are missing for most wild species, for which artificial crosses are difficult, not feasible, or unaffordable. We report here a Bayesian method to discriminate between alternative inheritance patterns in the two extant, tetraploid species of the monocot genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae), which does not involve progeny array tests. Our approach is based on the screening of a large number of SSR genotypes, which were obtained from successful amplifications of 17 microsatellite regions in individuals of both B. chouardii and B. pyrenaica. We tested for tetrasomic vs. disomic modes of inheritance, using the Bayes factor test. Assignment of genotypes under both alternatives could be unequivocally done for 14 and 11 of the 17 studied microsatellite regions in B. chouardii and B. pyrenaica, respectively, totaling 9502 analyzed genotypes. The comparison of posterior probabilities for the two competing hypotheses across the surveyed loci clearly favored a disomic inheritance pattern. Linkage tests indicated that none of the studied SSR loci were in linkage disequilibrium, thus representing independent samples of the Borderea genome. These results, along with previous allozyme data, support the allotetraploid origin of this paleoendemic genus and reveal the lowest reported chromosome base number for the family of the yams. PMID:16322527

  2. Above- and below-ground effects of plant diversity depend on species origin: an experimental test with multiple invaders.

    PubMed

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Classen, Aimée T; Sanders, Nathan J; Simberloff, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Although many plant communities are invaded by multiple nonnative species, we have limited information on how a species' origin affects ecosystem function. We tested how differences in species richness and origin affect productivity and seedling establishment. We created phylogenetically paired native and nonnative plant communities in a glasshouse experiment to test diversity-productivity relationships and responsible mechanisms (i.e. selection or complementarity effects). Additionally, we tested how productivity and associated mechanisms influenced seedling establishment. We used diversity-interaction models to describe how species' interactions influenced diversity-productivity relationships. Communities with more species had higher total biomass than did monoculture communities, but native and nonnative communities diverged in root : shoot ratios and the mechanism responsible for increased productivity: positive selection effect in nonnative communities and positive complementarity effect in native communities. Seedling establishment was 46% lower in nonnative than in native communities and was correlated with the average selection effect. Interspecific interactions contributed to productivity patterns, but the specific types of interactions differed between native and nonnative communities. These results reinforce findings that the diversity-productivity mechanisms in native and nonnative communities differ and are the first to show that these mechanisms can influence seedling establishment and that different types of interactions influence diversity-productivity relationships.

  3. Natural gums of plant origin as edible coatings for food industry applications.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anuradha; Tyagi, Shvetambri; Gupta, Rajinder K; Tyagi, Yogesh K

    2017-12-01

    Natural plant-based gums and their derivatives are widely utilized in food industries, however, their applications as edible coatings to extend fresh fruits and vegetable shelf-life has been explored recently. These natural polymeric polysaccharides have many advantages as compared to synthetic polymers, because they are biodegradable, nontoxic, economical and easily available in the environment. Natural gums can also be semi synthetically modified to produce derivatives, which can easily compete with the synthetic preservatives available on the food market. In this review, the recent developments in the use of natural gums and their derivatives as edible coatings have been explored and discussed.

  4. Origin of the concept of the quiescent centre of plant roots.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Peter W

    2016-09-01

    Concepts in biology feed into general theories of growth, development and evolution of organisms and how they interact with the living and non-living components of their environment. A well-founded concept clarifies unsolved problems and serves as a focus for further research. One such example of a constructive concept in the plant sciences is that of the quiescent centre (QC). In anatomical terms, the QC is an inert group of cells maintained within the apex of plant roots. However, the evidence that established the presence of a QC accumulated only gradually, making use of strands of different types of observations, notably from geometrical-analytical anatomy, radioisotope labelling and autoradiography. In their turn, these strands contributed to other concepts: those of the mitotic cell cycle and of tissue-related cell kinetics. Another important concept to which the QC contributed was that of tissue homeostasis. The general principle of this last-mentioned concept is expressed by the QC in relation to the recovery of root growth following a disturbance to cell proliferation; the resulting activation of the QC provides new cells which not only repair the root meristem but also re-establish a new QC.

  5. Planting the seed: Origins, composition, and postnatal health significance of the fetal gastrointestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Lisa F; Payne, Matthew S; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2017-05-01

    It has long been assumed that establishment of the fetal microbiome commences with the birthing process. However, recent studies have found bacterial DNA in umbilical cord blood, placenta, amniotic fluid, meconium, and fetal membranes in healthy normal pregnancies, leading to suggestions that the seeding of the fetal microbiome may commence in utero long before delivery. The origins of the microbiota of the fetal gastrointestinal (GI) tract have not yet been conclusively determined, although bacterial translocation from the maternal circulation, or ascension from the vagina, are both likely to be contributing pathways. Mother-to-child efflux of bacteria during pregnancy has the potential to markedly influence postnatal health, as the composition of gut microbiota determines production of important metabolites which are absorbed systemically and which modify immune function and development. Hence, the importance of understanding the colonization of the fetal GI microbiome is becoming clear, although few studies have investigated the origins, dynamics, and timing of the fetal microbiome. This is the topic of this review. By gaining a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underpinning fetal microbiome seeding, strategies may be developed to optimize fetal immune development and reduce the risk of adverse health and developmental outcomes.

  6. Origin of a complex key innovation in an obligate insect–plant mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, Olle; Krenn, Harald W.

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary key innovations give organisms access to new ecological resources and cause rapid, sometimes spectacular adaptive radiation. The well known obligate pollination mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for studies of coevolution, and it relies on the key innovation in the moths of complex tentacles used for pollen collecting and active pollination. These structures lack apparent homology in other insects, making them a rare example of a novel limb. We performed anatomical and behavioral studies to determine their origin and found evidence of a remarkably simple mechanism. Morphological analyses of the tentacles and adjacent mouthparts in pollinators and closely related taxa showed that the tentacle appears abruptly in female pollinating yucca moths. Several morphological synapomorphies between the galeae, which constitute the characteristic lepidopteran proboscis, and the tentacle suggest that the tentacle evolved quickly through expression of the genetic template for the galea at an apical growth bud on the first segment of the maxillary palp. Behavioral data indicate that tentacle and proboscis movements are controlled by a shared hydraulic extension mechanism, thus no new mechanism was needed for tentacle function. Known developmental paths from other insects can explain the origin of this sex-specific key innovation in a few steps. PMID:11960006

  7. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p < 0.01) LDH leakage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of leaves and the ethanol extract of the root did not increase LDH leakage. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HEPG2 viability was found after incubating the cells with the highest concentration (500 microg/mL) of the ethanol leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p < 0.01), while the ethanol extract of the same plant part decreased (p < 0.01), ATP levels. The root and seed extracts had no significant effect on ATP levels. The ethanol leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p < 0.01), as did the ethanol extract of the seeds at 250 microg/mL and 500 microg/mL (p < 0.05). The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  8. Nutrient accumulation in various plant parts of dominant tree species of three different localities.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Beena; Sharma, Kavita

    2013-09-15

    In the present study, accumulation of nutrients (N, P, Ca, Mg, and K) in various plant parts of three different dominant trees i.e., Acacia senegal (As), Acacia tortilis (At) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Ec) was estimated. Concentration of nutrients was estimated for bole, first order branch, other branch, foliage, seeds, stump root, lateral root and fine roots. The study was carried out in the sand dunes of Western foot hill gaps of Central Aravalli located at a distance of 10 km n-w to Ajmer, a centrally situated city of Rajasthan. The concentration of nutrients was found to be maximum in foliage except for nitrogen which was estimated higher in seeds of A. senegal and A. tortilis. A different pattern was recorded for E. camaldulensis where N, Ca, and Mg were recorded maximum in other branch, while p and K in foliage parts. Result shows the concentration of nutrients in different tree components in the order: foliage>seeds> their branch>first order branch>bole, and in root components: fine root>lateral root>stump root. Total nutrient concentration was found to be maximum in As followed by At and Ec. It is concluded that the foliage component of various trees has maximum nutrient concentrations. There are marked variations in the concentration of different nutrients in each component.

  9. delta(34)S-value measurements in food origin assignments and sulfur isotope fractionations in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Tanz, Nicole; Schmidt, Hanns-Ludwig

    2010-03-10

    The delta(34)S values of biological material, especially food commodities, serve as indicators for origin assignments. However, in the metabolism of higher plants sulfur isotope fractionations must be expected. As a matter of fact, the delta(34)S values of the sulfate- and organic-S, respectively, of Brassicaceae and Allium species vegetables showed differences between 3 and 6 per thousand, and differences in glucosinolates were between 0 and 14 per thousand. delta(34)S-value differences of total-S between individual tissues of the same plant were approximately 3 per thousand. It is believed that these relatively small and variable fractionations are due to the partition of individual S-metabolism steps to different plant compartments, where they may occur independently and quantitatively. The delta(34)S values of herbivore muscle meat and milk relative to the diet and between an animal and its child had trophic shifts of approximately 1.5 per thousand. (34)S enrichments of up to 4 per thousand were observed for hair, hooves, and horn, an isotope fractionation of -5 per thousand between the diet sulfate and cartilage. Therefore, the reported agreements between delta(34)S value of biomass and primary S sources are true for only bulk material and not for individual compounds or tissues.

  10. The origin of gender dimorphism in animal-dispersed plants: disruptive selection in a model of social evolution.

    PubMed

    Biernaskie, Jay M

    2010-06-01

    Dioecy (separate sexes) in plants is associated with animal fruit dispersal, but hypotheses for a role of dispersal in the origin of gender dimorphism have received little support. Here, I present a patch-structured model to explore the conditions that favor dimorphism when dispersal is coupled with sex allocation. The model shows that if the proportion of fruits dispersed from a cosexual plant increases with its allocation to fruits (causing accelerating fitness returns from dispersed fruits), disruptive selection can arise when the cost of dispersal is minimal and the correlation among patchmates (i.e., relatedness) is high. In reality, however, the proportion of fruits dispersed from a plant's patch may decline with further allocation to fruits. Even in this case, novel contexts that lead to disruptive selection on sex allocation are discovered, occurring when dispersal costs are high and relatedness is low, which causes accelerating returns from nondispersed fruits. Hence, surprisingly, gender dimorphism can evolve because female specialists are better able to escape local competition or to succeed in it. Building on the few existing models of disruptive selection on social traits, the mechanisms here show that selection for relaxed local competition (cooperation) can sometimes facilitate diversification and sometimes prevent it.

  11. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The method reduced greatly the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high background conduct...

  12. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high ba...

  13. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high ba...

  14. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships. PMID:22295174

  15. Pea Albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b), a promising bioinsecticide of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-12-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships.

  16. Natural occurrence of 16 fusarium toxins in grains and feedstuffs of plant origin from Germany.

    PubMed

    Schollenberger, Margit; Müller, Hans-Martin; Rüfle, Melanie; Suchy, Sybille; Plank, Susanne; Drochner, Winfried

    2006-01-01

    A total of 220 samples comprising cereals, cereal byproducts, corn plants and corn silage as well as non-grain based feedstuffs was randomly collected during 2000 and 2001 from sources located in Germany and analysed for 16 Fusarium toxins. The trichothecenes scirpentriol (SCIRP), 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (MAS), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin (HT-2, T-2), neosolaniol (NEO), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivealenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV) and fusarenon-X (FUS-X) were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zearalenone (ZEA) and alpha- and beta-zearalenol (alpha- and beta-ZOL) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV-detection. Detection limits ranged between 1 and 19 microg/kg. Out of 125 samples of a group consisting of wheat, oats, corn, corn byproducts, corn plants and corn silage only two wheat samples did not contain any of the toxins analysed. Based on 125 samples the incidences were at 2-11% for DAS, NEO, T-2 Triol, FUS-X, alpha- and beta-ZOL, at 20-22% for SCIRP, MAS, T-2 tetraol and 3-ADON, at 44-74% for HT-2, T-2, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEA, and at 94% for DON. Mean levels of positive samples were between 6 and 758 microg/kg. Out of 95 samples of a group consisting of hay, lupines, peas, soya meal, rapeseed meal and other oil-seed meals, 64 samples were toxin negative. DAS, T-2 triol, NEO and FUS-X were not detected in any sample. The incidences of DON and ZEA were at 14 and 23% respectively, those of the other toxins between 1-4%, mean levels of positive samples were between 5 and 95 microg/kg.

  17. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, David L.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clarke, Andrew C.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Tuross, Noreen

    2005-01-01

    New genetic and archaeological approaches have substantially improved our understanding of the transition to agriculture, a major turning point in human history that began 10,000–5,000 years ago with the independent domestication of plants and animals in eight world regions. In the Americas, however, understanding the initial domestication of New World species has long been complicated by the early presence of an African enigma, the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Indigenous to Africa, it reached East Asia by 9,000–8,000 before present (B.P.) and had a broad New World distribution by 8,000 B.P. Here we integrate genetic and archaeological approaches to address a set of long-standing core questions regarding the introduction of the bottle gourd into the Americas. Did it reach the New World directly from Africa or through Asia? Was it transported by humans or ocean currents? Was it wild or domesticated upon arrival? Fruit rind thickness values and accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens indicate that the bottle gourd was present in the Americas as a domesticated plant by 10,000 B.P., placing it among the earliest domesticates in the New World. Ancient DNA sequence analysis of archaeological bottle gourd specimens and comparison with modern Asian and African landraces identify Asia as the source of its introduction. We suggest that the bottle gourd and the dog, two “utility” species, were domesticated long before any food crops or livestock species, and that both were brought to the Americas by Paleoindian populations as they colonized the New World. PMID:16352716

  18. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Smith, Bruce D; Clarke, Andrew C; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Tuross, Noreen

    2005-12-20

    New genetic and archaeological approaches have substantially improved our understanding of the transition to agriculture, a major turning point in human history that began 10,000-5,000 years ago with the independent domestication of plants and animals in eight world regions. In the Americas, however, understanding the initial domestication of New World species has long been complicated by the early presence of an African enigma, the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Indigenous to Africa, it reached East Asia by 9,000-8,000 before present (B.P.) and had a broad New World distribution by 8,000 B.P. Here we integrate genetic and archaeological approaches to address a set of long-standing core questions regarding the introduction of the bottle gourd into the Americas. Did it reach the New World directly from Africa or through Asia? Was it transported by humans or ocean currents? Was it wild or domesticated upon arrival? Fruit rind thickness values and accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens indicate that the bottle gourd was present in the Americas as a domesticated plant by 10,000 B.P., placing it among the earliest domesticates in the New World. Ancient DNA sequence analysis of archaeological bottle gourd specimens and comparison with modern Asian and African landraces identify Asia as the source of its introduction. We suggest that the bottle gourd and the dog, two "utility" species, were domesticated long before any food crops or livestock species, and that both were brought to the Americas by Paleoindian populations as they colonized the New World.

  19. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pythium ultimum is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species. Results The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under abiotic stress and in the presence of a host. The predicted proteome includes a large repertoire of proteins involved in plant pathogen interactions, although, surprisingly, the P. ultimum genome does not encode any classical RXLR effectors and relatively few Crinkler genes in comparison to related phytopathogenic oomycetes. A lower number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were present compared to Phytophthora species, with the notable absence of cutinases, suggesting a significant difference in virulence mechanisms between P. ultimum and more host-specific oomycete species. Although we observed a high degree of orthology with Phytophthora genomes, there were novel features of the P. ultimum proteome, including an expansion of genes involved in proteolysis and genes unique to Pythium. We identified a small gene family of cadherins, proteins involved in cell adhesion, the first report of these in a genome outside the metazoans. Conclusions Access to the P. ultimum genome has revealed not only core pathogenic mechanisms within the oomycetes but also lineage-specific genes associated with the alternative virulence and lifestyles found within the pythiaceous lineages compared to the Peronosporaceae. PMID:20626842

  20. Identification and origin of plant pathogenic microorganisms in recirculating nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, M. E.; Rasmussen, S. L.

    1994-11-01

    Avoidance of root-infecting microorganisms was originally considered one of the advantages of cultivation of crops in a soilless, recirculating nutrient solution. However, to date, four viral, three bacterial and 21 fungal pathogens have been identified as causal agents of root disease in hydroponically-grown crops. Root-infecting fungi, particularly those which produce a motile stage known as a zoospore, have been the primary pathogens associated with extensive crop losses. Documented sources of these root pathogens in hydroponic systems include peat, surface water such as rivers and streams, and insects. The severity of disease caused by these introduced root pathogens is primarily governed by the genetic susceptibility of each crop and the temperature of the recirculating nutrient solution.

  1. Citgo Refining and Chemicals, West Plant, Corpus Chrisit, Texas, Order Granting in Part and Denying in Part Petition for Objection to the Title V Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Kings Plaza Total Energy Plant, Order Granting in part and Denying in part Petitions for Objection to Permits in Response to Remand

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  4. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  5. Uptake and translocation of metals in different parts of crop plants irrigated with contaminated water from DEPZ area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Goni, M A; Ahmad, J U; Halim, M A; Mottalib, M A; Chowdhury, D A

    2014-06-01

    Metal contamination in arable soils and crops grown in and around an industrial area of Bangladesh were measured, and the transfer factor from soils to crops was calculated accordingly. The highest concentration was observed for Fe and the order of metal concentration was Fe > Zn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd in soils. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals from roots to edible parts of the crop plants were varied for almost all elements studied. Absorption of metals was significantly more in the roots compared to other plant parts. Accumulation of all metals in the edible parts of the plants was compared with the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Bioconcentration factors values based on dry weights were below one for all metals except Cu in the rice roots and decreased in the order of Cu > Zn > Fe > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr.

  6. Sucrose and invertases, a part of the plant defense response to the biotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tauzin, Alexandra S.; Giardina, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose is the main form of assimilated carbon which is produced during photosynthesis and then transported from source to sink tissues via the phloem. This disaccharide is known to have important roles as signaling molecule and it is involved in many metabolic processes in plants. Essential for plant growth and development, sucrose is engaged in plant defense by activating plant immune responses against pathogens. During infection, pathogens reallocate the plant sugars for their own needs forcing the plants to modify their sugar content and triggering their defense responses. Among enzymes that hydrolyze sucrose and alter carbohydrate partitioning, invertases have been reported to be affected during plant-pathogen interactions. Recent highlights on the role of invertases in the establishment of plant defense responses suggest a more complex regulation of sugar signaling in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:25002866

  7. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment.

  8. Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to fluconazole by terpenoids of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali Kashinath; Raut, Jayant Shankar; Dhawale, Shashikant; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Infections associated with the biofilms of Candida albicans are a challenge to antifungal treatment. Combinatorial therapy involving plant molecules with antifungal drugs would be an effective complementary approach against drug-resistant Candida biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three bioactive terpenoids (carvacrol, eugenol and thymol) in combination with fluconazole against planktonic cells, biofilm development and mature biofilms of C. albicans. Activities of the selected molecules were tested using a microplate-based methodology, while their combinations with fluconazole were performed in a checkerboard format. Biofilms were quantitated by XTT-metabolic assay and confirmed by microscopic observations. Combinations of carvacrol and eugenol with fluconazole were found synergistic against planktonic growth of C. albicans, while that of thymol with fluconazole did not have any interaction. Biofilm development and mature biofilms were highly resistant to fluconazole, but susceptible to three terpenoids. Sensitization of cells by sub-inhibitory concentrations of carvacrol and eugenol resulted in prevention of biofilm formation at low fluconazole concentrations, i.e. 0.032 and 0.002 mg ml(-1), respectively. Addition of thymol could not potentiate activity of fluconazole against biofilm formation by C. albicans. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) for carvacrol-fluconazole and eugenol-fluconazole combinations for biofilm formation were 0.311 and 0.25, respectively. The FICI value of 1.003 indicated a status of indifference for the combination of thymol and fluconazole against biofilm formation. Eugenol and thymol combinations with fluconazole did not have useful interaction against mature biofilms of C. albicans, but the presence of 0.5 mg ml(-1) of carvacrol caused inhibition of mature biofilms at a significantly low concentration (i.e. 0.032 mg ml(-1)) of fluconazole. The study indicated that carvacrol and eugenol

  9. Application of chemometric analysis based on physicochemical and chromatographic data for the differentiation origin of plant protection products containing chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Bober, Katarzyna; Dołowy, Małgorzata; Pyka, Alina; Pszczolińska, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and dissimilarities between the pesticide samples in form of emulsifiable concentrates (EC) formulation containing chlorpyrifos as active ingredient coming from different sources (i.e., shops and wholesales) and also belonging to various series. The results obtained by the Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method and also some selected physicochemical properties of examined pesticides including pH, density, stability, active ingredient and water content in pesticides tested were compared using two chemometric methods. Applicability of simple cluster analysis and also principal component analysis of obtained data in differentiation of examined plant protection products coming from different sources was confirmed. It would be advantageous in the routine control of originality and also in the detection of counterfeit pesticides, respectively, among commercially available pesticides containing chlorpyrifos as an active ingredient.

  10. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants.

  11. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  12. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb. PMID:27747271

  13. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study.

    PubMed

    Kabir, M S; Salam, M A; Paul, D N R; Hossain, M I; Rahman, N M F; Aziz, Abdullah; Latif, M A

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the "mouza" map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08-0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb.

  14. Evaluation of CNS Depressant Activity of Different Plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sanjita; Sasmal, D.; Basu, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level. PMID:21369448

  15. Variation in the volatile constituents of different plant parts of Ligusticopsis wallichiana from western Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2012-08-01

    The essential oil composition of the leaves, stem, flowers and roots of Ligusticopsis wallichiana (DC.) Pimenov & Kljuykov were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Forty-five constituents, forming 93.2%-97.8% of the oil compositions, were dominated by acetylenic (31.5%-92.8%) compounds and sesquiterpenoids (0.3%-44.4%). The leaf essential oil was mainly composed 3,5-nonadiyne (35.8%), beta-selinene (20.9%), alpha-funebrene (10.1%) and (Z)-falcarinol (6.1%). The stem oil was dominated by acetylenic compounds (73.8%) represented by 3,5-nonadiyne (67.8%) and (Z)-falcarinol (5.7%). On the contrary, the major components of the flower essential oil were sesquiterpenoids (37.5%), such as germacrene D (16.6%), alpha-funebrene (7.4%), and acetylenic compounds (31.5%), such as (Z)-falcarinol (21.0%) and 3,5-nonadiyne (10.0%). Monoterpenoids constituted 23.9% of the flower oil with limonene (19.9%) as the single major constituent. The essential oil of the roots was dominated by 3,5-nonadiyne (90.5%). The results showed considerable qualitative and quantitative variations in the essential oil compositions of the different plant parts of L. wallichiana. (Z)-Falcarinol (1.9%-21.0%) and alpha-funebrene (0.1%-10.1%) were reported for the first time from the essential oils of L. wallichiana.

  16. Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lary, Laure; Roy, Céline; Paris, Jean-Philippe; Tournayre, Pascal; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Fernandez, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Absolutes isolated from Viola odorata leaves, valuable materials for the flavor and fragrance industry, were studied. Violets are mainly cultivated in France and Egypt and extracted locally. The absolutes of the two origins showed different olfactory profiles both in top and heart notes, as evidenced by sensory analysis. The aims of this study were i) to characterize the volatile compounds, ii) to determine the odorant-active ones, and iii) to identify some markers of the plant origin. Two complementary analytical methods were used for these purposes, i.e., headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using different fiber coatings followed by GC/MS analysis and gas chromatography - olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) applied to violet leaf extracts. From a total of 70 identified compounds, 61 have never been reported so far for this species, 17 compounds were characterized by both techniques (with seven among them known from the literature), 23 compounds were solely identified by HS-SPME GC/MS (among them only two being already mentioned as components of violet absolutes in the literature), and, finally, 30 compounds were only identified by GC-O/MS. According to the HS-SPME GC/MS analyses, ethyl hexanoate and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienol were specific volatile compounds of the sample with French origin, while (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal, hexanoic acid, limonene, tridecane, and eugenol were specific of the samples with Egyptian origin. Additional compounds that were not detected by HS-SPME GC/MS analysis were revealed by GC-O analyses, some of them being markers of origin. Pent-1-en-3-ol, 3-methylbut-2-enal, 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylethyl)pyrazine, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, β-phenethyl formate, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine revealed to be odorant markers of the French sample, whereas cis-rose oxide, trans-rose oxide, and 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enone were odorant markers of the Egyptian samples. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion based on a comparative analysis of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, E.; Delihas, N.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Gibson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of 5S ribosomal RNAs from Rhodocyclus gelatinosa, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Pseudomonas cepacia were determined. Comparisons of these 5S RNA sequences show that rather than being phylogenetically related to one another, the two photosynthetic bacterial 5S RNAs share more sequence and signature homology with the RNAs of two nonphotosynthetic strains. Rhodobacter sphaeroides is specifically related to Paracoccus denitrificans and Rc. gelatinosa is related to Ps. cepacia. These results support earlier 16S ribosomal RNA studies and add two important groups to the 5S RNA data base. Unique 5S RNA structural features previously found in P. denitrificans are present also in the 5S RNA of Rb. sphaeroides; these provide the basis for subdivisional signatures. The immediate consequence of obtaining these new sequences is that it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion. In particular, a close phylogenetic relationship is found between the plant mitochondria and members of the alpha subdivision of the purple photosynthetic bacteria, namely, Rb. sphaeroides, P. denitrificans, and Rhodospirillum rubrum.

  18. Origin and Evolution of GALA-LRR, a New Member of the CC-LRR Subfamily: From Plants to Bacteria?

    PubMed Central

    Kajava, Andrey V.; Anisimova, Maria; Peeters, Nemo

    2008-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum encodes type III effectors, called GALA proteins, which contain F-box and LRR domains. The GALA LRRs do not perfectly fit any of the previously described LRR subfamilies. By applying protein sequence analysis and structural prediction, we clarify this ambiguous case of LRR classification and assign GALA-LRRs to CC-LRR subfamily. We demonstrate that side-by-side packing of LRRs in the 3D structures may control the limits of repeat variability within the LRR subfamilies during evolution. The LRR packing can be used as a criterion, complementing the repeat sequences, to classify newly identified LRR domains. Our phylogenetic analysis of F-box domains proposes the lateral gene transfer of bacterial GALA proteins from host plants. We also present an evolutionary scenario which can explain the transformation of the original plant LRRs into slightly different bacterial LRRs. The examination of the selective evolutionary pressure acting on GALA proteins suggests that the convex side of their horse-shoe shaped LRR domains is more prone to positive selection than the concave side, and we therefore hypothesize that the convex surface might be the site of protein binding relevant to the adaptor function of the F-box GALA proteins. This conclusion provides a strong background for further functional studies aimed at determining the role of these type III effectors in the virulence of R. solanacearum. PMID:18301771

  19. Evolutionary origin of the NCSI gene subfamily encoding norcoclaurine synthase is associated with the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Deng, Xianbao; Owiti, Albert; Meelaph, Thitirat; Ogutu, Collins; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus is rich in biologically active compounds, particularly benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). Here, we report on isolation of genes encoding (S)-norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) in sacred lotus, which is a key entry-enzyme in BIA biosynthesis. Seven NCS genes, designated NnNCS1 through NnNCS7, were identified in the sacred lotus genome, and five are located next to each other within a 83 kb region on scaffold 8. The NCS genes are divided into two subfamilies, designated NCSI and NCSII. The NCSII genes are universal in plants, while the NCSI genes are only identified in a limited number of dicotyledonous taxa that produce BIAs. In sacred lotus, only NnNCS4 belongs to the NCSII subfamily, whilst the rest NCS genes within the NCSI subfamily. Overall, the NnNCS7 gene was predominantly expressed in all tested tissues, and its expression is significantly correlated with alkaloid content in leaf. In contrast, the NnNCS4 expression shows no significant correlation with alkaloid accumulation in leaf, and its lack of expression cannot inhibit alkaloid accumulation. Taken together, these results suggest that the NCSI subfamily is crucial for BIA biosynthesis, and its origin may represent an important evolutionary event that allows certain plant taxa to produce BIAs. PMID:27189519

  20. Phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion based on a comparative analysis of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, E.; Delihas, N.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Gibson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of 5S ribosomal RNAs from Rhodocyclus gelatinosa, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Pseudomonas cepacia were determined. Comparisons of these 5S RNA sequences show that rather than being phylogenetically related to one another, the two photosynthetic bacterial 5S RNAs share more sequence and signature homology with the RNAs of two nonphotosynthetic strains. Rhodobacter sphaeroides is specifically related to Paracoccus denitrificans and Rc. gelatinosa is related to Ps. cepacia. These results support earlier 16S ribosomal RNA studies and add two important groups to the 5S RNA data base. Unique 5S RNA structural features previously found in P. denitrificans are present also in the 5S RNA of Rb. sphaeroides; these provide the basis for subdivisional signatures. The immediate consequence of obtaining these new sequences is that it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion. In particular, a close phylogenetic relationship is found between the plant mitochondria and members of the alpha subdivision of the purple photosynthetic bacteria, namely, Rb. sphaeroides, P. denitrificans, and Rhodospirillum rubrum.

  1. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Moreau, J; Rahme, J; Benrey, B; Thiery, D

    2008-04-01

    According to the 'natal habitat preference induction' (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This 'naive' preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis "Hopkins host selection principle" and "chemical legacy" may thus be relevant in this system.

  2. Larval host plant origin modifies the adult oviposition preference of the female European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J.; Rahme, J.; Benrey, B.; Thiery, D.

    2008-04-01

    According to the ‘natal habitat preference induction’ (NHPI) hypothesis, phytophagous insect females should prefer to lay their eggs on the host species on which they developed as larvae. We tested whether this hypothesis applies to the breeding behaviour of polyphagous European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, an important pest in European vineyards. We previously found that different grape cultivars affect several life history traits of the moth. Because the different cultivars of grapes are suspected to provide different plant quality, we tested the NHPI hypothesis by examining oviposition choice of L. botrana among three Vitis vinifera cultivars (Pinot, Chasselas and Chardonnay). In a choice situation, females of L. botrana that had never experienced grapes were able to discriminate between different grape cultivars and preferentially selected Pinot as an oviposition substrate. This ‘naive’ preference of oviposition could be modified by larval environment: Females raised on grapes as larvae preferred to lay eggs on the cultivar that they had experienced. Furthermore, experience of the host plant during adult emergence could be excluded because when pupae originating from our synthetic diet were exposed to grapes, the emerging adults did not show preference for the cultivar from which they emerged. The NHPI hypothesis that includes the two sub-hypothesis “Hopkins host selection principle” and “chemical legacy” may thus be relevant in this system.

  3. A Geospatial Modelling Approach Integrating Archaeobotany and Genetics to Trace the Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Plants

    PubMed Central

    van Etten, Jacob; Hijmans, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The study of the prehistoric origins and dispersal routes of domesticated plants is often based on the analysis of either archaeobotanical or genetic data. As more data become available, spatially explicit models of crop dispersal can be used to combine different types of evidence. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a model in which a crop disperses through a landscape that is represented by a conductance matrix. From this matrix, we derive least-cost distances from the geographical origin of the crop and use these to predict the age of archaeological crop remains and the heterozygosity of crop populations. We use measures of the overlap and divergence of dispersal trajectories to predict genetic similarity between crop populations. The conductance matrix is constructed from environmental variables using a number of parameters. Model parameters are determined with multiple-criteria optimization, simultaneously fitting the archaeobotanical and genetic data. The consilience reached by the model is the extent to which it converges around solutions optimal for both archaeobotanical and genetic data. We apply the modelling approach to the dispersal of maize in the Americas. Conclusions/Significance The approach makes possible the integrative inference of crop dispersal processes, while controlling model complexity and computational requirements. PMID:20711460

  4. Mixing plants from different origins to restore a declining population: ecological outcomes and local perceptions 10 years later.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Anne-Claire; Abdelkrim, Jawad; Cisel, Matthieu; Zavodna, Monika; Bardin, Philippe; Matamoro, Alexis; Dumez, Richard; Machon, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L.) in the Fontainebleau forest (France) have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers) of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other) persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created), but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation.

  5. Mixing Plants from Different Origins to Restore a Declining Population: Ecological Outcomes and Local Perceptions 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Anne-Claire; Abdelkrim, Jawad; Cisel, Matthieu; Zavodna, Monika; Bardin, Philippe; Matamoro, Alexis; Dumez, Richard; Machon, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L.) in the Fontainebleau forest (France) have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers) of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other) persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created), but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation. PMID:23349668

  6. [Study on rapid identification of medicinal plants of Paris polyphylla from different origin areas by NIR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan-Li; Zhang, Ji; Yuan, Tian-Jun; Shen, Tao; Hou, Ying; Yang, Shi-Hua; Li, Wei; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Jin, Hang

    2014-07-01

    Based on near infrared spectroscopy, seventy samples of wild medicinal plants of paris polyphylla from Guizhou, Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces were collected to identify their geographical origins. Multiplication signal correction (MSC), standard normal variate (SNV), first derivative (FD), second derivative (SD), savitzky-Golay filter (SG), and Norris derivative filter (ND) were conducted to optimize the original spectra of fifty samples of training set. The results showed that the method MSC combined with SD and ND presented the best results of spectra pretreatment. According to spectrum standard deviation, spectrum range (7 450-4 050 cm(-1)) was chosen and principal component analysis-mahalanobis distance (PCA-MD) method was used to build the model. Its first three principal components, i. e. cumulative contribution, determination coefficient (R2), root-mean-square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) were 89.44%, 97.58%, 0.179 6 and 0.266 4, respectively, and the prediction accuracy is 90%. Furthermore, according to variable importance plot (VIP), spectrum range (7 135.33-4 007.35 cm(-1)) was chosen and partial least square discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to establish the model. Its first three principal components cumulative contribution, R2, RMSEC and RMSEP were 89.28%, 95.88%, 0.234 8 and 0.348 2, respectively, and the prediction accuracy is 100%. Comparing the two methods, we found that spectrum range chosen by VIP and model built by PLS-DA could provide greater accuracy in identifying paris polyphylla from different origin areas. The method supplied foundation for authenticity and quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine.

  7. The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3 - inflammatory profile of pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Omoigui, Sota

    2007-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby briefly describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and serve as a foundation to be built upon by other researchers and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... conversion of uranium fluorides to UO2. Many key equipment items for uranium conversion plants are common to... the hot effluent gases by passing the effluent stream through a cold trap cooled to -10°C. The process... common to several segments of the chemical process industry. For example, the types of equipment employed...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... conversion of uranium fluorides to UO2. Many key equipment items for uranium conversion plants are common to... the hot effluent gases by passing the effluent stream through a cold trap cooled to -10°C. The process... common to several segments of the chemical process industry. For example, the types of equipment employed...

  10. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... feed for electromagnetic enrichment. Note: Plutonium conversion plants and systems may perform one or... systems are particularly adapted so as to avoid criticality and radiation effects and to minimize toxicity... radiation effects and to minimize toxicity hazards. Other processes include the fluorination of plutonium...

  11. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part II: Reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes.

    PubMed

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathways are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have only been recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss in detail the recent strategies and achievements used in the reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in plants and microbes in an effort to be able to attain higher amounts of the desired flavonoids and stilbenoids exploiting their beneficial properties as analyzed extensively in Part I of this review.

  12. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR..., grinding and grading will be present. Mixed oxide fuels are handled in glove boxes (or...

  14. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by.... Relationship to environmental situation. Non-target organisms and integrated pest management programs. 2...

  15. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt? 23.92 Section 23.92 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION,...

  16. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  17. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem. d...

  18. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statements 1. Description of the problem. a. Pests. Identify the pest to be controlled by... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem. d...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for...

  20. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Schäuble, D.; Jeßberger, P.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulphur components. The Airborne chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using chemical ionization with SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG. Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2015) reports on the UTLS water vapour measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed generating a characteristic ionization scheme. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices, SO2 is permanently calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labelled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low ten pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement in the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO. Exemplarily, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. Comparison of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques allow to draw a comprehensive

  1. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Schäuble, Dominik; Jeßberger, Philipp; Ziereis, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulfur compounds. The Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG (Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for measurements of trace gases). Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2016) reports on the UTLS water vapor measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed for generation of reagent ions that selectively react with HCl, HNO3, SO2 and HONO. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices; SO2 is continuously calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labeled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO, which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low 10 pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement of the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO (High Altitude LOng range research aircraft). As an example, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition of the LMS/UT and Earth System Model Validation) mission with

  2. Diamond of Possibly Metallurgical and Seismic Origin: PART 3: Additional Specimens and a Proposal Calling for adjusted Methodologies for Diamondism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamn, M.

    2007-05-01

    , noniconic, nonstereotyping specimen population of primarily fine grains is needed. My theory accomodates (1) broad compositional ranges;(2) present or historical specimens; and (3)valid on a grain by grain scale as well as regional scale. A great nember of metallic elements are broadly similar to iron in crystal structure, phase equilibria, range of stoicheometry of solid solutions, and properties. Under favorable conditions, they could be as likely as iron to proceed to generate carbon. This expand to a great number of potential source metal for diamond. Further multiplying this number by alloying and centering (of lattice points) variations, the number of potential source could be vast. Above mentioned exercise is expendable to, for instance, Cr, Ni or other metals. This could provide for a missing link between diamond in stable craton and other diamonds. 1 Giamn, M., Diamond of possibly metallurgical and seismic origin in an alloy from the debris after earthquake Taiwan PART I,2004 Eos AGU Spring.2 Giamn, M. submitted to GCA. 3 Giamn, M., PART II (Thermal) past is present.

  3. 40 CFR 63.7082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., bucket elevators, and belt conveyors. No other materials processing operations are subject to this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing Plants...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., bucket elevators, and belt conveyors. No other materials processing operations are subject to this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing Plants...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., bucket elevators, and belt conveyors. No other materials processing operations are subject to this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing Plants...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., bucket elevators, and belt conveyors. No other materials processing operations are subject to this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing Plants...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., bucket elevators, and belt conveyors. No other materials processing operations are subject to this... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing Plants...

  8. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affected source, and thereby make subject to the requirements of this subpart, any coating operations, as... Parts and Products (subpart PPPP of this part) which apply coatings to new other motor vehicle bodies or body parts for new other motor vehicles, parts intended for use in new automobiles, new light-duty...

  9. Duplication and functional diversification of HAP3 genes leading to the origin of the seed-developmental regulatory gene, LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), in nonseed plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zengyan; Li, Xia; Glover, Beverley J; Bai, Shunong; Rao, Guang-Yuan; Luo, Jingchu; Yang, Ji

    2008-08-01

    The HAP3 gene encodes a subunit of the CCAAT-box-binding factor (CBF), a highly conserved trimeric activator that recognizes and binds the ubiquitous CCAAT promoter element with high affinity. Two types of HAP3 gene have been identified in plant genomes. The LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1)-type HAP3 genes encode a functionally specialized subunit of CBF, which is expressed specifically in developing seeds. In contrast, most non-LEC1-type HAP3 genes are expressed in various tissues. It has been proposed that the LEC1-type HAP3 genes originated from the duplication and functional divergence of non-LEC1-type HAP3 genes. However, it is not yet known when this duplication event took place or whether the LEC1-type HAP3 genes appeared at the same time as the origin of seed plants. Here we describe a comprehensive comparison of the duplication patterns of HAP3 genes in different plant genomes. We recognize a major expansion of the HAP3 gene family accompanying the origin and early diversification of land plants and postulate that retrotransposition and other mechanisms of gene duplication have been involved in the expansion of the plant HAP3 gene family. We provide evidence that the LEC1-type HAP3 genes originated in nonseed vascular plant genomes and demonstrate that they are inductively expressed under drought stress in nonseed plants. These genes, however, were recruited to a novel regulatory network in the early stages of seed plant evolution and steadily expressed during seed development and maturation.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Transcriptomes in Rhizophoraceae Provides Insights into the Origin and Adaptive Evolution of Mangrove Plants in Intertidal Environments

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wuxia; Wu, Haidan; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Chao; Hu, Ling; Shi, Xianggang; Jian, Shuguang; Shi, Suhua; Huang, Yelin

    2017-01-01

    Mangroves are woody plants that grow at the interface between land and sea in tropical and subtropical latitudes, where they exist in conditions of high salinity, extreme tides, strong winds, high temperatures, and muddy, anaerobic soils. Rhizophoraceae is a key mangrove family, with highly developed morphological and physiological adaptations to extreme conditions. It is an ideal system for the study of the origin and adaptive evolution of mangrove plants. In this study, we characterized and comprehensively compared the transcriptomes of four mangrove species, from all four mangrove genera, as well as their closest terrestrial relative in Rhizophoraceae, using RNA-Seq. We obtained 41,936–48,845 unigenes with N50 values of 982–1,185 bp and 61.42–69.48% annotated for the five species in Rhizophoraceae. Orthology annotations of Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Clusters of Orthologous Groups revealed overall similarities in the transcriptome profiles among the five species, whereas enrichment analysis identified remarkable genomic characteristics that are conserved across the four mangrove species but differ from their terrestrial relative. Based on 1,816 identified orthologs, phylogeny analysis and divergence time estimation revealed a single origin for mangrove species in Rhizophoraceae, which diverged from the terrestrial lineage ~56.4 million years ago (Mya), suggesting that the transgression during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum may have been responsible for the entry of the mangrove lineage of Rhizophoraceae into intertidal environments. Evidence showed that the ancestor of Rhizophoraceae may have experienced a whole genome duplication event ~74.6 Mya, which may have increased the adaptability and survival chances of Rhizophoraceae during and following the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction. The analysis of positive selection identified 10 positively selected genes from the ancestor branch of Rhizophoraceae mangroves, which

  11. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

  12. Plant Parts Snack--A Way to Family Involvement, Science Learning, and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Megan Mason

    2008-01-01

    As a teacher who loves to bring botany into her preschool classroom of 4- and 5-year-olds, the author makes edible plants a regular, popular feature of her students' environment. The author is fascinated when her students become increasingly adventurous in their tastes for vegetables the more they handle and understand plants. The author decided…

  13. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  17. Plant Parts Snack--A Way to Family Involvement, Science Learning, and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Megan Mason

    2008-01-01

    As a teacher who loves to bring botany into her preschool classroom of 4- and 5-year-olds, the author makes edible plants a regular, popular feature of her students' environment. The author is fascinated when her students become increasingly adventurous in their tastes for vegetables the more they handle and understand plants. The author decided…

  18. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The... furnace, and finished pellet handling operation at your taconite iron ore processing plant, as defined in...

  19. Ecological effects of the Hayman Fire - Part 7: Key invasive nonnative plants

    Treesearch

    Geneva Chong; Tom Stohlgren; Catherine Crosier; Sara Simonson; Greg Newman; Eric Petterson

    2003-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative plant species pose one of the greatest potential threats to long-term ecosystem integrity in the area burned by the 2002 Hayman Fire. In other ecosystems, nonnative invaders have been shown to cause decline of native plant species and pollinators, as well as adverse changes in fire regimes, nutrient cycling, and hydrology. Thus, invasive, nonnative...

  20. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  1. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  2. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  3. Is a Wood Waste Gasification Project at Norbord South Carolina, Inc. a Fuel Conversion Plant, Part II

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Nitric oxide as a secondary messenger during stomatal closure as a part of plant immunity response against pathogens.

    PubMed

    Agurla, Srinivas; Gayatri, Gunja; Raghavendra, Agepati S

    2014-12-01

    Stomata facilitate the loss of water, as well as CO2 uptake for photosynthesis. In addition, stomatal closure restricts the entry of pathogens into leaves and forms a part of plant defense response. Plants have evolved ways to modulate stomata by plant hormones as well as microbial elicitors, including pathogen/microbe associated molecular patterns. Stomatal closure initiated by signals of either abiotic or biotic factors results from the loss of guard cell turgor due mainly to K(+)/anion efflux. Nitric oxide (NO) is a key element among the signaling elements leading to stomatal closure, hypersensitive response and programmed cell death. Due to the growing importance of NO as signaling molecule in plants, and the strong relation between stomata and pathogen resistance, we attempted to present a critical overview of plant innate immunity, in relation to stomatal closure. The parallel role of NO during plant innate immunity and stomatal closure is highlighted. The cross-talk between NO and other signaling components, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed. The possible sources of NO and mechanisms of NO action, through post-translational modification of proteins are discussed. The mini-review is concluded with remarks on the existing gaps in our knowledge and suggestions for future research.

  5. One of the origins of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine in plant cells is a local synthesis by a serine exchange activity.

    PubMed

    Vincent, P; Maneta-Peyret, L; Sturbois-Balcerzak, B; Duvert, M; Cassagne, C; Moreau, P

    1999-12-24

    In plant cells, as in animal cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is considered to be the major site of phospholipid synthesis, and it has been shown that phosphatidylserine (PS) reaches the plasma membrane via the vesicular ER-Golgi-plasma membrane pathway in leek cells. However, it has never been determined whether the plasma membrane of leek cells is able to synthesize PS. We have analyzed the distribution of PS synthesizing enzymes along the vesicular pathway. In ER, Golgi and plasma membrane fractions isolated from leek cells, we have measured the activity of the two biosynthetic pathways leading to the synthesis of PS, i.e. serine exchange and CTP cytidylyltransferase plus PS synthase. We have found a high serine exchange activity in the plasma membrane fraction, and then determined that this membrane is able to synthesize both long chain fatty acid- and very long chain fatty acid-containing PS. Therefore, the PS in the plasma membrane of leek cells has two different origins: the intracellular vesicular pathway from the ER and a local synthesis in the plasma membrane.

  6. Specific PCR assays to determine bovine, porcine, fish and plant origin of gelatin capsules of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jo, Cheon-Ho; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2016-11-15

    Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from pig skin and bovine tissue, is used widely in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Here, to determine the species of origin of capsule gelatin, we developed a sensitive and reliable test using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which included 1) species-specific or universal primer sets, designed to detect short 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from cow, pig, and fish (tilapia) as well as genes encoding the large subunit of plant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and 2) species-specific PCR coupled with whole-genome amplification. This method was used to verify manufacturing label claims of 28 gelatin capsule samples sold as dietary supplements. The results from 27 samples were consistent with gelatin-related information on the manufacturer label, while one sample that mentioned tilapia gelatin was found to contain only bovine DNA. This rapid method can therefore be used to verify the authenticity of gelatin capsules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracing cohesive sediment transportation at river mouths around Tokyo, Japan by Cesium originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Sediment transport at river mouths, which consists of suspended-load and bed-load, has not been fully understood, since bed-load transport of cohesive sand is difficult to observe. Especially, the impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo and Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing radionuclide originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be greatly dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. In addition,the transport driven by the rainfall was minute, and its behavior was quite different from suspended solids. Although further field observations of radionuclide are necessary, it is clear that fine-grained sediment in the bay from rivers already settled on the river mouth by aggregation. The settled sand will not move even in rainfall events. Consequently, the transport of radionuclide to the Pacific Ocean may not occur.; Cesium distribution around Tokyo Bay ; Cesium Concentration in Edogawa river

  8. Tracing Sediment Transport at River Mouths in Tokyo Bay using Cesium Originated from Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    koibuchi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of sediment transport on the total amount of fine-grained cohesive sediment has not been elucidated at estuaries. Cesium134 and cesium137 were spread from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) after the earthquake of March 11 of 2011, and attached to the fine-grained sand on the land. The contaminated sand flowed into the river mouths through the rivers possibly due to the complex physical processes in estuarine areas. To evaluate the fine-grained sediment transport around Tokyo Bay, field observations were carried out utilizing the sediment core of radionuclides originated from FDNPP as an effective tracer. The cohesive sediment transport at three different river mouths around Tokyo was successfully quantified every 3 months. The cohesive sediment transport deposited in the estuary was found to be dependent on the land use, geometry, river discharge and salinity. As a result, most of a sediment transport occurred in 2011. This sediment accumulated near the river mouth depending on the river discharge at rain fall events. Each flux of sediment was shown by this observation results including run-off from water shed, flux of rivers and stocks in rivers and the bay. Spatial distributions of radionuclide in Tokyo Bay Time series of surface radio-nuclide in Arakawa-river.

  9. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... choose to include in your affected source, and thereby make subject to the requirements of this subpart... other motor vehicle bodies or body parts for new other motor vehicles, parts intended for use in new automobiles, new light-duty trucks, or new other motor vehicles, or aftermarket repair or replacement parts...

  10. Tracing the geographic origin of traded leopard body parts in the indian subcontinent with DNA-based assignment tests.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Samrat; Sridhar, Vanjulavalli; Yadav, Prasanjeet; Gubbi, Sanjay; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-04-01

    Illicit trade in wildlife products is rapidly decimating many species across the globe. Such trade is often underestimated for wide-ranging species until it is too late for the survival of their remaining populations. Policing this trade could be vastly improved if one could reliably determine geographic origins of illegal wildlife products and identify areas where greater enforcement is needed. Using DNA-based assignment tests (i.e., samples are assigned to geographic locations), we addressed these factors for leopards (Panthera pardus) on the Indian subcontinent. We created geography-specific allele frequencies from a genetic reference database of 173 leopards across India to infer geographic origins of DNA samples from 40 seized leopard skins. Sensitivity analyses of samples of known geographic origins and assignments of seized skins demonstrated robust assignments for Indian leopards. We found that confiscated pelts seized in small numbers were not necessarily from local leopards. The geographic footprint of large seizures appeared to be bigger than the cumulative footprint of several smaller seizures, indicating widespread leopard poaching across the subcontinent. Our seized samples had male-biased sex ratios, especially the large seizures. From multiple seized sample assignments, we identified central India as a poaching hotspot for leopards. The techniques we applied can be used to identify origins of seized illegal wildlife products and trade routes at the subcontinent scale and beyond. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 1008 - Attorneys: Circumstances That Require a State Mortgage Loan Originator License

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt... Originator License This appendix D clarifies the circumstances in which the S.A.F.E. Act requires a licensed... that are different from the criteria for specific exemptions from the S.A.F.E. Act requirements and the...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 1008 - Attorneys: Circumstances That Require a State Mortgage Loan Originator License

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt... Originator License This appendix D clarifies the circumstances in which the S.A.F.E. Act requires a licensed... that are different from the criteria for specific exemptions from the S.A.F.E. Act requirements and the...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 1008 - Attorneys: Circumstances That Require a State Mortgage Loan Originator License

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PROTECTION S.A.F.E. MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT-STATE COMPLIANCE AND BUREAU REGISTRATION SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt... Originator License This Appendix D clarifies the circumstances in which the S.A.F.E. Act requires a licensed... that are different from the criteria for specific exemptions from the S.A.F.E. Act requirements and the...

  14. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  15. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production... plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b) An...

  16. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production... plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b) An...

  17. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  18. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat... of your plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat... of your plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat... of your plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b...