Science.gov

Sample records for plant origin part

  1. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  2. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  3. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin--Part III: Third and fourth generation studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, B J; Neal, J D; Gough, T A

    1985-01-01

    Two further generations of Cannabis plants have been grown from seeds produced by earlier generation plants which were raised in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1980 and 1981. The original seedstocks were from known countries of origin. Although there are exceptions, both the physical and chemical characteristics of the third and fourth generation plants generally resemble those of their parents. The yields of cannabis vary substantially from year to year. The total tetrahydrocannabinol contents also vary, but are comparable with the levels in the original plants. Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid continues to predominate over free tetrahydrocannabinol and is much higher than in the original plants.

  5. The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin--Part II: second generation studies.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Taylor, B J

    1983-01-01

    A second generation of Cannabis plants has been grown from seeds produced by first generation plants which were raised in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds taken from imported cannabis of known geographical origin and chemistry. The gross physical appearance of the second generation plants, in general, resembled their parents and the cannabis produced therefrom was not usually distinguishable from that derived from first generation plants. Although cannabinoid patterns were, in some cases, similar to those of both parents and original seedstock cannabis, there were many exceptions. The yields of cannabis were significantly higher than from first generation plants, but the tetrahydrocannabinol contents were lower. Although higher than in the original imported cannabis, the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid to tetrahydrocannabinol ratios in cannabis from second generation plants were lower than in cannabis produced from first generation plants.

  6. Plant Parts: Common Scents and Good Taste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in an investigation of the usefulness of plant parts as a food source. An introduction discusses the dependence of animal life on plants. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  7. 3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ORIGINAL THREE STEAM PLANT BOILERS ALONG WEST SIDE OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTHWEST. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ORIGINAL SOUTH SIDE, EAST PART, ALSO SHOWING PATH FROM EAST FRONT LEADING TO CENTRAL CAMPUS. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  9. Air and the origin of the experimental plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that oxygen and carbon dioxide are two chemicals which enter the plant metabolism as nutrients. The bases of this nowadays obvious statement were placed in the 18th century by means of the works of ingenious naturalists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Hales, Joseph Priestley, Jam Ingenhousz, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodore De Saussure. Till the end of the 17th century, the atmospheric air was considered as an ineffable spirit, the function of which was of physical nature. Boyle was the first naturalist to admit the possibility that respiration were an exchange of vapours occurring in the blood. Stephen Hales realised that air could be fixed by plants under the influence of solar light. Priestley showed that plants could regenerate the bad air making it breathable. Ingenhousz demonstrated that the green parts of plants performed the complete purification of air only under the influence of the light. Spallanzani discovered that plants respire and guessed that the good air (oxygen) originated from the fixed air (carbon dioxide). Finally, Theodore De Saussure showed that plants were able to adsorb carbon dioxide and to release oxygen in a proportional air. All these discoveries benefited of the results coming from investigations of scholars of the so-called "pneumatic chemistry" (Boyle himself, George Ernst Stahl, Joseph Black, Priestley himself, and many more others. But among all the eminent scientists above mentioned stands out the genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who revolutionised the chemistry of the 18th century ferrying it towards the modern chemistry. PMID:16440283

  10. Air and the origin of the experimental plant physiology.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that oxygen and carbon dioxide are two chemicals which enter the plant metabolism as nutrients. The bases of this nowadays obvious statement were placed in the 18th century by means of the works of ingenious naturalists such as Robert Boyle, Stephen Hales, Joseph Priestley, Jam Ingenhousz, Lazzaro Spallanzani and Theodore De Saussure. Till the end of the 17th century, the atmospheric air was considered as an ineffable spirit, the function of which was of physical nature. Boyle was the first naturalist to admit the possibility that respiration were an exchange of vapours occurring in the blood. Stephen Hales realised that air could be fixed by plants under the influence of solar light. Priestley showed that plants could regenerate the bad air making it breathable. Ingenhousz demonstrated that the green parts of plants performed the complete purification of air only under the influence of the light. Spallanzani discovered that plants respire and guessed that the good air (oxygen) originated from the fixed air (carbon dioxide). Finally, Theodore De Saussure showed that plants were able to adsorb carbon dioxide and to release oxygen in a proportional air. All these discoveries benefited of the results coming from investigations of scholars of the so-called "pneumatic chemistry" (Boyle himself, George Ernst Stahl, Joseph Black, Priestley himself, and many more others. But among all the eminent scientists above mentioned stands out the genius of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, who revolutionised the chemistry of the 18th century ferrying it towards the modern chemistry.

  11. 6. Photocopy of Historic Plan. PUMPING PLANT (Original plan, U. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of Historic Plan. PUMPING PLANT (Original plan, U. S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yakima, WA., December 21, 1914) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  12. 4. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT (Original print, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of Historic Construction Photograph. PUMPING PLANT (Original print, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Yakima, WA., ca. 1915) - Outlook Irrigation District, Pumping Plant & Woodstave Pipe, Hudson Road & Snipes Lateral Road vicinity, Outlook, Yakima County, WA

  13. 12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 2, ORIGINAL ZEOLITE PLANT, AT WEYMOUTH LOOKING WEST TO FOUNTAIN. STAIRWAY RUNS DOWN TO FILTRATION BAYS. - F. E. Weymouth Filtration Plant, 700 North Moreno Avenue, La Verne, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 12. SOUTH END OF ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING BEFORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. SOUTH END OF ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING BEFORE RENOVATIONS TO HOUSE STEAM UNITS. December 6, 1940 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. CONSTRUCTION OF FOUNDATION FOR ORIGINAL CROSSCUT DIESEL PLANT BUILDING, LATER ENLARGED TO HOUSE STEAM GENERATING EQUIPMENT. November 23, 1937 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. The Origin of Land Plants: A Phylogenomic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Bojian; Sun, Linhua; Penny, David

    2015-01-01

    Land plants are a natural group, and Charophyte algae are the closest lineages of land plants and have six morphologically diverged groups. The conjugating green algae (Zygnematales) are now suggested to be the extant sister group to land plants, providing the novel understanding for character evolution and early multicellular innovations in land plants. We review recent molecular phylogenetic work on the origin of land plants and discuss some future directions in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:26244002

  17. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively. PMID:12087774

  18. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively.

  19. IMMUNOMODULATORS OF PLANT ORIGIN – A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, D.N.K.; Khosa, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The immunomodulatory property of plants is being studied with greater interest in recent years. This is more so because of the growing awareness regarding the need to modulate the immune system to achieve the desirable effects of preventing an infection rather than treating it at an advanced state. The recent advances in this field are summarized in this article. PMID:22556667

  20. Development Of Software To Recognize Parts Of Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Despain, Ronald R.; Tharpe, Roy, Jr.; Davis, Leon; Hauss, Sharon; Shawaga, Larry; Biro, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Report describes first phase in development of digital image-processing subsystem recognizing parts of plants. Subsystem part of robotic system tending and harvesting plants in automated plant-growth chamber. Initial focus on image-processing software that distinguishes among seed heads, stems, and leaves of wheat plants and further distinguishes between these parts and background. Software adaptable to other types of plants.

  1. Structural origins of morphing in plant tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-On, Benny; Sui, Xiaomeng; Livanov, Konstantin; Achrai, Ben; Kalfon-Cohen, Estelle; Wiesel, Erica; Daniel Wagner, H.

    2014-07-01

    Plant tissues are able to generate complex movements via shape modifications. These effects are tightly related to distinctive multi-scale composite architectures of the plant material, and can therefore largely be interpreted by composite mechanics principles. Here, we propose a generic framework for the analysis and prediction of the shape morphing of intricate biological composite materials, arising from changes in humidity. We have examined in depth the hierarchical structures of three types of seed pods for which we propose a theoretical scheme that is able to accurately simulate the relevant shape deformations. The validity and generality of this approach are confirmed by means of laboratory scale synthetic models with similar architectures leading to equivalent morphing patterns. Such synthetic configurations could pave the way to future morphing architectures of advanced materials and structures.

  2. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews.

  3. Rockets, radiosensitizers, and RRx-001: an origin story part I.

    PubMed

    Oronsky, Bryan; Scicinski, Jan; Ning, Shoucheng; Peehl, Donna; Oronsky, Arnold; Cabrales, Pedro; Bednarski, Mark; Knox, Susan

    2016-03-01

    From Adam and Eve, to Darwinism, origin stories attempt to fill in the blanks, connect the dots, and define the turning points that are fundamental to subsequent developments. The purpose of this review is to present the origin story of a one-of-a-kind anticancer agent, RRx-001, which emerged from the aerospace industry as a putative radiosensitizer; not since the dynamite-to-dilator transformation of nitroglycerin in 1878 or the post-World War II explosive-to-elixir conversion of hydralazine, an ingredient in rocket fuel, to an antihypertensive, an antidepressant and an antituberculant, has energetic chemistry been harnessed for therapeutic purposes. This is Part 1 of the radiosensitization story; Parts 2 and 3, which detail the crossover activity of RRx-001 as a chemosensitizer in multiple tumor types and disease states including malaria, hemorrhagic shock and sickle cell anemia, are the subject of future reviews. PMID:27115167

  4. GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF WESTERN PART OF PLANT INCLUDING (LEFT TO RIGHT) BETHLEHEM RAIL MILL, GENERAL OFFICE BUILDING, MACHINE SHOP, BAR MILL, BLOOMING MILL & OPEN HEARTH PLANT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Open Hearth Plant, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  5. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLANS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  6. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  7. [Pharmacognostical study on four origin plants of folk medicine Sikuaiwa].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Peng, Yu-jiao; Wu, Zhi-gui; Lin, Gui-bing; Xu, Yan-qin; Luo, Yong-ming

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop characteristic folk medicine resources in Jiangxi, a pharmacognostical study was systematically performed for four different origin plants of Sikuaiwa, the result of study provides the microscopic features of powder and tissue of the crude drug. The research provided reference for the identification of Sikuaiwa, as well as a theoretical basis for the further development and the formulation of quality standards.

  8. Phytochrome diversity in green plants and the origin of canonical plant phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fay-Wei; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Pryer, Kathleen M; Mathews, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is highly conserved. Liverworts, hornworts and Selaginella apparently possess a single phytochrome, whereas independent gene duplications occurred within mosses, lycopods, ferns and seed plants, leading to diverse phytochrome families in these clades. Surprisingly, the phytochrome portions of algal and land plant neochromes, a chimera of phytochrome and phototropin, appear to share a common origin. Our results reveal novel phytochrome clades and establish the basis for understanding phytochrome functional evolution in land plants and their algal relatives. PMID:26215968

  9. Phytochrome diversity in green plants and the origin of canonical plant phytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fay-Wei; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J.; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Graham, Sean W.; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Pryer, Kathleen M.; Mathews, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is highly conserved. Liverworts, hornworts and Selaginella apparently possess a single phytochrome, whereas independent gene duplications occurred within mosses, lycopods, ferns and seed plants, leading to diverse phytochrome families in these clades. Surprisingly, the phytochrome portions of algal and land plant neochromes, a chimera of phytochrome and phototropin, appear to share a common origin. Our results reveal novel phytochrome clades and establish the basis for understanding phytochrome functional evolution in land plants and their algal relatives. PMID:26215968

  10. Phytochrome diversity in green plants and the origin of canonical plant phytochromes.

    PubMed

    Li, Fay-Wei; Melkonian, Michael; Rothfels, Carl J; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Stevenson, Dennis W; Graham, Sean W; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Pryer, Kathleen M; Mathews, Sarah

    2015-07-28

    Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is highly conserved. Liverworts, hornworts and Selaginella apparently possess a single phytochrome, whereas independent gene duplications occurred within mosses, lycopods, ferns and seed plants, leading to diverse phytochrome families in these clades. Surprisingly, the phytochrome portions of algal and land plant neochromes, a chimera of phytochrome and phototropin, appear to share a common origin. Our results reveal novel phytochrome clades and establish the basis for understanding phytochrome functional evolution in land plants and their algal relatives.

  11. [Pharmacognostical study on four origin plants of folk medicine Sikuaiwa].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Peng, Yu-jiao; Wu, Zhi-gui; Lin, Gui-bing; Xu, Yan-qin; Luo, Yong-ming

    2015-11-01

    In order to develop characteristic folk medicine resources in Jiangxi, a pharmacognostical study was systematically performed for four different origin plants of Sikuaiwa, the result of study provides the microscopic features of powder and tissue of the crude drug. The research provided reference for the identification of Sikuaiwa, as well as a theoretical basis for the further development and the formulation of quality standards. PMID:27071252

  12. Autosomal origin of sex chromosome in a polyploid plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While theory on sex chromosome evolution is well developed, evidence of the early stages of this process remains elusive, in part because this process unfolded in many animals so long ago. The relatively recent and repeated evolution of separate sexes (dioecy) and sex chromosomes in plants, however,...

  13. Charles Darwin and the Origins of Plant Evolutionary Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, William E.; Diggle, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form. PMID:21515816

  14. Charles Darwin and the origins of plant evolutionary developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, William E; Diggle, Pamela K

    2011-04-01

    Much has been written of the early history of comparative embryology and its influence on the emergence of an evolutionary developmental perspective. However, this literature, which dates back nearly a century, has been focused on metazoans, without acknowledgment of the contributions of comparative plant morphologists to the creation of a developmental view of biodiversity. We trace the origin of comparative plant developmental morphology from its inception in the eighteenth century works of Wolff and Goethe, through the mid nineteenth century discoveries of the general principles of leaf and floral organ morphogenesis. Much like the stimulus that von Baer provided as a nonevolutionary comparative embryologist to the creation of an evolutionary developmental view of animals, the comparative developmental studies of plant morphologists were the basis for the first articulation of the concept that plant (namely floral) evolution results from successive modifications of ontogeny. Perhaps most surprisingly, we show that the first person to carefully read and internalize the remarkable advances in the understanding of plant morphogenesis in the 1840s and 1850s is none other than Charles Darwin, whose notebooks, correspondence, and (then) unpublished manuscripts clearly demonstrate that he had discovered the developmental basis for the evolutionary transformation of plant form.

  15. Origin of floral isolation between ornithophilous and sphingophilous plant species.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V

    1993-01-01

    Three plant groups in temperate western North America contain closely related ornithophilous and sphingophilous species: the Aquilegia formosa/Aquilegia caerulea group (Ranunculaceae), the Ipomopsis aggregata group (Polemoniaceae), and the Diplacus longiflorus group (Scrophulariaceae). The ornithophilous and sphingophilous species are products of allopatric speciation on the diploid level. Geographical races which are adapted to one class of pollinators in one area where these pollinators are abundant and effective and to another class of pollinators in another geographically isolated area (pollination races) represent a probable intermediate stage in the process of allopatric speciation. Mechanical and ethological isolation (collectively, floral isolation) is a byproduct of the divergence in pollination systems. Selection for reproductive isolation per se has not played any detectable role in the origin of the floral isolation in the three plant groups. PMID:11607421

  16. Multitarget drugs of plants origin acting on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Frustaci, A; Del Bufalo, A; Fini, M; Cesario, A

    2013-01-01

    The etiopathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is extremely complex and heterogeneous, often associated with comorbidities. As a result it may be unlikely that AD may be mitigated by drug acting on a single specific target. The current tendency in drug design and discovery in AD is the rational design or "serendipitous" discovery of new drug entities challenging multiple targets. Since two of the presently approved drugs for AD are based on natural products (galantamine and the physostigmine-derivative rivastigmine), many plants are now under investigation as a potential source of new drugs. Multifunctional drugs often have their origin in natural sources. This review is limited to plant chemicals having different targets with actual (galantamine) or promising (drugs from Crocus sativus, Ginkgo biloba, Salvia species, and Huperzia serrata) clinical evidence in people with dementia or AD.

  17. Parts of Plants. Hawaii Nature Study Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Curriculum Research and Development Group.

    This teaching guide is one of a series developed by the Curriculum Research and Development Group at the University of Hawaii. The program is laboratory and field oriented for elementary students. The focus of study for the project is the plant and animal life and the physical components of the Hawaiian environment, and their ecological…

  18. B Plant/WESF suspect/counterfeit parts identification program

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, D.W.

    1996-01-12

    This document describes a suspect/counterfeit parts inspection program required by DOE conducted in accordance with Internal Memo 16710-94-DWM-048, J.A. O`Brien to J. N. Nansen, B Plant Suspect/ Counterfeit Parts Action Plan, dated May 24, 1994. The program included: physical inspection of all spare parts inventories within the plant; screening of installed B Plant/WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) systems for applications where the use and subsequent potential failure of suspect/counterfeit parts could have critical consequences; and a physical inspection based upon this screening.

  19. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 181 - Rules of Origin Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE..., spare parts or tools that are delivered with a good and form part of the good's standard accessories... with subsection 3(1) of these Regulations”, (b) in the case of Mexico, the valor en aduana...

  20. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 181 - Rules of Origin Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE..., spare parts or tools that are delivered with a good and form part of the good's standard accessories... with subsection 3(1) of these Regulations”, (b) in the case of Mexico, the valor en aduana...

  1. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 181 - Rules of Origin Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE..., spare parts or tools that are delivered with a good and form part of the good's standard accessories... with subsection 3(1) of these Regulations”, (b) in the case of Mexico, the valor en aduana...

  2. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 181 - Rules of Origin Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE..., spare parts or tools that are delivered with a good and form part of the good's standard accessories... with subsection 3(1) of these Regulations”, (b) in the case of Mexico, the valor en aduana...

  3. 19 CFR Appendix to Part 181 - Rules of Origin Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE..., spare parts or tools that are delivered with a good and form part of the good's standard accessories... with subsection 3(1) of these Regulations”, (b) in the case of Mexico, the valor en aduana...

  4. Plant and Animal Gravitational Biology. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA2 includes short reports covering: (1) The Interaction of Microgravity and Ethylene on Soybean Growth and Metabolism; (2) Structure and G-Sensitivity of Root Statocytes under Different Mass Acceleration; (3) Extracellular Production of Taxanes on Cell Surfaces in Simulated Microgravity and Hypergravity; (4) Current Problems of Space Cell Phytobiology; (5) Biological Consequences of Microgravity-Induced Alterations in Water Metabolism of Plant Cells; (6) Localization of Calcium Ions in Chlorella Cells Under Clinorotation; (7) Changes of Fatty Acids Content of Plant Cell Plasma Membranes under Altered Gravity; (8) Simulation of Gravity by Non-Symmetrical Vibrations and Ultrasound; and (9) Response to Simulated weightlessness of In Vitro Cultures of Differentiated Epithelial Follicular Cells from Thyroid.

  5. Spare parts inventory risk for decision making in plant maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Kamal Imran; Ibrahim, Jafni Azhan; Udin, Zulkifli Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Equipment breakdown due to unavailability of spare parts is really disastrous in plant maintenance. The failure increase the cost of repair and production downtime. Therefore, it is important to understand the maintenance and inventory function in order to ensure the plant operate accordingly. Moreover, it is necessary for the plant maintenance to balance the issue of shortage and excess of inventory in plant maintenance. In view of this situation, the spare parts become a critical matters and it is good starting point to tackle the issues from looking at the perspective of spare parts inventory risk. This paper describes the development of risk technique for plant maintenance decision making purposes using the Shortage and Excess Impact Table. It also used the Breakdown Probability Table to quantify the risk for the spare part failure.

  6. Recognition of plant parts with problem-specific algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanke, Joerg; Brendel, Thorsten; Jensch, Peter F.; Megnet, Roland

    1994-06-01

    Automatic micropropagation is necessary to produce cost-effective high amounts of biomass. Juvenile plants are dissected in clean- room environment on particular points on the stem or the leaves. A vision-system detects possible cutting points and controls a specialized robot. This contribution is directed to the pattern- recognition algorithms to detect structural parts of the plant.

  7. The origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins.

    PubMed

    An, S S; Möpps, B; Weber, K; Bhattacharya, D

    1999-02-01

    The Viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the Chlorophyta, which includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; and the Streptophyta, which includes the Charophyceae and all land plants. Within the Streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. Previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex gene families. We address the origin and diversification of land plant actin genes by studying the phylogeny of actins within the green algae, ferns, and fern allies. Partial genomic sequences or cDNAs encoding actin were characterized from Cosmarium botrytis (Zygnematales), Selaginella apoda (Selaginellales), Anemia phyllitidis (Polypodiales), and Psilotum triquetrum (Psilotales). Selaginella contains at least two actin genes. One sequence (Ac2) diverges within a group of fern sequences that also includes the Psilotum Ac1 actin gene and one gymnosperm sequence (Cycas revoluta Cyc3). This clade is positioned outside of the angiosperm actin gene radiation. The second Selaginella sequence (Ac1) is the sister to all remaining land plant actin sequences, although the internal branches in this portion of the tree are very short. Use of complete actin-coding regions in phylogenetic analyses provides support for the separation of angiosperm actins into two classes. N-terminal "signature" sequence analyses support these groupings. One class (VEG) includes actin genes that are often expressed in vegetative structures. The second class (REP) includes actin genes that trace their ancestry within the vegetative actins and contains members that are largely expressed in reproductive structures. Analysis of intron positions within actin genes shows that sequences from both Selaginella and Cosmarium contain the conserved 20-3, 152-1, and 356-3 introns found in many members of the

  8. Partly pedogenic origin of magnetic variations in Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Oldfield, F.; Wintle, A. G.; Robinson, S. G.; Wang, J. T.

    1990-08-01

    QUATERNARY sequences of interbedded aeolian silts (loess) and buried soils (palaeosols) potentially provide one of the best terrestrial records of past climates1-5. Magnetic susceptibility variations in loess and palaeosol sequences from China are strongly correlated with climate-induced fluctuations of oxygen isotope ratios in deep-sea sediments2-4,6-8. As an explanation of this correlation, it has been suggested that the recorded variations in magnetic susceptibility depend primarily on the degree of dilution by non-magnetic bulk loess constituents of a uniform magnetic assemblage derived from remote but unknown sources6-8. It has also been suggested that such a model, involving changes in the accumulation rate of loess superimposed on a constant flux of magnetic particles, provides a relative geological timescale through the control of loess deposition by astronomically modulated climate fluctuations7. Here we report a preliminary test of this model using rock magnetic properties especially sensitive to variations in magnetic grain size. Our results show that palaeosols are characterized by much finer magnetic grain size assemblages than are the intervening loess units. This suggests that a simple model based on constant magnetic influx and dilution by variable amounts of non-magnetic loess is inadequate. Our magnetic measurements establish the close comparability of the fine grained magnetic minerals in the palaeosol samples to those in contemporary soils and thus point to a partially pedogenic origin for the magnetic mineral assemblages in the palaeosols.

  9. Plant host and soil origin influence fungal and bacterial assemblages in the roots of woody plants.

    PubMed

    Bonito, Gregory; Reynolds, Hannah; Robeson, Michael S; Nelson, Jessica; Hodkinson, Brendan P; Tuskan, Gerald; Schadt, Christopher W; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2014-07-01

    Microbial communities in plant roots provide critical links between above- and belowground processes in terrestrial ecosystems. Variation in root communities has been attributed to plant host effects and microbial host preferences, as well as to factors pertaining to soil conditions, microbial biogeography and the presence of viable microbial propagules. To address hypotheses regarding the influence of plant host and soil biogeography on root fungal and bacterial communities, we designed a trap-plant bioassay experiment. Replicate Populus, Quercus and Pinus plants were grown in three soils originating from alternate field sites. Fungal and bacterial community profiles in the root of each replicate were assessed through multiplex 454 amplicon sequencing of four loci (i.e., 16S, SSU, ITS, LSU rDNA). Soil origin had a larger effect on fungal community composition than did host species, but the opposite was true for bacterial communities. Populus hosted the highest diversity of rhizospheric fungi and bacteria. Root communities on Quercus and Pinus were more similar to each other than to Populus. Overall, fungal root symbionts appear to be more constrained by dispersal and biogeography than by host availability.

  10. Plants and Chemistry: A Teaching Course Based on the Chemistry of Substances of Plant Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Katia; Calascibetta, Franco; Campanella, Luigi; Favero, Gabriele; Occhionero, Francesca

    2002-08-01

    Over the past few years, we developed an idea about the teaching of chemistry by determining the links between theory and the real world. The principles, concepts, and experimental procedures of chemistry were illustrated through an original approach based on useful substances obtained from plants. The starting point was substances that have always been obtained from trees and vegetables. The approach was implemented during many refresher courses for secondary school teachers of chemistry. The courses were divided into sections, each called "Plants and ...", dedicated to colors, odors, tastes, medicines and drugs, fibers, soaps, and alcoholic beverages. Each section consisted of a theoretical lesson followed by a laboratory session.

  11. Research progress of pharmacological activities and analytical methods for plant origin proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-hong; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-ning; Yang, Feng-qing

    2015-07-01

    As one of the important active components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), plant origin active proteins have many significant pharmacological functions. According to researches on the plant origin active proteins reported in recent years, pharmacological effects include anti-tumor, immune regulation, anti-oxidant, anti-pathogeny microorganism, anti-thrombus, as well as hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic activities of plant origin were reviewed, respectively. On the other hand, the analytical methods including chromatography, spectroscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for plant origin proteins analysis were also summarized. The main purpose of this paper is providing a reference for future development and application of plant active proteins.

  12. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well. PMID:25185980

  13. Diabetes mellitus type 2 and functional foods of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the common, exponentially growing, serious human health problem existing globally. Risk factors like genetic predisposition, lack of balanced diet, inappropriate and lethargic lifestyle, overweight, obesity, stress including emotional and oxidative and lack of probiotics in gut are found to be the causing factors either in isolation or in synergy predisposing Diabetes. High blood sugar is a common symptom in all types of diabetes mellitus and the physiological cause of diabetes is lack of hormone Insulin or resistance in function faced by insulin. Low levels of Insulin causes decreased utilization of glucose by body cells, increased mobilization of fats from fat storage cells and depletion of proteins in the tissues of the body, keeping the body in crisis. The functional foods help achieving optimal physiological metabolism and cellular functions helping the body to come out of these crises. The mechanism of the functional foods is envisaged to act via optimizing vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, prebiotics and probiotics. This paper reviews role of functional foods of plant origin in the regulation of blood sugar in type 2 diabetes mellitus and also discusses some vital patents in this area. The article aims at creating awareness about key food ingredients in order to prevent most acute effects of diabetes mellitus and to greatly delay the chronic effects as well.

  14. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  15. Insights into the origin and evolution of the plant hormone signaling machinery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Si-Shen; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2015-03-01

    Plant hormones modulate plant growth, development, and defense. However, many aspects of the origin and evolution of plant hormone signaling pathways remain obscure. Here, we use a comparative genomic and phylogenetic approach to investigate the origin and evolution of nine major plant hormone (abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid, cytokinin, ethylene, gibberellin, jasmonate, salicylic acid, and strigolactone) signaling pathways. Our multispecies genome-wide analysis reveals that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone signaling pathways originated in charophyte lineages; (2) abscisic acid, jasmonate, and salicylic acid signaling pathways arose in the last common ancestor of land plants; (3) gibberellin signaling evolved after the divergence of bryophytes from land plants; (4) the canonical brassinosteroid signaling originated before the emergence of angiosperms but likely after the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms; and (5) the origin of the canonical ethylene signaling pathway postdates shortly the emergence of angiosperms. Our findings might have important implications in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of land plants.

  16. Insights into the Origin and Evolution of the Plant Hormone Signaling Machinery1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyang; Liu, Yang; Li, Si-Shen; Han, Guan-Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormones modulate plant growth, development, and defense. However, many aspects of the origin and evolution of plant hormone signaling pathways remain obscure. Here, we use a comparative genomic and phylogenetic approach to investigate the origin and evolution of nine major plant hormone (abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid, cytokinin, ethylene, gibberellin, jasmonate, salicylic acid, and strigolactone) signaling pathways. Our multispecies genome-wide analysis reveals that: (1) auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone signaling pathways originated in charophyte lineages; (2) abscisic acid, jasmonate, and salicylic acid signaling pathways arose in the last common ancestor of land plants; (3) gibberellin signaling evolved after the divergence of bryophytes from land plants; (4) the canonical brassinosteroid signaling originated before the emergence of angiosperms but likely after the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms; and (5) the origin of the canonical ethylene signaling pathway postdates shortly the emergence of angiosperms. Our findings might have important implications in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the emergence of land plants. PMID:25560880

  17. Disentangling the genetic origins of a plant pathogen during disease spread using an original molecular epidemiology approach.

    PubMed

    Xhaard, Constance; Barrès, Benoît; Andrieux, Axelle; Bousset, Lydia; Halkett, Fabien; Frey, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    The advent of molecular epidemiology has greatly improved our ability to identify the population sources and track the pathogen movement. Yet the wide spatial and temporal scales usually considered are useful only to infer historical migration pathways. In this study, Bayesian genetic assignments and a landscape epidemiology approach were combined to unravel genetic origin and annual spread during a single epidemic of a plant pathogen: the poplar rust fungus Melampsora larici-populina. The study focused on a particular area-the Durance River valley-which enabled inoculum sources to be identified and channelled spread of the epidemic along a one-dimensional corridor. Spatio-temporal monitoring of disease showed that the epidemic began in the upstream part of the valley and spread out downstream. Using genetic assignment tests, individuals collected at the end of the epidemic were sorted into two genetic groups; very few hybrids were detected, although individuals from both groups coexisted locally downstream in the valley. The epidemic originated from two genetically distinct inoculum sources. Individuals of each group then dispersed southwards along the Durance River and became mixed in poplar riparian stands. These two genetic groups were found previously at a wider spatial scale and proved to result from distinct evolutionary histories on either wild or cultivated poplars. This study showed that the two groups can mix during an epidemic but do not hybridize because they then reproduce asexually. In general, the methods employed here could be useful for elucidating the genetic origin and retracing the colonization history and migration pathways of recent epidemics.

  18. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi F; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M; MacDougall, Andrew S; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter B; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana M; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Dantonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-07-15

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands.

  19. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cleland, Elsa E; Davies, Kendi F; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M; MacDougall, Andrew S; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Adler, Peter B; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori A; Blumenthal, Dana M; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Dantonio, Carla M; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Humphries, Hope C; Jin, Virginia L; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands. PMID:26173623

  20. Plant species' origin predicts dominance and response to nutrient enrichment and herbivores in global grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cleland, Elsa E.; Davies, Kendi F.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Lind, Eric M.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Adler, Peter B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori A.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Dantonio, Carla M.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Fay, Philip A.; Frater, Paul; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hagenah, Nicole; Hector, Andy; Hillebrand, Helmut; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Humphries, Hope C.; Jin, Virginia L.; Kay, Adam; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Ladwig, Laura; Lambrinos, John G.; Li, Qi; Li, Wei; Marushia, Robin; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Morgan, John; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Sankaran, Mahesh; Schuetz, Martin; Simonsen, Anna; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren; Wolkovich, Elizabeth; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin; Yang, Louie

    2015-01-01

    Exotic species dominate many communities; however the functional significance of species' biogeographic origin remains highly contentious. This debate is fuelled in part by the lack of globally replicated, systematic data assessing the relationship between species provenance, function and response to perturbations. We examined the abundance of native and exotic plant species at 64 grasslands in 13 countries, and at a subset of the sites we experimentally tested native and exotic species responses to two fundamental drivers of invasion, mineral nutrient supplies and vertebrate herbivory. Exotic species are six times more likely to dominate communities than native species. Furthermore, while experimental nutrient addition increases the cover and richness of exotic species, nutrients decrease native diversity and cover. Native and exotic species also differ in their response to vertebrate consumer exclusion. These results suggest that species origin has functional significance, and that eutrophication will lead to increased exotic dominance in grasslands. PMID:26173623

  1. [Microbial contamination of twenty drugs of plant origin].

    PubMed

    Favet, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty drugs of plant origin were analysed in order to determine the microbial contamination level. A light homogenizing method was used to avoid an increase in the antimicrobial capacity of certain drugs, which would falsify the analytical results. The total viable aerobic count (TVC) varied from 10(1) to 10(7) CFU/g and in 11 samples out of 21 was equal to or higher than 10(5) CFU/g. The number of fungi varied from one drug to another, but was generally lower than the aerobic TVC to the power of 10. No cases containing Aspergillus flavus were found. The total viable anaerobic count consisted mainly of facultative anaerobic germs. Aerobic spores and facultative anaerobic bacteria were abundant. They often represented more than 50% of the aerobic TVC and among them, Bacillus cereus was found. Concerning specified micro-organisms, Escherichia coli was found 3 times, Staphylococcus aureus 2 times and Pseudomonas (not aeruginosa) a few times. Salmonella was never found. The Enterobacteriaceae, on the other hand, were often found and in some cases their number can be greater than 10(4) CFU/g. The typed bacteria corresponded to Enterobacter spp. Some drug samples in bags were analysed. The level of contamination was identical to that found in the bulk drugs. The analysis in parallel of a black tea sample showed an aerobic TVC of 4.10(3) CFU/g. Specified micro-organisms were not found in the infusions. In comparison with non-boiled drugs, the survivors can represent up to 30% of the aerobic TVC. PMID:1438458

  2. [Herbalism, botany and components analysis study on original plants of frankincense].

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Xu, Jimin; Jin, Hongyu; Tian, Jingai; Lin, Ruichao

    2011-01-01

    In order to clarify original plants of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) frankincense, a GC method for determination essential oils and a HPLC method for determination boswellic acids were carried out together with analysis of herbalism, botany, components and pharmacology papers of frankincense. It was concluded that original plants of TCM frankincense include at least Boswellia sacra, B. papyrifera and B. serrata.

  3. Glutamate Receptor Homologs in Plants: Functions and Evolutionary Origins

    PubMed Central

    Price, Michelle Beth; Jelesko, John; Okumoto, Sakiko

    2012-01-01

    The plant glutamate-like receptor homologs (GLRs) are homologs of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) which were discovered more than 10 years ago, and are hypothesized to be potential amino acid sensors in plants. Although initial progress on this gene family has been hampered by gene redundancy and technical issues such as gene toxicity; genetic, pharmacological, and electrophysiological approaches are starting to uncover the functions of this protein family. In parallel, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the structure of animal glutamate receptors (iGluRs), which in turn will help understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant GLR functions. In this review, we will summarize recent progress on the plant GLRs. Emerging evidence implicates plant GLRs in various biological processes in and beyond N sensing, and implies that there is some overlap in the signaling mechanisms of amino acids between plants and animals. Phylogenetic analysis using iGluRs from metazoans, plants, and bacteria showed that the plant GLRs are no more closely related to metazoan iGluRs as they are to bacterial iGluRs, indicating the separation of plant, other eukaryotic, and bacterial GLRs might have happened as early on as the last universal common ancestor. Structural similarities and differences with animal iGluRs, and the implication thereof, are also discussed. PMID:23115559

  4. Differential allelopathic expression of different plant parts of Achillea biebersteinii.

    PubMed

    Abu-Romman, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant and has a wide distributional range in the Mediterranean region. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of different plant parts of A. biebersteinii on germination characteristics and seedling growth of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). Water extracts were prepared by incubating separately five grams of dried powder of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of A. biebersteinii in 100 ml of distilled water for 24 h and distilled water was used as the control. The water extracts from different plant parts of A. biebersteinii differed in their effects on the germination and seedling growth of wild barley. Water extracts prepared from leaves and flowers were more suppressive to germination of wild barley than root and stem extracts. The maximum inhibition in radical and plumule growth of germinating caryopses and in root and shoot growth of greenhouse-grown wild barley was recorded for leaf extract followed by flower extract. The lowest Chl a, Chl b and total chlorophyll and protein contents were resulted after exposure to leaf extracts. According to these results, the inhibitory effects of different A. biebersteinii plant parts can be arranged in the order: leaf > flower > stem > root. PMID:27165527

  5. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  6. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly M.; Bergmann, Erik J.; Venugopal, P. Dilip; Riley, Christopher B.; Shrewsbury, Paula M.; Raupp, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests. PMID:27581756

  7. Invasive stink bug favors naïve plants: Testing the role of plant geographic origin in diverse, managed environments.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Holly M; Bergmann, Erik J; Venugopal, P Dilip; Riley, Christopher B; Shrewsbury, Paula M; Raupp, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    With the introduction and establishment of exotic species, most ecosystems now contain both native and exotic plants and herbivores. Recent research identifies several factors that govern how specialist herbivores switch host plants upon introduction. Predicting the feeding ecology and impacts of introduced generalist species, however, remains difficult. Here, we examine how plant geographic origin, an indicator of shared co-evolutionary history, influences patterns of host use by a generalist, invasive herbivore, while accounting for variation in plant availability. The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, is a highly polyphagous Asian herbivore and an economically important invasive pest in North America and Europe. In visual surveys of 220 plant taxa in commercial nurseries in Maryland, USA, H. halys was more abundant on non-Asian plants and selected these over Asian plants. The relationship between the relative use of plants and their availability was strongly positive but depended also on plant origin at two of our three sites, where the higher relative use of non-Asian plants was greatest for highly abundant taxa. These results highlight the importance of considering both plant origin and relative abundance in understanding the selection of host plants by invasive generalist herbivores in diverse, natural and urban forests.

  8. Plastid endosymbiosis, genome evolution and the origin of green plants.

    PubMed

    Stiller, John W

    2007-09-01

    Evolutionary relationships among complex, multicellular eukaryotes are generally interpreted within the framework of molecular sequence-based phylogenies that suggest green plants and animals are only distantly related on the eukaryotic tree. However, important anomalies have been reported in phylogenomic analyses, including several that relate specifically to green plant evolution. In addition, plants and animals share molecular, biochemical and genome-level features that suggest a relatively close relationship between the two groups. This article explores the impacts of plastid endosymbioses on nuclear genomes, how they can explain incongruent phylogenetic signals in molecular data sets and reconcile conflicts among different sources of comparative data. Specifically, I argue that the large influx of plastid DNA into plant and algal nuclear genomes has resulted in tree-building artifacts that obscure a relatively close evolutionary relationship between green plants and animals.

  9. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    PubMed

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World. PMID:25453066

  10. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    PubMed Central

    van ‘t Klooster, Charlotte I. E. A.; Towns, Alexandra M.; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World. PMID:25453066

  11. Some features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom from seeds of known origin.

    PubMed

    Pitts, J E; Neal, J D; Gough, T A

    1992-12-01

    The cannabinoid content of UK-grown plants (up to the 6th generation) from Moroccan, Sri Lankan and Zambian seedstock was determined by TLC, GLC and HPLC. All plants from the 5th and 6th series resembled their parents, and UK-grown plants were always much greener than those grown overseas. Cannabinoid content remained broadly typical of the source countries. However, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) consistently predominated over tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to a far greater extent than in the original plants; the THCA/THC ratio was 17 in UK-grown plants compared with 2.0 in the plants from the original areas. Two types of plant emerged from the Moroccan seedstock, one tending to increased cannabidiol (CBD), the other tending to zero levels of this component. The first generation Sri Lankan plants revealed one type of plant with an increased CBD/THC ratio (1.7 compared with 0.11) but this returned to the original value in the succeeding generations. Other Sri Lankan plants had low or undetectable levels of CBD. Moroccan and Sri Lankan CBD-rich plants did not contain cannabichromene, although this cannabinoid was found in THC-rich plants. Zambian plants did not appear to show such a pattern. Zambian seedstock plants had total tetrahydrocannabivarin (diol and acid) levels greater than THC but the ratio was progressively reversed in succeeding generations. The study concludes that the ratios of particular cannabinoids is greatly influenced by the environment.

  12. Operational strategies for dispatchable combined cycle plants, Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.P.; Landis, F.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Brush Cogeneration Facility is a dual-unit, combined cycle, cogeneration plant, operating in a dual cycling, automatically-dispatchable mode. Part I of this report described the contract, including automatic generation control (AGC) by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCO), and the operation of Unit One. This part of the report covers the operation of Unit Two. Unit two is still in its operating infancy, but is showing that fuel efficiency and low emissions levels are not incompatible with cycling, load-following service. 1 fig.

  13. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Devis, Deborah; Shi, Jianxin; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-09-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  14. Methylated arsenic species in plants originate from soil microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Charlotte; Liu, Wen-Ju; Wu, Liyou; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; McGrath, Steve P; Meharg, Andrew A; Miller, Anthony J; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2012-02-01

    • Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a ubiquitous human carcinogen, and rice (Oryza sativa) is the main contributor to iAs in the diet. Methylated pentavalent As species are less toxic and are routinely found in plants; however, it is currently unknown whether plants are able to methylate As. • Rice, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) were exposed to iAs, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)), under axenic conditions. Rice seedlings were also grown in two soils under nonsterile flooded conditions, and rice plants exposed to arsenite or DMA(V) were grown to maturity in nonsterile hydroponic culture. Arsenic speciation in samples was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS. • Methylated arsenicals were not found in the three plant species exposed to iAs under axenic conditions. Axenically grown rice was able to take up MMA(V) or DMA(V), and reduce MMA(V) to MMA(III) but not convert it to DMA(V). Methylated As was detected in the shoots of soil-grown rice, and in rice grain from nonsterile hydroponic culture. GeoChip analysis of microbial genes in a Bangladeshi paddy soil showed the presence of the microbial As methyltransferase gene arsM. • Our results suggest that plants are unable to methylate iAs, and instead take up methylated As produced by microorganisms. PMID:22098145

  15. The origin of alternation of generations in land plants: a focus on matrotrophy and hexose transport.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, L K; Wilcox, L W

    2000-01-01

    A life history involving alternation of two developmentally associated, multicellular generations (sporophyte and gametophyte) is an autapomorphy of embryophytes (bryophytesphytes + vascular plants). Microfossil data indicate that Mid Late Ordovician land plants possessed such a life cycle, and that the origin of alternation of generations preceded this date. Molecular phylogenetic data unambiguously relate charophycean green algae to the ancestry of monophyletic embryophytes, and identify bryophytes as early-divergent land plants. Comparison of reproduction in charophyceans and bryophytes suggests that the following stages occurred during evolutionary origin of embryophytic alternation of generations: (i) origin of oogamy; (ii) retention of eggs and zygotes on the parental thallus; (iii) origin of matrotrophy (regulated transfer of nutritional and morphogenetic solutes from parental cells to the next generation); (iv) origin of a multicellular sporophyte generation; and (v) origin of non-flagellate, walled spores. Oogamy, egg/zygote retention and matrotrophy characterize at least some modern charophvceans, and are postulated to represent pre-adaptative features inherited by embryophytes from ancestral charophyceans. Matrotrophy is hypothesized to have preceded origin of the multicellular sporophytes of' plants, and to represent a critical innovation. Molecular approaches to the study of the origins of matrotrophy include assessment of hexose transporter genes and protein family members and their expression patterns. The occurrence in modern charophyceans and bryophytes of chemically resistant tissues that exhibit distinctive morphology correlated with matrotrophy suggests that Early-Mid Ordovician or older microfossils relevant to the origin of land plant alternation of generations may be found. PMID:10905608

  16. Analysis of reactor trips originating in balance of plant systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, F.T.; Gallagher, D.W.; Le, P.T.; Ebert, M.W. )

    1990-09-01

    This report documents the results of an analysis of balance-of-plant (BOP) related reactor trips at commercial US nuclear power plants of a 5-year period, from January 1, 1984, through December 31, 1988. The study was performed for the Plant Systems Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of the study were: to improve the level of understanding of BOP-related challenges to safety systems by identifying and categorizing such events; to prepare a computerized data base of BOP-related reactor trip events and use the data base to identify trends and patterns in the population of these events; to investigate the risk implications of BOP events that challenge safety systems; and to provide recommendations on how to address BOP-related concerns in regulatory context. 18 refs., 2 figs., 27 tabs.

  17. Higher plant origins and the phylogeny of green algae.

    PubMed

    Devereux, R; Loeblich, A R; Fox, G E

    1990-07-01

    5S rRNA sequences from six additional green algae lend strong molecular support for the major outlines of higher plant and green algae phylogeny that have been proposed under varying naming conventions by several authors. In particular, the molecular evidence now available unequivocally supports the existence of at least two well-separated divisions of the Chlorobionta: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta (i.e., charophytes) (according to the nomenclature of Bremer). The chlamydomonad 5S rRNAs are, however, sufficiently distinct from both clusters that it may ultimately prove preferable to establish a third taxon for them. In support of these conclusions 5S rRNA sequence data now exist for members of four diverse classes of chlorophytes. These sequences all exhibit considerably more phylogenetic affinity to one another than any of them show toward members of the other cluster, the Streptophyta, or the two Chlamydomonas strains. Among the Charophyceae, new 5S rRNA sequences are provided herein for three genera, Spirogyra, Klebsormidium, and Coleochaete. All of these sequences and the previously published Nitella sequence show greater resemblance among themselves and to the higher plants than they do to any of the other green algae examined to date. These results demonstrate that an appropriately named taxon that includes these green algae and the higher plants is strongly justified. The 5S rRNA data lack the resolution needed, however, to unequivocally determine which of several subdivisions of the charophytes is the sister group of the land plants. The evolutionary diversity of Chlamydomonas relative to the other green algae was recognized in earlier 5S rRNA studies but was unanticipated by ultrastructural work.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  19. Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Davies, T Jonathan; Hempson, Gareth P; Bezeng, Bezeng S; Daru, Barnabas H; Kabongo, Ronny M; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A Muthama; van der Bank, Michelle; Bond, William J

    2016-09-20

    Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times. The diversification of spiny plants occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans and hyracoids. However, it is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids, the lineage including the antelope that predominantly browse these plants today. Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several million years before fire-maintained savannas and probably, in different environmental conditions. Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates and on nutrient-rich soils, whereas fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor soils.

  20. Spiny plants, mammal browsers, and the origin of African savannas.

    PubMed

    Charles-Dominique, Tristan; Davies, T Jonathan; Hempson, Gareth P; Bezeng, Bezeng S; Daru, Barnabas H; Kabongo, Ronny M; Maurin, Olivier; Muasya, A Muthama; van der Bank, Michelle; Bond, William J

    2016-09-20

    Savannas first began to spread across Africa during the Miocene. A major hypothesis for explaining this vegetation change is the increase in C4 grasses, promoting fire. We investigated whether mammals could also have contributed to savanna expansion by using spinescence as a marker of mammal herbivory. Looking at the present distribution of 1,852 tree species, we established that spinescence is mainly associated with two functional types of mammals: large browsers and medium-sized mixed feeders. Using a dated phylogeny for the same tree species, we found that spinescence evolved at least 55 times. The diversification of spiny plants occurred long after the evolution of Afrotherian proboscideans and hyracoids. However, it is remarkably congruent with diversification of bovids, the lineage including the antelope that predominantly browse these plants today. Our findings suggest that herbivore-adapted savannas evolved several million years before fire-maintained savannas and probably, in different environmental conditions. Spiny savannas with abundant mammal herbivores occur in drier climates and on nutrient-rich soils, whereas fire-maintained savannas occur in wetter climates on nutrient-poor soils. PMID:27601649

  1. Plant origin of Okinawan propolis: honeybee behavior observation and phytochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumazawa, Shigenori; Nakamura, Jun; Murase, Masayo; Miyagawa, Mariko; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Fukumoto, Shuichi

    2008-08-01

    Propolis is a natural resinous product collected by honeybees from certain plants. It has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Poplar and Baccharis are well known as the source plants of European and Brazilian propolis, respectively. However, the propolis from Okinawa, Japan, contains some prenylflavonoids not seen in other regions such as Europe and Brazil, suggesting that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is a particular plant that grows in Okinawa. To identify the plant origin of Okinawan propolis, we observed the behavior of honeybees as they collected material from plants and caulked it inside the hive. Honeybees scraped resinous material from the surface of plant fruits of Macaranga tanarius and brought it back to their hive to use it as propolis. We collected samples of the plant and propolis, and compared their constituents by high-performance liquid chromatography with a photo-diode array detector. We also compared their 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The chemical constituents and biological activity of the ethanol extracts of the plant did not differ from those of propolis. This indicates directly that the plant origin of Okinawan propolis is M. tanarius.

  2. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant 'abundance' and 'origin'. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  3. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  4. Power plant ashes and their utilization. Part 10. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Eerola, M.; Keppo, M.; Korkman, J.; Kukko, H.; Vanhanen, A.

    1980-01-01

    For fine-grained fly ash and coarser-grained bottom ash originating from power plants as combustion residue a profitable use for many purposes has already been found. Many European countries utilize great amounts of ashes they produce. The quality of ash is dependent on the fuel used and the equipment of the power plant in question. The building industry utilizes plenty of fine-grained materials with many features closely resembling fly ash. In lightweight aggregate production it is possible to use fly ash for improving the strength level of a product or lightweight aggregate particles can be sintered from fly ash and water without using clay. For the manufacture of bricks fly and bottom ashes have been used abroad as a material replacing sand and silt or as such mixed together. In road construction, fly ash is suitable for use as an embankment fill and a stabilized structure for subbases and base courses or as a filler for asphalt pavements. For the purposes of fertilization and soil improvement highly nutrient ashes (sulphite liquor, wood, peat) can be utilized. The use of ashes as a raw material e.g. in metal industry has started to attract attention abroad. Practical problems pertaining to the utilization of ashes are: the varying production rate due to the succession of the seasons, transportation and transfer of dry ashes, and arrangement of the quality control. The above mentioned factors result in expenses but also saving is brought about by using ashes.

  5. Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part II): In Silico Prediction in Antidiabetic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Sala, Esther; Ojeda, María José; Valls, Cristina; Bladé, Cinta; Mulero, Miquel; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Natural extracts play an important role in traditional medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and are also an essential resource for new drug discovery. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors are potential candidates for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the effectiveness of certain antidiabetic extracts of natural origin could be, at least partially, explained by the inhibition of DPP-IV. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and an experimentally validated virtual screening procedure previously developed in our lab (Guasch et al.; 2012) [1], we have predicted 12 potential DPP-IV inhibitors from 12 different plant extracts that are known to have antidiabetic activity. Seven of these molecules are identical or similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity (although their role as DPP-IV inhibitors has not been suggested as an explanation for their bioactivity). Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of these extracts through their inhibitory effect on DPP-IV. In addition, we also identified as potential DPP-IV inhibitors 6 molecules from 6 different plants with no described antidiabetic activity but that share the same genus as plants with known antidiabetic properties. Moreover, none of the 18 molecules that we predicted as DPP-IV inhibitors exhibits chemical similarity with a group of 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors. Conclusions/Significance Our study identified 18 potential DPP-IV inhibitors in 18 different plant extracts (12 of these plants have known antidiabetic properties, whereas, for the remaining 6, antidiabetic activity has been reported for other plant species from the same genus). Moreover, none of the 18 molecules exhibits chemical similarity with a large group of known DPP-IV inhibitors. PMID:23028712

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment Under NRC Export Licensing Authority J Appendix J to Part 110.... 110, App. J Appendix J to Part 110—Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment...

  7. [The textual research on the original plant of grass monkshood].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2012-05-01

    According to the literature review and field investigation, the traditional production areas of the herb grass monkshood are East China, Sichuan and its surroundings. The protophytes of grass monkshood in the east China area are mainly the Huangshan monkshood variant and truppelianum; but in the Sichuan area they are mainly aconite and aconitum hemsleyanum. The above belong to the aconitum of aconitum suby and tendril monkshood. They are the closest genetic relatives and the most evolutive groups as well as the most toxic groups. Local aconite was used as grass monkshood medicine in folk medicine but this happened only in part of the region and for a period of time. There were few records in literature in past dynasties and they would not have been able to be included in mainstream history. It is obviously different from the aconitum kusnezoffii which is stipulated in the pharmacopoeia in past ages. It is not in accordance with history to take kusnezoffii as certified quality grass monkshood and it also has some particular influence on the clinical use of grass monkshood. PMID:22883380

  8. Composition of fungal soil communities varies with plant abundance and geographic origin

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Martinez-Garcia, Laura B.; Sanderson, Laura; Antunes, Pedro M.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of belowground fungal communities with exotic and native plant species may be important drivers of plant community structure in invaded grasslands. However, field surveys linking plant community structure with belowground fungal communities are missing. We investigated whether a selected number of abundant and relatively rare plants, either native or exotic, from an old-field site associate with different fungal communities. We also assessed whether these plants showed different symbiotic relationships with soil biota through their roots. We characterized the plant community and collected roots to investigate fungal communities using 454 pyrosequencing and assessed arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and enemy-induced lesions. Differences in fungal communities were considered based on the assessment of α- and β diversity depending on plant ‘abundance’ and ‘origin’. Plant abundance and origin determined the fungal community. Fungal richness was higher for native abundant as opposed to relatively rare native plant species. However, this was not observed for exotics of contrasting abundance. Regardless of their origin, β diversity was higher for rare than for abundant species. Abundant exotics in the community, which happen to be grasses, were the least mycorrhizal whereas rare natives were most susceptible to enemy attack. Our results suggest that compared with exotics, the relative abundance of remnant native plant species in our old-field site is still linked to the structure of belowground fungal communities. In contrast, exotic species may act as a disturbing agent contributing towards the homogenization of soil fungal communities, potentially changing feedback interactions. PMID:26371291

  9. 40 CFR 63.1562 - What parts of my plant are covered by this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... types of sulfur recovery plant units or the tail gas treatment units serving sulfur recovery plants... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant are covered by....1562 What parts of my plant are covered by this subpart? (a) This subpart applies to each...

  10. Molecular data from 27 proteins do not support a Precambrian origin of land plants.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Michael J

    2003-06-01

    Heckman et al. (Science 293: 1129-1133) used sequences obtained from GenBank to infer divergence times in fungi and green plants. They estimated that the crown group of land plants originated in the Precambrian, at 703 ± 45 mya, a date much older than dates implied by the fossils, which are no older than about 450 mya. This paper presents an analysis of an entirely different set of sequence data from 27 plastid protein-coding genes in 10 land plants and a green algal outgroup. It uses a calibration point closer to the origin of land plants and inference methods that do not assume a molecular clock. This leads to estimates ranging from 425 to 490 mya, which brackets the age suggested by the fossil record. Possible explanations for the differing conclusions in the two studies include differences in calibration points and use of single-copy plastid genes rather than nuclear gene families.

  11. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  12. 28 CFR Appendix D to Part 36 - 1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26, 1991

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Originally Published on July 26, 1991 D Appendix D to Part 36 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Pt. 36, App. D Appendix D to Part 36—1991 Standards for Accessible Design as Originally Published on July 26,...

  13. Origin of a novel regulatory module by duplication and degeneration of an ancient plant transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Sandra K; Ryan, Joseph G; Conway, Stephanie J; Brenner, Eric; Burris, Kellie P; Burris, Jason N; Chen, Tao; Edger, Patrick P; Graham, Sean W; Leebens-Mack, James H; Pires, J Chris; Rothfels, Carl J; Sigel, Erin M; Stevenson, Dennis W; Neal Stewart, C; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Bowman, John L

    2014-12-01

    It is commonly believed that gene duplications provide the raw material for morphological evolution. Both the number of genes and size of gene families have increased during the diversification of land plants. Several small proteins that regulate transcription factors have recently been identified in plants, including the LITTLE ZIPPER (ZPR) proteins. ZPRs are post-translational negative regulators, via heterodimerization, of class III Homeodomain Leucine Zipper (C3HDZ) proteins that play a key role in directing plant form and growth. We show that ZPR genes originated as a duplication of a C3HDZ transcription factor paralog in the common ancestor of euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants). The ZPRs evolved by degenerative mutations resulting in loss all of the C3HDZ functional domains, except the leucine zipper that modulates dimerization. ZPRs represent a novel regulatory module of the C3HDZ network unique to the euphyllophyte lineage, and their origin correlates to a period of rapid morphological changes and increased complexity in land plants. The origin of the ZPRs illustrates the significance of gene duplications in creating developmental complexity during land plant evolution that likely led to morphological evolution. PMID:25263420

  14. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  15. The origin of the sporophyte shoot in land plants: a bryological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.; Renzaglia, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Land plants (embryophytes) are monophyletic and encompass four major clades: liverworts, mosses, hornworts and polysporangiophytes. The liverworts are resolved as the earliest divergent lineage and the mosses as sister to a crown clade formed by the hornworts and polysporangiophytes (lycophytes, monilophytes and seed plants). Alternative topologies resolving the hornworts as sister to mosses plus polysporangiophytes are less well supported. Sporophyte development in liverworts depends only on embryonic formative cell divisions. A transient basal meristem contributes part of the sporophyte in mosses. The sporophyte body in hornworts and polysporangiophytes develops predominantly by post-embryonic meristematic activity. Scope This paper explores the origin of the sporophyte shoot in terms of changes in embryo organization. Pressure towards amplification of the sporangium-associated photosynthetic apparatus was a major driver of sporophyte evolution. Starting from a putative ancestral condition in which a transient basal meristem produced a sporangium-supporting seta, we postulate that in the hornwort–polysporangiophyte lineage the basal meristem acquired indeterminate meristematic activity and ectopically expressed the sporangium morphogenetic programme. The resulting sporophyte body plan remained substantially unaltered in hornworts, whereas in polysporangiophytes the persistent meristem shifted from a mid-embryo to a superficial position and was converted into an ancestral shoot apical meristem with the evolution of sequential vegetative and reproductive growth. Conclusions The sporophyte shoot is interpreted as a sterilized sporangial axis interpolated between the embryo and the fertile sporangium. With reference to the putatively ancestral condition found in mosses, the sporophyte body plans in hornworts and polysporangiophytes are viewed as the product of opposite heterochronic events, i.e. an anticipation and a delay, respectively, in the

  16. Genetic diversity and domestication origin of tea plant Camellia taliensis (Theaceae) as revealed by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Many species in the Thea section of the Camellia genus can be processed for drinking and have been domesticated. However, few investigations have focused on the genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of landraces on tea plants using credible wild and planted populations of a single species. Here, C. taliensis provides us with a unique opportunity to explore these issues. Results Fourteen nuclear microsatellite loci were employed to determine the genetic diversity and domestication origin of C. taliensis, which were represented by 587 individuals from 25 wild, planted and recently domesticated populations. C. taliensis showed a moderate high level of overall genetic diversity. The greater reduction of genetic diversity and stronger genetic drift were detected in the wild group than in the recently domesticated group, indicating the loss of genetic diversity of wild populations due to overexploitation and habitat fragmentation. Instead of the endangered wild trees, recently domesticated individuals were used to compare with the planted trees for detecting the genetic consequence of domestication. A little and non-significant reduction in genetic diversity was found during domestication. The long life cycle, selection for leaf traits and gene flow between populations will delay the emergence of bottleneck in planted trees. Both phylogenetic and assignment analyses suggested that planted trees may have been domesticated from the adjacent central forest of western Yunnan and dispersed artificially to distant places. Conclusions This study contributes to the knowledge about levels and distribution of genetic diversity of C. taliensis and provides new insights into genetic consequence of domestication and geographic origin of planted trees of this species. As an endemic tea source plant, wild, planted and recently domesticated C. taliensis trees should all be protected for their unique

  17. Research on Plants for the Understanding of Diseases of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Origin

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Claudia P.; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.

    2012-01-01

    Different model organisms, such as Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, mouse, cultured human cell lines, among others, were used to study the mechanisms of several human diseases. Since human genes and proteins have been structurally and functionally conserved in plant organisms, the use of plants, especially Arabidopsis thaliana, as a model system to relate molecular defects to clinical disorders has recently increased. Here, we briefly review our current knowledge of human diseases of nuclear and mitochondrial origin and summarize the experimental findings of plant homologs implicated in each process. PMID:22690124

  18. Modelling utility-scale wind power plants. Part 1: Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, Michael R.

    1999-10-01

    As the worldwide use of wind turbine generators continues to increase in utility-scale applications, it will become increasingly important to assess the economic and reliability impact of these intermittent resources. Although the utility industry in the United States appears to be moving towards a restructured environment, basic economic and reliability issues will continue to be relevant to companies involved with electricity generation. This article is the first of two which address modelling approaches and results obtained in several case studies and research projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This first article addresses the basic economic issues associated with electricity production from several generators that include large-scale wind power plants. An important part of this discussion is the role of unit commitment and economic dispatch in production cost models. This paper includes overviews and comparisons of the prevalent production cost modelling methods, including several case studies applied to a variety of electric utilities. The second article discusses various methods of assessing capacity credit and results from several reliability-based studies performed at NREL.

  19. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 194 - Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part 191 Disposal Regulations and the 40 CFR Part 194... ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS Pt. 194, App. A Appendix A to Part 194—Certification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's Compliance With the 40 CFR Part...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8990 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... What This Subpart Covers § 63.8990 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart... affected source is the group of one or more HCl production facilities at a plant site that are subject...

  6. 40 CFR 63.8990 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... What This Subpart Covers § 63.8990 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart... affected source is the group of one or more HCl production facilities at a plant site that are subject...

  7. Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  8. Origins.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, S

    1985-10-01

    The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the origin of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the origins of the physical laws that govern the universe.

  9. Identification of the plant origin of propolis from Jeju Island, Korea, by observation of honeybee behavior and phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Inui, Saori; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kurosawa, Miho; Nakamura, Jun; Choi, Su-Jin; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2012-01-01

    Propolis collected on Jeju Island, Korea, contains characteristic components not present in propolis from other regions. Hence, the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island can be expected to be a novel plant. To identify the plant origin of this propolis, first we observed honeybee behavior, and found them collecting the resin from Angelica keiskei. Then comparative analyses of chemical and biological properties of the resin from the plant and propolis from hives of nearby apiaries were performed. Alcoholic extracts showed entirely identical HPLC profiles and closely similar antioxidant activities. These results indicate that A. keiskei is the plant origin of the propolis from Jeju Island, Korea. PMID:23132582

  10. Geographic and Habitat Origin Influence Biomass Production and Storage Translocation in the Clonal Plant Aegopodium podagraria

    PubMed Central

    D′Hertefeldt, Tina; Eneström, Johanna M.; Pettersson, Lars B.

    2014-01-01

    Through physiological integration, clonal plants can support ramets in unfavourable patches, exploit heterogeneously distributed resources and distribute resources that are taken up over large areas. Physiological integration generally increases in adverse conditions, but it is not well known which factors determine the evolution of physiological integration. The aim of this study was to investigate if clonal plants from Southern and Northern populations of the clonal herb Aegopodium podagraria differed in physiological integration in terms of translocation of carbon to the rhizomes, and in biomass production using a reciprocal transplant experiment. Aegopodium podagraria from shaded conditions have been suggested to share more resources than clones from open conditions and therefore, plants from forest and open populations within the Southern and Northern regions were included. The regional growing conditions greatly affected biomass production. Plants grown in North Sweden produced more biomass and allocated more biomass to shoots, while plants grown in South Sweden allocated more biomass to rhizomes. There was a regional origin effect as plants originating from North Sweden produced more biomass in both regions. Within the Northern region, plants from shaded habitats translocated more 14C to the rhizomes, suggesting more storage there than in plants from open habitats. In addition to genetic differentiation in biomass production between Northern and Southern populations, probably as a response to a shorter growing season in the North, there appeared to be genetic differentiation in physiological integration within the Northern region. This shows that both regional and local conditions need to be taken into account in future studies of genetic differentiation of physiological integration in clonal plants. PMID:24427305

  11. [Comparative study of the antiviral properties of histones of animal and plant origin].

    PubMed

    Ladygina, M E; Sokolovskaia, I V; Rubin, B A; Grot, A V

    1978-01-01

    The antiviral properties of histones of animal (thymus) and plant (French beans) origin were studied in plants and with a plant virus, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Histones of the thymus and French beans were shown to be able to inhibit TMV reproduction. The antiviral properties of histones were found to depend on their concentration, pH, and to be determined by the modes of their introduction into leaves. The manifestation of the antiviral properties of histones seems to require not only their direct contact with virus but also a certain exposure on the leaf. The similarities of antiviral protective mechanisms of plants and animals determined by substances of the protein nature are discussed.

  12. MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH – PART I

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico – Ethno – Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 – 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

  13. Tracing the origin and evolution of plant TIR-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Pang, Hui; Li, Mimi; Chen, Jianqun; Hang, Yueyu

    2014-08-10

    Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-encoding proteins represent one of the most important families of disease resistance genes in plants. Studies that have explored the functional details of these genes tended to focus on only a few limited groups; the origin and evolutionary history of these genes were therefore unclear. In this study, focusing on the four principal groups of TIR-encoding genes, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of 32 fully sequenced plant genomes and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the gymnosperm Pinus taeda and explored the origins and evolution of these genes. Through the identification of the TIR-encoding genes, the analysis of chromosome positions, the identification and analysis of conserved motifs, and sequence alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction, our results showed that the genes of the TIR-X family (TXs) had an earlier origin and a wider distribution than the genes from the other three groups. TIR-encoding genes experienced large-scale gene duplications during evolution. A skeleton motif pattern of the TIR domain was present in all spermatophytes, and the genes with this skeleton pattern exhibited a conserved and independent evolutionary history in all spermatophytes, including monocots, that followed their gymnosperm origin. This study used comparative genomics to explore the origin and evolutionary history of the four main groups of TIR-encoding genes. Additionally, we unraveled the mechanism behind the uneven distribution of TIR-encoding genes in dicots and monocots.

  14. Origins of native vascular plants of Antarctica: comments from a historical phytogeography viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Mosyakin, S L; Bezusko, L G; Mosyakin, A S

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the problem of origin of the only native vascular plants of Antarctica, Deschampsia antartica (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae), from the viewpoint of modern historical phytogeography and related fields of science. Some authors suggested the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica, while others favour their recent Holocene immigration. Direct data (fossil or molecular genetic ones) for solving this controversy is still lacking. However, there is no convincing evidence supporting the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica. Most probably D. antarctica and C. quitensis migrated to Antarctica in the Holocene or Late Pleistocene (last interglacial?) through bird-aided long-distance dispersal. It should be critically tested by (1) appropriate methods of molecular phylogeography, (2) molecular clock methods, if feasible, (3) direct paleobotanical studies, (4) paleoclimatic reconstructions, and (5) comparison with cases of taxa with similar distribution/dispersal patterns. The problem of the origin of Antarctic vascular plants is a perfect model for integration of modern methods of molecular phylogeography and phylogenetics, population biology, paleobiology and paleogeography for solving a long-standing enigma of historical plant geography and evolution. PMID:18268968

  15. Origins of native vascular plants of Antarctica: comments from a historical phytogeography viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Mosyakin, S L; Bezusko, L G; Mosyakin, A S

    2007-01-01

    The article provides an overview of the problem of origin of the only native vascular plants of Antarctica, Deschampsia antartica (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae), from the viewpoint of modern historical phytogeography and related fields of science. Some authors suggested the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica, while others favour their recent Holocene immigration. Direct data (fossil or molecular genetic ones) for solving this controversy is still lacking. However, there is no convincing evidence supporting the Tertiary relict status of these plants in Antarctica. Most probably D. antarctica and C. quitensis migrated to Antarctica in the Holocene or Late Pleistocene (last interglacial?) through bird-aided long-distance dispersal. It should be critically tested by (1) appropriate methods of molecular phylogeography, (2) molecular clock methods, if feasible, (3) direct paleobotanical studies, (4) paleoclimatic reconstructions, and (5) comparison with cases of taxa with similar distribution/dispersal patterns. The problem of the origin of Antarctic vascular plants is a perfect model for integration of modern methods of molecular phylogeography and phylogenetics, population biology, paleobiology and paleogeography for solving a long-standing enigma of historical plant geography and evolution.

  16. Revisiting the origin and diversification of vascular plants through a comprehensive Bayesian analysis of the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, Daniele; Cascales-Miñana, Borja; Bacon, Christine D; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    Plants have a long evolutionary history, during which mass extinction events dramatically affected Earth's ecosystems and its biodiversity. The fossil record can shed light on the diversification dynamics of plant life and reveal how changes in the origination-extinction balance have contributed to shaping the current flora. We use a novel Bayesian approach to estimate origination and extinction rates in plants throughout their history. We focus on the effect of the 'Big Five' mass extinctions and on estimating the timing of origin of vascular plants, seed plants and angiosperms. Our analyses show that plant diversification is characterized by several shifts in origination and extinction rates, often matching the most important geological boundaries. The estimated origin of major plant clades predates the oldest macrofossils when considering the uncertainties associated with the fossil record and the preservation process. Our findings show that the commonly recognized mass extinctions have affected each plant group differently and that phases of high extinction often coincided with major floral turnovers. For instance, after the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary we infer negligible shifts in diversification of nonflowering seed plants, but find significantly decreased extinction in spore-bearing plants and increased origination rates in angiosperms, contributing to their current ecological and evolutionary dominance.

  17. [Identification of original plants of uyghur medicinal materials fructus elaeagni using morphological characteristics and DNA barcode].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Ping; Fan, Cong-Zhao; Zhu, Jun; Li, Xiao-Jin

    2014-06-01

    Morphology and molecular identification technology were used to identify 3 original plants of Fructus Elaeagni which was commonly used in Uygur medicine. Leaves, flowers and fruits from different areas were selected randomly for morphology research. ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode was used to identify 17 samples of Fructus Elaeagni. The genetic distances were computed by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA5.0. The results showed that Elaeagnus angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientalis cannot be distinguished by morphological characteristics of leaves, flowers and fruits. The sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 220 to 223 bp, the average GC content was 61.9%. The haplotype numbers of E. angustifolia, E. oxycarpa and E. angustifolia var. orientals were 4, 3, 3, respectively. The results from the NJ tree and ML tree showed that the 3 original species of Fructus Elaeagni cannot be distinguished obviously. Therefore, 3 species maybe have the same origin, and can be used as the original plant of Uygur medicineal material Fructus Elaeagni. However, further evidence of chemical components and pharmacological effect were needed.

  18. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain: from the origins to our days and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, José-Pío

    2009-01-01

    The origins of modern Plant Developmental Biology in Spain can be traced back to a handful of scientists settled in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla, who devoted themselves to plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and also to Drosophila developmental biology, which influenced, often unintentionally, the pioneers of this field. To reach the present day situation, the experience acquired in centres abroad has also been important, especially in plant research institutes in the USA, Germany (Max-Planck Institute für Züchtungsforschung) and United Kingdom (John Innes Centre). The contributions of Spanish scientists to the advancement of Plant Developmental Biology appears to be imbalanced towards reproductive biology, although relevant publications have also been reported on embryogenesis and seed development, shoot branching, tuberization, vascular morphogenesis, leaf development, regulation of development by light, signal transduction and hormone action and the connection between growth and development. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain is going through a flourishing time, with its future being highly dependent on i) appropriate funding conditions to its young scientists, ii) the opening of new areas of research, iii) the incorporation of technological breakthroughs into laboratories and iv) the carrying out of cooperative research by means of networking. Currently, besides many Departments of the Spanish universities, several centres in which competitive research in plant Developmental Biology can be accomplished, exist: the CNB and CBGP in Madrid, the LGMV CSIC-IRTA in Barcelona, the IBMCP CSIC-UPV, in Valencia and the IBVF CSIC-USE in Sevilla. Let's go for more!

  19. The origin of gas seeps and shallow gas in northern part of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Jin, X.

    2003-04-01

    The northern part of South China Sea is of passive continental margin, which geologic units include shelf, slope and deep sea basin. There are rifting basins forming during Paleogene (or Cretaceous ?) to Quaternary developed on shelf and slope, which sediments are dominated by fluvial and lake clastic rock of Paleogene, and marine clastic rock and carbonate of Neogene - Quaternary. The main basins include the Pearl River Mouth Basin, Beibu Gulf basin, Qiongdongnan Basin and Yinggehai basin. They contain rich oil and gas resources, and have become important industrial oil and gas producing region in South China Sea. With the increasing of petroleum exploration actives and marine petroleum engineering, it has been paid more attention to the investigation and research of gas seeps and shallow gas, for they become a potential threaten to the marine engineering while they are regarded as the indicators of industrial oil and gas. By study the distribution and geochemical characteristics of gas seeps in northeast part of Yinggehai basin and shallow gas in sediments on slope, combined with their regional geologic background, this paper deals with the origin, migration pathway and emission mechanism of gas seeps and shallow gas in northern part of South China Sea, for providing a base knowledge for the evaluation of marine engineering geology. In northeast part of Yinggehai basin gas seeps have been found and recorded for near 100 years. During 1990s, as a part of petroleum exploration, the gas seeps in the basin have been investigated and research by oil companies (Baojia Huang et al., 1992; Jiaqiong He et al., 2000). Gas seeps were found in shallow water area along southwest coast of Hainan Island, water depth usually less than 50 m. The occurrence of gas seeps can be divided into two types: (1) gas continuously emission, continuous gas bubbles groups can be detected by sonar underwater and observed on water surface. (2) gas intermittently emission, the time intervals

  20. The biosynthesis, absorption, and origin of cholesterol and plant sterols in the Florida land crab.

    PubMed

    Douglass, T S; Connor, W E; Lin, D S

    1981-08-01

    In order to study the biosynthesis, composition, and origin of sterols in the Florida land crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille), we fed 17 male crabs either a cholesterol-free or a high cholesterol diet for 2 to 7 weeks. The origin of sterols in these crabs, whether from biosynthesis or from the diet, was determined by tahree procedures: the incorporation of isotopic mevalonate into the cholesterol when the diet was cholesterol-free; the absorption of isotopic cholesterol and sitosterol from the diet; the cholesterol and plant sterol concentrations of hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle under conditions of cholesterol-free and high cholesterol diets. In addition, the interconversion of cholesterol and sitosterol was investigated. Dietary sterols of plant and animal sources were readily absorbed and provided the major source of sterols for this species of crab. The biosynthesis of cholesterol from mevalonate in this crab was minimal. However, cholesterol was synthesized from dietary sitosterol by dealkylation. Cholesterol and the three plant sterols (24 epsilon-methyl cholesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) were found in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crab. Plant sterols contributed from 9 to 37% of the total sterols in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crabs fed a cholesterol-free diet.

  1. "Out of pollen" hypothesis for origin of new genes in flowering plants: study from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Wang, Xin; Li, Yan; Zeng, Lin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-10-01

    New genes, which provide material for evolutionary innovation, have been extensively studied for many years in animals where it is observed that they commonly show an expression bias for the testis. Thus, the testis is a major source for the generation of new genes in animals. The source tissue for new genes in plants is unclear. Here, we find that new genes in plants show a bias in expression to mature pollen, and are also enriched in a gene coexpression module that correlates with mature pollen in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transposable elements are significantly enriched in the new genes, and the high activity of transposable elements in the vegetative nucleus, compared with the germ cells, suggests that new genes are most easily generated in the vegetative nucleus in the mature pollen. We propose an "out of pollen" hypothesis for the origin of new genes in flowering plants.

  2. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  3. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  4. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  5. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 273 - Aquatic Plant Control Program Legislative Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., and other obnoxious aquatic plant growths, from the navigable waters, tributary streams, connecting... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aquatic Plant Control Program... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  7. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart... stationary combustion turbine which burns landfill gas or digester gas equivalent to 10 percent or more...

  8. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart applies to... stationary combustion turbine which burns landfill gas or digester gas equivalent to 10 percent or more...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2232 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... This Subpart Covers § 63.2232 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies... products, such as resins; onsite wastewater treatment operations specifically associated with plywood...

  10. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?...

  11. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?...

  12. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Building Products What This Subpart Covers § 63.4682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 100 - Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants A Appendix A to Part 100 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REACTOR SITE CRITERIA Pt. 100, App. A Appendix A to Part 100—Seismic and Geologic Siting Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants...

  14. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.6090 Section 63.6090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This...

  15. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.6090 Section 63.6090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This...

  16. 40 CFR 63.6090 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.6090 Section 63.6090 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... This Subpart Covers § 63.6090 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? This subpart applies...

  17. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this... and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover..., treat, or dispose of wastewater streams or residuals generated by a coating or printing operation....

  18. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What parts of my plant does this... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this..., treat, or dispose of wastewater streams or residuals generated by a coating or printing operation....

  19. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control...

  20. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control...

  1. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... identification by common and scientific name of the plant or plants concerned, origin of infestation and likely... control operations or engineering works, including control methods, materials, equipment and procedures... operation control, the report should include a brief statement of the special problems in control...

  2. Carbohydrate structure database merged from bacterial, archaeal, plant and fungal parts.

    PubMed

    Toukach, Philip V; Egorova, Ksenia S

    2016-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, http://csdb.glycoscience.ru) store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998). CSDB is regularly updated via manual expert annotation of original publications. Both newly annotated data and data imported from other databases are manually curated. The CSDB data are exportable in a number of modern formats, such as GlycoRDF. CSDB provides additional services for simulation of (1)H, (13)C and 2D NMR spectra of saccharides, NMR-based structure prediction, glycan-based taxon clustering and other.

  3. Carbohydrate structure database merged from bacterial, archaeal, plant and fungal parts

    PubMed Central

    Toukach, Philip V.; Egorova, Ksenia S.

    2016-01-01

    The Carbohydrate Structure Databases (CSDBs, http://csdb.glycoscience.ru) store structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other data on natural carbohydrates and their derivatives published in the scientific literature. The CSDB project was launched in 2005 for bacterial saccharides (as BCSDB). Currently, it includes two parts, the Bacterial CSDB and the Plant&Fungal CSDB. In March 2015, these databases were merged to the single CSDB. The combined CSDB includes information on bacterial and archaeal glycans and derivatives (the coverage is close to complete), as well as on plant and fungal glycans and glycoconjugates (almost all structures published up to 1998). CSDB is regularly updated via manual expert annotation of original publications. Both newly annotated data and data imported from other databases are manually curated. The CSDB data are exportable in a number of modern formats, such as GlycoRDF. CSDB provides additional services for simulation of 1H, 13C and 2D NMR spectra of saccharides, NMR-based structure prediction, glycan-based taxon clustering and other. PMID:26286194

  4. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas.

  5. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039

  6. Does Plant Origin Influence the Fitness Impact of Flower Damage? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    González-Browne, Catalina; Murúa, Maureen M.; Navarro, Luis; Medel, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory has been long considered an important component of plant-animal interactions that influences the success of invasive species in novel habitats. One of the most important hypotheses linking herbivory and invasion processes is the enemy-release hypothesis, in which exotic plants are hypothesized to suffer less herbivory and fitness-costs in their novel ranges as they leave behind their enemies in the original range. Most evidence, however, comes from studies on leaf herbivory, and the importance of flower herbivory for the invasion process remains largely unknown. Here we present the results of a meta-analysis of the impact of flower herbivory on plant reproductive success, using as moderators the type of damage caused by floral herbivores and the residence status of the plant species. We found 51 papers that fulfilled our criteria. We also included 60 records from unpublished data of the laboratory, gathering a total of 143 case studies. The effects of florivory and nectar robbing were both negative on plant fitness. The methodology employed in studies of flower herbivory influenced substantially the outcome of flower damage. Experiments using natural herbivory imposed a higher fitness cost than simulated herbivory, such as clipping and petal removal, indicating that studies using artificial herbivory as surrogates of natural herbivory underestimate the real fitness impact of flower herbivory. Although the fitness cost of floral herbivory was high both in native and exotic plant species, floral herbivores had a three-fold stronger fitness impact on exotic than native plants, contravening a critical element of the enemy-release hypothesis. Our results suggest a critical but largely unrecognized role of floral herbivores in preventing the spread of introduced species into newly colonized areas. PMID:26785039

  7. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Warnow, Tandy; Carpenter, Eric; Matasci, Naim; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Barker, Michael S; Burleigh, J Gordon; Gitzendanner, Matthew A; Ruhfel, Brad R; Wafula, Eric; Der, Joshua P; Graham, Sean W; Mathews, Sarah; Melkonian, Michael; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Miles, Nicholas W; Rothfels, Carl J; Pokorny, Lisa; Shaw, A Jonathan; DeGironimo, Lisa; Stevenson, Dennis W; Surek, Barbara; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; dePamphilis, Claude W; Chen, Tao; Deyholos, Michael K; Baucom, Regina S; Kutchan, Toni M; Augustin, Megan M; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Yan, Zhixiang; Wu, Xiaolei; Sun, Xiao; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leebens-Mack, James

    2014-11-11

    Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated. PMID:25355905

  8. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants

    PubMed Central

    Wickett, Norman J.; Mirarab, Siavash; Nguyen, Nam; Warnow, Tandy; Carpenter, Eric; Matasci, Naim; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Barker, Michael S.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Wafula, Eric; Graham, Sean W.; Mathews, Sarah; Melkonian, Michael; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Miles, Nicholas W.; Rothfels, Carl J.; Pokorny, Lisa; Shaw, A. Jonathan; DeGironimo, Lisa; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Surek, Barbara; Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Roure, Béatrice; Philippe, Hervé; dePamphilis, Claude W.; Chen, Tao; Deyholos, Michael K.; Baucom, Regina S.; Kutchan, Toni M.; Augustin, Megan M.; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Yan, Zhixiang; Wu, Xiaolei; Sun, Xiao; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leebens-Mack, James

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing the origin and evolution of land plants and their algal relatives is a fundamental problem in plant phylogenetics, and is essential for understanding how critical adaptations arose, including the embryo, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers. Despite advances in molecular systematics, some hypotheses of relationships remain weakly resolved. Inferring deep phylogenies with bouts of rapid diversification can be problematic; however, genome-scale data should significantly increase the number of informative characters for analyses. Recent phylogenomic reconstructions focused on the major divergences of plants have resulted in promising but inconsistent results. One limitation is sparse taxon sampling, likely resulting from the difficulty and cost of data generation. To address this limitation, transcriptome data for 92 streptophyte taxa were generated and analyzed along with 11 published plant genome sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 852 nuclear genes and 1,701,170 aligned sites. Sixty-nine analyses were performed to test the robustness of phylogenetic inferences to permutations of the data matrix or to phylogenetic method, including supermatrix, supertree, and coalescent-based approaches, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, partitioned and unpartitioned analyses, and amino acid versus DNA alignments. Among other results, we find robust support for a sister-group relationship between land plants and one group of streptophyte green algae, the Zygnematophyceae. Strong and robust support for a clade comprising liverworts and mosses is inconsistent with a widely accepted view of early land plant evolution, and suggests that phylogenetic hypotheses used to understand the evolution of fundamental plant traits should be reevaluated. PMID:25355905

  9. Early sexual origins of homeoprotein heterodimerization and evolution of the plant KNOX/BELL family.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lin, Huawen; Joo, Sunjoo; Goodenough, Ursula

    2008-05-30

    Developmental mechanisms that yield multicellular diversity are proving to be well conserved within lineages, generating interest in their origins in unicellular ancestors. We report that molecular regulation of the haploid-diploid transition in Chlamydomonas, a unicellular green soil alga, shares common ancestry with differentiation pathways in land plants. Two homeoproteins, Gsp1 and Gsm1, contributed by gametes of plus and minus mating types respectively, physically interact and translocate from the cytosol to the nucleus upon gametic fusion, initiating zygote development. Their ectopic expression activates zygote development in vegetative cells and, in a diploid background, the resulting zygotes undergo a normal meiosis. Gsm1/Gsp1 dyads share sequence homology with and are functionally related to KNOX/BELL dyads regulating stem-cell (meristem) specification in land plants. We propose that combinatorial homeoprotein-based transcriptional control, a core feature of the fungal/animal radiation, may have originated in a sexual context and enabled the evolution of land-plant body plans. PMID:18510927

  10. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such... HAP emissions. (c) Stationary RICE subject to Regulations under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected...

  11. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... subpart IIII, for compression ignition engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines... under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected source that meets any of the criteria in paragraphs (c)(1) through...

  12. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such.... No initial notification is necessary. (c) Stationary RICE subject to Regulations under 40 CFR Part...

  13. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... subpart IIII, for compression ignition engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines... under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected source that meets any of the criteria in paragraphs (c)(1) through...

  14. 40 CFR 63.6590 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6590 What parts of my plant does this subpart... engines or 40 CFR part 60 subpart JJJJ, for spark ignition engines. No further requirements apply for such... HAP emissions. (c) Stationary RICE subject to Regulations under 40 CFR Part 60. An affected...

  15. P-glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Modulators of Plant Origin: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nuno; Salgueiro, Lígia; Fortuna, Ana; Cavaleiro, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    Drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) help maintain cellular homeostasis but are also major contributors to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomena. Since P-gp was associated with MDR, several compounds showing potential to inhibit this transporter have been identified. Particular attention has been given to natural products, namely those of plant origin, looking for highly effective and safe P-gp inhibitors with little to no interaction with other cellular or metabolic processes. Here we abridge several examples of plant compounds from distinct classes, polyketides, lignans, anthraquinones, coumarins, alkaloids, mono- and sesqui-terpenes, steroids and limonoids, which have shown the ability to modulate in vitro or in vivo the P-gp activity.

  16. Plant virus DNA replication processes in Agrobacterium: insight into the origins of geminiviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Rigden, J E; Dry, I B; Krake, L R; Rezaian, M A

    1996-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a bacterial plant pathogen, when transformed with plasmid constructs containing greater than unit length DNA of tomato leaf curl geminivirus accumulates viral replicative form DNAs indistinguishable from those produced in infected plants. The accumulation of the viral DNA species depends on the presence of two origins of replication in the DNA constructs and is drastically reduced by introducing mutations into the viral replication-associated protein (Rep or C1) ORF, indicating that an active viral replication process is occurring in the bacterial cell. The accumulation of these viral DNA species is not affected by mutations or deletions in the other viral open reading frames. The observation that geminivirus DNA replication functions are supported by the bacterial cellular machinery provides evidence for the theory that these circular single-stranded DNA viruses have evolved from prokaryotic episomal replicons. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8816791

  17. AIRBORNE-CONTACT DERMATITIS OF NON-PLANT ORIGIN: AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Airborne-contact dermatitis (ABCD) represents a unique type of contact dermatitis originating from dust, sprays, pollens or volatile chemicals by airborne fumes or particles without directly touching the allergen. ABCD in Indian patients has been attributed exclusively by pollens of the plants like Parthenium hysterophorus, etc., but in recent years the above scenario has been changing rapidly in urban and semiurban perspective especially in developing countries. ABCD has been reported worldwide due to various type of nonplant allergens and their clinical feature are sometimes distinctive. Preventive aspect has been attempted by introduction of different chemicals of less allergic potential. PMID:22345776

  18. Effects of Dietary Plant-Origin Glucosylceramide on Bowel Inflammation in DSS-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Arai, Katsuhito; Mizobuchi, Yu; Tokuji, Yoshihiko; Aida, Kazuhiko; Yamashita, Shinji; Ohnishi, Masao; Kinoshita, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    The effects of dietary plant-origin glucosylceramide (GlcCer) on symptoms similar to those of inflammatory bowel diseasewere investigated in dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-treated mice. Dietary GlcCer suppressed decreases in body weight due to DSS administration. To determine its effects on the colon, we examined its surface under a microscope following toluidine blue staining. Dietary GlcCer decreased DSS-induced chorionic crypt injury and elevated myeloperoxidase levels. Moreover, dietary GlcCer significantly suppressed the production of cytokines by the intestinal mucosa. These results provide evidence for the suppression of DSS-induced inflammation by dietary GlcCer.

  19. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees.

  20. Metabolomics reveals the origins of antimicrobial plant resins collected by honey bees.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael B; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  1. Metabolomics Reveals the Origins of Antimicrobial Plant Resins Collected by Honey Bees

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Michael B.; Spivak, Marla; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Rendahl, Aaron; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    The deposition of antimicrobial plant resins in honey bee, Apis mellifera, nests has important physiological benefits. Resin foraging is difficult to approach experimentally because resin composition is highly variable among and between plant families, the environmental and plant-genotypic effects on resins are unknown, and resin foragers are relatively rare and often forage in unobservable tree canopies. Subsequently, little is known about the botanical origins of resins in many regions or the benefits of specific resins to bees. We used metabolomic methods as a type of environmental forensics to track individual resin forager behavior through comparisons of global resin metabolite patterns. The resin from the corbiculae of a single bee was sufficient to identify that resin's botanical source without prior knowledge of resin composition. Bees from our apiary discriminately foraged for resin from eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and balsam poplar (P. balsamifera) among many available, even closely related, resinous plants. Cottonwood and balsam poplar resin composition did not show significant seasonal or regional changes in composition. Metabolomic analysis of resin from 6 North American Populus spp. and 5 hybrids revealed peaks characteristic to taxonomic nodes within Populus, while antimicrobial analysis revealed that resin from different species varied in inhibition of the bee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. We conclude that honey bees make discrete choices among many resinous plant species, even among closely related species. Bees also maintained fidelity to a single source during a foraging trip. Furthermore, the differential inhibition of P. larvae by Populus spp., thought to be preferential for resin collection in temperate regions, suggests that resins from closely related plant species many have different benefits to bees. PMID:24204850

  2. Does the Data Resolution/origin Matter? Satellite, Airborne and Uav Imagery to Tackle Plant Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müllerová, Jana; Brůna, Josef; Dvořák, Petr; Bartaloš, Tomáš; Vítková, Michaela

    2016-06-01

    Invasive plant species represent a serious threat to biodiversity and landscape as well as human health and socio-economy. To successfully fight plant invasions, new methods enabling fast and efficient monitoring, such as remote sensing, are needed. In an ongoing project, optical remote sensing (RS) data of different origin (satellite, aerial and UAV), spectral (panchromatic, multispectral and color), spatial (very high to medium) and temporal resolution, and various technical approaches (object-, pixelbased and combined) are tested to choose the best strategies for monitoring of four invasive plant species (giant hogweed, black locust, tree of heaven and exotic knotweeds). In our study, we address trade-offs between spectral, spatial and temporal resolutions required for balance between the precision of detection and economic feasibility. For the best results, it is necessary to choose best combination of spatial and spectral resolution and phenological stage of the plant in focus. For species forming distinct inflorescences such as giant hogweed iterative semi-automated object-oriented approach was successfully applied even for low spectral resolution data (if pixel size was sufficient) whereas for lower spatial resolution satellite imagery or less distinct species with complicated architecture such as knotweed, combination of pixel and object based approaches was used. High accuracies achieved for very high resolution data indicate the possible application of described methodology for monitoring invasions and their long-term dynamics elsewhere, making management measures comparably precise, fast and efficient. This knowledge serves as a basis for prediction, monitoring and prioritization of management targets.

  3. Satellite RNA pathogens of plants: impacts and origins-an RNA silencing perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Bo; Smith, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    Viral satellite RNAs (satRNAs) are among the smallest RNA pathogens in plants. They have little or no protein-coding capacity but can have a major impact on the host plants through trilateral interactions with helper viruses and host plants. Studies around the 1980s revealed much of what we know about satRNAs: they can affect helper virus accumulation, modulate helper virus-induced disease symptoms, and induce their own symptoms with the assistance of helper viruses which depend on specific nucleotide sequences of their genome and host species. The molecular basis of these satRNA-caused impacts and the origin of satRNAs have yet to be fully understood and revealed, but recent understanding of the antiviral RNA silencing pathways and advancement in RNA and DNA sequencing technologies have provided new avenues and opportunities to examine these unanswered questions. These RNA silencing-based studies have revealed the existence of cross silencing between some satRNAs and helper viruses, the downregulation of helper virus-encoded suppressor (VSR) of RNA silencing or inhibition/enhancement of VSR activity by satRNAs, the silencing of host-encoded genes by satRNA-derived small interfering RNA (siRNAs), and the presence of satRNA-like small RNAs in uninfected host plants. These findings have provided alternative RNA silencing-based models to explain the pathogenicity and origin of satRNAs. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:5-16. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1311 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  4. Unresolved problems on the origin and early evolution of land plants.

    PubMed

    Bennici, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    The origin of land plants or embryophytes from the Charophyceae is generally accepted today by the botanists. In fact, numerous morphological, cytological, ultrastructural, biochemical and molecular characters are shared in these organisms. A fundamental problem is still constituted by the evolution of the sporophyte, i.e. the appearance of two different phase cycles (gametophyte/sporophyte alternance), although two theories ("antithetic" and "homologous") try to explain this evolutionary event.However, another phylogenetic dilemma is represented, in my opinion, either by the formation of bryophytes or by the transition from these first land plants to the pteridophytes, considering them at whole organism level. The bryophyte gametophyte is the most elaborate of the land plants. It presents several complex characters, principally the growth developmental form, the appearance of multicellular sex organs, antheridia and archegonia. Also the sporophyte shows a complicated structure that is not found in the other land plants or tracheophytes. The sporangium, in particular, exhibits some intricate morphological traits such as the peristome of true mosses for spore dispersion, the elaters of liverworts and the indeterminate growth in the hornworts. The pteridophytes are represented especially by their dominant sporophyte. This latter has the capacity to produce multiple sporangia and, in many cases, two kinds of spores which develop in male and female gametophyte (heterosporous pteridophytes). Another important characteristic of this sporophyte is its ability to become independent of the gametophyte. However, one of the most innovative character is the formation of true vascular elements (xylem and phloem). All these very large evolutionary jumps are discussed on the basis of the phyletic gradualistic neo-Darwinian theory and the punctuated equilibrium theory of Eldredge and Gould. In this context other genetic evolutionary mechanisms are also considered.Nevertheless, the

  5. Uncovering the evolutionary origin of plant molecular processes: comparison of Coleochaete (Coleochaetales) and Spirogyra (Zygnematales) transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    : larger scale data collection at a lower cost enabled us to cover a considerable portion of the transcriptome for both species. And, two, that the charophyte green algal transcriptoms are remarkably plant-like, which gives them the unique capacity to be major players for future evolutionary genomic studies addressing origin of land plant questions. PMID:20500869

  6. Nuclear material safeguards for enrichments plants: Part 4, Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant: Diversion scenarios and IAEA safeguards activities: Safeguards training course

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This publication is Part 4 of a safeguards training course in Nuclear Material Safeguards for enrichment plants. This part of the course deals with diversion scenarios and safeguards activities at gas centrifuge enrichment plants.

  7. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Introduction to Aphids - Part 1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides visual instruction on important subject areas for aphid examination and identification. Aphid topics such as classification, morphology, plant disease transmission, and references are discussed. This dis...

  8. Origin, evolution, and metabolic role of a novel glycolytic GAPDH enzyme recruited by land plant plastids.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jörn; Brinkmann, Henner; Cerff, Rüdiger

    2003-07-01

    NAD-specific glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a cytosolic marker enzyme of eukaryotes (GapC; EC 1.2.1.12). Land plants possess an additional NADP+-dependent enzyme (EC 1.2.1.13) within their chloroplasts which is composed of two subunits, GapA and GapB. Another plastid GAPDH enzyme (GapCp) was recently discovered in gymnosperms and ferns. This novel GapCp is closely related to cytosolic GapC and displays glycolytic NAD+ cosubstrate specificity. Here we show that this new gene GapCp is also present and actively expressed in angiosperms, mosses, and liverworts. Phylogenetic analyses of the available GapC and GapCp sequences suggest that the gene duplication giving rise to GapCp occurred in ancestral charophyte algae. The data are also consistent with a monophyletic origin of charophytes and land plants and further support the view that land plants arose from a Coleochaete-like green alga. Northern hybridizations were employed to study the expression of the genes GapCp, GapC, GapA, and GapB in green and nongreen tissues from pepper (Capsicum annuum). The results demonstrate that GapCp mRNAs are mainly expressed in red pepper fruit and roots, in which the transcript levels of photosynthetic GapA and GapB are downregulated. This suggests that in flowering plants GapCp plays a specific role in glycolytic energy production of nongreen plastids such as chromoplasts and leukoplasts and that angiosperms may be the only land plants where glycolysis is absent in green chloroplasts.

  9. The GapA/B gene duplication marks the origin of Streptophyta (charophytes and land plants).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jörn; Teich, René; Becker, Burkhard; Cerff, Rüdiger; Brinkmann, Henner

    2006-06-01

    Independent evidence from morphological, ultrastructural, biochemical, and molecular data have shown that land plants originated from charophycean green algae. However, the branching order within charophytes is still unresolved, and contradictory phylogenies about, for example,the position of the unicellular green alga Mesostigma viride are difficult to reconcile. A comparison of nuclear-encoded Calvin cycle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases (GAPDH) indicates that a crucial duplication of the GapA gene occurred early in land plant evolution. The duplicate called GapB acquired a characteristic carboxy-terminal extension (CTE) from the general regulator of the Calvin cycle CP12. This CTE is responsible for thioredoxin-dependent light/dark regulation. In this work, we established GapA, GapB, and CP12 sequences from bryophytes, all orders of charophyte as well as chlorophyte green algae, and the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of all available plastid GAPDH sequences suggest that glaucophytes and green plants are sister lineages and support a positioning of Mesostigma basal to all charophycean algae. The exclusive presence of GapB in terrestrial plants, charophytes, and Mesostigma dates the GapA/B gene duplication to the common ancestor of Streptophyta. The conspicuously high degree of GapB sequence conservation suggests an important metabolic role of the newly gained regulatory function. Because the GapB-mediated protein aggregation most likely ensures the complete blockage of the Calvin cycle at night, we propose that this mechanism is also crucial for efficient starch mobilization. This innovation may be one prerequisite for the development of storage tissues in land plants.

  10. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  12. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  13. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants What This Subpart Covers § 63.8184 What parts of my plant does this... are produced in mercury cells. This subpart applies to two types of affected sources: the mercury...

  14. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  15. Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling. Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the origins of electronegativity as a qualitative concept in the period between 1809 and 1813. Outlines the contributions of Amedeo Avogadro and Jons Jakob Berzelius to the development of this concept. Contains 53 references. (JRH)

  16. Introduction and synthesis: Plant phylogeny and the origin of major biomes.

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, R Toby; Cronk, Quentin C B; Richardson, James A

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees based upon DNA sequence data, when calibrated with a dimension of time, allow inference of: (i) the pattern of accumulation of lineages through time; (ii) the time of origin of monophyletic groups; (iii) when lineages arrived in different geographical areas; (iv) the time of origin of biome-specific morphologies. This gives a powerful new view of the history of biomes that in many cases is not provided by the incomplete plant fossil record. Dated plant phylogenies for angiosperm families such as Leguminoaceae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae sensu stricto, Annonaceae and Rhamnaceae indicate that long-distance, transoceanic dispersal has played an important role in shaping their distributions, and that this can obscure any effect of tectonic history, previously assumed to have been the major cause of their biogeographic patterns. Dispersal from other continents has also been important in the assembly of the Amazonian rainforest flora and the Australian flora. Comparison of dated biogeographic patterns of plants and animals suggests that recent long-distance dispersal might be more prevalent in plants, which has major implications for community assembly and coevolution. Dated plant phylogenies also reveal the role of past environmental changes on the evolution of lineages in species-rich biomes, and show that recent Plio-Pleistocene diversification has contributed substantially to their current species richness. Because of the critical role of fossils and morphological characters in assigning ages to nodes in phylogenetic trees, future studies must include careful morphological consideration of fossils and their extant relatives in a phylogenetic context. Ideal study systems will be based upon DNA sequence data from multiple loci and multiple fossil calibrations. This allows cross-validation both of age estimates from different loci, and from different fossil calibrations. For a more complete view of biome history, future studies should emphasize full

  17. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ovando-Medina, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062-5016 pollen grains (266-647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world. PMID:26989640

  18. Reproductive biology of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas in its center of origin

    PubMed Central

    Rincón-Rabanales, Manuel; Vargas-López, Laura I.; Adriano-Anaya, Lourdes; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we studied the main characteristics of flowering, reproductive system and diversity of pollinators for the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas (L.) in a site of tropical southeastern Mexico, within its center of origin. The plants were monoecious with inflorescences of unisexual flowers. The male flowers produced from 3062–5016 pollen grains (266–647 per anther). The plants produced fruits with both geitonogamy and xenogamy, although insect pollination significantly increased the number and quality of fruits. A high diversity of flower visiting insects (36 species) was found, of which nine were classified as efficient pollinators. The native stingless bees Scaptotrigona mexicana (Guérin-Meneville) and Trigona (Tetragonisca) angustula (Latreille) were the most frequent visitors and their presence coincided with the hours when the stigma was receptive. It is noteworthy that the female flowers open before the male flowers, favoring xenogamy, which may explain the high genetic variability reported in J. curcas for this region of the world. PMID:26989640

  19. Ruderal plants in remaining Cerrado areas: floristic survey, origin and mycorrhization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Neto, Maria; de Cássia Brassaloti Otsubo, Helena; Luciene Maltoni, Kátia; Rodrigues Cassiolato, Ana Maria

    2015-04-01

    The urbanization process creates new ecosystems that harbor flora which has specialized in living in anthropogenically altered environments, since the advent of agriculture and urbanization. Plant specialization in new ecosystems has been due to accelerated population growth and extensive occupied spaces on the planet surface. This study was looking at the floristic survey and origin, as well as arbuscular mycorrhization of ruderal plants, in remaining Cerrado areas in the city of Três Lagoas-MS, Brazil. It was also to expand knowledge about native and introduced vegetation in anthropogenic environments. The survey was conducted for a year. From all species ruderal plants founded, plants from 49 species were collected with the purpose of this study and report the occurrence or not of AM colonization, by classifying root colonization, of the species as: very high; high; medium; low and absent when presented a index of colonization> 80%, 79-50%, 49-20%, 19-1% and 0%, respectively. Two hundred sixty-six species, distributed into 53 botanical families were found. The flora of Três Lagoas-MS is composed of native and exotic plants (82.72% from the Americas and 17.28% from the Old World and Australia). There were 220 species native to the America's, but the largest amount (60.45%) were Brazil native growing plants. Smaller percentage of this (28.63%) was found to come from the cerrado, which indicates that the ruderal vegetation was well represented by native species. Of the 49 species chosen for verification of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization, 27 exhibited very high colonization; two were high; two were medium; eleven were low and seven species showed no mycorrhizal colonization, leading to the conclusion that most ruderal plants showed mycorrhizal colonization. The soil fertility, for both area, were considered higher than the typical cerrado, and by the average number of AMF spores (152 per 100 g of dry soil-1) may not even be considered degraded. This urban

  20. Phytochemistry, Bioactivity and Potential Impact on Health of Juglans: the Original Plant of Walnut.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dongdong; Zhao, Yicheng; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Tian, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; She, Gaimei

    2016-06-01

    Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes. The diarylheptanoids and quinones have notable antitumor activity, supplying new lead compounds for preparing antitumor drugs. The potent pain-relieving, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities of these plants are significant. In the review, comprehensive information on the nutritional characteristics, traditional functions, chemical constituents, and biological activities of the Juglans species, together with the seeds used as walnuts is provided to explore their potential and to advance research.

  1. Phytochemistry, Bioactivity and Potential Impact on Health of Juglans: the Original Plant of Walnut.

    PubMed

    Bi, Dongdong; Zhao, Yicheng; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Yan; Tian, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; She, Gaimei

    2016-06-01

    Walnuts are seeds with a hard shell from the genus Juglans (J. mandshurica, J. regia, J. sinensis, J. cathayensis, J. nigra and J. sigillata). Walnuts can nourish brain cells to improve human memory. Other parts of the plant are also employed as traditional Chinese medicines. Modern research on Juglans species has been mostly focused on the above-mentioned species, the seeds of which are all called walnuts. Juglans species have diverse chemical constituents, including diarylheptanoids, quinones, polyphenols, flavones and terpenes. The diarylheptanoids and quinones have notable antitumor activity, supplying new lead compounds for preparing antitumor drugs. The potent pain-relieving, antioxidant, antibacterial and antitumor activities of these plants are significant. In the review, comprehensive information on the nutritional characteristics, traditional functions, chemical constituents, and biological activities of the Juglans species, together with the seeds used as walnuts is provided to explore their potential and to advance research. PMID:27534138

  2. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Automobiles and Light-Duty Trucks What This Subpart Covers § 63.3082 What parts of my plant does this subpart... section that are used for surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts for new automobiles or new light-duty trucks: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.3176....

  3. Methods of Science Investigation Part 2: Results of Implementation of a Curriculum Fostering Original Scientific Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danch, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Originally designed to allow secondary students with special needs to participate in original scientific research, the Methods of Science Curriculum was piloted in 2008. Students participating included those with special needs, English language learners, and the general population. Students were incrementally graduated from traditional inquiry activities towards authentic student-generated research projects. Students were evaluated via class work grades, an in-school symposium and a pre/post test. 100 percent of participants successfully completed and presented their original research. The pre/post evaluation demonstrated improvement for 91 percent of participants. An unanticipated result was the performance and growth of English language learners, possibly because of the emphasis on the creative and active process of science rather than vocabulary. A teacher-training program is being developed for expansion of the curriculum to additional schools in 2009.

  4. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution using plant parts and topsoil.

    PubMed

    Serbula, Snezana M; Miljkovic, Dusanka Dj; Kovacevic, Renata M; Ilic, Ana A

    2012-02-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Fabaceae) was evaluated as a possible bioindicator of airborne heavy metal pollution, which originates from mining and pyrometallurgical copper production in Bor (Eastern Serbia). Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined in different plant organs (washed/unwashed leaves, branches, roots) and topsoil of R. pseudoacacia by ICP-AES and by AAS. Sampling was carried out during 2008 at ten selected sites distributed in five zones with different levels of pollution. Concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg did not exceeded the maximum allowed concentration (MAC) in soils at any of the sampling sites. Cu and As were present only at two sites within the MAC, whereas Zn exceeded the MAC at two sampling sites. Although present in the soil, As, Cd and Hg were below limit of detection in all parts of R. pseudoacacia. The rest of the studied elements, collected at the sites closest to the copper smelter or in the directions of the prevailing winds, were found to be at high levels. The higest Cu and Zn concentrations were detected in branches of R. pseudoacacia at the site Krivelj in the rural zone (6418.2±355.4 mg kg⁻¹ and 4699.8±320.8 mg kg⁻¹, respectively). Pb was present in similar amounts in all parts of R. pseudoacacia in the concentration ranging from 4.9 ± 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in washed leaves, at tourist zone) to 66.9±5.3 mg kg⁻¹ (in roots, at urban-industrial zone). According to the mobility ratio, leaves and branches of R. pseudoacacia acted as excluders of Cu, Zn and Pb, except for the branches which acted as indicators of Zn. Although As is present in high concentrations in the air and topsoil of the examined area, results show that R. pseudoacacia is not a suitable indicator of environmental pollution with As. PMID:22018546

  5. Phenylpropanoids of plant origin as inhibitors of biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Shinde, Ravikumar Bapurao; Chauhan, Nitin Mahendra; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2014-09-01

    Biofilm-related infections of Candida albicans are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, especially those with immunocompromised status. Options of the antifungal drugs available for successful treatment of drug-resistant biofilms are very few, and as such, new strategies need to be explored against them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of phenylpropanoids of plant origin against planktonic cells, important virulence factors, and biofilm forms of C. albicans. Standard susceptibility testing protocol was used to evaluate the activities of 13 phenylpropanoids against planktonic growth. Their effects on adhesion and yeast-to-hyphae morphogenesis were studied in microplate-based methodologies. An in vitro biofilm model analyzed the phenylpropanoid-mediated prevention of biofilm development and mature biofilms using XTT-metabolic assay, crystal violet assay, and light microscopy. Six molecules exhibited fungistatic activity at ≤0.5 mg/ml, of which four were fungicidal at low concentrations. Seven phenylpropanoids inhibited yeast-to-hyphae transition at low concentrations (0.031-0.5 mg/ml), whereas adhesion to the solid substrate was prevented in the range of 0.5-2 mg/ml. Treatment with ≤0.5 mg/ml concentrations of at least six small molecules resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation by C. albicans. Mature biofilms that are highly resistant to antifungal drugs were susceptible to low concentrations of 4 of the 13 molecules. This study revealed phenylpropanoids of plant origin as promising candidates to devise preventive strategies against drug-resistant biofilms of C. albicans. PMID:24851813

  6. Pretreatment of plant and soil samples: a problem in boron analysis. Part I. Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wikner, B.

    1986-01-01

    Possible sources of errors in the determination of boron in plant samples were examined. During drying and grinding neither loss nor contamination of boron was observed. It was found that boron was slightly lost when muffling at temperatures higher than 550/sup 0/C. The addition of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ prevented the loss but gave rise to incomplete ashing in many cases. Nitrate salts added in order to enhance oxidation gave rise to boron loss. Wet ashing should be done preferably in a concentrated sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid medium at low temperatures. At higher temperatures the shape of the digestion flask is important - long neck flasks are usually safe enough due to their condensating effects. Very high temperatures with foaming demand additional cooling condensors. Borosilicate glass can not be used. Extraction of plant samples with hydrochloric acid is a convenient alternative but no more than 75-94% of the total boron concentration in plants could be extracted.

  7. On the origin of microcraters on the surface of ion beam bombarded plant cell walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Brown, I. G.

    2006-01-01

    Ion bombardment of plant and bacterial cellular material has recently been used as a tool for the transfer of exogenous DNA macromolecules into the cell interior region. The precise mechanism that leads to the transfer of macromolecules through the cell envelope is not yet clear, however it has been observed that the ion bombardment is accompanied by the formation of "microcraters" on the cell wall, and it is possible that these features provide channels for the macromolecule transfer. Thus the nature and origin of the microcraters is of importance to understanding the DNA transfer phenomenon as well as being of fundamental interest. We report here on some scanning electron microscope observations we have made of onion skin cells that have been subjected to electron beam bombardment of sufficiently high power density to damage the cell wall. The damage seen is much less than and different from the microcraters formed subsequent to ion bombardment. We speculate that the microcraters may originate from the explosive release of gas generated in the biomaterial by ion bombardment.

  8. Agricultural origins from the ground up: archaeological approaches to plant domestication.

    PubMed

    Langlie, BrieAnna S; Mueller, Natalie G; Spengler, Robert N; Fritz, Gayle J

    2014-10-01

    The timing, geographical locations, causes, and consequences of crop domestication have long been major concerns of archaeologists, and agricultural origins and dispersals are currently more relevant than ever to scientists seeking solutions to elusive problems involving food insecurity and global health disparities. Perennial research issues that archaeologists continue to tackle include (1) thinking outside centers of origin that were based on limited and insufficient past knowledge; (2) distinguishing between single and multiple domestications of specific crops; (3) measuring the pace of domestication; and (4) decoupling domestication from agricultural economies. Paleoethnobotanists have expanded their toolkits to include analysis of ancient and modern DNA and have added increasingly sophisticated techniques in the field and the laboratory to derive precise chronological sequences to assess morphological changes in ancient and often fragmentary archaeobotanical remains and to correctly interpret taphonomy and context. Multiple lines of archaeological evidence are ideally brought together, and whenever possible, these are integrated with information from complementary sources. We discuss current perspectives and anthropological approaches to research that have as their goals the fuller and broader understanding of ancient farming societies, the plants that were domesticated, the landscapes that were created, and the culinary legacies that were passed on.

  9. Determining the Origin and Fate of Particulate Plant-Derived Organic Matter in the Rhone River (France) : A Lipid Tracer Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeron, M. A.; Amiraux, R.; Charriere, B.; Radakovitch, O.; Raimbault, P.; Garcia, N.; Lagadec, V.; Vaultier, F.; Rontani, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    A number of lipid tracers including fatty acids, hydroxyacids, n-alkanols, sterols and triterpenoids were used to determine the origin and fate of suspended particulate organic matter (POM) collected in the Rhone River (France), with a main focus on phytosterols, such as sitosterol, desmosterol, brassicasterol and cholesterol. This seasonal survey (April 2011 to May 2013) revealed a year-round strong terrigenous contribution to the plant derived particulate organic matter (POM) with significant algal inputs observed in March and attributed to phytoplanktonic blooms likely dominated by diatoms. Specific sitosterol and cholesterol degradation products were quantified and used to estimate the part of biotic and abiotic degradation of POM within the river. Plant-derived organic matter appears to be mainly affected by photo-oxidation and autoxidation (free radical oxidation), while organic matter of human origin, evidenced by the presence of coprostanol, is clearly more prone to bacterial degradation. Despite the involvement of an intense autoxidation inducing homolytic cleavage of peroxy bonds, a significant proportion of hydroperoxides is still intact in higher plant debris. These compounds could play a role in the degradation of terrestrial material by inducing an intense autoxidation upon its arrival at sea. Although sitosterol has been commonly used as a tracer of the terrestrial origin of POM in rivers, we show here that is it also found in phytoplankton, which highlights the need to use different tracers to determine the origin of POM in rivers. As part of the set of tracers we use, we have identified betulin to be an interesting candidate, although limited to a number of angiosperms species. Not only can we trace betulin to an unequivocal terrestrial origin, we also identified its specific degradation products, allowing us to trace the degradation state of angiosperm particulate debris in rivers, as well as the type of degradation undergone.

  10. Allopatric genetic origins for sympatric host-plant shifts and race formation in Rhagoletis.

    PubMed

    Feder, Jeffrey L; Berlocher, Stewart H; Roethele, Joseph B; Dambroski, Hattie; Smith, James J; Perry, William L; Gavrilovic, Vesna; Filchak, Kenneth E; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2003-09-01

    Tephritid fruit flies belonging to the Rhagoletis pomonella sibling species complex are controversial because they have been proposed to diverge in sympatry (in the absence of geographic isolation) by shifting and adapting to new host plants. Here, we report evidence suggesting a surprising source of genetic variation contributing to sympatric host shifts for these flies. From DNA sequence data for three nuclear loci and mtDNA, we infer that an ancestral, hawthorn-infesting R. pomonella population became geographically subdivided into Mexican and North American isolates approximately 1.57 million years ago. Episodes of gene flow from Mexico subsequently infused the North American population with inversion polymorphism affecting key diapause traits, forming adaptive clines. Sometime later (perhaps +/-1 million years), diapause variation in the latitudinal clines appears to have aided North American flies in adapting to a variety of plants with differing fruiting times, helping to spawn several new taxa. Thus, important raw genetic material facilitating the adaptive radiation of R. pomonella originated in a different time and place than the proximate ecological host shifts triggering sympatric divergence.

  11. [Role of transposons in origin and evolution of plant XY sex chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Shufen, Li; Sha, Li; Chuanliang, Deng; Longdou, Lu; Wujun, Gao

    2015-02-01

    The XY sex-determination system is crucial for plant reproduction. However, little is known about the mechanism of the origin and evolution of the XY sex chromosomes. It has been believed that a pair of autosomes is evolved to produce young sex chromosomes (neo-X chromosome and neo-Y chromosome) by loss of function or gain of function mutation, which influences the development of pistil or stamen. With the aggravation of the recombination suppression between neo-X and neo-Y and consequent expanding of the non-recombination region, the proto-sex chromosomes were finally developed to heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Accumulation of repetitive sequences and DNA methylation were probably involved in this process. Transposons, as the most abundant repetitive sequences in the genome, might be the initial motivation factors for the evolution of sex chromosome. Moreover, transposons may also increase heterochromatin expansion and recombination suppression of sex chromosome by local epigenetics modification. In this review, we summarize the function of transposon accumulation and the relationship between transposon and heterochromatization in the evolution of plant sex chromosome.

  12. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  13. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  14. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352..., and synthetically derived DNA as provided in § 23.16. (8) Certain wildlife hybrids as provided in §...

  15. Did RNA editing in plant organellar genomes originate under natural selection or through genetic drift?

    PubMed Central

    Jobson, Richard W; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2008-01-01

    Background The C↔U substitution types of RNA editing have been observed frequently in organellar genomes of land plants. Although various attempts have been made to explain why such a seemingly inefficient genetic mechanism would have evolved, no satisfactory explanation exists in our view. In this study, we examined editing patterns in chloroplast genomes of the hornwort Anthoceros formosae and the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris and in mitochondrial genomes of the angiosperms Arabidopsis thaliana, Beta vulgaris and Oryza sativa, to gain an understanding of the question of how RNA editing originated. Results We found that 1) most editing sites were distributed at the 2nd and 1st codon positions, 2) editing affected codons that resulted in larger hydrophobicity and molecular size changes much more frequently than those with little change involved, 3) editing uniformly increased protein hydrophobicity, 4) editing occurred more frequently in ancestrally T-rich sequences, which were more abundant in genes encoding membrane-bound proteins with many hydrophobic amino acids than in genes encoding soluble proteins, and 5) editing occurred most often in genes found to be under strong selective constraint. Conclusion These analyses show that editing mostly affects functionally important and evolutionarily conserved codon positions, codons and genes encoding membrane-bound proteins. In particular, abundance of RNA editing in plant organellar genomes may be associated with disproportionately large percentages of genes in these two genomes that encode membrane-bound proteins, which are rich in hydrophobic amino acids and selectively constrained. These data support a hypothesis that natural selection imposed by protein functional constraints has contributed to selective fixation of certain editing sites and maintenance of the editing activity in plant organelles over a period of more than four hundred millions years. The retention of genes encoding RNA editing activity may be

  16. The quest for regolithic howardites. Part 2: Surface origins highlighted by noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Ott, U.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2014-09-01

    We report noble gas data of helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe), cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages and nominal gas retention (K-Ar, U-Th-He) ages for seven howardites (CRE 01400, EET 87513, EET 87518, EET 99400, GRO 95535, GRO 95602, SAN 03472), in continuing research to identify regolithic samples, and better understand the vestan regolith. In our previous work, we found little correlation between suggested regolith parameters of Ni > 300 μg/g, Al2O3 8-9 wt% and eucrite/diogenite (E:D) ratio of 2:1 (Warren et al., 2009), and trapped solar wind (SW), fractionated solar wind (FSW) or planetary noble gas components (from impacted material) - noble gas indicators of a regolithic origin. Here, we have expanded our data set to include samples outside of these parameters to further explore composition, and the differences in Ni content as indicators for the presence of non-Vesta material. In addition, our sample set includes two potentially paired meteorites from the GRO suite. Finally, in our petrographic studies, the samples selected showed no evidence for carbonaceous chondrite fragments, which should reduce the effect of “contamination” by planetary noble gas components, and will allow us to better identify SW/FSW components, where present. Of the samples studied here, three howardites GRO 95535, GRO 95602 and EET 87513 show evidence for a regolithic origin, with both isotopic and element noble gas ratios clearly pointing to the presence of trapped components similar to SW/FSW or planetary. The two GRO howardites, GRO 95535 and GRO 95602, show similar noble gas ratios to our previously defined SW/FSW dominated regolithic group (LEW 85313 and MET 00423), suggesting a surface origin for these samples. However, interestingly, the GRO samples show vastly different cosmogenic noble gas abundances, and thus different CRE ages, which suggests that they are not paired. For howardite EET 87513, the data hint to the presence of CM-material, with a

  17. Experimental investigation of the origin of fynbos plant community structure after fire

    PubMed Central

    Silvertown, Jonathan; Araya, Yoseph N.; Linder, H. Peter; Gowing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Species in plant communities segregate along fine-scale hydrological gradients. Although this phenomenon is not unique to fynbos, this community regenerates after fire and therefore provides an opportunity to study the ecological genesis of hydrological niche segregation. Methods Following wildfires at two field sites where we had previously mapped the vegetation and monitored the hydrology, seeds were moved experimentally in >2500 intact soil cores up and down soil-moisture gradients to test the hypothesis that hydrological niche segregation is established during the seedling phase of the life cycle. Seedling numbers and growth were then monitored and they were identified using DNA bar-coding, the first use of this technology for an experiment of this kind. Key Results At the site where niche segregation among Restionaceae had previously been found, the size of seedlings was significantly greater, the wetter the location into which they were moved, regardless of the soil moisture status of their location of origin, or of the species. Seedling weight was also significantly greater in a competition treatment where the roots of other species were excluded. No such effects were detected at the control site where niche segregation among Restionaceae was previously found to be absent. Conclusions The finding that seedling growth on hydrological gradients in the field is affected by soil moisture status and by root competition shows that hydrological niche segregation could potentially originate in the seedling stage. The methodology, applied at a larger scale and followed-through for a longer period, could be used to determine whether species are differently affected by soil moisture. PMID:22805530

  18. Fumonisins in plant-origin food and fodder--a review.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Sękul, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the Fusarium group of fungi commonly found on crops, mainly on maize. Some data suggest that as much as 25% of world crops may be lost because of mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, researchers in many countries (particularly in those in which relatively large amounts of maize are directly consumed by humans) are concerned with fumonisin levels in plant-origin foodstuffs and feeds available in their local markets. There is no doubt the levels are strongly correlated with the climate conditions prevailing in the region in which the maize was cultivated: the hotter the climate, the more serious the problem. Negative consequences of consumption of fumonisin-contaminated food by humans include an increased risk of oesophagus cancer and decreased body mass growth. In recent years some trials have been undertaken to reduce fumonisin levels in food and feed by the application of isothiocyanates naturally occurring in plants or peptidoglycans isolated from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The results of these studies suggested that some reduction in contamination levels might be achieved. Additionally, some recent studies indicate that Sphingopyxis sp. bacteria produce enzymes that are able to break down the fumonisin molecule. Some fumonisins present in food may be bound/coupled with other compounds, and therefore difficult to detect. Such complexes in which the toxins are masked or hidden may even be at higher levels than the not-bound (free) molecules. The problem of how to evaluate effectively and efficiently the concentration of fumonisins in various foodstuffs is therefore a real-life challenge for scientists.

  19. Fumonisins in plant-origin food and fodder--a review.

    PubMed

    Bryła, Marcin; Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Sękul, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the Fusarium group of fungi commonly found on crops, mainly on maize. Some data suggest that as much as 25% of world crops may be lost because of mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, researchers in many countries (particularly in those in which relatively large amounts of maize are directly consumed by humans) are concerned with fumonisin levels in plant-origin foodstuffs and feeds available in their local markets. There is no doubt the levels are strongly correlated with the climate conditions prevailing in the region in which the maize was cultivated: the hotter the climate, the more serious the problem. Negative consequences of consumption of fumonisin-contaminated food by humans include an increased risk of oesophagus cancer and decreased body mass growth. In recent years some trials have been undertaken to reduce fumonisin levels in food and feed by the application of isothiocyanates naturally occurring in plants or peptidoglycans isolated from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The results of these studies suggested that some reduction in contamination levels might be achieved. Additionally, some recent studies indicate that Sphingopyxis sp. bacteria produce enzymes that are able to break down the fumonisin molecule. Some fumonisins present in food may be bound/coupled with other compounds, and therefore difficult to detect. Such complexes in which the toxins are masked or hidden may even be at higher levels than the not-bound (free) molecules. The problem of how to evaluate effectively and efficiently the concentration of fumonisins in various foodstuffs is therefore a real-life challenge for scientists. PMID:23837439

  20. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 2. Onions and other bulb crops

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    The various factors contributing to post harvest losses in onions and other bulb crops are briefly outlined in terms of the current storage methods. The present status of research on sprout inhibition by irradiation is reviewed in detail with respect to dose requirements, effect of time interval between harvest and irradiation, and the influence of environment on sprouting during storage. Biochemical mechanisms of sprout inhibition, metabolic and compositional changes (particularly sugars, anthocyanins, flavor and lachrymatory principles), and the culinary and processing qualities of irradiated onions are discussed. The future prospects for the commercial irradiation for sprout inhibition of bulb crops are considered.

  1. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

  2. Evaluation of purity of certain pediatric preparations of plant origin and its significance for the safety of pharmacotherapy microbiological contamination of pediatric preparations of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Figura, Barbara; Pluta, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms inhabiting medicinal plants belong to either saprophytic or pathogenic flora. Even those microorganisms which are characterized by low pathogenicity, under favorable conditions may infect people who have had contact with them. Compound tea bags contain increased levels of bacteria in view of pharmacopoeic norms. Single plant tea bags contain less bacteria and granulated teas have the lowest content. On the other hand, the latter reveal higher level of fungal contamination. Processing of herbs, including brewing decreases the amount of microorganisms in herbal products. PMID:17438867

  3. Do different substitution patterns or plant origin in hydroxyethyl starches affect blood coagulation in vitro?

    PubMed

    Matsota, Paraskevi; Politou, Marianna; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Apostolaki, Stella; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Gialeraki, Argyri; Travlou, Anthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2010-07-01

    The effect of hydroxyethyl starches (HES) on blood coagulation is affected by their molecular weight, their molar substitution and the C2/C6 ratio. The solutions of 6% HES 130/0.4 and 6% HES 130/0.42 have similar molecular weight and molar substitution but different C2/C6 ratio and plant origin. In the present study, the comparative effect of 6% HES 130/0.4 versus 6% HES 130/0.42 on blood coagulation was investigated in vitro. Thirty milliliter of blood was obtained from 10 healthy volunteers and was diluted by 10, 30 and 50% using either 6% HES 130/0.4 or HES 130/0.42, respectively. Blood coagulation was assessed using thrombelastography measurements (clotting time, clot formation time, maximal clot firmness and alpha-angle). The assessment of platelet function was performed with whole blood aggregometry after adding thrombin-receptor-activating protein. No differences were noted between respective dilutions of the two HES. Both colloids produced significant reductions below the reference values range in clotting time at 10, 30 and 50% dilutions. The 50% dilution of both colloids resulted in significant reduction of maximal clot firmness, alpha-angle and platelet aggregation. The present study showed that the corn-derived 6% HES 130/0.4 and the potato-derived 6% HES 130/0.42 have the same effect on blood coagulation in vitro.

  4. The charophycean green algae provide insights into the early origins of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A; Bacic, Antony; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Fei, Zhangzhun; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2011-10-01

    Numerous evolutionary innovations were required to enable freshwater green algae to colonize terrestrial habitats and thereby initiate the evolution of land plants (embryophytes). These adaptations probably included changes in cell-wall composition and architecture that were to become essential for embryophyte development and radiation. However, it is not known to what extent the polymers that are characteristic of embryophyte cell walls, including pectins, hemicelluloses, glycoproteins and lignin, evolved in response to the demands of the terrestrial environment or whether they pre-existed in their algal ancestors. Here we show that members of the advanced charophycean green algae (CGA), including the Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, but not basal CGA (Klebsormidiales and Chlorokybales), have cell walls that are comparable in several respects to the primary walls of embryophytes. Moreover, we provide both chemical and immunocytochemical evidence that selected Coleochaete species have cell walls that contain small amounts of lignin or lignin-like polymers derived from radical coupling of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. Thus, the ability to synthesize many of the components that characterize extant embryophyte walls evolved during divergence within CGA. Our study provides new insight into the evolutionary window during which the structurally complex walls of embryophytes originated, and the significance of the advanced CGA during these events. PMID:21707800

  5. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant S; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Chauhan, Nitin M; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections caused by Candida albicans and associated drug resistant micro-organisms are serious problems for immunocompromised populations. Molecules which can prevent or remove biofilms are needed. Twenty-eight terpenoids of plant origin were analysed for their activity against growth, virulence attributes, and biofilms of C. albicans. Eighteen molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of <2 mg ml(-1) for planktonic growth. Selected molecules inhibited yeast to hyphal dimorphism at low concentrations (0.031-0.5 mg ml(-1)), while adhesion to a solid surface was prevented at 0.5-2 mg ml(-1). Treatment with 14 terpenoids resulted in significant (p < 0.05) inhibition of biofilm formation, and of these, linalool, nerol, isopulegol, menthol, carvone, α-thujone, and farnesol exhibited biofilm-specific activity. Eight terpenoids were identified as inhibitors of mature biofilms. This study demonstrated the antibiofilm potential of terpenoids, which need to be further explored as therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated infections of C. albicans. PMID:23216018

  6. The charophycean green algae provide insights into the early origins of plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Iben; Pettolino, Filomena A; Bacic, Antony; Ralph, John; Lu, Fachuang; O'Neill, Malcolm A; Fei, Zhangzhun; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T

    2011-10-01

    Numerous evolutionary innovations were required to enable freshwater green algae to colonize terrestrial habitats and thereby initiate the evolution of land plants (embryophytes). These adaptations probably included changes in cell-wall composition and architecture that were to become essential for embryophyte development and radiation. However, it is not known to what extent the polymers that are characteristic of embryophyte cell walls, including pectins, hemicelluloses, glycoproteins and lignin, evolved in response to the demands of the terrestrial environment or whether they pre-existed in their algal ancestors. Here we show that members of the advanced charophycean green algae (CGA), including the Charales, Coleochaetales and Zygnematales, but not basal CGA (Klebsormidiales and Chlorokybales), have cell walls that are comparable in several respects to the primary walls of embryophytes. Moreover, we provide both chemical and immunocytochemical evidence that selected Coleochaete species have cell walls that contain small amounts of lignin or lignin-like polymers derived from radical coupling of hydroxycinnamyl alcohols. Thus, the ability to synthesize many of the components that characterize extant embryophyte walls evolved during divergence within CGA. Our study provides new insight into the evolutionary window during which the structurally complex walls of embryophytes originated, and the significance of the advanced CGA during these events.

  7. Phylogenetic and Genomic Analyses Resolve the Origin of Important Plant Genes Derived from Transposable Elements

    PubMed Central

    Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Hoen, Douglas R.; Blanchette, Mathieu; Bureau, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Once perceived as merely selfish, transposable elements (TEs) are now recognized as potent agents of adaptation. One way TEs contribute to evolution is through TE exaptation, a process whereby TEs, which persist by replicating in the genome, transform into novel host genes, which persist by conferring phenotypic benefits. Known exapted TEs (ETEs) contribute diverse and vital functions, and may facilitate punctuated equilibrium, yet little is known about this process. To better understand TE exaptation, we designed an approach to resolve the phylogenetic context and timing of exaptation events and subsequent patterns of ETE diversification. Starting with known ETEs, we search in diverse genomes for basal ETEs and closely related TEs, carefully curate the numerous candidate sequences, and infer detailed phylogenies. To distinguish TEs from ETEs, we also weigh several key genomic characteristics including repetitiveness, terminal repeats, pseudogenic features, and conserved domains. Applying this approach to the well-characterized plant ETEs MUG and FHY3, we show that each group is paraphyletic and we argue that this pattern demonstrates that each originated in not one but multiple exaptation events. These exaptations and subsequent ETE diversification occurred throughout angiosperm evolution including the crown group expansion, the angiosperm radiation, and the primitive evolution of angiosperms. In addition, we detect evidence of several putative novel ETE families. Our findings support the hypothesis that TE exaptation generates novel genes more frequently than is currently thought, often coinciding with key periods of evolution. PMID:27189548

  8. Surgery on the Internet. Part 1: The origins of the Internet.

    PubMed

    Richards, A

    1997-03-01

    The last few years have seen a dramatic increase in the size and use of the Internet; indeed recent figures estimate that the number of people with Internet access is increasing by up to 20 per cent monthly with over 30 million people now connected world wide. Many organisations, including The Royal College of Surgeons of England, now offer their own world wide web (WWW) sites. There are a number of areas and facilities on the Internet which are of particular interest to the surgeon; these include access to journals and textbooks, information of surgical units world-wide, e-mail and newsgroups discussing various surgical topics. The aim of this article, together with the two others in the series is to explain the steps necessary to get connected to the Internet and to illustrate some of the main areas of interest to the surgeon. This, the first of the articles will describe the origins of the Internet and the equipment and process required to get connected.

  9. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic composites...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic composites...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5790 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.5790 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at reinforced plastic...

  14. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  15. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  16. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  17. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  18. 40 CFR 63.8682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing What This Subpart Covers § 63.8682 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new, reconstructed, or existing affected source at...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2132 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Yeast What This Subpart Covers § 63.2132 What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? (a) This... cerevisiae at a nutritional yeast manufacturing facility. (b) The affected source is the collection of equipment used in the manufacture of the nutritional yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This...

  2. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood...

  3. 40 CFR 63.4682 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true What parts of my plant does this subpart cover? 63.4682 Section 63.4682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Wood...

  4. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... section that are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated... source for the dyeing and finishing subcategory is the collection of all of the items listed...

  5. 40 CFR 63.4282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dyeing of Fabrics and Other Textiles What This Subpart Covers § 63.4282 What parts of my plant does this... section that are used in fabric and other textiles web coating and printing operations. The regulated... source for the dyeing and finishing subcategory is the collection of all of the items listed...

  6. Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide and pest tolerant, but other GE crops in the pipeline focus on other traits. For some farmers and consumers, planting and eating foods from these crops are acceptable; for others they raise issues related to safety of the foods and the environment. In Part I of this review some general and food issues raised regarding GE crops and foods will be addressed. Responses to these issues, where possible, cite peer-reviewed scientific literature. In Part II to appear in 2009, issues related to environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods will be covered.

  7. "A temporary oversimplification": Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the origins of the typology/population dichotomy (part 1 of 2).

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2015-12-01

    The dichotomy between 'typological thinking' and 'population thinking' features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting than is commonly thought. In this first part, I will argue that Mayr's dichotomy was based on two distinct type/population contrasts that had been articulated much earlier by George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky. Their distinctions made eminent sense in their own, isolated contexts. In the second part, I will show how Mayr conflated these type/population distinctions and blended in some of his own, unrelated concerns with 'types' of a rather different sort. Although Mayr told his early critics that he was merely making "a temporary oversimplification," he ended up burdening the history and philosophy of biology with a troubled dichotomy.

  8. "A temporary oversimplification": Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the origins of the typology/population dichotomy (part 2 of 2).

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2016-06-01

    The dichotomy between 'typological thinking' and 'population thinking' features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting than is commonly thought. In the first part, I argued that Mayr's dichotomy was based on two distinct type/population contrasts that had been articulated much earlier by George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky. Their distinctions made eminent sense in their own, isolated contexts. In this second part, I will show how Mayr conflated these type/population distinctions and blended in some of his own, unrelated concerns with 'types' of a rather different sort. Although Mayr told his early critics that he was merely making "a temporary oversimplification," he ended up burdening the history and philosophy of biology with a troubled dichotomy.

  9. "A temporary oversimplification": Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the origins of the typology/population dichotomy (part 2 of 2).

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2016-06-01

    The dichotomy between 'typological thinking' and 'population thinking' features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting than is commonly thought. In the first part, I argued that Mayr's dichotomy was based on two distinct type/population contrasts that had been articulated much earlier by George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky. Their distinctions made eminent sense in their own, isolated contexts. In this second part, I will show how Mayr conflated these type/population distinctions and blended in some of his own, unrelated concerns with 'types' of a rather different sort. Although Mayr told his early critics that he was merely making "a temporary oversimplification," he ended up burdening the history and philosophy of biology with a troubled dichotomy. PMID:26471926

  10. "A temporary oversimplification": Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the origins of the typology/population dichotomy (part 1 of 2).

    PubMed

    Witteveen, Joeri

    2015-12-01

    The dichotomy between 'typological thinking' and 'population thinking' features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated and more interesting than is commonly thought. In this first part, I will argue that Mayr's dichotomy was based on two distinct type/population contrasts that had been articulated much earlier by George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky. Their distinctions made eminent sense in their own, isolated contexts. In the second part, I will show how Mayr conflated these type/population distinctions and blended in some of his own, unrelated concerns with 'types' of a rather different sort. Although Mayr told his early critics that he was merely making "a temporary oversimplification," he ended up burdening the history and philosophy of biology with a troubled dichotomy. PMID:26471927

  11. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  12. Genetically engineered plants and foods: a scientist's analysis of the issues (part II).

    PubMed

    Lemaux, Peggy G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic engineering provides a means to introduce genes into plants via mechanisms that are different in some respects from classical breeding. A number of commercialized, genetically engineered (GE) varieties, most notably canola, cotton, maize and soybean, were created using this technology, and at present the traits introduced are herbicide and/or pest tolerance. In 2007 these GE crops were planted in developed and developing countries on more than 280 million acres (113 million hectares) worldwide, representing nearly 10% of rainfed cropland. Although the United States leads the world in acres planted with GE crops, the majority of this planting is on large acreage farms. In developing countries, adopters are mostly small and resource-poor farmers. For farmers and many consumers worldwide, planting and eating GE crops and products made from them are acceptable and even welcomed; for others GE crops raise food and environmental safety questions, as well as economic and social issues. In Part I of this review, some general and food issues related to GE crops and foods were discussed. In Part II, issues related to certain environmental and socioeconomic aspects of GE crops and foods are addressed, with responses linked to the scientific literature.

  13. Life Cycle Assessment (ISO 14040) implementation in foods of animal and plant origin: review.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kotsanopoulos, Konstantinos V; Veikou, Agapi

    2014-01-01

    The importance of environmental protection has been recently upgraded due to the continuously increasing environmental pollution load. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), wellknown as ISO 14040, has been repeatedly shown to be a useful and powerful tool for assessing the environmental performance of industrial processes, both in the European and American continents as well as in many Asian countries (such as Japan and China). To the best of our knowledge, almost no information is provided in relation to LCA implementation in Africa apart from an article related to Egypt. Although food industries are not considered to be among the most heavily polluting ones, for some like olive oil, wine, dairy, and meat processing, their impact on the environment is a heavy burden. The introduction of LCA aimed at identifying both inputs and outputs to find out which are the most detrimental to the environment in terms of water/energy consumption and solid/liquid and gas releases. In this review, a thorough coverage of literature was made in an attempt to compare the implementation of LCA to a variety of products of both plant and animal origin. It was concluded that there is a high number of subsystems suggested for the same product, thereby, occasionally leading to confusion. An idea toward solving the problem is to proceed to some sort of standardization by means of several generic case studies of LCA implementation, similarly to what had happened in the case of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation in the United States, Canada, Australia, United Kingdom, and other countries. PMID:24564585

  14. Dietary exposure to pesticide residues from foods of plant origin and drinks in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Rehaime, Maria; Kassaify, Zeina; Rechmany, Roula; Jaber, Farouk

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the dietary exposure of Lebanese adults to 47 pesticide residues from both foods of plant origin and drinks. The study was conducted using the Total Diet Study protocol in two different areas of Lebanon: Greater Beirut (urban) and Keserwan (semi-rural). A total of 1860 individual foods were collected, prepared, and cooked prior to analysis. Composite samples of similar foods were analyzed, following the QuEChERS Multiresidue method. Eighteen residues were detected/quantified on at least one composite sample, with 66.7 % of the results being quantifiable and 33.3 % detectable. Quantifiable levels ranged between 10.3 and 208 μg/kg. For the composite samples where residues were detected, 55 % had one residue, while 45 % had 2-4 residues. The most frequently detected/quantified pesticide residues included Chlorpyrifos, Procymidone, Primiphos methyl, Dimethoate, and Dieldrin. The dietary exposure assessment was conducted using the deterministic approach with two scenarios: (1) the lower bound (LB) approach and (2) the upper bound (UB) approach. Using the LB approach, mean estimated daily exposures were far below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) for all investigated residues. Using the UB approach, which tends to overestimate exposure, mean estimated daily exposures were below the ADIs for all residues except for Dieldrin (semi-rural: 128.7 % ADI; urban: 100.7 % ADI). Estimates of mean exposure to Diazinon reached 50.3 % of ADI in the urban diet and 61.9 % in the semi-rural diet. Findings of this study identify specific pesticide residues as monitoring priorities for which more comprehensive and sensitive analyses are needed in order to refine exposure assessment. PMID:27461424

  15. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (lignocellulosic biomass) part II: carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-12

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(2) and other products such as biocomposite materials(6). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses, and the polyphenol lignin(5) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls contribute extensively to the strength and structural integrity of the entire plant. Despite its necessary rigidity, the cell wall is a highly dynamic entity that is metabolically active and plays crucial roles in numerous cell activities such as plant growth and differentiation(5). Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerisation by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its monosaccharide composition of the hemicelluloses and other matrix polysaccharides1, and its content of crystalline cellulose(7). The protocol for

  16. Multi-element concentrations in plant parts and fluids of Malaysian nickel hyperaccumulator plants and some economic and ecological considerations.

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Antony; Mulligan, David

    2015-04-01

    Information about multi-elemental concentrations in different plant parts of tropical Ni hyperaccumulator species has the potential to provide insight into their unusual metabolism relative to a range of essential and non-essential elements, but this information is scant in the literature. As Ni hyperaccumulation, and possibly co-accumulation of other toxic elements, has been hypothesized to provide herbivore (insect) protection, there is a need to quantify a range of these elements in plant tissues and transport fluids to at least verify the possibility of this explanation. In this study, multiple elements were analyzed in a range of different plant parts and transport fluids from Ni hyperaccumulator species collected from Sabah (Malaysia). The results show preferential accumulation of Ni in leaves over woody parts, but the highest concentrations were found in the phloem tissue (up to 7.9 % in Rinorea bengalensis) and phloem sap (up to 16.9 % in Phyllanthus balgooyi), visible by a bright green coloration in the field fresh material. The amount of Ni contained in one mature R. bengalensis tree was calculated at 4.77 kg. The high Ni concentration in the flowers of Phyllanthus securinegoides could affect insect floral visitors and pollination. High concentrations of Ni in the seeds of this species also could supply the seedling with Ni and aid in herbivory protection during the first stages of development. Foliar Ca and Ni in P. cf. securinegoides and R. bengalensis are positively correlated. Low accumulation of Ca is desirable for phytomining but concentrations of Ca are high in most Ni hyperaccumulators examined, and this could have consequences for the economic viability of Ni extraction from bio ore if these species were to be used as 'metal crops'. PMID:25921447

  17. The Aboriginal Australian cosmic landscape. Part 2: Plant connections with the skyworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    2015-03-01

    In the recorded mythology of Aboriginal Australia there is frequent mention of the Skyworld as the upper part of a total landscape that possessed topography linked with that of Earth and the Underworld. The heavens were perceived as a country with the same species of plants and animals that existed below. In Aboriginal tradition, large trees were seen as connecting terrestrial space with the sky above, while the movements of celestial bodies were linked to seasonal changes observed with plants on Earth. This paper describes the links between the floras of Earth and the Skyworld.

  18. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  19. Biotechnology of flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived natural products. Part I: Chemical diversity, impacts on plant biology and human health.

    PubMed

    Ververidis, Filippos; Trantas, Emmanouil; Douglas, Carl; Vollmer, Guenter; Kretzschmar, Georg; Panopoulos, Nickolas

    2007-10-01

    Plant natural products derived from phenylalanine and the phenylpropanoid pathway are impressive in their chemical diversity and are the result of plant evolution, which has selected for the acquisition of large repertoires of pigments, structural and defensive compounds, all derived from a phenylpropanoid backbone via the plant-specific phenylpropanoid pathway. These compounds are important in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses and thus can have large impacts on agricultural productivity. While plant-based medicines containing phenylpropanoid-derived active components have long been used by humans, the benefits of specific flavonoids and other phenylpropanoid-derived compounds to human health and their potential for long-term health benefits have been only recognized more recently. In this part of the review, we discuss the diversity and biosynthetic origins of phenylpropanoids and particularly of the flavonoid and stilbenoid natural products. We then review data pertaining to the modes of action and biological properties of these compounds, referring on their effects on human health and physiology and their roles as plant defense and antimicrobial compounds. This review continues in Part II discussing the use of biotechnological tools targeting the rational reconstruction of multienzyme pathways in order to modify the production of such compounds in plants and model microbial systems for the benefit of agriculture and forestry.

  20. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352, and 355. (1) Appendix-III...) Personal and household effects as provided in § 23.15. (6) Urine, feces, and synthetically derived DNA...

  1. Origin and Diversification of Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno; Dolan, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a class of transcription factors found throughout eukaryotic organisms. Classification of the complete sets of bHLH proteins in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice) has defined the diversity of these proteins among flowering plants. However, the evolutionary relationships of different plant bHLH groups and the diversity of bHLH proteins in more ancestral groups of plants are currently unknown. In this study, we use whole-genome sequences from nine species of land plants and algae to define the relationships between these proteins in plants. We show that few (less than 5) bHLH proteins are encoded in the genomes of chlorophytes and red algae. In contrast, many bHLH proteins (100–170) are encoded in the genomes of land plants (embryophytes). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that plant bHLH proteins are monophyletic and constitute 26 subfamilies. Twenty of these subfamilies existed in the common ancestors of extant mosses and vascular plants, whereas six further subfamilies evolved among the vascular plants. In addition to the conserved bHLH domains, most subfamilies are characterized by the presence of highly conserved short amino acid motifs. We conclude that much of the diversity of plant bHLH proteins was established in early land plants, over 440 million years ago. PMID:19942615

  2. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-01-01

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  3. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Acquah, Gifty E.; Via, Brian K.; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O.; Eckhardt, Lori G.

    2016-01-01

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  4. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering.

  5. Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts.

    PubMed

    Patron, Nicola J; Orzaez, Diego; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Warzecha, Heribert; Matthewman, Colette; Youles, Mark; Raitskin, Oleg; Leveau, Aymeric; Farré, Gemma; Rogers, Christian; Smith, Alison; Hibberd, Julian; Webb, Alex A R; Locke, James; Schornack, Sebastian; Ajioka, Jim; Baulcombe, David C; Zipfel, Cyril; Kamoun, Sophien; Jones, Jonathan D G; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke; Van Esse, H Peter; Sanders, Dale; Oldroyd, Giles; Martin, Cathie; Field, Rob; O'Connor, Sarah; Fox, Samantha; Wulff, Brande; Miller, Ben; Breakspear, Andy; Radhakrishnan, Guru; Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Loqué, Dominique; Granell, Antonio; Tissier, Alain; Shih, Patrick; Brutnell, Thomas P; Quick, W Paul; Rischer, Heiko; Fraser, Paul D; Aharoni, Asaph; Raines, Christine; South, Paul F; Ané, Jean-Michel; Hamberger, Björn R; Langdale, Jane; Stougaard, Jens; Bouwmeester, Harro; Udvardi, Michael; Murray, James A H; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Schäfer, Patrick; Denby, Katherine; Edwards, Keith J; Osbourn, Anne; Haseloff, Jim

    2015-10-01

    Inventors in the field of mechanical and electronic engineering can access multitudes of components and, thanks to standardization, parts from different manufacturers can be used in combination with each other. The introduction of BioBrick standards for the assembly of characterized DNA sequences was a landmark in microbial engineering, shaping the field of synthetic biology. Here, we describe a standard for Type IIS restriction endonuclease-mediated assembly, defining a common syntax of 12 fusion sites to enable the facile assembly of eukaryotic transcriptional units. This standard has been developed and agreed by representatives and leaders of the international plant science and synthetic biology communities, including inventors, developers and adopters of Type IIS cloning methods. Our vision is of an extensive catalogue of standardized, characterized DNA parts that will accelerate plant bioengineering. PMID:26171760

  6. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  7. Plant parts of the apple tree (Malus spp.) as possible indicators of heavy metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Tošić, Snežana; Alagić, Slađana; Dimitrijević, Mile; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Nujkić, Maja

    2016-05-01

    The content of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni was determined by ICP-OES in spatial soil and parts (root, branches, leaves, and fruit) of the apple tree (Malus spp.) from polluted sites near The Mining and Smelting Complex Bor (Serbia). The aim of this study was to examine if the obtained results can be used for biomonitoring purposes. Data recorded in plant parts, especially leaves, gave very useful information about the environmental state of the Bor region. Conveniently, these data described well the capability of investigated plant species to assimilate and tolerate severely high concentrations of heavy metals in its tissues, which may further allow the possibility for utilization of the apple tree for phytostabilization.

  8. Trends and problems in development of the power plants electrical part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Yu. P.

    2015-03-01

    The article discusses some problems relating to development of the electrical part of modern nuclear and thermal power plants, which are stemming from the use of new process and electrical equipment, such as gas turbine units, power converters, and intellectual microprocessor devices in relay protection and automated control systems. It is pointed out that the failure rates of electrical equipment at Russian and foreign power plants tend to increase. The ongoing power plant technical refitting and innovative development processes generate the need to significantly widen the scope of research works on the electrical part of power plants and rendering scientific support to works on putting in use innovative equipment. It is indicated that one of main factors causing the growth of electrical equipment failures is that some of components of this equipment have insufficiently compatible dynamic characteristics. This, in turn may be due to lack or obsolescence of regulatory documents specifying the requirements for design solutions and operation of electric power equipment that incorporates electronic and microprocessor control and protection devices. It is proposed to restore the system of developing new and updating existing departmental regulatory technical documents that existed in the 1970s, one of the fundamental principles of which was placing long-term responsibility on higher schools and leading design institutions for rendering scientific-technical support to innovative development of components and systems forming the electrical part of power plants. This will make it possible to achieve lower failure rates of electrical equipment and to steadily improve the competitiveness of the Russian electric power industry and energy efficiency of generating companies.

  9. Degradation kinetics and pathways of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant and in the soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojun; Meng, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Yanyan; Gu, Haotian; Ren, Yajun; Lu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    Spirotetramat is a new pesticide against a broad spectrum of sucking insects and exhibits a unique property with a two-way systemicity. In order to formulate a scientific rationale for a reasonable spray dose and the safe interval period of 22.4 % spirotetramat suspension concentrate on controlling vegetable pests, we analyzed degradation dynamics and pathways of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant (leaf, stalk, and root) and in the soil. We conducted experimental trials under field conditions and adopted a simple and reliable method (dispersive solid phase extraction) combined with liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate the dissipation rates of spirotetramat residue and its metabolites. The results showed that the spirotetramat was degraded into different metabolite residues in different parts of spinach plant (leaf, stalk, and root) and in the soil. Specifically, spirotetramat was degraded into B-keto, B-glu, and B-enol in the leaf; B-glu and B-enol in the stalk; and only B-enol in the root. In the soil where the plants grew, spirotetramat followed a completely different pathway compared to the plant and degraded into B-keto and B-mono. Regardless of different degradation pathways, the dissipation dynamic equations of spirotetramat in different parts of spinach plant and in the soil were all based on the first-order reaction dynamic equations. This work provides guidelines for the safe use of spirotetramat in spinach fields, which would help prevent potential health threats to consumers. PMID:27083908

  10. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  11. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  12. Comprehensive compositional analysis of plant cell walls (Lignocellulosic biomass) part I: lignin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Cliff E; Martin, Tina M; Pauly, Markus

    2010-03-11

    The need for renewable, carbon neutral, and sustainable raw materials for industry and society has become one of the most pressing issues for the 21st century. This has rekindled interest in the use of plant products as industrial raw materials for the production of liquid fuels for transportation(1) and other products such as biocomposite materials(7). Plant biomass remains one of the greatest untapped reserves on the planet(4). It is mostly comprised of cell walls that are composed of energy rich polymers including cellulose, various hemicelluloses (matrix polysaccharides, and the polyphenol lignin(6) and thus sometimes termed lignocellulosics. However, plant cell walls have evolved to be recalcitrant to degradation as walls provide tensile strength to cells and the entire plants, ward off pathogens, and allow water to be transported throughout the plant; in the case of trees up to more the 100 m above ground level. Due to the various functions of walls, there is an immense structural diversity within the walls of different plant species and cell types within a single plant(4). Hence, depending of what crop species, crop variety, or plant tissue is used for a biorefinery, the processing steps for depolymerization by chemical/enzymatic processes and subsequent fermentation of the various sugars to liquid biofuels need to be adjusted and optimized. This fact underpins the need for a thorough characterization of plant biomass feedstocks. Here we describe a comprehensive analytical methodology that enables the determination of the composition of lignocellulosics and is amenable to a medium to high-throughput analysis. In this first part we focus on the analysis of the polyphenol lignin (Figure 1). The method starts of with preparing destarched cell wall material. The resulting lignocellulosics are then split up to determine its lignin content by acetylbromide solubilization(3), and its lignin composition in terms of its syringyl, guaiacyl- and p-hydroxyphenyl units(5

  13. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and.... 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem....

  14. 33 CFR Appendix C to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Environmental Impact Statements C Appendix C to Part 273 Navigation and.... 273, App. C Appendix C to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program... specifically as possible. c. Severity of infestation. Discuss the degree and importance of the pest problem....

  15. The origin and early evolution of tracheids in vascular plants: integration of palaeobotanical and neobotanical data.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, W E; Cook, M E

    2000-01-01

    Although there is clear evidence for the establishment of terrestrial plant life by the end of the Ordovician, the fossil record indicates that land plants remained extremely small and structurally simple until the Late Silurian. Among the events associated with this first major radiation of land plants is the evolution of tracheids, complex water-conducting cells defined by the presence of lignified secondary cell wall thickenings. Recent palaeobotanical analyses indicate that Early Devonian tracheids appear to possess secondary cell wall thickenings composed of two distinct layers: a degradation-prone layer adjacent to the primary cell wall and a degradation-resistant (possibly lignified) layer next to the cell lumen. In order to understand better the early evolution of tracheids, developmental and comparative studies of key basal (and potentially plesiomorphic) extant vascular plants have been initiated. Ultrastructural analysis and enzyme degradation studies of wall structure (to approximate diagenetic alterations of fossil tracheid structure) have been conducted on basal members of each of the two major clades of extant vascular plants: Huperzia (Lycophytina) and Equisetum (Euphyllophytina. This research demonstrates that secondary cell walls of extant basal vascular plants include a degradation-prone layer ('template layer') and a degradation-resistant layer ('resistant layer'). This pattern of secondary cell wall formation in the water-conducting cells of extant vascular plants matches the pattern of wall thickenings in the tracheids of early fossil vascular plants and provides a key evolutionary link between tracheids of living vascular plants and those of their earliest fossil ancestors. Further studies of tracheid development and structure among basal extant vascular plants will lead to a more precise reconstruction of the early evolution of water-conducting tissues in land plants, and will add to the current limited knowledge of spatial, temporal and

  16. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals.

  17. Not plants or animals: a brief history of the origin of Kingdoms Protozoa, Protista and Protoctista.

    PubMed

    Scamardella, J M

    1999-12-01

    In the wake of Darwin's evolutionary ideas, mid-nineteenth century naturalists realized the shortcomings of the long established two-kingdom system of organismal classification. Placement in a natural scheme of Protozoa, Protophyta, Phytozoa and Bacteria, microorganisms that exhibited plant-like and animal-like characteristics but obviously differed in organization from larger plants and animals, challenged traditional classification. The attempts of naturalists to classify these organisms outside the constraints of the plant and animal kingdoms led to concepts of additional kingdoms (Protozoa, Protista, Protoctista, etc.) to accommodate the nature of these organisms as not true plants or animals. PMID:10943416

  18. [Thalidomide: Drug of horror and last resort. A review. Part 1: Origin, molecular structure and first pattern of use.].

    PubMed

    Jóhannesson, Thornorkell

    2003-10-01

    Thalidomide was originally a hypnotic, sedative and anxiolytic drug that was first used in 1955. It was considered to have little toxicity and have smooth activity. Thalidomide was in fact poorly studied both in animals and for therapeutic purposes. It was nevertheless agressively advertised, and inter alia for use in pregnancy, and accordingly it was a much used drug. During the year 1961 it became evident that intake of thalidomide in therapeutic doses could result in severe peripheral neuritis and, when taken early in pregnancy, in horrendous damage to the fetus. Thalidomide was thus shortly afterwards generally removed from the market and its use prohibited. Nevertheless, interest rose a few years later to use thalidomide on other indications than before. This is the topic of Part 2 of this review as well as discussion of studies pertinent to the mechanisms of action of thalidomide.

  19. Phytobarriers: Plants capture particles containing potentially toxic elements originating from mine tailings in semiarid regions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-López, Ariadna S; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma Del Carmen Angeles; Rosas-Saito, Greta Hanako; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-10-01

    Retention of particles containing potentially toxic elements (PTEs) on plants that spontaneously colonize mine tailings was studied through comparison of washed and unwashed shoot samples. Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Co and Mn concentrations were determined in plant samples. Particles retained on leaves were examined by Scanning Electronic Microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis. Particles containing PTEs were detected on both washed and unwashed leaves. This indicates that the thorough washing procedure did not remove all the particles containing PTEs from the leaf surface, leading to an overestimation of the concentrations of PTEs in plant tissues. Particularly trichomes and fungal mycelium were retaining particles. The quantity and composition of particles varied among plant species and place of collection. It is obvious that plants growing on toxic mine tailings form a physical barrier against particle dispersion and hence limit the spread of PTEs by wind.

  20. Arctic plant origins and early formation of circumarctic distributions: a case study of the mountain sorrel, Oxyria digyna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Jianquan; Allen, Geraldine A; Ma, Yazhen; Yue, Wei; Marr, Kendrick L; Abbott, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species comprising the present-day Arctic flora are thought to have originated in the high mountains of North America and Eurasia, migrated northwards as global temperatures fell during the late Tertiary period, and thereafter attained a circumarctic distribution. However, supporting evidence for this hypothesis that provides a temporal framework for the origin, spread and initial attainment of a circumarctic distribution by an arctic plant is currently lacking. Here we examined the origin and initial formation of a circumarctic distribution of the arctic mountain sorrel (Oxyria digyna) by conducting a phylogeographic analysis of plastid and nuclear gene DNA variation. We provide evidence for an origin of this species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of southwestern China, followed by migration into Russia c. 11 million yr ago (Ma), eastwards into North America by c. 4 Ma, and westwards into Western Europe by c. 1.96 Ma. Thereafter, the species attained a circumarctic distribution by colonizing Greenland from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Following the arrival of the species in North America and Europe, population sizes appear to have increased and then stabilized there over the last 1 million yr. However, in Greenland a marked reduction followed by an expansion in population size is indicated to have occurred during the Pleistocene. PMID:26197783

  1. Arctic plant origins and early formation of circumarctic distributions: a case study of the mountain sorrel, Oxyria digyna.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Jianquan; Allen, Geraldine A; Ma, Yazhen; Yue, Wei; Marr, Kendrick L; Abbott, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species comprising the present-day Arctic flora are thought to have originated in the high mountains of North America and Eurasia, migrated northwards as global temperatures fell during the late Tertiary period, and thereafter attained a circumarctic distribution. However, supporting evidence for this hypothesis that provides a temporal framework for the origin, spread and initial attainment of a circumarctic distribution by an arctic plant is currently lacking. Here we examined the origin and initial formation of a circumarctic distribution of the arctic mountain sorrel (Oxyria digyna) by conducting a phylogeographic analysis of plastid and nuclear gene DNA variation. We provide evidence for an origin of this species in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of southwestern China, followed by migration into Russia c. 11 million yr ago (Ma), eastwards into North America by c. 4 Ma, and westwards into Western Europe by c. 1.96 Ma. Thereafter, the species attained a circumarctic distribution by colonizing Greenland from both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Following the arrival of the species in North America and Europe, population sizes appear to have increased and then stabilized there over the last 1 million yr. However, in Greenland a marked reduction followed by an expansion in population size is indicated to have occurred during the Pleistocene.

  2. Origin of variolitic lavas: Evidence for variolites in axial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 6oN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, Evgenii; Krssivskaya, Irina; Chistyakov, Alexei

    2010-05-01

    globules with careless boundaries. Effect of thermal diffusion in more important for Fe; as a result #mg in trachyandesite rims higher than in andesite cores of globules. It suggests that origin of variolites was linked with intersection by ascended column of picrobasaltic magma of existed at that time in crust above small shallow magmatic chamber with residual melt of andesite (icelandite) in composition, which was involved in general upwards current. Because ascending of magmas in axial part of the MAR was whirl (Sharkov et al., 2008), alien melt was dispersed on small drops, but, however, had not time to dissolved in host picrite melt. Formation of proper variolites was occurred in process of moving and cooling of such heterogeneous lava on oceanic floor.. From this follows that axial parts of low-spreading ridges have very complicate structure, where different melts can coexist. There are no any evidence of liquid immiscibility the variolite origin The same petrological features are typical for classic Paleoproterozoic variolites of the Yal-Guba, Onega Lake, Karelia, which are also pillow-lavas. They were firstly described by F.Yu. Levinson-Lessing in 1920th. We conclude that variolite formation are linked with complex magmatic systems where small shallow magma chambers with evolved melt were intersected by streams of new magma portions from deep-seated source. Indispensable condition for variolites is contrasting composition of the magmas which allow to clearly see this phenomenon.

  3. Origin of the plant Tm-1-like gene via two independent horizontal transfer events and one gene fusion event.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zefeng; Liu, Li; Fang, Huimin; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Shuhui; Cao, Wei; Xu, Chenwu; Huang, Jinling; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a direct inhibitor of ToMV RNA replication to protect tomato from infection. The plant Tm-1-like (Tm-1L) protein is predicted to contain an uncharacterized N-terminal UPF0261 domain and a C-terminal TIM-barrel signal transduction (TBST) domain. Homologous searches revealed that proteins containing both of these two domains are mainly present in charophyte green algae and land plants but absent from glaucophytes, red algae and chlorophyte green algae. Although Tm-1 homologs are widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi, UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins are generally encoded by different genes in these linages. A co-evolution analysis also suggested a putative interaction between UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins. Phylogenetic analyses based on homologs of these two domains revealed that plants have acquired UPF0261- and TBST-domain-encoding genes through two independent horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events before the origin of land plants from charophytes. Subsequently, gene fusion occurred between these two horizontally acquired genes and resulted in the origin of the Tm-1L gene in streptophytes. Our results demonstrate a novel evolutionary mechanism through which the recipient organism may acquire genes with functional interaction through two different HGT events and further fuse them into one functional gene.

  4. Plant competitive interactions and invasiveness: searching for the effects of phylogenetic relatedness and origin on competition intensity.

    PubMed

    Dostál, Petr

    2011-05-01

    The invasion success of introduced plants is frequently explained as a result of competitive interactions with native flora. Although previous theory and experiments have shown that plants are largely equivalent in their competitive effects on each other, competitive nonequivalence is hypothesized to occur in interactions between native and invasive species. Small overlap in resource use with unrelated native species, improved competitiveness, and production of novel allelochemicals are all believed to contribute to the invasiveness of introduced species. I tested all three assumptions in a common-garden experiment by examining the effect of plant origin and relatedness on competition intensity. Competitive interactions were explored within 12 triplets, each consisting of an invasive species, a native congeneric (or confamilial) species, and a native heterogeneric species that are likely to interact in the field. Plants were grown in pots alone or in pairs and in the absence or the presence of activated carbon to control for allelopathy. I found that competition intensity was not influenced by the relatedness or origin of competing neighbors. Although some exotic species may benefit from size advantages and species-specific effects in competitive interactions, none of the three mechanisms investigated is likely to be a principal driver of their invasiveness.

  5. Origin of the plant Tm-1-like gene via two independent horizontal transfer events and one gene fusion event.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zefeng; Liu, Li; Fang, Huimin; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Shuhui; Cao, Wei; Xu, Chenwu; Huang, Jinling; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a direct inhibitor of ToMV RNA replication to protect tomato from infection. The plant Tm-1-like (Tm-1L) protein is predicted to contain an uncharacterized N-terminal UPF0261 domain and a C-terminal TIM-barrel signal transduction (TBST) domain. Homologous searches revealed that proteins containing both of these two domains are mainly present in charophyte green algae and land plants but absent from glaucophytes, red algae and chlorophyte green algae. Although Tm-1 homologs are widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi, UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins are generally encoded by different genes in these linages. A co-evolution analysis also suggested a putative interaction between UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins. Phylogenetic analyses based on homologs of these two domains revealed that plants have acquired UPF0261- and TBST-domain-encoding genes through two independent horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events before the origin of land plants from charophytes. Subsequently, gene fusion occurred between these two horizontally acquired genes and resulted in the origin of the Tm-1L gene in streptophytes. Our results demonstrate a novel evolutionary mechanism through which the recipient organism may acquire genes with functional interaction through two different HGT events and further fuse them into one functional gene. PMID:27647002

  6. Origin of the plant Tm-1-like gene via two independent horizontal transfer events and one gene fusion event

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zefeng; Liu, Li; Fang, Huimin; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Shuhui; Cao, Wei; Xu, Chenwu; Huang, Jinling; Zhou, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) resistance gene Tm-1 encodes a direct inhibitor of ToMV RNA replication to protect tomato from infection. The plant Tm-1-like (Tm-1L) protein is predicted to contain an uncharacterized N-terminal UPF0261 domain and a C-terminal TIM-barrel signal transduction (TBST) domain. Homologous searches revealed that proteins containing both of these two domains are mainly present in charophyte green algae and land plants but absent from glaucophytes, red algae and chlorophyte green algae. Although Tm-1 homologs are widely present in bacteria, archaea and fungi, UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins are generally encoded by different genes in these linages. A co-evolution analysis also suggested a putative interaction between UPF0261- and TBST-domain-containing proteins. Phylogenetic analyses based on homologs of these two domains revealed that plants have acquired UPF0261- and TBST-domain-encoding genes through two independent horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events before the origin of land plants from charophytes. Subsequently, gene fusion occurred between these two horizontally acquired genes and resulted in the origin of the Tm-1L gene in streptophytes. Our results demonstrate a novel evolutionary mechanism through which the recipient organism may acquire genes with functional interaction through two different HGT events and further fuse them into one functional gene. PMID:27647002

  7. Multigene phylogeny of the green lineage reveals the origin and diversification of land plants.

    PubMed

    Finet, Cédric; Timme, Ruth E; Delwiche, Charles F; Marlétaz, Ferdinand

    2010-12-21

    The Viridiplantae (green plants) include land plants as well as the two distinct lineages of green algae, chlorophytes and charophytes. Despite their critical importance for identifying the closest living relatives of land plants, phylogenetic studies of charophytes have provided equivocal results [1-5]. In addition, many relationships remain unresolved among the land plants, such as the position of mosses, liverworts, and the enigmatic Gnetales. Phylogenomics has proven to be an insightful approach for resolving challenging phylogenetic issues, particularly concerning deep nodes [6-8]. Here we extend this approach to the green lineage by assembling a multilocus data set of 77 nuclear genes (12,149 unambiguously aligned amino acid positions) from 77 taxa of plants. We therefore provide the first multigene phylogenetic evidence that Coleochaetales represent the closest living relatives of land plants. Moreover, our data reinforce the early divergence of liverworts and the close relationship between Gnetales and Pinaceae. These results provide a new phylogenetic framework and represent a key step in the evolutionary interpretation of developmental and genomic characters in green plants.

  8. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    PubMed

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C; Reichlin, Thomas S; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe.

  9. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat

    PubMed Central

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C.; Reichlin, Thomas S.; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe. PMID:26230115

  10. The European Hare (Lepus europaeus): A Picky Herbivore Searching for Plant Parts Rich in Fat.

    PubMed

    Schai-Braun, Stéphanie C; Reichlin, Thomas S; Ruf, Thomas; Klansek, Erich; Tataruch, Frieda; Arnold, Walter; Hackländer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    European hares of both sexes rely on fat reserves, particularly during the reproduc-tive season. Therefore, hares should select dietary plants rich in fat and energy. However, hares also require essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to reproduce and survive. Although hares are able to absorb PUFA selectively in their gastrointestinal tract, it is unknown whether this mechanism is sufficient to guarantee PUFA supply. Thus, diet selection may involve a trade-off between a preference for energy versus a preference for crucial nutrients, namely PUFA. We compared plant and nutrient availability and use by hares in an arable landscape in Austria over three years. We found that European hares selected their diet for high energy content (crude fat and crude protein), and avoided crude fibre. There was no evidence of a preference for plants rich in LA and ALA. We conclude that fat is the limiting resource for this herbivorous mammal, whereas levels of LA and ALA in forage are sufficiently high to meet daily requirements, especially since their uptake is enhanced by physiological mechanisms. Animals selected several plant taxa all year round, and preferences did not simply correlate with crude fat content. Hence, European hares might not only select for plant taxa rich in fat, but also for high-fat parts of preferred plant taxa. As hares preferred weeds/grasses and various crop types while avoiding cereals, we suggest that promoting heterogeneous habitats with high crop diversity and set-asides may help stop the decline of European hares throughout Europe. PMID:26230115

  11. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH.

  12. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-11-10

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts.

  13. In vitro antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of methanolic plant part extracts of Theobroma cacao.

    PubMed

    Baharum, Zainal; Akim, Abdah Md; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Hamid, Roslida Abdul; Kasran, Rosmin

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3±7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0±1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4%±1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50)=41.4±3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts. PMID:25389662

  14. Excess of polonium-210 activity in the surface urban atmosphere. Part 2: origin of ²¹⁰Po excess.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    The presence of significant (210)Po activity, unsupported by its grandparent radionuclide (210)Pb, in the surface atmosphere of industrialized regions can originate from human technical activities. In urban air, the activity ratio of (210)Po to (210)Pb might increase as a result of natural condensation and coagulation processes of relatively volatile (210)Po-containing species emitted during coal combustion processes. The presence of excess of (210)Po cannot be explained by its in-growth from radioactive decay of (210)Bi. About 50% of (210)Po radionuclide released during coal combustion processes can be emitted into air as gaseous or ultrafine products. Subsequently, these products are quickly attached to the surface of fine particles suspended in the air. As a result, an excess of (210)Po activity in aerosols has been reported. However, in this manner, As much as 11 GBq of (210)Po per year can enter the urban air from the local coal power plants in Lodz city, Poland.

  15. Excess of polonium-210 activity in the surface urban atmosphere. Part 2: origin of ²¹⁰Po excess.

    PubMed

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    The presence of significant (210)Po activity, unsupported by its grandparent radionuclide (210)Pb, in the surface atmosphere of industrialized regions can originate from human technical activities. In urban air, the activity ratio of (210)Po to (210)Pb might increase as a result of natural condensation and coagulation processes of relatively volatile (210)Po-containing species emitted during coal combustion processes. The presence of excess of (210)Po cannot be explained by its in-growth from radioactive decay of (210)Bi. About 50% of (210)Po radionuclide released during coal combustion processes can be emitted into air as gaseous or ultrafine products. Subsequently, these products are quickly attached to the surface of fine particles suspended in the air. As a result, an excess of (210)Po activity in aerosols has been reported. However, in this manner, As much as 11 GBq of (210)Po per year can enter the urban air from the local coal power plants in Lodz city, Poland. PMID:25567664

  16. Simulation of the part-load behavior of a 30 MWe SEGS plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lippke, F.

    1995-06-01

    The part-load behavior of a typical 30-MWe SEGS (solar electric generating systems) plant was studied using a detailed thermodynamic model. As part of this analysis, a new solar field model was derived, based on measurement results of an LS-2 Collector and accounting for various conditions of receiver tubes, lost mirrors and measured reflectivity. A comparison was made of the model results to real plant conditions for a winter and summer day in order to test the accuracy of the model. The effects of bare tubes, different wind speeds, mirror reflectivity and other factors were studied showing, e.g., that heat losses due to wind are predicted to be very low. The comparison also shows that the model still lacks the capability to fully account for actual solar field conditions. The model was also compared to the SOLERGY model, showing differences between the assumptions used in both models. Finally different operating conditions of the plant were studied for a summer, fall, and winter day to provide a better understanding of how changing solar field outlet temperatures affect gross and net output of the plant. This clearly indicates that the lowest possible superheating temperature maximizes the gross electric output. On a net basis this conclusion is modified due to the high parasitics of the HTF (heat transfer fluid) pumps. It was found that the optimum operating strategy depends on the insolation conditions, e.g., different superheating temperatures should be chosen in summer, fall and winter. If the pressure drop in the solar field is reduced due to replacement of flex hoses with ball joints, increasing the HTF flow is more reasonable, so that at low isolation conditions the lowest possible superheating temperature also leads to the maximum net output.

  17. 50 CFR 23.92 - Are any wildlife or plants, and their parts, products, or derivatives, exempt?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Lists of Species § 23.92 Are any... in part 14 of this subchapter and for plants in part 24 of this subchapter and 7 CFR parts 319, 352....64) and that were produced from one or more Appendix-I species or taxa that are not annotated...

  18. [Herbological studies on Chinese crude drug Ma-huang. Part 1-On the botanical origin of Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang].

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The botanical origin of a Chinese crude drug Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang were herbologically studied. The results showed that the plants of Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Meyer and E. equisetina Bunge were used as Ma-huang in China, and the first species was considered to be of high quality. The characters of Mao-zhou Ma-huang and Tong-zhou Ma-huang printed in Tu-jing-ben-cao, published in the Song Dynasty in China, were identified as E. likiangensis Florin and E. intermedia, respectively, and both species were recognized as excellent Ma-huang in the Ming Dynasty. The word origin of Katsune-kusa, the Japanese name for Ma-huang in the Heian Era, was etymologically considered as meaning the plant having reddish brown roots. In Japan, the plant of Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var.japonicum Milde, of the family Equisetaceae, was substituted for Ma-huang in the middle of Edo Era, and it was designated that this action was based on the confusion of Ephedra plants and Equisetum plants those days in China.

  19. Origin and Functional Prediction of Pollen Allergens in Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaolin; Xu, Jie; Ren, Kang; Searle, Iain

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergies have long been a major pandemic health problem for human. However, the evolutionary events and biological function of pollen allergens in plants remain largely unknown. Here, we report the genome-wide prediction of pollen allergens and their biological function in the dicotyledonous model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the monocotyledonous model plant rice (Oryza sativa). In total, 145 and 107 pollen allergens were predicted from rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. These pollen allergens are putatively involved in stress responses and metabolic processes such as cell wall metabolism during pollen development. Interestingly, these putative pollen allergen genes were derived from large gene families and became diversified during evolution. Sequence analysis across 25 plant species from green alga to angiosperms suggest that about 40% of putative pollen allergenic proteins existed in both lower and higher plants, while other allergens emerged during evolution. Although a high proportion of gene duplication has been observed among allergen-coding genes, our data show that these genes might have undergone purifying selection during evolution. We also observed that epitopes of an allergen might have a biological function, as revealed by comprehensive analysis of two known allergens, expansin and profilin. This implies a crucial role of conserved amino acid residues in both in planta biological function and allergenicity. Finally, a model explaining how pollen allergens were generated and maintained in plants is proposed. Prediction and systematic analysis of pollen allergens in model plants suggest that pollen allergens were evolved by gene duplication and then functional specification. This study provides insight into the phylogenetic and evolutionary scenario of pollen allergens that will be helpful to future characterization and epitope screening of pollen allergens. PMID:27436829

  20. Multiple Quasi-Equilibria of the ITCZ and the Origin of Monsoon Onset. Part 2; Rotational ITCZ Attractors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Chen, Baode; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Chao's numerical and theoretical work on multiple quasi-equilibria of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the origin of monsoon onset is extended to solve two additional puzzles. One is the highly nonlinear dependence on latitude of the "force" acting on the ITCZ due to earth's rotation, which makes the multiple quasi-equilibria of the ITCZ and monsoon onset possible. The other is the dramatic difference in such dependence when different cumulus parameterization schemes are used in a model. Such a difference can lead to a switch between a single ITCZ at the equator and a double ITCZ, when a different cumulus parameterization scheme is used. Sometimes one of the double ITCZ can diminish and only the other remain, but still this can mean different latitudinal locations for the single ITCZ. A single idea based on two off-equator attractors for the ITCZ, due to earth's rotation and symmetric with respect to the equator, and the dependence of the strength and size of these attractors on the cumulus parameterization scheme solves both puzzles. The origin of these rotational attractors, explained in Part I, is further discussed. The "force" acting on the ITCZ due to earth's rotation is the sum of the "forces" of the two attractors. Each attractor exerts on the ITCZ a "force" of simple shape in latitude; but the sum gives a shape highly varying in latitude. Also the strength and the domain of influence of each attractor vary, when change is made in the cumulus parameterization. This gives rise to the high sensitivity of the "force" shape to cumulus parameterization. Numerical results, of experiments using Goddard's GEOS general circulation model, supporting this idea are presented. It is also found that the model results are sensitive to changes outside of the cumulus parameterization. The significance of this study to El Nino forecast and to tropical forecast in general is discussed.

  1. The impact of the triploid block on the origin and evolution of polyploid plants.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Claudia; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun; Erilova, Aleksandra

    2010-03-01

    Polyploidization, a widespread phenomenon among plants, is considered a major speciation mechanism. Polyploid plants have a high degree of immediate post-zygotic reproductive isolation from their progenitors, as backcrossing to either parent will produce mainly nonviable progeny. This reproductive barrier is called triploid block and it is caused by malfunction of the endosperm. Nevertheless, the main route to polyploid formation is via unreduced gametes and unstable triploid progeny, suggesting that there are ways to overcome the triploid block. Until recently, the mechanistic basis for unreduced gamete formation and the triploid block were completely unknown. Recent developments have revealed genetic pathways leading to unreduced gamete formation as well as the underlying genetic basis for the triploid block in Arabidopsis. These novel findings will provide the basis for a genetic understanding of polyploid formation and subsequent speciation in plants.

  2. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Dias, L A S; Missio, R F; Dias, D C F S

    2012-08-16

    Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.

  3. Cloning of the Arabidopsis and Rice Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase Genes: Implications for the Origin of Plant Adh Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Dolferus, R.; Osterman, J. C.; Peacock, W. J.; Dennis, E. S.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports the cloning of the genes encoding the Arabidopsis and rice class III ADH enzymes, members of the alcohol dehydrogenase or medium chain reductase/dehydrogenase superfamily of proteins with glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (GSH-FDH). Both genes contain eight introns in exactly the same positions, and these positions are conserved in plant ethanol-active Adh genes (class P). These data provide further evidence that plant class P genes have evolved from class III genes by gene duplication and acquisition of new substrate specificities. The position of introns and similarities in the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences of the different classes of ADH enzymes in plants and humans suggest that plant and animal class III enzymes diverged before they duplicated to give rise to plant and animal ethanol-active ADH enzymes. Plant class P ADH enzymes have gained substrate specificities and evolved promoters with different expression properties, in keeping with their metabolic function as part of the alcohol fermentation pathway. PMID:9215914

  4. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  5. Alkaloid concentration of the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus in relation to geographic origin and herbivory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornoy, Benjamin; Atlan, Anne; Tarayre, Michèle; Dugravot, Sébastien; Wink, Michael

    2012-11-01

    In the study of plant defense evolution, invasive plant species can be very insightful because they are often introduced without their enemies, and traits linked to defense can be released from selective pressures and evolve. Further, studying plant defense evolution in invasive species is important for biological control and use of these species. In this study, we investigated the evolution of the defensive chemicals quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) in the invasive species gorse, Ulex europaeus. Using a common garden experiment, our goals were to characterize the role of QAs relative to specialist enemies of gorse and to investigate if QA concentration evolved in invaded regions, where gorse was introduced without these enemies. Our results showed that pod infestation rate by the seed predator Exapion ulicis and infestation by the rust pathogen Uromyces genistae-tinctoriae were negatively correlated to concentration of the QA lupanine. Quinolizidine alkaloid concentration was very variable between individuals, both within and among populations, but it was not different between native and invaded regions, suggesting that no evolution of decreased resistance occurred after gorse lost its enemies. Our study also suggests that QA concentrations are traits integrated into seed predation avoidance strategies of gorse, with plants that mass-fruit in spring but do not escape pod infestation in time being richer in QAs.

  6. Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Ziemienowicz, A; Görlich, D; Lanka, E; Hohn, B; Rossi, L

    1999-03-30

    Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein complex to plant cells. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer to plant cells is the only known example for interkingdom DNA transfer and is widely used for plant transformation. Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 perform important functions in this process. We reconstituted complexes consisting of the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2, VirE2, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro. These complexes were tested for import into HeLa cell nuclei. Import of ssDNA required both VirD2 and VirE2 proteins. A VirD2 mutant lacking its C-terminal nuclear localization signal was deficient in import of the ssDNA-protein complexes into nuclei. Import of VirD2-ssDNA-VirE2 complexes was fast and efficient, and was shown to depended on importin alpha, Ran, and an energy source. We report here that the bacterium-derived and plant-adapted protein-DNA complex, made in vitro, can be efficiently imported into mammalian nuclei following the classical importin-dependent nuclear import pathway. This demonstrates the potential of our approach to enhance gene transfer to animal cells. PMID:10097105

  7. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant.

    PubMed

    Conner, Joann A; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-09-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding. PMID:26305939

  8. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Joann A.; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding. PMID:26305939

  9. A parthenogenesis gene of apomict origin elicits embryo formation from unfertilized eggs in a sexual plant.

    PubMed

    Conner, Joann A; Mookkan, Muruganantham; Huo, Heqiang; Chae, Keun; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2015-09-01

    Apomixis is a naturally occurring mode of asexual reproduction in flowering plants that results in seed formation without the involvement of meiosis or fertilization of the egg. Seeds formed on an apomictic plant contain offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Apomixis has significant potential for preserving hybrid vigor from one generation to the next in highly productive crop plant genotypes. Apomictic Pennisetum/Cenchrus species, members of the Poaceae (grass) family, reproduce by apospory. Apospory is characterized by apomeiosis, the formation of unreduced embryo sacs derived from nucellar cells of the ovary and, by parthenogenesis, the development of the unreduced egg into an embryo without fertilization. In Pennisetum squamulatum (L.) R.Br., apospory segregates as a single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). In this study, we demonstrate that the PsASGR-BABY BOOM-like (PsASGR-BBML) gene is expressed in egg cells before fertilization and can induce parthenogenesis and the production of haploid offspring in transgenic sexual pearl millet. A reduction of PsASGR-BBML expression in apomictic F1 RNAi transgenic plants results in fewer visible parthenogenetic embryos and a reduction of embryo cell number compared with controls. Our results endorse a key role for PsASGR-BBML in parthenogenesis and a newly discovered role for a member of the BBM-like clade of APETALA 2 transcription factors. Induction of parthenogenesis by PsASGR-BBML will be valuable for installing parthenogenesis to synthesize apomixis in crops and will have further application for haploid induction to rapidly obtain homozygous lines for breeding.

  10. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  12. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  13. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  14. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities... Appendix N to Part 110—Illustrative List of Lithium Isotope Separation Facilities, Plants and Equipment Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority a. Facilities or plants for the separation of lithium isotopes....

  15. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix G to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant... Appendix G to Part 110—Illustrative List of Plasma Separation Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note: In the plasma separation process, a plasma of uranium...

  20. Exploring anti-TB leads from natural products library originated from marine microbes and medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueting; Chen, Caixia; He, Wenni; Huang, Pei; Liu, Miaomiao; Wang, Qian; Guo, Hui; Bolla, Krishna; Lu, Yan; Song, Fuhang; Dai, Huanqin; Liu, Mei; Zhang, Lixin

    2012-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and TB-HIV co-infection have become a great threat to global health. However, the last truly novel drug that was approved for the treatment of TB was discovered 40 years ago. The search for new effective drugs against TB has never been more intensive. Natural products derived from microbes and medicinal plants have been an important source of TB therapeutics. Recent advances have been made to accelerate the discovery rate of novel TB drugs including diversifying strategies for environmental strains, high-throughput screening (HTS) assays, and chemical diversity. This review will discuss the challenges of finding novel natural products with anti-TB activity from marine microbes and plant medicines, including biodiversity- and taxonomy-guided microbial natural products library construction, target- and cell-based HTS, and bioassay-directed isolation of anti-TB substances from traditional medicines.

  1. Green Algae and the Origins of Multicellularity in the Plant Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  2. Pinoresinol: A lignol of plant origin serving for defense in a caterpillar.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Frank C; del Campo, Marta L; Grant, Jacqualine B; Weibel, Douglas B; Smedley, Scott R; Bolton, Kelly L; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Thomas

    2006-10-17

    Pinoresinol, a lignan of wide distribution in plants, is found to occur as a minor component in the defensive secretion produced by glandular hairs of caterpillars of the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. The compound or a derivative is appropriated by the larva from its normal food plant (the cabbage, Brassica oleracea). Pinoresinol was shown to be absent from the secretion if the larva was given a cabbage-free diet but present in the effluent if that diet was supplemented with pinoresinol. Pinoresinol is shown to be a feeding deterrent to ants (Formica exsectoides), indicating that it can complement the defensive action of the primary components of the secretion, a set of previously reported lipids called mayolenes. In the test with F. exsectoides, pinoresinol proved to be more potent than concomitantly tested mayolene-16.

  3. Green algae and the origins of multicellularity in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Umen, James G

    2014-10-16

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity.

  4. Introduction beyond a species range: a relationship between population origin, adaptive potential and plant performance

    PubMed Central

    Volis, S; Ormanbekova, D; Yermekbayev, K; Song, M; Shulgina, I

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive potential of a population defines its importance for species survival in changing environmental conditions such as global climate change. Very few empirical studies have examined adaptive potential across species' ranges, namely, of edge vs core populations, and we are unaware of a study that has tested adaptive potential (namely, variation in adaptive traits) and measured performance of such populations in conditions not currently experienced by the species but expected in the future. Here we report the results of a Triticum dicoccoides population study that employed transplant experiments and analysis of quantitative trait variation. Two populations at the opposite edges of the species range (1) were locally adapted; (2) had lower adaptive potential (inferred from the extent of genetic quantitative trait variation) than the two core populations; and (3) were outperformed by the plants from the core population in the novel environment. The fact that plants from the species arid edge performed worse than plants from the more mesic core in extreme drought conditions beyond the present climatic envelope of the species implies that usage of peripheral populations for conservation purposes must be based on intensive sampling of among-population variation. PMID:24690758

  5. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku

  6. A Bayesian Approach for Discriminating Among Alternative Inheritance Hypotheses in Plant Polyploids: The Allotetraploid Origin of Genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Palop-Esteban, Marisa; Moreno, Carlos; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Polyploidy is a common phenomenon occurring in a vast number of land plants. Investigations of patterns of inheritance and the origins of plants (i.e., autopolyploidy vs. allopolyploidy) usually involve cytogenetic and molecular studies of chromosome pairing, chromosome mapping, and marker segregation analysis through experimental crosses and progeny tests. Such studies are missing for most wild species, for which artificial crosses are difficult, not feasible, or unaffordable. We report here a Bayesian method to discriminate between alternative inheritance patterns in the two extant, tetraploid species of the monocot genus Borderea (Dioscoreaceae), which does not involve progeny array tests. Our approach is based on the screening of a large number of SSR genotypes, which were obtained from successful amplifications of 17 microsatellite regions in individuals of both B. chouardii and B. pyrenaica. We tested for tetrasomic vs. disomic modes of inheritance, using the Bayes factor test. Assignment of genotypes under both alternatives could be unequivocally done for 14 and 11 of the 17 studied microsatellite regions in B. chouardii and B. pyrenaica, respectively, totaling 9502 analyzed genotypes. The comparison of posterior probabilities for the two competing hypotheses across the surveyed loci clearly favored a disomic inheritance pattern. Linkage tests indicated that none of the studied SSR loci were in linkage disequilibrium, thus representing independent samples of the Borderea genome. These results, along with previous allozyme data, support the allotetraploid origin of this paleoendemic genus and reveal the lowest reported chromosome base number for the family of the yams. PMID:16322527

  7. Origin of a complex key innovation in an obligate insect–plant mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, Olle; Krenn, Harald W.

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary key innovations give organisms access to new ecological resources and cause rapid, sometimes spectacular adaptive radiation. The well known obligate pollination mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for studies of coevolution, and it relies on the key innovation in the moths of complex tentacles used for pollen collecting and active pollination. These structures lack apparent homology in other insects, making them a rare example of a novel limb. We performed anatomical and behavioral studies to determine their origin and found evidence of a remarkably simple mechanism. Morphological analyses of the tentacles and adjacent mouthparts in pollinators and closely related taxa showed that the tentacle appears abruptly in female pollinating yucca moths. Several morphological synapomorphies between the galeae, which constitute the characteristic lepidopteran proboscis, and the tentacle suggest that the tentacle evolved quickly through expression of the genetic template for the galea at an apical growth bud on the first segment of the maxillary palp. Behavioral data indicate that tentacle and proboscis movements are controlled by a shared hydraulic extension mechanism, thus no new mechanism was needed for tentacle function. Known developmental paths from other insects can explain the origin of this sex-specific key innovation in a few steps. PMID:11960006

  8. Origin of the concept of the quiescent centre of plant roots.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Peter W

    2016-09-01

    Concepts in biology feed into general theories of growth, development and evolution of organisms and how they interact with the living and non-living components of their environment. A well-founded concept clarifies unsolved problems and serves as a focus for further research. One such example of a constructive concept in the plant sciences is that of the quiescent centre (QC). In anatomical terms, the QC is an inert group of cells maintained within the apex of plant roots. However, the evidence that established the presence of a QC accumulated only gradually, making use of strands of different types of observations, notably from geometrical-analytical anatomy, radioisotope labelling and autoradiography. In their turn, these strands contributed to other concepts: those of the mitotic cell cycle and of tissue-related cell kinetics. Another important concept to which the QC contributed was that of tissue homeostasis. The general principle of this last-mentioned concept is expressed by the QC in relation to the recovery of root growth following a disturbance to cell proliferation; the resulting activation of the QC provides new cells which not only repair the root meristem but also re-establish a new QC.

  9. Seismic review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Ma, S.M.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1980-11-15

    A limited seismic reassessment of Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Plant was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP). The reassessment focused generally on the reactor coolant pressure boundary and on those systems and components necessary to shut down the reactor safety and to maintain it in a safe shutdown condition following a postulated earthquake characterized by a peak horizontal ground acceleration of 0.22 g. Unlike a comprehensive design analysis, the reassessment was limited to structures and components deemed representative of generic classes. Conclusions and recommendations about the ability of selected structures, equipment, and piping to withstand the postulated earthquake are presented. 86 refs., 44 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  11. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  12. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  13. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  14. 40 CFR 174.507 - Nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nucleic acids that are part of a plant... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.507 Nucleic acids that are part... nucleic acids that are part of a plant-incorporated protectant are exempt from the requirement of...

  15. Farnesol-mediated shift in the metabolic origin of prenyl groups used for protein prenylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Huchelmann, Alexandre; Brahim, Mathieu Semir; Gerber, Esther; Tritsch, Denis; Bach, Thomas J; Hemmerlin, Andréa

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how plant cells regulate the exchange of prenyl diphosphates between the two compartmentalized isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways. Prenylation of proteins is a suitable model to study such interactions between the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) and the cytosolic mevalonate (MVA) pathways because prenyl moieties used to modify proteins rely on both origins. Tobacco cells expressing a prenylatable GFP were treated with specific MEP and/or MVA pathways inhibitors to block the formation of prenyl diphosphates and therefore the possibility to modify the proteins. Chemical complementation assays using prenyl alcohol precursors restore the prenylation. Indeed, geranylgeraniol (C20 prenyl alcohol) and to a lesser but significant level C15-farnesol restored the prenylation of a protein bearing a geranylgeranylation CaaX motif, which under standard conditions is modified by a MEP-derived prenyl group. However, the restoration takes place in different ways. While geranylgeraniol operates directly as a metabolic precursor, the C15-prenyl alcohol functions indirectly as a signal that leads to shift the metabolic origin of prenyl groups in modified proteins, here from the plastidial MEP pathway in favor of the cytosolic MVA pathway. Furthermore, farnesol interferes negatively with the MEP pathway in an engineered Escherichia coli strain synthesizing isoprenoids either starting from MVA or from MEP. Following the cellular uptake of a fluorescent analog of farnesol, we showed its close interaction with tobacco plastids and modification of plastid homeostasis. As a consequence, in tobacco farnesol supposedly inhibits the plastidial MEP pathway and activates the cytosolic MVA pathway, leading to the shift in the metabolic origin and thereby acts as a potential regulator of crosstalk between the two pathways. Together, those results suggest a new role for farnesol (or a metabolite thereof) as a central molecule for the regulation of isoprenoid

  16. Identification and origin of plant pathogenic microorganisms in recirculating nutrient solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanghellini, M. E.; Rasmussen, S. L.

    1994-11-01

    Avoidance of root-infecting microorganisms was originally considered one of the advantages of cultivation of crops in a soilless, recirculating nutrient solution. However, to date, four viral, three bacterial and 21 fungal pathogens have been identified as causal agents of root disease in hydroponically-grown crops. Root-infecting fungi, particularly those which produce a motile stage known as a zoospore, have been the primary pathogens associated with extensive crop losses. Documented sources of these root pathogens in hydroponic systems include peat, surface water such as rivers and streams, and insects. The severity of disease caused by these introduced root pathogens is primarily governed by the genetic susceptibility of each crop and the temperature of the recirculating nutrient solution.

  17. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships. PMID:22295174

  18. An Asian origin for a 10,000-year-old domesticated plant in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David L; Smith, Bruce D; Clarke, Andrew C; Sandweiss, Daniel H; Tuross, Noreen

    2005-12-20

    New genetic and archaeological approaches have substantially improved our understanding of the transition to agriculture, a major turning point in human history that began 10,000-5,000 years ago with the independent domestication of plants and animals in eight world regions. In the Americas, however, understanding the initial domestication of New World species has long been complicated by the early presence of an African enigma, the bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria). Indigenous to Africa, it reached East Asia by 9,000-8,000 before present (B.P.) and had a broad New World distribution by 8,000 B.P. Here we integrate genetic and archaeological approaches to address a set of long-standing core questions regarding the introduction of the bottle gourd into the Americas. Did it reach the New World directly from Africa or through Asia? Was it transported by humans or ocean currents? Was it wild or domesticated upon arrival? Fruit rind thickness values and accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens indicate that the bottle gourd was present in the Americas as a domesticated plant by 10,000 B.P., placing it among the earliest domesticates in the New World. Ancient DNA sequence analysis of archaeological bottle gourd specimens and comparison with modern Asian and African landraces identify Asia as the source of its introduction. We suggest that the bottle gourd and the dog, two "utility" species, were domesticated long before any food crops or livestock species, and that both were brought to the Americas by Paleoindian populations as they colonized the New World.

  19. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pythium ultimum is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species. Results The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under abiotic stress and in the presence of a host. The predicted proteome includes a large repertoire of proteins involved in plant pathogen interactions, although, surprisingly, the P. ultimum genome does not encode any classical RXLR effectors and relatively few Crinkler genes in comparison to related phytopathogenic oomycetes. A lower number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were present compared to Phytophthora species, with the notable absence of cutinases, suggesting a significant difference in virulence mechanisms between P. ultimum and more host-specific oomycete species. Although we observed a high degree of orthology with Phytophthora genomes, there were novel features of the P. ultimum proteome, including an expansion of genes involved in proteolysis and genes unique to Pythium. We identified a small gene family of cadherins, proteins involved in cell adhesion, the first report of these in a genome outside the metazoans. Conclusions Access to the P. ultimum genome has revealed not only core pathogenic mechanisms within the oomycetes but also lineage-specific genes associated with the alternative virulence and lifestyles found within the pythiaceous lineages compared to the Peronosporaceae. PMID:20626842

  20. The Biochemical Origin of Pain: The origin of all Pain is Inflammation and the Inflammatory Response. PART 2 of 3 –Inflammatory Profile of Pain Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome / reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: The origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain arise from inflammation and the inflammatory response. We are proposing

  1. The biochemical origin of pain: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Part 2 of 3 - inflammatory profile of pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Omoigui, Sota

    2007-01-01

    Every pain syndrome has an inflammatory profile consisting of the inflammatory mediators that are present in the pain syndrome. The inflammatory profile may have variations from one person to another and may have variations in the same person at different times. The key to treatment of Pain Syndromes is an understanding of their inflammatory profile. Pain syndromes may be treated medically or surgically. The goal should be inhibition or suppression of production of the inflammatory mediators and inhibition, suppression or modulation of neuronal afferent and efferent (motor) transmission. A successful outcome is one that results in less inflammation and thus less pain. We hereby briefly describe the inflammatory profile for several pain syndromes including arthritis, back pain, neck pain, fibromyalgia, interstitial cystitis, migraine, neuropathic pain, complex regional pain syndrome/reflex sympathetic dystrophy (CRPS/RSD), bursitis, shoulder pain and vulvodynia. These profiles are derived from basic science and clinical research performed in the past by numerous investigators and serve as a foundation to be built upon by other researchers and will be updated in the future by new technologies such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Our unifying theory or law of pain states: the origin of all pain is inflammation and the inflammatory response. The biochemical mediators of inflammation include cytokines, neuropeptides, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Irrespective of the type of pain whether it is acute or chronic pain, peripheral or central pain, nociceptive or neuropathic pain, the underlying origin is inflammation and the inflammatory response. Activation of pain receptors, transmission and modulation of pain signals, neuro plasticity and central sensitization are all one continuum of inflammation and the inflammatory response. Irrespective of the characteristic of the pain, whether it is sharp, dull, aching, burning, stabbing, numbing or tingling, all pain

  2. The toxicity of extracts of plant parts of Moringa stenopetala in HEPG2 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Negussu; Houghton, Peter; Timbrell, John

    2005-10-01

    The cytotoxicity of extracts from a widely used species of plant, Moringa stenopetala, was assessed in HEPG2 cells, by measuring the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. The functional integrity of extract-exposed cells was determined by measuring intracellular levels of ATP and glutathione (GSH). The ethanol extracts of leaves and seeds increased significantly (p < 0.01) LDH leakage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The water extract of leaves and the ethanol extract of the root did not increase LDH leakage. A highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in HEPG2 viability was found after incubating the cells with the highest concentration (500 microg/mL) of the ethanol leaf and seed extracts. At a concentration of 500 microg/mL, the water extract of leaves increased (p < 0.01), while the ethanol extract of the same plant part decreased (p < 0.01), ATP levels. The root and seed extracts had no significant effect on ATP levels. The ethanol leaf extract decreased GSH levels at a concentration of 500 microg/mL (p < 0.01), as did the ethanol extract of the seeds at 250 microg/mL and 500 microg/mL (p < 0.05). The water extract of the leaves did not alter GSH or LDH levels or affect cell viability, suggesting that it may be non-toxic, and is consistent with its use as a vegetable. The data obtained from the studies with the ethanol extract of the leaves and seeds from Moringa stenopetala show that they contain toxic substances that are extractable with organic solvents or are formed during the process of extraction with these solvents. The significant depletion of ATP and GSH only occurred at concentrations of extract that caused leakage of LDH. Further investigation with this plant in order to identify the constituents extracted and their individual toxic effects both in vivo and in vitro is warranted. This study also illustrates the utility of cell culture for screening plant extracts for potential toxicity.

  3. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  4. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range. PMID:27203687

  5. Neighbour Origin and Ploidy Level Drive Impact of an Alien Invasive Plant Species in a Competitive Environment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Schaffner, Urs

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the potential mechanisms driving the spread and naturalization of alien plant species has increased over the past decades, but specific knowledge on the factors contributing to their increased impact in the introduced range is still urgently needed. The native European plant Centaurea stoebe occurs as two cytotypes with different life histories (monocarpic diploids, allo-polycarpic tetraploids). However, only tetraploids have been found in its introduced range in North America, where C. stoebe has become a most prominent plant invader. Here, we focus on the ploidy level of C. stoebe and origin of neighbouring community in explaining the high impact during the invasion of new sites in the introduced range. We conducted a mesocosm experiment under open-field conditions with the diploid (EU2x) and tetraploid (EU4x) cytotype of Centaurea stoebe from its native European (EU) range, and with the invasive tetraploid (NA4x) cytotype from the introduced North American (NA) range in competition with EU (old) or NA (new) neighbouring plant communities. In the presence of competition, the biomass of EU neighbouring community was reduced to a comparable level by all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe. In contrast, the biomass of the NA neighbouring community was reduced beyond when competing with tetraploid, but not with diploid C. stoebe. The fact that the biomass of all three geo-cytotypes of C. stoebe was correlated with the biomass of the EU neighbouring community, but not with that of the NA neighbouring community suggests that different mechanisms underlie the competitive interactions between C. stoebe and its old vs. new neighbouring communities, such as competition for the same limiting resources at home vs competition through novel allelo-chemicals or differential resource uptake strategies in the introduced range. We therefore caution to simply use the ecosystem impact assessed at home to predict impact in the introduced range.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: conversion of uranium ore concentrates to UO3, conversion of UO3 to UO2, conversion of uranium oxides to UF4... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: conversion of uranium ore concentrates to UO3, conversion of UO3 to UO2, conversion of uranium oxides to UF4... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: conversion of uranium ore concentrates to UO3, conversion of UO3 to UO2, conversion of uranium oxides to UF4... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix J to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Uranium Conversion Plant Equipment and Plutonium Conversion Plant Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oxides to UF4 or UF6, conversion of UF4 to UF6, conversion of UF6 to UF4, conversion of UF4 to uranium... to UO2 conversion is often performed as the first stage of a fuel fabrication plant. (8) Especially... plutonium fuel fabrication facilities. Many of the key equipment items for plutonium conversion plants...

  10. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment. PMID:26315592

  11. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment.

  12. Brazilian propolis: physicochemical properties, plant origin and antibacterial activity on periodontopathogens.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Bastos, E M A F; Maia, A B R A; Uzeda, M; Carvalho, M A R; Farias, L M; Moreira, E S A

    2003-03-01

    Propolis samples collected in the dry and rainy seasons, from an experimental apiary located in a cerrado vegetation region in Brazil were used in this study. Microscopic analysis showed the presence of 31 pollen types, secretory hairs (genus Baccharis) and fragments of plant epidermis. The oxidation rates and the wax content of the samples after physicochemical analyses were in agreement with the Cuban Guideline NRAG 870-88. A high performance liquid chromatography analysis showed a similar pattern of chromatograms, characterized by the presence of ten phenolic compounds. There was no significant difference in the pro fi le of phenolic compounds and also in the total flavonoid concentration in propolis samples collected in different seasons. Antibacterial assays were performed by the method of dilution of an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) in agar (v/v%) and showed that all 16 A. actinomycetemcomitans strains tested were inhibited by propolis concentrations of 0.1% to 0.25%, and did not grow at all at 0.5%. The growth inhibition of six Fusobacterium spp. and 16 black-pigmented anaerobes was observed at concentrations of 0.05% to 0.1%, and no growth was observed at 0.25%. There was no effect of seasonality on the inhibitory activity of propolis. The antibiotics tetracycline and meropenem were used as positive controls.

  13. Diamond of Possibly Metallurgical and Seismic Origin: PART 3: Additional Specimens and a Proposal Calling for adjusted Methodologies for Diamondism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamn, M.

    2007-05-01

    , noniconic, nonstereotyping specimen population of primarily fine grains is needed. My theory accomodates (1) broad compositional ranges;(2) present or historical specimens; and (3)valid on a grain by grain scale as well as regional scale. A great nember of metallic elements are broadly similar to iron in crystal structure, phase equilibria, range of stoicheometry of solid solutions, and properties. Under favorable conditions, they could be as likely as iron to proceed to generate carbon. This expand to a great number of potential source metal for diamond. Further multiplying this number by alloying and centering (of lattice points) variations, the number of potential source could be vast. Above mentioned exercise is expendable to, for instance, Cr, Ni or other metals. This could provide for a missing link between diamond in stable craton and other diamonds. 1 Giamn, M., Diamond of possibly metallurgical and seismic origin in an alloy from the debris after earthquake Taiwan PART I,2004 Eos AGU Spring.2 Giamn, M. submitted to GCA. 3 Giamn, M., PART II (Thermal) past is present.

  14. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The method reduced greatly the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high background conduct...

  15. DETERMINATION OF PERCHLORATE AT PARTS-PER-BILLION LEVELS IN PLANTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A standardized method for the analysis of perchlorate in plants was developed, based on dry weight, and applied to the analysis of plant organs, foodstuffs, and plant products. The procedure greatly reduced the ionic interferences in water extracts of plant materials. The high ba...

  16. Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tyshko, Nadezhda V; Aksyuk, Irina N; Tutelyan, Victor A

    2007-07-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by growing interest in the problems of biosafety, which are determined, on the one hand, by the wide use of novel biotechnologies and the necessity to develop the adequate precautionary measures, and, on the other hand, by the objective threat of bioterrorism. Therefore, improvement of the estimation system for genetically modified (GM) sources of food and strengthening the control of their circulation are the urgent problems of modern biology and medicine. Russia is one of the countries where the estimation system of food products obtained from the GM sources is rather efficient. The key features of this system are the complex toxicological and epidemiological examinations. One of the main parts of GM food safety assessment is based upon detection of their potentially toxic properties, which could provoke unintended effects of the genetic modification. PMID:17526054

  17. Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tyshko, Nadezhda V; Aksyuk, Irina N; Tutelyan, Victor A

    2007-07-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by growing interest in the problems of biosafety, which are determined, on the one hand, by the wide use of novel biotechnologies and the necessity to develop the adequate precautionary measures, and, on the other hand, by the objective threat of bioterrorism. Therefore, improvement of the estimation system for genetically modified (GM) sources of food and strengthening the control of their circulation are the urgent problems of modern biology and medicine. Russia is one of the countries where the estimation system of food products obtained from the GM sources is rather efficient. The key features of this system are the complex toxicological and epidemiological examinations. One of the main parts of GM food safety assessment is based upon detection of their potentially toxic properties, which could provoke unintended effects of the genetic modification.

  18. Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to fluconazole by terpenoids of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali Kashinath; Raut, Jayant Shankar; Dhawale, Shashikant; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Infections associated with the biofilms of Candida albicans are a challenge to antifungal treatment. Combinatorial therapy involving plant molecules with antifungal drugs would be an effective complementary approach against drug-resistant Candida biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three bioactive terpenoids (carvacrol, eugenol and thymol) in combination with fluconazole against planktonic cells, biofilm development and mature biofilms of C. albicans. Activities of the selected molecules were tested using a microplate-based methodology, while their combinations with fluconazole were performed in a checkerboard format. Biofilms were quantitated by XTT-metabolic assay and confirmed by microscopic observations. Combinations of carvacrol and eugenol with fluconazole were found synergistic against planktonic growth of C. albicans, while that of thymol with fluconazole did not have any interaction. Biofilm development and mature biofilms were highly resistant to fluconazole, but susceptible to three terpenoids. Sensitization of cells by sub-inhibitory concentrations of carvacrol and eugenol resulted in prevention of biofilm formation at low fluconazole concentrations, i.e. 0.032 and 0.002 mg ml(-1), respectively. Addition of thymol could not potentiate activity of fluconazole against biofilm formation by C. albicans. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) for carvacrol-fluconazole and eugenol-fluconazole combinations for biofilm formation were 0.311 and 0.25, respectively. The FICI value of 1.003 indicated a status of indifference for the combination of thymol and fluconazole against biofilm formation. Eugenol and thymol combinations with fluconazole did not have useful interaction against mature biofilms of C. albicans, but the presence of 0.5 mg ml(-1) of carvacrol caused inhibition of mature biofilms at a significantly low concentration (i.e. 0.032 mg ml(-1)) of fluconazole. The study indicated that carvacrol and eugenol

  19. Application of chemometric analysis based on physicochemical and chromatographic data for the differentiation origin of plant protection products containing chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Bober, Katarzyna; Dołowy, Małgorzata; Pyka, Alina; Pszczolińska, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and dissimilarities between the pesticide samples in form of emulsifiable concentrates (EC) formulation containing chlorpyrifos as active ingredient coming from different sources (i.e., shops and wholesales) and also belonging to various series. The results obtained by the Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method and also some selected physicochemical properties of examined pesticides including pH, density, stability, active ingredient and water content in pesticides tested were compared using two chemometric methods. Applicability of simple cluster analysis and also principal component analysis of obtained data in differentiation of examined plant protection products coming from different sources was confirmed. It would be advantageous in the routine control of originality and also in the detection of counterfeit pesticides, respectively, among commercially available pesticides containing chlorpyrifos as an active ingredient.

  20. [Examination of the anthraquinone composition in root-stock and root samples of Rubia tinctorium L. plants of different origins].

    PubMed

    Boldizsár, Imre; László-Bencsik, Abel; Szucs, Zoltán; Dános, Béla

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our work was to identify the anthraquinone derivatives in the underground organs (root-stock and root) of the madder root live plant sortiment Rubia tinctorium L, furthermore to isolate populations the anthraquinone compostitions of which are optimal from therapeutical point of view. In the course of the examinations, we studied the anthraquinone composition in root-stock and root samples of plants originating from 11 different habitats. The identification of the anthraquinone derivatives we carried out after the hydrolysis of these samples with HCl solution, by HPLC method and by use of UV-VIS spectrophotometric and mass spectrometric detection. In the samples we identified 6 anthraquinone-aglicones. The main components were alizarin (9.6-21.8 mg/g), purpurin (3.7-12.3 mg/g), and lucidin (1.8-5.7 mg/g). The total anthraquinone-derivative content varied between 15.6 and 39.4 mg/g. After the evaluation of the results it can be stated that from therapeutical point of view the most favourable biggest ratio of total anthraquinone amount/lucidin amount (11.97) and one of the biggest total anthraquinone-derivative contents (38.1 mg/g) are found in the Rubia tinctorium sample marked R02 originating from Aachen (Germany). These results enable us at the same time to find--through the establishment of further collections and through the exploration of the biodiversity of these--basic material with more favourable composition than at present, especially in relation to lucidin derivatives which are risk factors.

  1. Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lary, Laure; Roy, Céline; Paris, Jean-Philippe; Tournayre, Pascal; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Fernandez, Xavier

    2014-06-01

    Absolutes isolated from Viola odorata leaves, valuable materials for the flavor and fragrance industry, were studied. Violets are mainly cultivated in France and Egypt and extracted locally. The absolutes of the two origins showed different olfactory profiles both in top and heart notes, as evidenced by sensory analysis. The aims of this study were i) to characterize the volatile compounds, ii) to determine the odorant-active ones, and iii) to identify some markers of the plant origin. Two complementary analytical methods were used for these purposes, i.e., headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) using different fiber coatings followed by GC/MS analysis and gas chromatography - olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS) applied to violet leaf extracts. From a total of 70 identified compounds, 61 have never been reported so far for this species, 17 compounds were characterized by both techniques (with seven among them known from the literature), 23 compounds were solely identified by HS-SPME GC/MS (among them only two being already mentioned as components of violet absolutes in the literature), and, finally, 30 compounds were only identified by GC-O/MS. According to the HS-SPME GC/MS analyses, ethyl hexanoate and (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienol were specific volatile compounds of the sample with French origin, while (E,E)-hepta-2,4-dienal, hexanoic acid, limonene, tridecane, and eugenol were specific of the samples with Egyptian origin. Additional compounds that were not detected by HS-SPME GC/MS analysis were revealed by GC-O analyses, some of them being markers of origin. Pent-1-en-3-ol, 3-methylbut-2-enal, 2-methoxy-3-(1-methylethyl)pyrazine, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde, β-phenethyl formate, and 2-methoxy-3-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazine revealed to be odorant markers of the French sample, whereas cis-rose oxide, trans-rose oxide, and 3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enone were odorant markers of the Egyptian samples.

  2. Phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion based on a comparative analysis of 5S ribosomal RNA sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, E.; Delihas, N.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Fox, G. E.; Gibson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of 5S ribosomal RNAs from Rhodocyclus gelatinosa, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Pseudomonas cepacia were determined. Comparisons of these 5S RNA sequences show that rather than being phylogenetically related to one another, the two photosynthetic bacterial 5S RNAs share more sequence and signature homology with the RNAs of two nonphotosynthetic strains. Rhodobacter sphaeroides is specifically related to Paracoccus denitrificans and Rc. gelatinosa is related to Ps. cepacia. These results support earlier 16S ribosomal RNA studies and add two important groups to the 5S RNA data base. Unique 5S RNA structural features previously found in P. denitrificans are present also in the 5S RNA of Rb. sphaeroides; these provide the basis for subdivisional signatures. The immediate consequence of obtaining these new sequences is that it is possible to clarify the phylogenetic origins of the plant mitochondrion. In particular, a close phylogenetic relationship is found between the plant mitochondria and members of the alpha subdivision of the purple photosynthetic bacteria, namely, Rb. sphaeroides, P. denitrificans, and Rhodospirillum rubrum.

  3. Evolutionary origin of the NCSI gene subfamily encoding norcoclaurine synthase is associated with the biosynthesis of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Deng, Xianbao; Owiti, Albert; Meelaph, Thitirat; Ogutu, Collins; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Sacred lotus is rich in biologically active compounds, particularly benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). Here, we report on isolation of genes encoding (S)-norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) in sacred lotus, which is a key entry-enzyme in BIA biosynthesis. Seven NCS genes, designated NnNCS1 through NnNCS7, were identified in the sacred lotus genome, and five are located next to each other within a 83 kb region on scaffold 8. The NCS genes are divided into two subfamilies, designated NCSI and NCSII. The NCSII genes are universal in plants, while the NCSI genes are only identified in a limited number of dicotyledonous taxa that produce BIAs. In sacred lotus, only NnNCS4 belongs to the NCSII subfamily, whilst the rest NCS genes within the NCSI subfamily. Overall, the NnNCS7 gene was predominantly expressed in all tested tissues, and its expression is significantly correlated with alkaloid content in leaf. In contrast, the NnNCS4 expression shows no significant correlation with alkaloid accumulation in leaf, and its lack of expression cannot inhibit alkaloid accumulation. Taken together, these results suggest that the NCSI subfamily is crucial for BIA biosynthesis, and its origin may represent an important evolutionary event that allows certain plant taxa to produce BIAs. PMID:27189519

  4. Mixing Plants from Different Origins to Restore a Declining Population: Ecological Outcomes and Local Perceptions 10 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Anne-Claire; Abdelkrim, Jawad; Cisel, Matthieu; Zavodna, Monika; Bardin, Philippe; Matamoro, Alexis; Dumez, Richard; Machon, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Populations of the Large-flowered Sandwort (Arenaria grandiflora L.) in the Fontainebleau forest (France) have declined rapidly during the last century. Despite the initiation of a protection program in 1991, less than twenty individuals remained by the late 1990s. The low fitness of these last plants, which is likely associated with genetic disorders and inbreeding depression, highlighted the need for the introduction of non-local genetic material to increase genetic diversity and thus restore Fontainebleau populations. Consequently, A. grandiflora was introduced at three distant sites in the Fontainebleau forest in 1999. Each of these populations was composed of an identical mix of individuals of both local and non-local origin that were obtained through in vitro multiplication. After establishment, the population status (number of individuals, diameter of the plants, and number of flowers) of the introduced populations was monitored. At present, two populations (one of which is much larger than the other) persist, while the third one became extinct in 2004. Analyses of the ecological parameters of the introduction sites indicated that differences in soil pH and moisture might have contributed to the differences in population dynamics. This introduction plan and its outcome attracted interest of local community, with those who supported the plan and regarded its 10-year result as a biological success (i.e., persistent populations were created), but also those who expressed reservations or disapproval of the plan and its outcome. To understand this controversy, a sociological study involving 27 semi-structured interviews was carried out. From these interviews emerged three areas of controversy: alteration of the identity of the plant, alteration of the identity of its territory, and the biological and ethical consequences of the techniques used for the experimental conservation. PMID:23349668

  5. Quality assurance program description: Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant, Part 1. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This document describes the Department of Energy`s Richland Field Office (DOE-RL) quality assurance (QA) program for the processing of high-level waste as well as the Vitrification Project Quality Assurance Program for the design and construction of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). It also identifies and describes the planned activities that constitute the required quality assurance program for the HWVP. This program applies to the broad scope of quality-affecting activities associated with the overall HWVP Facility. Quality-affecting activities include designing, purchasing, fabricating, handling, shipping, storing, cleaning, erecting, installing, inspecting, testing, maintaining, repairing, and modifying. Also included are the development, qualification, and production of waste forms which may be safely used to dispose of high-level radioactive waste resulting from national defense activities. The HWVP QA program is made up of many constituent programs that are being implemented by the participating organizations. This Quality Assurance program description is intended to outline and define the scope and application of the major programs that make up the HWVP QA program. It provides a means by which the overall program can be managed and directed to achieve its objectives. Subsequent parts of this description will identify the program`s objectives, its scope, application, and structure.

  6. Spatial Variation of Arsenic in Soil, Irrigation Water, and Plant Parts: A Microlevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, M. S.; Salam, M. A.; Paul, D. N. R.; Hossain, M. I.; Rahman, N. M. F.; Aziz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic pollution became a great problem in the recent past in different countries including Bangladesh. The microlevel studies were conducted to see the spatial variation of arsenic in soils and plant parts contaminated through ground water irrigation. The study was performed in shallow tube well command areas in Sadar Upazila (subdistrict), Faridpur, Bangladesh, where both soil and irrigation water arsenic are high. Semivariogram models were computed to determine the spatial dependency of soil, water, grain, straw, and husk arsenic (As). An arsenic concentration surface was created spatially to describe the distribution of arsenic in soil, water, grain, straw, and husk. Command area map was digitized using Arcview GIS from the “mouza” map. Both arsenic contaminated irrigation water and the soils were responsible for accumulation of arsenic in rice straw, husk, and grain. The accumulation of arsenic was higher in water followed by soil, straw, husk, and grain. Arsenic concentration varied widely within command areas. The extent and propensity of arsenic concentration were higher in areas where high concentration of arsenic existed in groundwater and soils. Spherical model was a relatively better and appropriate model. Kriging method appeared to be more suitable in creating interpolated surface. The average arsenic content in grain was 0.08–0.45 mg/kg while in groundwater arsenic level it ranged from 138.0 to 191.3 ppb. PMID:27747271

  7. Tracing the geographic origin of traded leopard body parts in the indian subcontinent with DNA-based assignment tests.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Samrat; Sridhar, Vanjulavalli; Yadav, Prasanjeet; Gubbi, Sanjay; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-04-01

    Illicit trade in wildlife products is rapidly decimating many species across the globe. Such trade is often underestimated for wide-ranging species until it is too late for the survival of their remaining populations. Policing this trade could be vastly improved if one could reliably determine geographic origins of illegal wildlife products and identify areas where greater enforcement is needed. Using DNA-based assignment tests (i.e., samples are assigned to geographic locations), we addressed these factors for leopards (Panthera pardus) on the Indian subcontinent. We created geography-specific allele frequencies from a genetic reference database of 173 leopards across India to infer geographic origins of DNA samples from 40 seized leopard skins. Sensitivity analyses of samples of known geographic origins and assignments of seized skins demonstrated robust assignments for Indian leopards. We found that confiscated pelts seized in small numbers were not necessarily from local leopards. The geographic footprint of large seizures appeared to be bigger than the cumulative footprint of several smaller seizures, indicating widespread leopard poaching across the subcontinent. Our seized samples had male-biased sex ratios, especially the large seizures. From multiple seized sample assignments, we identified central India as a poaching hotspot for leopards. The techniques we applied can be used to identify origins of seized illegal wildlife products and trade routes at the subcontinent scale and beyond.

  8. Responses to Bakhtins Dialogic Origins and Dialogic Pedagogy of Grammar: Stylistics as Part of Russian Language Instruction in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles; Farmer, Frank; Halasek, Kay; Williams, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The three authors writing on Bakhtins essay, "Dialogic Origin and Dialogic Pedagogy of Grammar" -- Farmer, Halasek, and Williams -- respond to one another, and Bazerman provides a summative comment in the paragraphs that follow. The responses explore further some of Bakhtins thoughts concerning rhetoric and its relation to stylistics and his use…

  9. Tracing the geographic origin of traded leopard body parts in the indian subcontinent with DNA-based assignment tests.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Samrat; Sridhar, Vanjulavalli; Yadav, Prasanjeet; Gubbi, Sanjay; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-04-01

    Illicit trade in wildlife products is rapidly decimating many species across the globe. Such trade is often underestimated for wide-ranging species until it is too late for the survival of their remaining populations. Policing this trade could be vastly improved if one could reliably determine geographic origins of illegal wildlife products and identify areas where greater enforcement is needed. Using DNA-based assignment tests (i.e., samples are assigned to geographic locations), we addressed these factors for leopards (Panthera pardus) on the Indian subcontinent. We created geography-specific allele frequencies from a genetic reference database of 173 leopards across India to infer geographic origins of DNA samples from 40 seized leopard skins. Sensitivity analyses of samples of known geographic origins and assignments of seized skins demonstrated robust assignments for Indian leopards. We found that confiscated pelts seized in small numbers were not necessarily from local leopards. The geographic footprint of large seizures appeared to be bigger than the cumulative footprint of several smaller seizures, indicating widespread leopard poaching across the subcontinent. Our seized samples had male-biased sex ratios, especially the large seizures. From multiple seized sample assignments, we identified central India as a poaching hotspot for leopards. The techniques we applied can be used to identify origins of seized illegal wildlife products and trade routes at the subcontinent scale and beyond. PMID:25376464

  10. Origin and dissemination of the pollen-part mutated SC haplotype which confers self-compatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    PubMed

    Halász, Júlia; Pedryc, Andrzej; Hegedus, Attila

    2007-01-01

    In China, its centre of origin, apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is self-incompatible. However, most European cultivars are self-compatible. In most cases, self-compatibility is a result of a loss-of-function mutation within the pollen gene (SFB) in the SC haplotype. Controlled pollinations performed in this work revealed that the cross 'Ceglédi óriás' (S8S9)x'Ceglédi arany' (SCS9) set well, as expected, but the reciprocal cross did not. Apricot S8, S9 and SC haplotypes were analysed using a multilevel approach including fruit set evaluation, pollen tube growth analysis, RNase activity assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and DNA sequencing of the S-RNase and SFB alleles. SFB8 was revealed to be the first known progenitor allele of a naturally occurring self-compatibility allele in Prunus, and consequently SC=The first intron of SC-RNase is a phase one intron, indicating its more recent evolutionary origin compared with the second intron. Sequence analysis of different cultivars revealed that more single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulated in SC-RNase than in SFBC. New methods were designed to allow high-throughput analysis of S genotypes of apricot cultivars and selections. S-RNase sequence data from various sources helped to elucidate the putative origin and dissemination of self-compatibility in apricot conferred by the SC haplotype.

  11. Enantioselective Reduction by Crude Plant Parts: Reduction of Benzofuran-2-yl Methyl Ketone with Carrot ("Daucus carota") Bits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravia, Silvana; Gamenara, Daniela; Schapiro, Valeria; Bellomo, Ana; Adum, Jorge; Seoane, Gustavo; Gonzalez, David

    2006-01-01

    The use of biocatalysis and biotransformations are important tools in green chemistry. The enantioselective reduction of a ketone by crude plant parts, using carrot ("Daucus carota") as the reducing agent is presented. The experiment introduces an example of a green chemistry procedure that can be tailored to fit in a regular laboratory session.…

  12. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... and equipment to extremely high standards is necessary in order to ensure predictable and safe...

  16. 40 CFR 63.2535 - What compliance options do I have if part of my plant is subject to both this subpart and another...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... For example, provisions of 40 CFR parts 260 through 272 for treatment units that meet the conditions... part of my plant is subject to both this subpart and another subpart? 63.2535 Section 63.2535... § 63.2535 What compliance options do I have if part of my plant is subject to both this subpart...

  17. Origin and evolution of groundwater collected by a desalination plant (Tordera, Spain): A multi-isotopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Soler, A.; Corp, R. M.; Mas-Pla, J.; Garcia-Solsona, E.; Masqué, P.

    2011-01-01

    SummaryThe Tordera Desalination Plant located in Blanes (NE Spain) has seawater intake through 10 beach wells located a few meters inland on the shoreline at the Tordera River Delta. Between October 2002 and October 2003, the extracted groundwater showed a decrease in conductivity, especially in the wells located in the northern area, prompting the present study. A multi-isotopic approach (δD, δ 18OO, 3H, δ 34S, 87Sr/ 86Sr and 228Ra/ 226Ra) coupled with chemical data was applied in order to assess the origin of the water collected for the desalination plant and to quantify the extent of freshwater collection from the Tordera aquifer, when applicable. Three multi-piezometers located in the Tordera aquifer were also sampled in order to characterize the freshwater end-member. A seasonal survey was performed in order to assess the evolution of mixed freshwater-seawater intake. Tritium isotopes showed values ranging from 0.6 to 2.5 TU indicating recent origin of the collected waters. This was further confirmed using radium isotopes ( 226Ra and 228Ra), as the 228Ra/ 226Ra activity ratio (AR) indicated a continuous input of seawater on a yearly time scale. The water extracted from the beach wells was at least 95% seawater, except for wells 8-10. The latter two were extracting up to 15% of freshwater from the Tordera aquifer system. From a methodological point of view, while δ 34S of dissolved sulphate and the ratio 87Sr/ 86Sr are good tracers of seawater mixing with freshwaters, the isotopic composition of water (δD and δ 18OO) and the Cl -/Br - ratio are conservative tracers that allow for quantifying the contribution of freshwater to the extracted water. Although slight variations linked to seasonality were observed in all wells during the 3-year study period (November 2003 to December 2006), wells 1 and 7 showed an increase in freshwater contribution from 4% to 11% and well 10 a decrease from 15% to 10% over this period.

  18. Conceptual design of a laser fusion power plant. Part I. An integrated facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This study is a new preliminary conceptual design and economic analysis of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) power plant performed by Bechtel under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The purpose of a new conceptual design is to examine alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE power plant and to incorporate information from the recent liquid metal cooled power plant conceptual design study (CDS) into the reactor system and balance of plant design. A key issue in the design of a laser fusion power plant is the degree of symmetry in the illumination of the target that will be required for a proper burn. Because this matter is expected to remain unresolved for some time, another purpose of this study is to determine the effect of symmetry requirements on the total plant size, layout, and cost.

  19. 40 CFR 63.4482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and... paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of plastic parts and products... is used to coat plastic parts and products at a source where no plastic parts surface coating...

  20. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  1. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-04-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. Thus, our aim was to provide a comprehensive narrative review of plant-based medicines that have clinical and/or preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity. We present the article in two parts. In part one, we reviewed herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In this current article (part two), we review herbal medicines for which there have been both preclinical and clinical investigations of anxiolytic activity. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) for English language papers using the search terms 'anxiety' OR 'anxiety disorder' OR 'generalized anxiety disorder' OR 'social phobia' OR 'post-traumatic stress disorder' OR 'panic disorder' OR 'agoraphobia' OR 'obsessive compulsive disorder' in combination with the search terms 'Herb*' OR 'Medicinal Plants' OR 'Botanical Medicine' OR 'Chinese herb*', in addition to individual herbal medicines. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, of which 53 plants were included in the review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed here in part two), with the other 32 having solely preclinical evidence (reviewed in part one). Support for efficacy was found for chronic use (i.e. greater than one day) of the following herbs in treating a range of anxiety disorders in human clinical trials: Piper methysticum, Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Scutellaria lateriflora, Silybum marianum, Passiflora incarnata, Withania somniferum, Galphimia glauca, Centella asiatica, Rhodiola rosea, Echinacea spp., Melissa officinalis and Echium

  2. Specific PCR assays to determine bovine, porcine, fish and plant origin of gelatin capsules of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jo, Cheon-Ho; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2016-11-15

    Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from pig skin and bovine tissue, is used widely in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Here, to determine the species of origin of capsule gelatin, we developed a sensitive and reliable test using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which included 1) species-specific or universal primer sets, designed to detect short 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from cow, pig, and fish (tilapia) as well as genes encoding the large subunit of plant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and 2) species-specific PCR coupled with whole-genome amplification. This method was used to verify manufacturing label claims of 28 gelatin capsule samples sold as dietary supplements. The results from 27 samples were consistent with gelatin-related information on the manufacturer label, while one sample that mentioned tilapia gelatin was found to contain only bovine DNA. This rapid method can therefore be used to verify the authenticity of gelatin capsules.

  3. Specific PCR assays to determine bovine, porcine, fish and plant origin of gelatin capsules of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Kim, Mi-Ra; Jo, Cheon-Ho; Jung, Yoo-Kyung; Kwon, Kisung; Kang, Tae Sun

    2016-11-15

    Gelatin, a purified protein derived mostly from pig skin and bovine tissue, is used widely in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Here, to determine the species of origin of capsule gelatin, we developed a sensitive and reliable test using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, which included 1) species-specific or universal primer sets, designed to detect short 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from cow, pig, and fish (tilapia) as well as genes encoding the large subunit of plant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase and 2) species-specific PCR coupled with whole-genome amplification. This method was used to verify manufacturing label claims of 28 gelatin capsule samples sold as dietary supplements. The results from 27 samples were consistent with gelatin-related information on the manufacturer label, while one sample that mentioned tilapia gelatin was found to contain only bovine DNA. This rapid method can therefore be used to verify the authenticity of gelatin capsules. PMID:27283629

  4. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

  5. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peanut Plant Parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represents approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were de...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  9. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  10. 40 CFR 63.7782 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacturing facility. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing sinter plant, blast furnace, and basic... blast furnace casthouse; and the BOPF shop including each individual BOPF and shop ancillary operations... plant, blast furnace, or BOPF shop at your integrated iron and steel manufacturing facility is...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... handling operation at your taconite iron ore processing plant is existing if you commenced construction or reconstruction of the affected source before December 18, 2002. (e) An ore crushing and handling operation, ore... plant is new if you commence construction or reconstruction of the affected source on or after...

  12. Plant Parts Snack--A Way to Family Involvement, Science Learning, and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Megan Mason

    2008-01-01

    As a teacher who loves to bring botany into her preschool classroom of 4- and 5-year-olds, the author makes edible plants a regular, popular feature of her students' environment. The author is fascinated when her students become increasingly adventurous in their tastes for vegetables the more they handle and understand plants. The author decided…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... approval or design certification under part 52 of this chapter is required by the provisions of 10 CFR 52... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality...: reactor physics, stress, thermal, hydraulic, and accident analyses; compatibility of...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 50 - Quality Assurance Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants and Fuel Reprocessing Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of 10 CFR 52.157 to include in its final safety analysis report a description of the quality... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Pt. 50, App. B Appendix B to Part 50—Quality Assurance... report a description of the quality assurance program to be applied to the design,...

  18. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  1. Biodiesel emissions profile in modern diesel vehicles. Part 1: Effect of biodiesel origin on the criteria emissions.

    PubMed

    Bakeas, Evangelos; Karavalakis, Georgios; Stournas, Stamoulis

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the regulated emissions profile of a Euro 4 compliant common rail passenger car, fuelled with low concentration biodiesel blends. Four biodiesels of different origin and quality blended with a typical automotive diesel fuel at proportions of 10, 20, and 30% v/v. Emission and fuel consumption measurements were conducted on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) technique, over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the real traffic-based Artemis driving cycles. Limited effects were observed on CO(2) emissions, while fuel consumption marginally increased with biodiesel. PM, HC and CO emissions improved with the addition of biodiesel, with some exceptions. Some increases with biodiesel were observed over the NEDC, as a consequence of biodiesel characteristics and engine conditions. NO(x) emissions were increased with the use of biodiesel blends and positively correlated with fuel unsaturation levels.

  2. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants. PMID:25465511

  3. High temperature abatement of acid gases from waste incineration. Part I: experimental tests in full scale plants.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Racanella, Gaia; Rigamonti, Lucia; Marras, Roberto; Grosso, Mario

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, several waste-to-energy plants in Italy have experienced an increase of the concentration of acid gases (HCl, SO2 and HF) in the raw gas. This is likely an indirect effect of the progressive decrease of the amount of treated municipal waste, which is partially replaced by commercial waste. The latter is characterised by a higher variability of its chemical composition because of the different origins, with possible increase of the load of halogen elements such as chlorine (Cl) and fluorine (F), as well as of sulphur (S). A new dolomitic sorbent was then tested in four waste-to-energy plants during standard operation as a pre-cleaning stage, to be directly injected at high temperature in the combustion chamber. For a sorbent injection of about 6 kg per tonne of waste, the decrease of acid gases concentration downstream the boiler was in the range of 7-37% (mean 23%) for HCl, 34-95% (mean 71%) for SO2 and 39-80% (mean 63%) for HF. This pre-abatement of acid gases allowed to decrease the feeding rate of the traditional low temperature sorbent (sodium bicarbonate in all four plants) by about 30%. Furthermore, it was observed by the plant operators that the sorbent helps to keep the boiler surfaces cleaner, with a possible reduction of the fouling phenomena and a consequent increase of the specific energy production. A preliminary quantitative estimate was carried out in one of the four plants.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado, Johana; Bruce, David; Chertkov, Olga; De Hoff, Peter L.; Detter, John C.; Fujishige, Nancy A.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Han, James; Han, Shunsheng; Ivanova, Natalia; Land, Miriam L.; Lum, Michelle R.; Milani-Nejad, Nima; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Tran, Stephen S.; Woyke, Tanja; Valdés, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions, including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and degradation of complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico. PMID:24072863

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Micromonospora Strain L5, a Potential Plant-Growth-Regulating Actinomycete, Originally Isolated from Casuarina equisetifolia Root Nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, A. M.; Alvarado, J.; Bruce, D.; Chertkov, O.; De Hoff, P. L.; Detter, J. C.; Fujishige, N. A.; Goodwin, L. A.; Han, J.; Han, S.; Ivanova, N.; Land, M. L.; Lum, M. R.; Milani-Nejad, N.; Nolan, M.; Pati, A.; Pitluck, S.; Tran, S. S.; Woyke, T.; Valdes, M.

    2013-08-29

    Micromonospora species live in diverse environments and exhibit a broad range of functions including antibiotic production, biocontrol, and ability to degrade complex polysaccharides. To learn more about these versatile actinomycetes, we sequenced the genome of strain L5, originally isolated from root nodules of an actinorhizal plant growing in Mexico.

  6. Investigation of chemical diversity in different parts and origins of ethnomedicine Gentiana rigescens Franch using targeted metabolite profiling and multivariate statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yu; Zhang, Ji; Shen, Tao; Zhao, Yan-Li; Zuo, Zhi-Tian; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2016-02-01

    Gentiana rigescens, an ethnomedicine, is widely cultivated in Yunnan province of China. Although a wide range of metabolites including iridoid glycosides, flavonoids and triterpenoids have been reported in this ethnomedicine, the data on accumulation and distribution of metabolites in certain parts are limited. In this study, targeted metabolic fingerprinting of iridoid glycosides based on liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV-MS/MS) was developed to investigate the metabolic similarities and differences in different parts and origins. Thirty-one compounds, including iridoid glycosides and flavonoids, were detected from targeted metabolite profiling and plausibly assigned to the different parts of G. rigescens. Multivariate statistical analysis was designed to reveal close chemical similarities between all the selected samples and to identify key metabolites characteristic of the standard. The results suggested that accumulation and distribution of metabolites in aerial and underground parts were different. Moreover, root samples tended to be grouped on the basis of the geographical closeness of region. Five metabolites can be considered as potential markers for the classification of underground parts from different regions. These results provided chemical information on the potential pharmaceutical value for further research, making G. rigescens ideal for the rational usage of different parts and exploitation of the source.

  7. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: tin processing plants, a critical part of the tin supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Charles

    2015-03-24

    Post-beneficiation processing plants (generally called smelters and refineries) for 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being a link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine). The determination of the source of origin is critical to the development of a complete and transparent conflict-free mineral supply chain. Tungsten processing plants were the subject of the first fact sheet in this series published by the USGS NMIC in August 2014. Background information about historical conditions and multinational stakeholders’ voluntary due diligence guidance for minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas was presented in the tungsten fact sheet. Tantalum processing plants were the subject of the second fact sheet in this series published by the USGS NMIC in December 2014. This fact sheet, the third in the series about 3TG minerals, focuses on the tin supply chain by listing selected processors that produced tin materials commercially worldwide during 2013–14. It does not provide any information regarding the sources of the material processed in these facilities.

  8. Conflict minerals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo: tin processing plants, a critical part of the tin supply chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Post-beneficiation processing plants (generally called smelters and refineries) for 3TG mineral ores and concentrates were identified by company and industry association representatives as being a link in the 3TG mineral supply chain through which these minerals can be traced to their source of origin (mine). The determination of the source of origin is critical to the development of a complete and transparent conflict-free mineral supply chain. Tungsten processing plants were the subject of the first fact sheet in this series published by the USGS NMIC in August 2014. Background information about historical conditions and multinational stakeholders’ voluntary due diligence guidance for minerals from conflict-affected and high-risk areas was presented in the tungsten fact sheet. Tantalum processing plants were the subject of the second fact sheet in this series published by the USGS NMIC in December 2014. This fact sheet, the third in the series about 3TG minerals, focuses on the tin supply chain by listing selected processors that produced tin materials commercially worldwide during 2013–14. It does not provide any information regarding the sources of the material processed in these facilities.

  9. Water Treatment Plant Sludges--An Update of the State of the Art: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Water Works Association Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This report outlines the state of the art with respect to nonmechanical and mechanical methods of dewatering water treatment plant sludge, ultimate solids disposal, and research and development needs. (CS)

  10. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to... source of reinfestation; extent of infestation including estimated surface area, depth or density;...

  11. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part V. Temperate fruits: pome fruits, stone fruits, and berries

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of temperate fruits, i.e., apple, pear, peach, nectarine, apricot, cherry, plum, strawberry, bilberry, cranberry, raspberry, and black currant, is reviewed. Changes in fruit metabolism, chemical composition, texture, and organoleptic quality attributes are discussed with reference to the irradiation dose. The feasibility of using radiation either alone or in conjunction with heat treatment, refrigeration, and controlled atmospheres (CA) for the control of storage decay caused by fungal pathogens is considered. Areas of further research are suggested before irradiation could be considered for practical application in some of these temperate fruits. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation for disinfestation of certain pome and stone fruits and the prospects for the commercial utilization of irradiation for improving the market life of strawberries are discussed. 156 references.

  12. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part VI. Mushrooms, tomatoes, minor fruits and vegetables, dried fruits, and nuts

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, P.

    1988-01-01

    In this concluding article in the series on the technological feasibility of ionizing radiation treatment for shelf life improvement of fruits and vegetables, the present status of research on several commodities that have not been dealt with earlier is discussed. The commodities include mushrooms, tomatoes, pineapples, lychees, longans, rambutans, mangostenes, guavas, sapotas, loquats, ber, soursops, passion fruits, persimmons, figs, melons, cucumbers, aubergines, globe artichokes, endives, lettuce, ginger, carrots, beet roots, turnips, olives, dates, chestnuts, almonds, pistachios, and other dried fruits and nuts. Changes induced by irradiation on metabolism, chemical constituents, and organoleptic qualities are considered while evaluating the shelf life. The commodities have been grouped into those showing potential benefits and those not showing any clear advantages from radiation treatment. Shelf life improvement of mushrooms and insect disinfestation in dried fruits, nuts, and certain fresh fruits appears to have immediate potential for commercial application. 194 references.

  13. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 2: Plant distribution.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Arid agricultural regions often turn to using treated wastewater (reclaimed water) to irrigate food crops. Concerns arise, however, when considering the potential for persistent contaminants of emerging concern to accumulate into plants intended for human consumption. The present study examined the accumulation of a suite of 9 contaminants of emerging concern into 2 representative food crops, lettuce and strawberry, following uptake via the roots and subsequent distribution to other plant tissues. Calculating accumulation metrics (concentration factors) allowed for comparison of the compartmental affinity of each chemical for each plant tissue compartment. The root concentration factor was found to exhibit a positive linear correlation with the pH-adjusted octanol-water partition coefficient (DOW ) for the target contaminants of emerging concern. Coupled with the concentration-dependent accumulation observed in the roots, this result implies that accumulation of these contaminants of emerging concern into plant roots is driven by passive partitioning. Of the contaminants of emerging concern examined, nonionizable contaminants, such as triclocarban, carbamazepine, and organophosphate flame retardants displayed the greatest potential for translocation from the roots to above-ground plant compartments. In particular, the organophosphate flame retardants displayed increasing affinity for shoots and fruits with decreasing size/octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW ). Cationic diphenhydramine and anionic sulfamethoxazole, once transported to the shoots of the strawberry plant, demonstrated the greatest potential of the contaminants examined to be then carried to the edible fruit portion. PMID:25988579

  14. The origin of the moon and the early history of the earth - A chemical model. Part 1: The moon

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, H. St.C. )

    1991-04-01

    The chemical implications of a giant impact model for the origin of the moon are examined, both for the moon and for the earth. The Impactor is taken to be an approximately Mars-sized body. It is argued that the likeliest bulk chemical composition of the moon is quite similar to that of the earth's mantle, and that this composition may be explained in detail if about 80{percent} of the moon came from the primitive earth's mantle after segregation of the earth's core. The other 20{percent} of the moon is modelled as coming from (a) the Impactor, which is constrained to be an oxidized, probably undifferentiated body of roughly CI chondritic composition (on a volatile free basis) and (b) a late stage veneer, with a composition and oxidation state similar to that of the H-group ordinary chondrites. This latter component is the source of all the volatile elements in the moon, which failed to condense from the earth-and Impactor-derived materials; this component constitutes about 4{percent} of the moon. It is argued that Mo may behave as a volatile element under the relatively oxidising conditions necessary for the condensation of the proto-moon. The model accounts satisfactorily for most of the siderophile elements, including Fe, Ni, Co, W, P, and Cu. The relatively well-constrained lunar abundances of V, Cr, and Mn are also accounted for; their depletion in the moon is inherited from the earth's mantle.

  15. Description and origin of the lower part of the Mesaverde Group in Rifle Gap, Garfield County, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madden, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Rifle Gap cuts through the central part of the Grand Hogback and the gap exposes the entire Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group. The best outcrops are on the roadcuts through the coal-rich lower part of the group. These roadcuts border the Rifle Gap dam and reservoir on the southwest, where the coal-rich section can be examined with little climbing away from the road. This coal-rich section consists of 1700 ft (518 m) of uppermost Mancos Shale, overlain by the Iles Formation and the lower part of the Williams Fork Formation of the Mesaverde Group. These formations are composed of members and informal units formed in a late Campanian coastal setting of deltas and intervening strandplains which supported vast peat swamps. The age and the coastal subenvironments of deposition of these units are indicated by fossils and sedimentary structures which can be studied on the roadcuts. The highest, most prominent roadcut exposes a thick, white sandstone called the Trout Creek Sandstone Member, Iles Formation, the correlations of which have been reassessed recently. This sandstone previously was correlated to a sandstone exposed at New Castle: the Rollins Sandstone Member, Mesaverde Formation, of the southern Piceance Creek basin. However, later field mapping showed that the two sandstones cannot be traced to each other but are separated by 310-450 ft (93.9-136.4 m) of strata along the central Grand Hogback. The recorrelations of the Trout Creek and adjacent sandstone members have influenced reconstruction of the local, late Campanian paleogeography of the oscillating shoreline. The sketches of paleogeographic reconstruction show an oscillating shoreline that trended northeast-southwest. This shoreline migrated inland to the area of Wolf Creek on the northern border of the Piceance Creek basin, and seaward only as far as the area of New Castle, until deposition of the Haas sandstone unit of the lower Williams Fork Formation. During the deposition of the Haas, the shoreline

  16. Evaluation of in vitro effects of natural substances of plant origin using a model of protein glycoxidation.

    PubMed

    Bousová, I; Martin, J; Jahodár, L; Dusek, J; Palicka, V; Drsata, J

    2005-04-29

    In an in vitro model with purified porcine aspartate aminotransferase (AST, EC 2.6.1.1) as the protein, the effects of phenolic antioxidants of plant origin (arbutin, methylarbutin, ferulic and isoferulic acids, o-coumaric and p-coumaric acids, quinic acid), flavonoids (baicalin and baicalein), and of hydroxycitric acid (HCA) at 0.5-50 mM concentration on the enzyme activities and on its glycation by 50 mM D-fructose as the glycating agent were studied. During incubation with AST at 37 degrees C up to 24 days, fructose alone decreased AST activities as a result of protein glycation. In the absence of fructose, 50 mM phenolic compounds gradually decreased AST activity, while no or a weak effect of individual compounds was found at 3 mM concentration. A direct negative effect on AST was pronounced with ferulic acid. On the other hand, beneficial influences of phenolic compounds on glycation of AST by fructose were found mostly at 3 mM concentration. Effects on glycation were vague at 50 mM concentration, probably due to a combination of direct negative influences and antiglycation effects of individual compounds. No effect, neither positive nor negative, on AST activity and protein glycation, was found with quinic acid. The flavonoid baicalin and its aglycon baicalein rapidly decreased the in vitro activity of the enzyme in all concentrations used (0.5-3 mM), and no beneficial effects of the compounds on glycation of the enzyme by fructose were found. The influence of HCA on glycation was concentration-depended, ranging from beneficial inhibition of glycation at 2.5 mM concentration to a strong decrease in AST activity at 10 mM HCA. Both the beneficial and undesirable effects of natural antioxidants should be considered in case they are used as antiglycation factors. The results obtained can contribute to the evaluation of quality of various generally recommended antioxidants. PMID:15862673

  17. Genomic analysis of the Kiwifruit pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae provides insight into the origins of an emergent plant disease.

    PubMed

    McCann, Honour C; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Bertels, Frederic; Fiers, Mark; Lu, Ashley; Rees-George, Jonathan; Andersen, Mark T; Gleave, Andrew P; Haubold, Bernhard; Wohlers, Mark W; Guttman, David S; Wang, Pauline W; Straub, Christina; Vanneste, Joel L; Vanneste, Joel; Rainey, Paul B; Templeton, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    The origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. Most crops were domesticated centuries--even millennia--ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) first recorded in the 1980s. Based on SNP analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that Psa is comprised of distinct clades exhibiting negligible within-clade diversity, consistent with disease arising by independent samplings from a source population. Three clades correspond to their geographical source of isolation; a fourth, encompassing the Psa-V lineage responsible for the 2008 outbreak, is now globally distributed. Psa has an overall clonal population structure, however, genomes carry a marked signature of within-pathovar recombination. SNP analysis of Psa-V reveals hundreds of polymorphisms; however, most reside within PPHGI-1-like conjugative elements whose evolution is unlinked to the core genome. Removal of SNPs due to recombination yields an uninformative (star-like) phylogeny consistent with diversification of Psa-V from a single clone within the last ten years. Growth assays provide evidence of cultivar specificity, with rapid systemic movement of Psa-V in Actinidia chinensis. Genomic comparisons show a dynamic genome with evidence of positive selection on type III effectors and other candidate virulence genes. Each clade has highly varied complements of accessory genes encoding effectors and toxins with evidence of gain and loss via multiple genetic routes. Genes with orthologs in vascular pathogens were found exclusively within Psa-V. Our analyses capture a pathogen in the early stages of emergence from a predicted source population associated with wild Actinidia species. In addition to candidate genes as targets for resistance breeding programs, our findings highlight the

  18. Genomic Analysis of the Kiwifruit Pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Provides Insight into the Origins of an Emergent Plant Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Honour C.; Rikkerink, Erik H. A.; Bertels, Frederic; Fiers, Mark; Lu, Ashley; Rees-George, Jonathan; Andersen, Mark T.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Haubold, Bernhard; Wohlers, Mark W.; Guttman, David S.; Wang, Pauline W.; Straub, Christina; Vanneste, Joel; Rainey, Paul B.; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The origins of crop diseases are linked to domestication of plants. Most crops were domesticated centuries – even millennia – ago, thus limiting opportunity to understand the concomitant emergence of disease. Kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.) is an exception: domestication began in the 1930s with outbreaks of canker disease caused by P. syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) first recorded in the 1980s. Based on SNP analyses of two circularized and 34 draft genomes, we show that Psa is comprised of distinct clades exhibiting negligible within-clade diversity, consistent with disease arising by independent samplings from a source population. Three clades correspond to their geographical source of isolation; a fourth, encompassing the Psa-V lineage responsible for the 2008 outbreak, is now globally distributed. Psa has an overall clonal population structure, however, genomes carry a marked signature of within-pathovar recombination. SNP analysis of Psa-V reveals hundreds of polymorphisms; however, most reside within PPHGI-1-like conjugative elements whose evolution is unlinked to the core genome. Removal of SNPs due to recombination yields an uninformative (star-like) phylogeny consistent with diversification of Psa-V from a single clone within the last ten years. Growth assays provide evidence of cultivar specificity, with rapid systemic movement of Psa-V in Actinidia chinensis. Genomic comparisons show a dynamic genome with evidence of positive selection on type III effectors and other candidate virulence genes. Each clade has highly varied complements of accessory genes encoding effectors and toxins with evidence of gain and loss via multiple genetic routes. Genes with orthologs in vascular pathogens were found exclusively within Psa-V. Our analyses capture a pathogen in the early stages of emergence from a predicted source population associated with wild Actinidia species. In addition to candidate genes as targets for resistance breeding programs, our findings highlight the

  19. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  20. Sex chromosome evolution: platypus gene mapping suggests that part of the human X chromosome was originally autosomal.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J M; Spencer, J A; Riggs, A D; Graves, J A

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the evolution of the mammalian sex chromosomes, we have compared the gene content of the X chromosomes in the mammalian groups most distantly related to man (marsupials and monotremes). Previous work established that genes on the long arm of the human X chromosome are conserved on the X chromosomes in all mammals, revealing that this region was part of an ancient mammalian X chromosome. However, we now report that several genes located on the short arm of the human X chromosome are absent from the platypus X chromosome, as well as from the marsupial X chromosome. Because monotremes and marsupials diverged independently from eutherian mammals, this finding implies that the whole human X short arm region is a relatively recent addition to the X chromosome in eutherian mammals. Images PMID:1763040

  1. Who's on first? Part I: Influence of plant growth on C association with fresh soil minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neurath, R.; Whitman, T.; Nico, P. S.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Firestone, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    Mineral surfaces provide sites for carbon stabilization in soils, protecting soil organic matter (SOM) from microbial degradation. SOM distributed across mineral surfaces is expected to be patchy and certain minerals undergo re-mineralization under dynamic soil conditions, such that soil minerals surfaces can range from fresh to thickly-coated with SOM. Our research investigates the intersection of microbiology and geochemistry, and aims to build a mechanistic understanding of plant-derived carbon (C) association with mineral surfaces and the factors that determine SOM fate in soil. Plants are the primary source of C in soil, with roots exuding low-molecular weight compounds during growth and contributing more complex litter compounds at senescence. We grew the annual grass, Avena barbata, (wild oat) in a 99 atom% 13CO2 atmosphere in soil microcosms incubated with three mineral types representing a spectrum of reactivity and surface area: quartz, kaolinite, and ferrihydrite. These minerals, isolated in mesh bags to exclude roots but not microorganisms, were extracted and analyzed for total C and 13C at multiple plant growth stages. At plant senescence, the quartz had the least mineral-bound C (0.40 mg-g-1) and ferrihydrite the most (0.78 mg-g-1). Ferrihydrite and kaolinite also accumulated more plant-derived C (3.0 and 3.1% 13C, respectively). The experiment was repeated with partially digested 13C-labled root litter to simulate litter decomposition during plant senescence. Thus, we are able evaluate contributions derived from living and dead root materials on soil minerals using FTIR and 13C-NMR. We find that mineral-associated C bears a distinct microbial signature, with soil microbes not only transforming SOM prior to mineral association, but also populating mineral surfaces over time. Our research shows that both soil mineralogy and the chemical character of plant-derived compounds are important controls of mineral protection of SOM.

  2. Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meydbray, J.; Riley, E.; Dunn, L.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    As described in Part 1 of this two-part series, thermopile pyranometers and photovoltaic (PV) reference cells can both be used to measure irradiance; however, there are subtle differences between the data that are obtained. This two-part article explores some implications of uncertainty and subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field. Part 2 of the series shows how reference cells can be used to more confidently predict PV performance, but how this could best be accomplished if historic irradiance data could be available in PV-technology-specific formats.

  3. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part II. Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risks of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, a study was undertaken to quantify heavy metal uptake by 4-week old buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum L.) plants during 18 days of irrigation with 8 different Cu and Zn solutions under two transpiration rates (TR). At 4 weeks, potted buckwheat plants were transferred into one of the two growth chambers, offering either a high or low vapour pressure deficit (VDP) for, respectively, a high or low TR. Triplicate pots received one of the 8 irrigation treatments containing one of two Zn levels (0 and 25 mg/L) combined with one of four Cu levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 mg/L). Daily TR were measured by weighing the evapo-transpired water lost from the planted pot, less was the evaporation loss measured from triplicate non-planted pots. After 0, 6, 12 and 18 days of treatment, the stems and leaves of three randomly selected plants were harvested and after 18 days, the roots were harvested to determine Cu and Zn uptake. The treatments did not affect TR in terms of dry plant mass, indicating the absence of toxic effects. Irrigating with Zn, without Cu, increased dry biomass production, whereas the lowest biomass occurred with 15 and 30 mg/L of Cu with and without 25 mg/L of Zn, respectively, because higher applications of heavy metal significantly reduced soil pH. Plant Cu and Zn uptake increased with TR. With higher levels of Cu, Zn uptake by buckwheat was significantly reduced, while Zn had a slight but non-significant impact on Cu uptake. Previously and in a study exposing wheat plants to the same conditions, Cu significantly increased Zn uptake, while Zn had a slight but insignificant negative effect on Cu uptake. The buckwheat roots contained the greatest levels of Cu and Zn, indicating their role in moderating heavy metal uptake. Also, both Cu and Zn had a synergetic effect on each other in terms of root levels, and a similar observation was made in the earlier similar experiment using wheat plants

  4. Whether Plant Responses to Microgravity are Adaptive in Full or in Part.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth

    F1.1 Microgravity is well known to be an unusual factor for plant but plants grow and develop in space flight from seed-to-seed, as it has been perfectly shown in the experiments aboard shut-tle Columbia (STS-87) and ISS. Under the more or less optimal conditions for plant growing, namely temperature, humidity, CO2, light intensity and directivity, in the hardware, high-quality seeds germinate one hundred percent.. Cytological studies of plants developing in real and simulated microgravity made it possible to establish that the processes of mitosis, cytoki-nesis, and tissue differentiation of vegetative and generative organs are largely normal. The patterns of histogenesis and cell differentiation established for root caps in microgravity lead to the conclusion that the graviperceptive apparatus of the intact embryonic roots has formed but does not function in the absence of a gravitational vector. Normal space orientation of plant organs is provided by autotropism and phototropism. At the same time, under micro-gravity, essential reconstruction in the structural and functional organization of cell organelles and cytoskeleton, as well as changes in cell metabolism and homeostasis have been described. In addition, new interesting data concerning the influence of altered gravity on lipid peroxi-dation intensity, the level of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant system activity, just like on the level of gene expression and synthesis of low-molecular and high-molecular heat shock proteins were recently obtained Available experimental data are discussed in the light of notions on adaptive syndrome in plants. The dynamics of the observable patterns demonstrate that adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems within the physiological response limits.. However, a delay in synthesis of storage nutrients and the lower level its accumulation in seeds in microgravty, as well as the formation of seeds with anomalous embryos in some cases made it

  5. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  6. Selenium and its species distribution in above-ground plant parts of selenium enriched buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench).

    PubMed

    Vogrincic, Maja; Cuderman, Petra; Kreft, Ivan; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2009-11-01

    Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) was foliarly sprayed with a water solution containing 10 mg Se(VI) L(-1) at the beginning of flowering. The total Se content in plant parts in the untreated group was low, whereas in the Se-sprayed group it was approximately 50- to 500-fold higher, depending on the plant part (708-4231 ng Se g(-1) DM(-1) (DM: dry matter)). We observed a similar distribution of Se in plant parts in both control and treated groups, with the highest difference in Se content being in ripe seeds. Water-soluble Se compounds were extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis with protease XIV, resulting in above 63% of soluble Se from seeds, approximately 14% from stems, leaves and inflorescences and less than 1% from husks. Se-species were determined in enzymatic extracts using HPLC-UV-HG-AFS (HPLC-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry with UV treatment). The main Se species found in seeds was SeMet ( approximately 60% according to total Se content), while in stems, leaves and inflorescences the only form of soluble Se present was Se(VI) (up to 10% of total Se). In husks no Se-species were detected. We observed an instability of Se(IV) in seed extracts as a possible consequence of binding to the matrix components. Therefore, special care concerning sample extraction and the storage time of the extracts should be taken.

  7. Identification of Novel Human Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part I): Virtual Screening and Activity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Guasch, Laura; Ojeda, Maria José; González-Abuín, Noemí; Sala, Esther; Cereto-Massagué, Adrià; Mulero, Miquel; Valls, Cristina; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardévol, Anna; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Pujadas, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been great interest in determining whether natural products show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is DPP-IV whose most important substrates are incretins that, among other beneficial effects, stimulates insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Incretins have very short half-lives because of their rapid degradation by DPP-IV and, therefore, inhibiting this enzyme improves glucose homeostasis. As a result, DPP-IV inhibitors are of considerable interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The main goals of this study were (a) to develop a virtual screening process to identify potential DPP-IV inhibitors of natural origin; (b) to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits; and (c) to use the most active hit for predicting derivatives with higher binding affinities for the DPP-IV binding site. Methodology/Principal Findings We predicted that 446 out of the 89,165 molecules present in the natural products subset of the ZINC database would inhibit DPP-IV with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 446 molecules were merged with 2,342 known DPP-IV inhibitors and the resulting set was classified into 50 clusters according to chemical similarity, there were 12 clusters that contained only natural products for which no DPP-IV inhibitory activity has been previously reported. Nine molecules from 7 of these 12 clusters were then selected for in vitro activity testing and 7 out of the 9 molecules were shown to inhibit DPP-IV (where the remaining two molecules could not be solubilized, preventing the evaluation of their DPP-IV inhibitory activity). Then, the hit with the highest activity was used as a lead compound in the prediction of more potent derivatives. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying novel lead compounds for

  8. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment used to distribute organic liquids into, out of, or within a facility that is a major source of... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  9. 40 CFR 63.2338 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment used to distribute organic liquids into, out of, or within a facility that is a major source of... equipment leak components that are part of an affected source under another 40 CFR part 63 national emission..., such as stormwater management, liquid removal from tanks for inspections and maintenance,...

  10. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of... parts and products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products surface coating facility had existed. (d) An affected source is reconstructed if it meets the criteria...

  11. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts for new automobiles or new... Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts and Products (subpart MMMM of...

  12. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of... parts and products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products surface coating facility had existed. (d) An affected source is reconstructed if it meets the criteria...

  13. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of... section that are used for surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous Metal Parts...

  14. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  15. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  16. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  17. 40 CFR 63.11449 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compounds of one or more glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials. (3) The furnace is used to produce glass, which contains one or more of the glass manufacturing metal HAP as raw materials, at a rate of at..., you must obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71....

  18. 40 CFR 63.4482 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Plastic Parts and... paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of plastic parts and...

  19. Comparison of glass vessels and plastic bags for enclosing living plant parts for headspace analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart-Jones, Alex; Poppy, Guy M

    2006-04-01

    Plants release volatile chemicals into their surrounding air space that can affect the physiology of neighboring plants and influence the behavior of insects. In studying these interactions, it is desirable to collect volatiles from plants that have not been excised and are growing under as natural conditions as possible. We compared a vessel of borosilicate glass and Nylon-6 or polyester [poly(ethyleneterephthalate) or PET] cooking bags for enclosing plants during collection of volatiles. A push-pull airflow system was used, and volatiles were trapped on Tenax TA and analyzed by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. Low levels of impurities were found for the glass vessel and polyester bags. Nylon bags contained higher levels and more impurities. Recoveries of standards of 10 plant volatiles were measured in static and dynamic systems. In a static air system, there was good recovery only from the glass vessel. In a dynamic system, there was generally good recovery from both the glass vessel and polyester bags. Recoveries of alpha-pinene and (Z)-jasmone were poor throughout. The former was shown to have a very low breakthrough volume on the Tenax TA adsorbent, and the latter may be strongly adsorbed on glass. All three materials were essentially transparent in the IR and visible (photosynthetic) range but with significantly different absorptions in the UV range. In a simulated dynamic entrainment in full sunlight, internal vessel temperatures were higher than ambient by up to 9.5 degrees C in the glass vessel and 7.5 degrees C in the polyester bag. Lower increases in temperature relative to ambient (<1 degrees C) were recorded when entrainments were conducted in the shade. In a field trial, the profiles of volatiles collected from an apple tree infested with rosy apple aphid using a glass vessel and a polyester bag were similar. Polyester bags are recommended as more convenient than glass vessels for the enclosure of plants during the collection of volatiles.

  20. [Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].

    PubMed

    Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

    1986-04-01

    In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from

  1. Streptophyte algae and the origin of land plants revisited using heterogeneous models with three new algal chloroplast genomes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Bojian; Xi, Zhenxiang; Goremykin, Vadim V; Fong, Richard; McLenachan, Patricia A; Novis, Philip M; Davis, Charles C; Penny, David

    2014-01-01

    The phylogenetic branching order of the green algal groups that gave rise to land plants remains uncertain despite its fundamental importance to understanding plant evolution. Previous studies have demonstrated that land plants evolved from streptophyte algae, but different lineages of streptophytes have been suggested to be the sister group of land plants. To better understand the evolutionary history of land plants and to determine the potential effects of "long-branch attraction" in phylogenetic reconstruction, we analyzed a chloroplast genome data set including three new chloroplast genomes from streptophyte algae: Coleochaetae orbicularis (Coleochaetales), Nitella hookeri (Charales), and Spirogyra communis (Zygnematales). We further applied a site pattern sorting method together with site- and time-heterogeneous models to investigate the branching order among streptophytes and land plants. Our chloroplast phylogenomic analyses support previous hypotheses based on nuclear data in placing Zygnematales alone, or a clade consisting of Coleochaetales plus Zygnematales, as the closest living relatives of land plants.

  2. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  3. Larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of railway creeper, Ipomoea cairica Extract Against Dengue Vector Mosquitoes, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    AhbiRami, Rattanam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan; Sundarasekar, Jeevandran

    2014-01-01

    Natural insecticides from plant origin against mosquito vectors have been the main concern for research due to their high level of eco-safety. Control of mosquitoes in their larval stages are an ideal method since Aedes larvae are aquatic, thus it is easier to deal with them in this habitat. The present study was specifically conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of different plant parts of Ipomoea cairica (L.) or railway creeper crude extract obtained using two different solvents; methanol and acetone against late third-stage larvae of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Plant materials of I. cairica leaf, flower, and stem were segregated, airdried, powdered, and extracted using Soxhlet apparatus. Larvicidal bioassays were performed by using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for each species which were conducted separately for different concentration ranging from 10 to 450 ppm. Both acetone and methanol extracts showed 100% mortality at highest concentration tested (450 ppm) after 24 h of exposure. Results from factorial ANOVA indicated that there were significant differences in larvicidal effects between mosquito species, solvent used and plant parts (F=5.71, df=2, P<0.05). The acetone extract of I. cairica leaf showed the most effective larvicidal action in Ae. aegypti with LC50 of 101.94 ppm followed by Ae. albopictus with LC50 of 105.59 ppm compared with other fractions of I. cairica extract obtained from flower, stem, and when methanol are used as solvent. The larvae of Ae. aegypti appeared to be more susceptible to I. cairica extract with lower LC50 value compared with Ae. albopictus (F=8.83, df=1, P<0.05). Therefore, this study suggests that the acetone extract of I. cairica leaf can be considered as plant-derived insecticide for the control of Aedes mosquitoes. This study quantified the larvicidal property of I. cairica extract, providing information on lethal concentration that

  4. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7282 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing... cover? (a) This subpart applies to each new or existing affected source at your coke plant. The affected source is each coke oven battery. (b) This subpart covers emissions from pushing, soaking, quenching,...

  9. Teaching about Animal, Plant, Living. Part 1. Learning in Science Project. Working Paper No. 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Beverley, Ed.

    Presented is a guide for teaching activities produced as a result of a Learning in Science Project investigation which showed that children often have quite different meanings for the words "animal,""plant," and "living" than do scientists. Included are: (1) focus of instruction at different educational levels; (2) a suggested teaching program;…

  10. Accounting Issues: An Essay Series Part IV--Property, Plant, & Equipment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, Judy

    2007-01-01

    This fourth article in a series of theoretical essays intended to supplement the introductory financial accounting course is dedicated to the topic of property, plant, and equipment (PP&E), including both the accounting treatment and its related conceptual connections. The paper also addresses the measurement dilemmas, scandalous accounting…

  11. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject to and regulated under subpart EEE of... used to convey coal from the mill to the kiln at any portland cement plant; (8) Each bagging and...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... source as defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses and inline coal mills, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject... kiln at any portland cement plant that is a major source; (8) Each bagging and bulk loading...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject to and regulated under subpart EEE of... used to convey coal from the mill to the kiln at any portland cement plant; (8) Each bagging and...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1340 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... source as defined in § 63.2. (b) The affected sources subject to this subpart are: (1) Each kiln including alkali bypasses and inline coal mills, except for kilns that burn hazardous waste and are subject... kiln at any portland cement plant that is a major source; (8) Each bagging and bulk loading...

  15. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  16. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  17. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  18. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  19. 40 CFR 63.8784 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Flexible Polyurethane Foam... flexible polyurethane foam fabrication. (b) The affected sources are defined in this section in paragraphs... to bond foam to foam at a flexible polyurethane foam fabrication plant site. (2) The flame...

  20. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  1. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.9582 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron Ore Processing... applies to each new and existing affected source at your taconite iron ore processing plant. (b) The affected sources are each new or existing ore crushing and handling operation, ore dryer,...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2982 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Wet-Formed Fiberglass Mat Production... plant covered by this subpart) is each wet-formed fiberglass mat drying and curing oven. (b) An...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8184 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in the manufacture of product chlorine, product caustic, and by-product hydrogen at a plant site. This subpart covers mercury emissions from by-product hydrogen streams, end box ventilation system vents, and fugitive emission sources associated with cell rooms, hydrogen systems, caustic systems,...

  6. Retrofit of Soederberg smelter at Alusaf Bayside plant. Part 2: Start-up and operation of pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Construction, commissioning and the first of operation of twelve 165 kA pointed pilot cells with prebaked anodes at Alusaf works are described. These pilot cells were developed, using VAW technology, to reduce the emission levels and increase productivity of the 14 year old 120 kA VSS lines at Bayside smelter. VAW was contracted to design a cell that utilizes as much of the existing hardware as possible and that fits into the existing floor space. Results of extensive modeling showed that major parts of the existing busbar system could be kept. The amperage of the modernized prebake cells could be increased to 165 kA. Twelve prototype pots were commissioned in July 1994. During the first year of operation excellent production results were achieved. The production of these cells are {approx_equal} 56% higher than for the VSS cells. The pilot pots have a current efficiency in excess of 95%, specific energy consumption of 13.6 kWh/kg Al and a net carbon consumption of 410 kg/ton Al.

  7. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food processing technologies part 2: pulsed electric field processing.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is an effective technique for the preservation of pumpable food products as it inactivates vegetative microbial cells at ambient to moderate temperature without significantly affecting the nutritional and sensorial quality of the product. However, conflicting views are expressed about the effect of PEF on enzymes. In this review, which is part 2 of a series of reviews dealing with the effectiveness of novel food preservation technologies for controlling enzymes, the scientific literature over the last decade on the effect of PEF on plant enzymes is critically reviewed to shed more light on the issue. The existing evidence indicates that PEF can result in substantial inactivation of most enzymes, although a much more intense process is required compared to microbial inactivation. Depending on the processing condition and the origin of the enzyme, up to 97% inactivation of pectin methylesterase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase as well as no inactivation have been reported following PEF treatment. Both electrochemical effects and Ohmic heating appear to contribute to the observed inactivation, although the relative contribution depends on a number of factors including the origin of the enzyme, the design of the PEF treatment chamber, the processing condition, and the composition of the medium.

  8. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR 71.3(a) for...

  9. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... polish. (e) You are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR...

  10. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... polish. (e) You are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR...

  11. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)(1) through (6) of this section. (1) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR... polish. (e) You are exempt from the obligation to obtain a permit under 40 CFR part 70 or 40 CFR part 71, “Title V,” provided you are not otherwise required to obtain a permit under 40 CFR 70.3(a) or 40 CFR...

  12. The physical and chemical features of Cannabis plants grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds of known origin.

    PubMed

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Taylor, B J

    1982-01-01

    Cannabis plants have been grown in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from seeds taken from seizures of cannabis of known geographical origin and chemistry. The gross physical appearance and cannabinoid patterns of many of the cannabis samples produced in the United Kingdom were closely related to those of the parents. However, some notable exceptions were recorded. There were wide variations in actual tetrahydrocannabinol content between plants grown from different seedstock and rather smaller variations within the groups grown from the same seedstock. Cannabis produced in the united Kingdom and higher tetrahydrocannabinolic acid/tetrahyrocannabinol ratios than imported material.

  13. State estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) plant as part of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of process state variables not only can increase the effectiveness and reliability of process measurement technology, but can also enhance plant efficiency, improve control system performance, and increase plant availability. Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO2 capture will have to satisfy stricter operational and environmental constraints. To operate the IGCC plant without violating stringent environmental emission standards requires accurate estimation of the relevant process state variables, outputs, and disturbances. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured at all, while some of them can be measured, but with low precision, low reliability, or low signal-to-noise ratio. As a result, accurate estimation of the process variables is of great importance to avoid the inherent difficulties associated with the inaccuracy of the data. Motivated by this, the current paper focuses on the state estimation of an acid gas removal (AGR) process as part of an IGCC plant with CO2 capture. This process has extensive heat and mass integration and therefore is very suitable for testing the efficiency of the designed estimators in the presence of complex interactions between process variables. The traditional Kalman filter (KF) (Kalman, 1960) algorithm has been used as a state estimator which resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems. In traditional KF implementation, good guesses for the process noise covariance matrix (Q) and the measurement noise covariance matrix (R) are required to obtain satisfactory filter performance. However, in the real world, these matrices are unknown and it is difficult to generate good guesses for them. In this paper, use of an adaptive KF will be presented that adapts Q and R at every time step of the algorithm. Results show that very accurate estimations of the desired process states, outputs or disturbances can be

  14. [Physiological aspects of lipoxygenase in plant signaling systems part I. Octadecanoid pathway].

    PubMed

    Kollárová, Renáta; Obložinský, Marek; Kováčiková, Veronika

    2013-04-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX, linoleate: oxygen oxidoreductases, EC 1.13.11.12) constitute a family of dioxygenases, which contain non-heme, non-sulfide iron. These enzymes occur not only in animals, but in plants as well. They have been detected in coral, moss, fungi and also in some bacteria. LOXs catalyse the regiospecific and stereospecific insertion of molecular oxygen into the molecule of polyunsaturated fatty acid with the cis,cis- -1,4-pentadiene system to yield the corresponding hydroperoxides. This step of dioxygenation leads to a cascade of reactions called the lipoxygenase (octadecanoid) pathway. The products of this pathway (called oxylipins) play an important role as signal molecules in wound healing and defence processes in plants. In animals they are involved in inflammation, asthma and heart diseases. PMID:23822569

  15. [Molecular aspects of allergy to plant products. Part III. Panallergens and breeding of hypoallergenic cultivars].

    PubMed

    Bokszczanin, Kamila Ł; Przybyła, Andrzej A

    2012-04-01

    In addition to major allergens, also minor allergens, i.e. panallergens have been shown to be responsible for many IgE cross-reactions even between unrelated pollen and plant food allergen sources. It can be explained also by cross-allergenicity underlying the T cell response to conserved regions of panallergens. In this article, we focus on known panallergens which presently comprise a few protein families, including non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTP) (PR-14), thaumatin like proteins (TLP) (PR-5), profilins, and polcalcins. Food allergy has an impact on the quality of life of an allergic patient. The way of developing novel plant cultivars with decreased allergenicity and possibility of down-regulating the expression of an allergen by genetic modification are discussed.

  16. Effects of plant species, age and part on the disappearance of sevin, nuvacron and malathion residues.

    PubMed

    Rawash, I A; Gaaboub, I A; El-Gayar, F M; El-Shazli, A Y

    1975-05-01

    Residues as determined by bioassay using Daphnia or mosquito larvae were in agreement with each other in most cases except sevin residues at 1 h and 8 days after treatment of mallow. The mosquito larvae failed to record nuvacron, sevin and malathion on 45-day-old plants on the 8th, 12th and 24th day, respectively, whereas residues on younger plants continued to affect mosquitoes up to the 12th day and disappeared only on the 24th day. Daphnia continued to show toxicity up to the 24th day on younger and older plants. Insecticide residues of nuvacron, malathion and sevin, found on the leaves 30- and 45-day-old plants of cotton, Jew's mallow and kidney beans after 1 h, 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 days were estimated biologically by C. pipiens larvae and D. magna. Residues of insecticides disappeared more readily on bean pods than on bean leaves. Residues of sevin, malathion and nuvacron found on the pods 12 days after treatment as indicated by Daphnia were 0.189, 0.055 and 0.059 ppm respectively. They are far less than the corresponding residues on bean leaves. The 1-hour residue was higher on younger bean leaves than on mallow and cotton with very few exceptions (nuvacron, malathion and sevin: 2.125, 11.75 and 95 ppm on cotton leaves; 2.25 and 145 ppm on Jew's mallow and 3.750, 32.500 and 250 ppm on common bean leaves, respectively). These data were obtained with C. pipiens larvae. The picture was completely reversed on 45-day-old plants. 1-h deposits of malathion were higher on mallow than on cotton or beans (nuvacron, malathion and sevin; 2.3, 200 and 140 ppm on cotton leaves, 1.90, 191.15 and 92.86 ppm on mallow leaves, 2.25, 21.5 and 137.5 ppm on common bean leaves, respectively). These data were obtained with C. pipiens larvae. Nuvacron residues on 45-day-old mallow were less on mallow than on cotton or beans. Sevin was higher in 1-h residues on cotton and beans than on mallow. Mallow did not retain insecticides as long as did cotton and beans. The initial concentration

  17. Phytostabilization of gold mine tailings, New Zealand. Part 1: Plant establishment in alkaline saline substrate.

    PubMed

    Mains, D; Craw, D; Rufaut, C G; Smith, C M S

    2006-01-01

    Tailings from the Macraes mine, southern New Zealand, are prone to wind erosion. Use of a vegetation cover for physical stabilization is one potential solution to this environmental problem. This study used field trials contained in lysimeters to 1), test the ability of different plant species to grow in un/amended tailings and 2), provide background information on the nutrient and chemical content of waters in tailings. Barley (Hordeum vulgare), blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), and rye corn (Secale cereale) were trialed, using Superphosphate fertilizer and sewage sludge as amendments. Rye corn grew well in fertilizer-amended tailings, but poorly in unamended tailings; barley growth was similar in amended and unamended tailings; blue lupins grew poorly overall The tailings had alkaline pH (7-8.5) and water rapidly (< 1 mo) interacted with the tailings to become strongly saline. Minor acid generation was neutralized by calcite, with associated release of calcium and carbonate ions. Leachate waters were supersaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. Dissolved sodium concentrations were up to 1000 mg L(-1), but elevated Ca2+ calcium and Mg2+ ensured that sodicity was lower than plant-toxic levels. Rye corn is a potentially useful plant for rapid phytostabilization of tailings, with only minor phosphate amendment required.

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity of Three Malian Medicinal Plant Parts

    PubMed Central

    Muanda, François; Koné, Donatien; Dicko, Amadou; Soulimani, Rachid; Younos, Chafique

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the levels of total polyphenolic compounds in three Malian medicinal plants and determines their antioxidant potential. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolics contained in plants extracts were carried out by RP-C18 RP–HPLC using UV detector. The antioxidant activity was determined by three tests. They are phosphomolybdenum, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1 picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic)] tests. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid contents varied from 200 to 7600 mg 100 g−1 dry weight (dw), expressed as gallic acid equivalents and from 680 to 12 300 mg 100 g−1 dw expressed as catechin equivalents, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentrations expressed as cyanin-3-glycoside equivalent varied from 1670 to 28 388 mg 100 g−1 dw. The antioxidant capacity was measured by determining concentration of a polyphenolic (in mg ml−1) required to quench the free radicals by 50% (IC50) and expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity. The IC50 values were ranked between 2.68 and 8.80 μg ml−1 of a solution of 50% (v/v) methanol in water. The uses of plants are rationalized on the basis of their antioxidant capacity. PMID:19736222

  19. Antioxidant Property of Aerial Parts and Root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an Important Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Richa; Chaurasia, Jitendra Kumar; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath; Singh, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC50 of aerial part (ethanolic) 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO) radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe3+-Fe2+ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant. PMID:24587744

  20. Antioxidant property of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster, an important medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Richa; Chaurasia, Jitendra Kumar; Tiwari, Kavindra Nath; Singh, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    In present study free radical scavenging potential of aerial parts and root of Phyllanthus fraternus was investigated. Extraction was done in water and ethanol. Total antioxidant capacity was measured by DPPH free radical scavenging method; ethanolic extract of aerial part was most potent in activity with 50% inhibition at 258 μg/mL concentration. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by using egg-yolk homogenates as lipid-rich media with EC₅₀ of aerial part (ethanolic) 1522 μg/mL which was found to be most active. Superoxide (SO) radical scavenging activity was measured using riboflavin-light-nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Ethanolic and aqueous extract of both aerial part and root was almost similar in superoxide radical scavenging activity. Reducing power was determined on the basis of Fe³⁺-Fe⁺ transformation in the presence of extract. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also measured by spectroscopic method. Results showed that the ethanolic fraction of aerial part is most active towards antioxidant potential and this activity is related to its polyphenolic content and reducing potential. Thus, P. fraternus extract can be used as potent natural antioxidant.

  1. Plant virus emergence and evolution: origins, new encounter scenarios, factors driving emergence, effects of changing world conditions, and prospects for control.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger A C

    2009-05-01

    This review focuses on virus-plant pathosystems at the interface between managed and natural vegetation, and describes how rapid expansion in human activity and climate change are likely to impact on plants, vectors and viruses causing increasing instability. It starts by considering virus invasion of cultivated plants from their wild ancestors in the centres of plant domestication in different parts of the world and subsequent long distance movement away from these centres to other continents. It then describes the diverse virus-plant pathosystem scenarios possible at the interface between managed and natural vegetation and gives examples that illustrate situations where indigenous viruses emerge to damage introduced cultivated plants and newly introduced viruses become potential threats to biodiversity. These examples demonstrate how human activities increasingly facilitate damaging new encounters between plants and viruses worldwide. The likely effects of climate change on virus emergence are emphasised, and the major factors driving virus emergence, evolution and greater epidemic severity at the interface are analysed and explained. Finally, the kinds of challenges posed by rapidly changing world conditions to achieving effective control of epidemics of emerging plant viruses, and the approaches needed to address them, are described. PMID:19159652

  2. Temporal and seasonal variations of radiocaesium content in some plants from the western part of Ukrainian Polesye.

    PubMed

    Grabovskyi, V A; Dzendzelyuk, O S; Kushnir, O S

    2013-03-01

    We present measurements of (137)Cs contamination for some of the berry plants and medicinal herbs growing in the western part of Ukrainian Polesye during 1996-2009. Basing on the calculations of the aggregated transfer factors, we classified the medicinal herbs into five groups according to their ability for accumulation of (137)Cs: very weak (T(ag) < 10(-3)), weak (10(-3) < T(ag) < 10(-2)), moderate (10(-2) < T(ag) < 5 × 10(-2)), strong (5 × 10(-2) < T(ag) < 10(-1)) and very strong (T(ag) > 10(-1)). The (137)Cs concentrations in the berry plants significantly decreased during the time of our monitoring and the rate of this decrease was much higher than that typical of the corresponding soils. This is because with time the (137)Cs in the soil was becoming less accessible for uptake by plant roots due to its fixation on micaceous clay minerals. The seasonal variations of the (137)Cs concentrations in the vegetative and generative organs of the plants revealed a good interdependence between the seasonal peculiarities of (137)Cs accumulation by the organs and the features of their vegetation period. PMID:22710256

  3. Temporal and seasonal variations of radiocaesium content in some plants from the western part of Ukrainian Polesye.

    PubMed

    Grabovskyi, V A; Dzendzelyuk, O S; Kushnir, O S

    2013-03-01

    We present measurements of (137)Cs contamination for some of the berry plants and medicinal herbs growing in the western part of Ukrainian Polesye during 1996-2009. Basing on the calculations of the aggregated transfer factors, we classified the medicinal herbs into five groups according to their ability for accumulation of (137)Cs: very weak (T(ag) < 10(-3)), weak (10(-3) < T(ag) < 10(-2)), moderate (10(-2) < T(ag) < 5 × 10(-2)), strong (5 × 10(-2) < T(ag) < 10(-1)) and very strong (T(ag) > 10(-1)). The (137)Cs concentrations in the berry plants significantly decreased during the time of our monitoring and the rate of this decrease was much higher than that typical of the corresponding soils. This is because with time the (137)Cs in the soil was becoming less accessible for uptake by plant roots due to its fixation on micaceous clay minerals. The seasonal variations of the (137)Cs concentrations in the vegetative and generative organs of the plants revealed a good interdependence between the seasonal peculiarities of (137)Cs accumulation by the organs and the features of their vegetation period.

  4. C(m)CGG methylation-independent parent-of-origin effects on genome-wide transcript levels in isogenic reciprocal F1 triploid plants.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Mark T A; Fort, Antoine; Clifton, Rachel; Zhang, Xu; McKeown, Peter C; Voigt-Zielinksi, M L; Borevitz, Justin O; Spillane, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Triploid F1 hybrids generated via reciprocal interploidy crosses between genetically distinct parental plants can display parent-of-origin effects on gene expression or phenotypes. Reciprocal triploid F1 isogenic plants generated from interploidy crosses in the same genetic background allow investigation on parent-of-origin-specific (parental) genome-dosage effects without confounding effects of hybridity involving heterozygous mutations. Whole-genome transcriptome profiling was conducted on reciprocal F1 isogenic triploid (3x) seedlings of A. thaliana. The genetically identical reciprocal 3x genotypes had either an excess of maternally inherited 3x(m) or paternally inherited 3x(p) genomes. We identify a major parent-of-origin-dependent genome-dosage effect on transcript levels, whereby 602 genes exhibit differential expression between the reciprocal F1 triploids. In addition, using methylation-sensitive DNA tiling arrays, constitutive and polymorphic CG DNA methylation patterns at CCGG sites were analysed, which revealed that paternal-excess F1 triploid seedling C(m)CGG sites are overall hypermethylated. However, no correlation exists between C(m)CGG methylation polymorphisms and transcriptome dysregulation between the isogenic reciprocal F1 triploids. Overall, our study indicates that parental genome-dosage effects on the transcriptome levels occur in paternal-excess triploids, which are independent of C(m)CGG methylation polymorphisms. Such findings have implications for understanding parental effects and genome-dosage effects on gene expression and phenotypes in polyploid plants. PMID:24212467

  5. Plasmids of Raw Milk Cheese Isolate Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis Biovar diacetylactis DPC3901 Suggest a Plant-Based Origin for the Strain ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fallico, Vincenzo; McAuliffe, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul

    2011-01-01

    The four-plasmid complement of the raw milk cheese isolate Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis DPC3901 was sequenced, and some genetic features were functionally analyzed. The complete sequences of pVF18 (18,977 bp), pVF21 (21,739 bp), pVF22 (22,166 bp), and pVF50 (53,876 bp) were obtained. Each plasmid contained genes not previously described for Lactococcus, in addition to genes associated with plant-derived lactococcal strains. Most of the novel genes were found on pVF18 and encoded functions typical of bacteria associated with plants, such as activities of plant cell wall modification (orf11 and orf25). In addition, a predicted high-affinity regulated system for the uptake of cobalt was identified (orf19 to orf21 [orf19-21]), which has a single database homolog on a plant-derived Leuconostoc plasmid and whose functionality was demonstrated following curing of pVF18. pVF21 and pVF22 encode additional metal transporters, which, along with orf19-21 of pVF18, could enhance host ability to uptake growth-limiting amounts of biologically essential ions within the soil. In addition, vast regions from pVF50 and pVF21 share significant homology with the plant-derived lactococcal plasmid pGdh442, which is indicative of extensive horizontal gene transfer and recombination between these plasmids and suggests a common plant niche for their hosts. Phenotypes associated with these regions include glutamate dehydrogenase activity and Na+ and K+ transport. The presence of numerous plant-associated markers in L. lactis DPC3901 suggests a plant origin for the raw milk cheese isolate and provides for the first time the genetic basis to support the concept of the plant-milk transition for Lactococcus strains. PMID:21803914

  6. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  7. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  8. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  9. 40 CFR 63.3082 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Surface Coating of Automobiles and Light... surface coating of new automobile or new light-duty truck bodies, or body parts for new automobiles or new light-duty trucks: (1) All coating operations as defined in § 63.3176. (2) All storage containers...

  10. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  11. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  12. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  13. 40 CFR 63.9290 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... testing requirements under 40 CFR parts 80, 86, 89, 90, 91, or 92 are not considered a modification or... CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Engine Test Cells/Stands... the collection of all equipment and activities associated with engine test cells/stands used...

  14. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous... items listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of... products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products...

  15. 40 CFR 63.3882 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Surface Coating of Miscellaneous... items listed in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section that are used for surface coating of... products surface coating facility where previously no miscellaneous metal parts and products...

  16. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; electropolishing; electroless plating or other non-electrolytic metal coating operations, such as chromate conversion coating, nickel acetate sealing, sodium dichromate sealing, and manganese phosphate coating. (2...) Process units that are subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 63, subpart N (National...

  17. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Introduction to Aphids - Part 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides visual instruction on important subject areas for aphid regulatory issues. Here the subject of aphids as they relate to disease transmission, biology, identification, and pathways is addressed. Aphid topi...

  18. The Diagnostic Method of Inner Parts of Welded Joints at Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarova, O.; Janovec, J.

    2010-06-22

    There is no possibility to check any inner part at real welded joint at nuclear power station (NPS) during operation because any destructive test cannot be used. In practice there is checked surface of weld. There are used four methodical instructions for the check of real welds: 1. The visual inspection, 2. The measurement of hardness, 3. The chemical composition checking and 4. The microstructure replica analysis. It is necessary to know how these information of weld surface are in accordance with characteristics of inner parts of weld. If there is not any difference between surface weld microstructure and internal weld microstructure of experimental weld it is supposed to that there is not any difference in other measured properties of welds. If is changed structural characteristics of microstructure, it is changed also hardness, chemical analysis etc. It was observed that the microstructure of real welds is almost the same with simulated weld and also the surface microstructure of experimental weld is in accordance with microstructure of inner parts of this weld. It can be supposed extension of lifetime of NPS if there is not any difference between replicas microstructure taken after six year operation of NPS and microstructure of inner parts of simulated weld is almost the same with surface microstructure.

  19. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex-Plant part II: Staging

    SciTech Connect

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly describes criticality investigations for nuclear weapon dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. The investigations performed were for pit staging, and build on previous criticality calculations for single pits. The KENO and MCNP computer models were used for pit and container combinations. Scenarios were based on administrative limits and actual or potential physical conditions in the facilities. Essentially all of the pit configurations modeled were subcritical by a substantial amount. It was concluded that a critical configuration involving pit/container combinations is not credible.

  20. Criticality analysis for weapon disassembly at the Pantex Plant - part I: Bare pits

    SciTech Connect

    Knief, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper briefly describes criticality investigations for weapon assembly and dismantlement at the Pantex Plant. Results are summarized for calculations performed for safety analyses, radiological hazards assessments, and a study to justify the criticality alarm exemption. Pits and pits in containers were modeled in their most reactive configuration. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO and MCNP code packages. Configurations involving bare pits were subcritical by a substantial amount even with very conservative model assumptions. Thus, it is concluded that a critical configuration involving the bare pits is not credible.

  1. Enhanced production of single copy backbone-free transgenic plants in multiple crop species using binary vectors with a pRi replication origin in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xudong; Williams, Edward J; Shen, Junjiang; Johnson, Susan; Lowe, Brenda; Radke, Sharon; Strickland, Steve; Esser, James A; Petersen, Michael W; Gilbertson, Larry A

    2011-08-01

    Single transgene copy, vector backbone-free transgenic crop plants are highly desired for functional genomics and many biotechnological applications. We demonstrate that binary vectors that use a replication origin derived from the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes (oriRi) increase the frequency of single copy, backbone-free transgenic plants in Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of soybean, canola, and corn, compared to RK2-derived binary vectors (RK2 oriV). In large scale soybean transformation experiments, the frequency of single copy, backbone-free transgenic plants was nearly doubled in two versions of the oriRi vectors compared to the RK2 oriV control vector. In canola transformation experiments, the oriRi vector produced more single copy, backbone-free transgenic plants than did the RK2 oriV vector. In corn transformation experiments, the frequency of single copy backbone-free transgenic plants was also significantly increased when using the oriRi vector, although the transformation frequency dropped. These results, derived from transformation experiments using three crops, indicate the advantage of oriRi vectors over RK2 oriV binary vectors for the production of single copy, backbone-free transgenic plants using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  2. How to renovate a 50-year-old wastewater treating plant: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    How does an existing refinery cost-effectively renovate wastewater/stormwater treating systems to meet today`s environmental regulations and standards? Faced with solving this problem, Amoco`s Whiting Refinery developed a project team consisting of plant and operations engineers, corporate project and design engineers, contractors and vendors to map out a strategy to re-engineer the existing wastewater treating plant (WWTP) and auxiliary functions. This case history shows how an old refinery limited by existing equipment, building space, operation`s availability requirements and costs divided the project into several design phases. The design team used a proactive approach with empowerment responsibilities to solve construction, equipment usage and regulatory problems throughout the project`s lifetime. Focusing on front-end planning and customer service (the refinery), team members applied value-based engineering designs to keep costs down, implemented safe work practices during construction, used HAZOP reviews to scrutinize proposed designs for operating and maintenance procedures, etc. The result has been the renovation of a 50-year-old WWTP completed under budget, ontime and in compliance with federal mandates.

  3. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments.

  4. Relationship between the Names of People and Enterprises with Plant Origin with Phytotoponyms in Five Croatian Regions.

    PubMed

    Sindik, Joško; Carić, Tonko

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the first and last names of people (FN and LN), enterprises (EN) (with plants'species roots in their names) and phytotoponyms (PT) in five Croatian regions are analyzed, in their relationships. The goals of the study were: to determine the correlations between FN, LN, EN and PT; to determine the latent structure of these variables; to forecast number of PT (criterion) on the base of predictors (FN, LN, EN); to determine grouping of the places (within certain regions) as cases by two plants' categorizations; to determine grouping of the plants as cases by regions. We have analyzed 15 places, grouped in five regions, with 39 different plant species. The results revealed that the only principal component highly positively correlated with the variables last name and office name, while the projections for the variables first name (moderate high) and phytotoponyms (low size) were negative. Prediction of the criteria phytotoponyms is satisfactorily good, using three predictors: last name, first name and the office name. First cluster analysis revealed that phytotoponyms are mostly related with trees and deciduous plants, while names are related with trees, deciduous and herbaceous plants. Second cluster analysis obtained clear distinction between regions in dominant PTs, based on certain plants' names. The results indicate clear association between phytotoponyms and names of people.

  5. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments. PMID:17654790

  6. Relationship between the Names of People and Enterprises with Plant Origin with Phytotoponyms in Five Croatian Regions.

    PubMed

    Sindik, Joško; Carić, Tonko

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the first and last names of people (FN and LN), enterprises (EN) (with plants'species roots in their names) and phytotoponyms (PT) in five Croatian regions are analyzed, in their relationships. The goals of the study were: to determine the correlations between FN, LN, EN and PT; to determine the latent structure of these variables; to forecast number of PT (criterion) on the base of predictors (FN, LN, EN); to determine grouping of the places (within certain regions) as cases by two plants' categorizations; to determine grouping of the plants as cases by regions. We have analyzed 15 places, grouped in five regions, with 39 different plant species. The results revealed that the only principal component highly positively correlated with the variables last name and office name, while the projections for the variables first name (moderate high) and phytotoponyms (low size) were negative. Prediction of the criteria phytotoponyms is satisfactorily good, using three predictors: last name, first name and the office name. First cluster analysis revealed that phytotoponyms are mostly related with trees and deciduous plants, while names are related with trees, deciduous and herbaceous plants. Second cluster analysis obtained clear distinction between regions in dominant PTs, based on certain plants' names. The results indicate clear association between phytotoponyms and names of people. PMID:27301237

  7. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  9. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  10. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  11. 10 CFR Appendix S to Part 50 - Earthquake Engineering Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... criteria in Section VI of appendix A to 10 CFR part 100 continue to apply. Paragraphs IV.a.1.i, IV.a.1.ii... license, design approval, or manufacturing license is required by §§ 50.34(a)(12), 50.34(b)(10), or 10 CFR... final standard design for a nuclear power reactor of the type described in 10 CFR 50.22....

  12. Export Control Guide: Loose Parts Monitoring Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Langenberg, Donald W.

    2012-12-01

    This report describes a typical LPMS, emphasizing its application to the RCS of a modern NPP. The report also examines the versatility of AE monitoring technology by describing several nuclear applications other than loose parts monitoring, as well as some non-nuclear applications. In addition, LPMS implementation requirements are outlined, and LPMS suppliers are identified. Finally, U.S. export controls applicable to LPMSs are discussed.

  13. The origin of land plants: phylogenetic relationships among charophytes, bryophytes, and vascular plants inferred from complete small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Kranz, H D; Miks, D; Siegler, M L; Capesius, I; Sensen, C W; Huss, V A

    1995-07-01

    Complete nuclear-encoded small-subunit 18S rRNA (= SSU rRNA) gene sequences were determined for the prasinophyte green alga Mantoniella squamata; the charophycean green algae Chara foetida, Coleochaete scutata, Klebsormidium flaccidum, and Mougeotia scalaris; the bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha, Fossombronia pusilla, and Funaria hygrometrica; and the lycopod Selaginella galleottii to get a better insight into the sequential evolution from green algae to land plants. The sequences were aligned with several previously published SSU rRNA sequences from chlorophytic and charophytic algae as well as from land plants to infer the evolutionary relationships for major evolutionary lineages within the Chlorobionta by distance matrix, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood analyses. Phylogenetic trees created by the different methods consistently placed the Charophyceae on the branch leading to the land plants. The Charophyceae were shown to be polyphyletic with the Charales ("charalean" algae) diverging earlier than the Coleochaetales, Klebsormidiales, Chlorokybales, and Zygnematales ("charophycean" algae) which branch from a point closer to the land plants in most analyses. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses imply a successive evolution from "charophycean" algae, particularly Coleochaetales, to bryophytes, lycopods, and seed plants. In contrast, distance matrix methods group the bryophytes together with the "charophycean" algae, suggesting a separate evolution of these organisms compared with the club moss and the seed plants.

  14. Operation modes of a hydro-generator as a part of the inverter micro hydropower plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukutin, B. V.; Shandarova, E. B.; Matukhin, D. L.; Makarova, A. F.; Fuks, I. L.

    2016-04-01

    The paper dwells on the selection problem of power equipment for a stand-alone inverter micro hydropower plant, in particular a hydro-generator, and evaluation of its operation modes. Numerical experiments included the modes calculation of hydroelectric units of the same type with various nominal power, supplied to the consumer according to the unchanged electric load curve. The studies developed requirements for a hydro-turbine and a synchronous generator in terms of a speed range and installed capacity, depending on the load curve. The possibility of using general industrial hydroelectric units with nominal power equal to half-maximum capacity of a typical daily load curve in rural areas was shown.

  15. Binding of polyphenols to plant cell wall analogues - Part 2: Phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Padayachee, A; Netzel, G; Netzel, M; Day, L; Zabaras, D; Mikkelsen, D; Gidley, M J

    2012-12-15

    Bacterial cellulose and cellulose-pectin composites were used as well-defined model plant cell wall (PCW) systems to study the interaction between phenolic acids (PA) derived from purple carrot juice concentrate (PCJC) and PCW components. Significant PA depletion from solution occurred, with pure cellulose initially (30s-1h) absorbing more than cellulose-pectin composites in the first hour (ca 20% cf 10-15%), but with all composites absorbing similar levels (ca 30%) after several days. Individual PAs bound to different relative extents with caffeic acid>chlorogenic acid>ferulic acid. Extrapolation of data for these model systems to carrot puree suggests that nutritionally-significant amounts of PAs could bind to cell walls, potentially restricting bioavailability in the small intestine and, as a consequence, delivering PAs to the large intestine for fermentation and metabolism by gut bacteria.

  16. Separate process wastewaters, part A: Contaminated flow collection and treatment system for the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assist the agency in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as it applies to modification of ongoing groundwater treatment at DOE`s Kansas City Plant (KCP), located about 19 km (12 miles) south of the central business district of Kansas City, Missouri. The KCP is currently owned by DOE and is operated by the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. The plant manufactures nonnuclear components for nuclear weapons. The purpose of and need for the DOE action is to treat identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater at the KCP to ensure that human health and the environment are protected and to comply with groundwater treatment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3008(h) Administrative Order on Consent and the discharge requirements of the Kansas City, Missouri, ordinances for the city sewer system. Four source streams of toxic organic contaminated groundwater have been identified that require treatment prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The toxic organic contaminants of concern consist of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in the groundwater and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) predominantly associated with some soils near the Main Manufacturing Building. The no-action alternative is to continue with the current combination of treatment and nontreatment and to continue operation of the KCP groundwater treatment system in its current configuration at Building 97 (B97). The DOE proposed action is to collect and treat all identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The proposed action includes constructing an Organics Collection System and Organics Treatment Building, moving and expanding the existing groundwater treatment system, and operating the new groundwater treatment facility.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts from plant parts and corresponding calli of Bixa orellana L.

    PubMed

    Castello, Marie-Claire; Phatak, Anita; Chandra, Naresh; Sharon, Madhuri

    2002-12-01

    Ethanol extracts from the different parts of B. orellana showed differential antimicrobial activity. It was found that the extracts of in vitro leaves showed maximum activity against Bacillus pumilus followed by the extracts from the roots and hypocotyls. The callus derived from different explants too showed antimicrobial activity. The leaf callus showed maximum activity. The zone of inhibition for the diluted extracts of in vitro hypocotyls and roots and their corresponding calli showed minimum zone of inhibition at concentration 24 mg/ml, whereas the diluted extract of in vitro leaves and leaf derived callus showed minimum zone of inhibition at 16 mg/ml. PMID:12974400

  18. CO{sub 2} emission abatement in IGCC power plants by semiclosed cycles: Part A -- With oxygen-blown combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, P.; Lozza, G.

    1999-10-01

    This paper analyzes the fundamentals of IGCC power plants where carbon dioxide produced by syngas combustion can be removed, liquefied and eventually disposed, to limit the environmental problems due to the greenhouse effect. To achieve this goal, a semiclosed-loop gas turbine cycle using an highly-enriched CO{sub 2} mixture as working fluid was adopted. As the oxidizer, the syngas combustion utilizes oxygen produced by an air separation unit. Combustion gases mainly consist of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O: after expansion, heat recovery and water condensation, a part of the exhausts, highly concentrated in CO{sub 2}, can be easily extracted, compressed and liquefied for storage or disposal. A detailed discussion about the configuration and the thermodynamic performance of these plants is the aim of the paper. Proper attention was paid to: (i) the modelization of the gasification section and of its integration with the power cycle, (ii) the optimization of pressure ratio due the change of the cycle working fluid, (iii) the calculation of the power consumption of the auxiliary equipment, including the compression train of the separated CO{sub 2} and the air separation unit. The resulting overall efficiency is in the 38--39% range, with status-of-the-art gas turbine technology, but resorting to a substantially higher pressure ratio. The extent of modifications to the gas turbine engine, with respect to commercial units, was therefore discussed. Relevant modifications are needed, but not involving changes in the technology. A second plant scheme will be considered in the second part of the paper, using air for syngas combustion and a physical absorption process to separate CO{sub 2} from nitrogen-rich exhausts. A comparison between the two options will be addressed there.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix F to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant... Appendix F to Part 110—Illustrative List of Laser-Based Enrichment Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority Note—Present systems for enrichment processes using lasers fall into...

  20. Influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals and plant origin on inflammatory biomarkers among apparently-healthy adults in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Natalia G; Bountziouka, Vassiliki P; Georgousopoulou, Ekavi; Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Bonou, Maria S; Vogiatzakis, Evangelos D; Barbetseas, John D; Avgerinos, Peter C; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2013-12-01

    Intake of different types of protein may be associated with differences in biomarkers among various populations. This work investigated the influence of protein intake from haem and non-haem animals as well as protein from plants on haematological and biochemical parameters in inflammation among apparently-healthy adults living in Greece, a Mediterranean country. Four hundred and ninety apparently-healthy subjects (46 +/- 16 years, 40% men), who consecutively visited Polykliniki General Hospital for routine examinations, voluntarily agreed to participate in the study (participation rate 85%). Demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics were recorded. Participants completed a valid, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Protein intake was classified into three sources: protein from haem animals, protein from non-haem animals, and protein from plant origin. Fasting blood samples were taken from all participants; uric acid, creatinine, lipids, cystatin C, haptoglobin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, iron, ferritin, white blood cells, monocytes, platelets, and C-reactive protein were measured. Protein intake from only haem animals was associated with increased haemoglobin and haematocrit levels (p < 0.05) whereas intake of protein from non-haem animals and plant origin was not associated with the investigated haematological and biochemical markers of low-grade chronic inflammation when lifestyle factors and overall dietary habits were taken into account. Intake of protein from only haem animals seems to be consistently associated with haematological markers. The confounding role of dietary habits and lifestyle variables on the tested parameters deserves further attention in future research.