Science.gov

Sample records for plant preliminary safety

  1. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

  2. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  3. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  4. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  5. Preliminary assessment of the safety of IFMIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. P.; Brañas, B.; Eriksson, E.; Natalizio, A.; Pinna, T.; Rodríguez-Rodrigo, L.; Ciattaglia, S.; Lässer, R.

    2007-08-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is a planned high-energy neutron source for the testing of candidate materials for future fusion power plants. Safety studies performed during the various stages of the conceptual design of IFMIF have been brought together in a preliminary assessment of the safety of IFMIF, identifying the principal hazards and the means to prevent or mitigate them. The design is based on dual high-energy deuteron accelerators delivering beams onto a flowing lithium target, in which neutrons are produced through a d-Li stripping reaction. The neutrons irradiate material samples in controlled conditions in a test cell. In all these systems, potential hazards arise, but analyses show that no postulated off-normal event can result in a significant risk of harm to the public. However, care must be taken in forthcoming detailed design development to minimise occupational radiation exposure during IFMIF operation and maintenance.

  6. Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C.; Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F.; Conway, L.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-07-01

    A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

  7. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section... Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for...

  8. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section... Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for...

  9. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206 Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the...

  10. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section 830.206 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.206 Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor responsible for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3...

  11. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  12. New Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, Preliminary Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-03-01

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebblebed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  13. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  14. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  15. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. Gwyn

    2001-04-01

    This report provides the status of the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Integrated Safety Analysis (EA) by identifying the initial work scope scheduled for completion during the ISA development period, the schedules associated with the tasks identified, safety analysis issues encountered, and a summary of accomplishments during the reporting period. This status covers the period from October 1, 2000 through March 30, 2001.

  16. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  17. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-06

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  18. A Synthetic Vision Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Houser, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This report documents efforts to analyze a sample of aviation safety programs, using the LMI-developed integrated safety analysis tool to determine the change in system risk resulting from Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) technology implementation. Specifically, we have worked to modify existing system safety tools to address the safety impact of synthetic vision (SV) technology. Safety metrics include reliability, availability, and resultant hazard. This analysis of SV technology is intended to be part of a larger effort to develop a model that is capable of "providing further support to the product design and development team as additional information becomes available". The reliability analysis portion of the effort is complete and is fully documented in this report. The simulation analysis is still underway; it will be documented in a subsequent report. The specific goal of this effort is to apply the integrated safety analysis to SV technology. This report also contains a brief discussion of data necessary to expand the human performance capability of the model, as well as a discussion of human behavior and its implications for system risk assessment in this modeling environment.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary findings based on the first phase of an Environmental Survey at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Plant (SRP), located at Aiken, South Carolina. The Survey is being conducted by DOE's Office of Environment, Safety and Health. The following topics are discussed: general site information; air, soil, surface water and ground water; hydrogeology; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; release of tritium oxides; radioactivity in milk; contamination of ground water and wildlife; pesticide use; and release of radionuclides into seepage basins. 149 refs., 44 figs., 53 tabs.

  20. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, C.G.; Bonney, R.F.; Levine, J.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Masson, L.S.; Commander, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), includes an indication of the magnitude of facility hazards, complexity of facility operations, and the stage of the facility life-cycle. It presents the results of safety analyses, safety assurance programs, identified vulnerabilities, compensatory measures, and, in general, the rationale describing why the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) can be safely operated. It discusses application of the graded approach to the TPX safety analysis, including the basis for using Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 and DOE-STD-3009-94 in the development of the PSAR.

  1. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Overview - 13298

    SciTech Connect

    Bracke, G.; Fischer-Appelt, K.; Baltes, B.

    2013-07-01

    The project preliminary safety analysis of the Gorleben site started in 2010 and is based on the safety requirements for heat generating radioactive waste released from the German Federal Ministry for Environment, natural conservation and nuclear safety. The project consists of several tasks: the database defining the geology of Gorleben and the composition of the waste to be disposed of, the safety and demonstration concept, the repository concepts, the scenario analysis, the system analysis with long-term safety assessment and the synthesis. The overall synthesis indicates presently the compatibility of a repository in Gorleben with the safety requirements. The application of the method for a site selection process is still under evaluation. (authors)

  2. Nuclear Plant/Hydrogen Plant Safety: Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its agents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, is working on developing the technologies to enable the large scale production of hydrogen using nuclear power. A very important consideration in the design of a co-located and connected nuclear plant/hydrogen plant facility is safety. This study provides an overview of the safety issues associated with a combined plant and discusses approaches for categorizing, quantifying, and addressing the safety risks.

  3. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  4. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  5. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  6. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  7. Nuclear power-plant safety functions

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, W.R.; Finnicum, D.J.; Hubbard, F.R. III; Musick, C.R.; Walzer, P.F.

    1981-03-01

    The concept of safety functions is discussed. Ten critical safety functions and the multiple success paths available for accomplishing them are described. Use of the safety function concept in the development of emergency procedures, operator training, and control-room displays provides a systematic approach and a hierarchy of protection that an operator can use to mitigate the consequences of an event. The safety function concept can also be applied to the design and analysis of nuclear plant systems and to the evaluation of past expierience.

  8. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the Department of Energy (DOE), Y-12 Plant, conducted November 10 through 21 and December 9 through 11, 1986. This Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Y-12 Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations performed at Y-12, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Y-12 Plant Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Y-12 Plant Survey. 80 refs., 76 figs., 61 tabs.

  9. Participatory design of a preliminary safety checklist for general practice

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Paul; Ferguson, Julie; MacLeod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; de Wet, Carl; McNab, Duncan; Kelly, Moya; McKay, John; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of checklists to minimise errors is well established in high reliability, safety-critical industries. In health care there is growing interest in checklists to standardise checking processes and ensure task completion, and so provide further systemic defences against error and patient harm. However, in UK general practice there is limited experience of safety checklist use. Aim To identify workplace hazards that impact on safety, health and wellbeing, and performance, and codesign a standardised checklist process. Design and setting Application of mixed methods to identify system hazards in Scottish general practices and develop a safety checklist based on human factors design principles. Method A multiprofessional ‘expert’ group (n = 7) and experienced front-line GPs, nurses, and practice managers (n = 18) identified system hazards and developed and validated a preliminary checklist using a combination of literature review, documentation review, consensus building workshops using a mini-Delphi process, and completion of content validity index exercise. Results A prototype safety checklist was developed and validated consisting of six safety domains (for example, medicines management), 22 sub-categories (for example, emergency drug supplies) and 78 related items (for example, stock balancing, secure drug storage, and cold chain temperature recording). Conclusion Hazards in the general practice work system were prioritised that can potentially impact on the safety, health and wellbeing of patients, GP team members, and practice performance, and a necessary safety checklist prototype was designed. However, checklist efficacy in improving safety processes and outcomes is dependent on user commitment, and support from leaders and promotional champions. Although further usability development and testing is necessary, the concept should be of interest in the UK and internationally. PMID:25918338

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  12. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  13. Safety assessment of plant food supplements (PFS).

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Suzanne J P L; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Coppens, Patrick; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals and botanical preparations, including plant food supplements (PFS), are widely used in Western diets. The growing use of PFS is accompanied by an increasing concern because the safety of these PFS is not generally assessed before they enter the market. Regulatory bodies have become more aware of this and are increasing their efforts to ensure the safety of PFS. The present review describes an overview of the general framework for the safety assessment of PFS, focusing on the different approaches currently in use to assess the safety of botanicals and/or botanical compounds, including their history of safe use, the tiered approach proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and the Margin of Exposure (MOE) concept. Moreover, some examples of botanical compounds in PFS that may be of concern are discussed. Altogether, it is clear that "natural" does not equal "safe" and that PFS may contain compounds of concern at levels far above those found in the regular diet. In addition, the traditional use of a PFS compound as a herb or tea does not guarantee its safety when used as a supplement. This points at a need for stricter regulation and control of botanical containing products, especially given their expanding market volume. PMID:21804969

  14. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  15. Organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    There are many organizations in our society that depend on human performance to avoid incidents involving significant adverse consequences. As our culture and technology have become more sophisticated, the management of risk on a broad basis has become more and more critical. The safe operation of military facilities, chemical plants, airlines, and mass transit, to name a few, are substantially dependent on the performance of the organizations that operate those facilities. The nuclear power industry has, within the past 15 years, increased the attention given to the influence of human performance in the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). While NPPs have been designed through engineering disciplines to intercept and mitigate events that could cause adverse consequences, it has been clear from various safety-related incidents that human performance also plays a dominant role in preventing accidents. Initial efforts following the 1979 Three Mile Island incident focused primarily on ergonomic factors (e.g., the best design of control rooms for maximum performance). Greater attention was subsequently directed towards cognitive processes involved in the use of NPP decision support systems and decision making in general, personnel functions such as selection systems, and the influence of work scheduling and planning on employees` performance. Although each of these approaches has contributed to increasing the safety of NPPS, during the last few years, there has been a growing awareness that particular attention must be paid to how organizational processes affect NPP personnel performance, and thus, plant safety. The direct importance of organizational factors on safety performance in the NPP has been well-documented in the reports on the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents as well as numerous other events, especially as evaluated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Kansas City Plant, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Kansas City Plant (KCP), conducted March 23 through April 3, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the KCP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations performed at the KCP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Argonne National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the KCP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the KCP Survey. 94 refs., 39 figs., 55 tabs.

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), conducted August 11 through 22, 1986. The Survey is being conducted by an multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the RFP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulations. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data observations of the operations carried on at RFP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activates. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the RFP Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the RFP Survey. 75 refs., 24 figs., 33 tabs.

  18. B Plant surveillance and maintenance phase technical safety requirements

    SciTech Connect

    SCHWEHR, B.A.

    1999-10-05

    This document identifies administrative controls that are established for the operating contractor of the B Plant facility during the B Plant surveillance and maintenance phase. When approved by the DOE-RL, this document is part of the B Plant safety authorization basis. Look for the associated B Plant Surveillance and Maintenance Phase Safety Analysis Report, HNF-3358.

  19. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  20. Safety at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chuan-Fu

    1992-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes in the excavations of a salt bed situated 2,150 feet underground. The operational philosophy of the WIPP is threefold: to start clean and stay clean, to meet or exceed regulatory requirements, and to keep radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The well-being of the public, the environment, and the workers is the project`s first priority. Extensive safety measures have been and will continue to be taken throughout all phases of project activities. This paper describes the major elements of the WIPP safety program which includes a training program with special emphasis on safety, for operations, maintenance, engineering, and all technical support positions; a TRU Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) for safe transportation of TRU waste; radiation protection programs; a volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring program; and an ALARA committee to oversee and provide guidance to ALARA activities.

  1. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  2. 78 FR 47010 - Proposed Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler... requesting public comment on the proposed model safety evaluation (SE) for plant- specific adoption of... ADAMS Accession Number ML13053A075. The proposed model SE for plant-specific adoption of...

  3. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error.

  4. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error.

  5. Preliminary safety assessment for an IFE target fabrication facility

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Reyes, S; Besenbruch, G E; Goodin, D T

    2000-10-13

    We estimate possible ranges of tritium inventories for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) target fabrication facility producing various types of targets and using various production technologies. Target fill is the key subtask in determining the overall tritium inventory for the plant. By segmenting the inventory into multiple, parallel production lines--each with its own fill canister--and including an expansion tank to limit releases, we are able to ensure that a target fabrication facility would meet the accident dose goals of 10 mSv (1 rem) set forth in the Department of Energy's Fusion Safety Standards. For indirect-drive targets, we calculate release fractions for elements from lithium to bismuth and show that nearly all elements meet the dose goal. Our work suggests directions for future R&D that will help reduce total tritium inventories and increase the flexibility of target fabrication facilities.

  6. Preliminary design of a 1-MWe OTEC test plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, T.

    1982-02-01

    An ocean-based, 1-MWe (gross) test plant has been planned to establish the feasibility of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) power generation in the revised Sunshine Project. The preliminary design of the proposed test plant employs a closed-cycle power system using ammonia as the working fluid on a barge-type platform with a rigid-arm-type, detachable, single-buoy mooring system. Two types each of titanium evaporators and condensers are to be included. The steel, cold-water pipe is suspended from the buoy. The design value of the ocean temperature difference is 20 K. The paper presents an overview of the preliminary design of the test plant and the tests to be conducted.

  7. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  8. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  9. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  10. Assuring nuclear plant safety before and after license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Berto, D.S. )

    1992-01-01

    It is important in establishing a plant license renewal program that the specific goals of the program be identified at the very start. A detailed program can then be developed to focus on the stated goals, and efforts not related to accomplishing these specific goals can be excluded from the program. The goal of establishing and performing a license renewal evaluation is, of course, to obtain a renewed operating license from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This goal is tied directly to the closely related goal of assuring plant safety during the license renewal term. The goal of assuring plant safety (without unnecessary costs) is the focus of the discussion in this paper. Assuring plant safety during the license renewal term is directly coupled with assuring plant safety during the current license term.

  11. Safety-signal therapy in agoraphobics: a preliminary test.

    PubMed

    Sartory, G; Master, D; Rachman, S

    1989-01-01

    It has been argued that persistent avoidance behaviour is strongly influenced by safety signals, and that agoraphobic avoidance behaviour is a clinical example of this influence. It was proposed that agoraphobic avoidance can be reduced by the judicious use of safety signals, and specifically, by training patients to travel towards rather than away from safety. A safety-signal technique in which the patient travelled towards the therapist at the most fear-inducing situations was compared with conventional therapist-assisted exposure. In the second part of the treatment programme, both groups of agoraphobics were given homework assignments. The safety-signal technique resulted in slightly better clinical gains than those achieved by therapist assisted exposure, but after these relatively brief programmes, the improvements in both groups were weak. Global clinical outcome was influenced by age, chronicity and long-term benzodiazepine use.

  12. Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis of Synthetic Vision Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program is to develop and demonstrate technologies that could help reduce the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio beyond what is now available. Synthetic vision is the first of the Aviation Safety Program technologies that has been analyzed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These synthetic vision analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model.

  13. [The safety and usefulness of transgenic plants].

    PubMed

    Ondrej, M; Drobník, M

    1997-05-29

    Transgenic crop plants, used in food and feed production, carry different beneficial transgenes, mostly for resistance to pests, herbicides and diseases. All new transgenic plant varieties, the genes they carry and their products have been thoroughly tested before released for agriculture and even more for marketing. Genetically modified organisms carry the same risk as any other organism. Food derived from genetically modified organisms due to legal regulation is most controlled and therefore most safe food ever placed on the market. In future, transgenic plants offer many new possibilities also for medical use, like plant vaccines, antibiotics and rare proteins of clinical importance produced by plants.

  14. CORRIGENDUM: Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulden, W.; Ciattaglia, S.; Massaut, V.; Sardain, P.

    2007-09-01

    In parallel to the ITER design process and in close cooperation with the designers a fusion-specific safety approach was developed and implemented. Detailed safety assessments have been performed and documented in the ITER Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR). Following the decision on ITER construction in France, results from the GSSR and from on-going safety-related activities tailored to the Cadarache site and the French licensing process are now being used to write the ITER Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. In the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study (PPCS) inherent fusion favourable features have been exploited, by appropriate design and choice of materials, to provide major safety and environmental advantages. The study focused on five power plant models, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. These span a range from relatively near-term concepts, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to a more advanced conception. All five PPCS plant models differ substantially in their plasma physics, blanket and divertor technology, size, fusion power and materials compositions, and these differences lead to differences in economic performance and in the details of safety and environmental impacts. This paper uses the quite detailed information available from ITER safety documents and highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants. The main areas investigated are releases and doses during normal operation and under accidental conditions, occupational radiation exposure and optimization and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories. Due to an error, an incorrect version of this paper was published in issue 7. For the convenience of the reader we have included the correct full article below rather than a list of changes.

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Pinellas Plant, Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the preliminary findings made during the Environmental Survey, conducted May 11 through 22, 1987, at the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. As a Preliminary Report, the contents are subject to revisions, which will be made in a forthcoming Interim Report, based on Albuquerque Operations Office review and comments on technical accuracy, the results of the sampling and analyses, and other information that may come to the Survey team's attention prior to issuance of the Interim Report. The Pinellas Plant is currently operated for DOE by the General Electric Company-Neutron Devices Department (GENDD). The Pinellas Survey is part of the larger DOE-wide Environmental Survey effort announced by Secretary John S. Herrington on September 18, 1985. The purpose of this effort is to identify, via no fault'' baseline Surveys, existing environmental problems are areas of environmental risk at DOE facilities and to rank them on a DOE-wide basis. This ranking will enable DOE to more effectively establish priorities for addressing environmental problems and allocate the resources necessary to correct these problems. Because the Survey is no fault'' and is not an audit,'' it is not designed to identify specific isolated incidents of noncompliance or to analyze environmental management practices. Such incidents and/or management practices will, however, be used in the Survey as a means of identifying existing and potential environmental problems. 55 refs., 37 figs., 37 tabs.

  16. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, Lawrence J; Taylor, Joseph Todd

    2000-08-01

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  17. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, L.J.; Taylor, J.T.

    2000-08-31

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  18. Comparative safety assessment of plant-derived foods.

    PubMed

    Kok, E J; Keijer, J; Kleter, G A; Kuiper, H A

    2008-02-01

    The second generation of genetically modified (GM) plants that are moving towards the market are characterized by modifications that may be more complex and traits that more often are to the benefit of the consumer. These developments will have implications for the safety assessment of the resulting plant products. In part of the cases the same crop plant can, however, also be obtained by 'conventional' breeding strategies. The breeder will decide on a case-by-case basis what will be the best strategy to reach the set target and whether genetic modification will form part of this strategy. This article discusses important aspects of the safety assessment of complex products derived from newly bred plant varieties obtained by different breeding strategies. On the basis of this overview, we conclude that the current process of the safety evaluation of GM versus conventionally bred plants is not well balanced. GM varieties are elaborately assessed, yet at the same time other crop plants resulting from conventional breeding strategies may warrant further food safety assessment for the benefit of the consumer. We propose to develop a general screening frame for all newly developed plant varieties to select varieties that cannot, on the basis of scientific criteria, be considered as safe as plant varieties that are already on the market.

  19. Environmental survey preliminary report, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Plant, conducted August 18 through 29, 1986. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Mound Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Mound Plant, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey found no environmental problems at the Mound Plant that represent an immediate threat to human life. The environmental problems identified at the Mound Plant by the Survey confirm that the site is confronted with a number of environmental problems which are by and large a legacy from past practices at a time when environmental problems were less well understood. Theses problems vary in terms of their magnitude and risk, as described in this report. Although the sampling and analysis performed by the Mound Plant Survey will assist in further identifying environmental problems at the site, a complete understanding of the significance of some of the environmental problems identified requires a level of study and characterization that is beyond the scope of the Survey. Actions currently under way or planned at the site, particularly the Phase II activities of the Comprehensive Environmental Analysis and Response Program (CEARP) as developed and implemented by the Albuquerque Operations Office, will contribute toward meeting this requirement. 85 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  1. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  2. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  3. An update of preliminary perspectives gained from Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) submittal reviews

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.M.; Chen, J.T.; Chokshi, N.; Nowlen, S.P.; Bohn, M.P.; Sewell, R.; Kazarians, M.; Lambright, J.

    1998-03-01

    As a result of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, virtually every operating commercial nuclear power reactor in the US has performed an assessment of severe accident risk due to external events. To date, the USNRC staff has received 63 IPEEE submittals and will receive an additional 11 by mid 1998. Currently, 49 IPEEE submittals are under various stages ore view. This paper is based on the information available for those 41 plants for which at least preliminary Technical Evaluation Reports have been prepared by the review teams. The goal of the review is to ascertain whether the licensee`s IPEEE process is capable of identifying external events-induced severe accident vulnerabilities and cost-effective safety improvements to either eliminate or reduce the impact of these vulnerabilities. The review does not, however, attempt to validate or verify the results of the licensee`s IPEEE. The primary objective of this paper is to provide an update on the preliminary perspectives and insights gained from the IPEEE process.

  4. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  5. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Preliminary safety review of the transrapid maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorer, R. M.; Hathaway, W. T.

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration. Safety issues are addressed related to a specific maglev technology. The Transrapid maglev system was under development by the German Government over the last 10 to 15 years and was evolved into the current system with the TR-07 vehicle. A technically based safety review was under way over the last year by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The initial results of the review are presented to identify and assess potential maglev safety issues.

  6. Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  7. Safety assessment: Pinellas Plant Child Development Center/Partnership School

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-21

    This document describes the Child Development Center/Partnership School and its unique relationship to the Pinellas Plant. The school and its operation are described in detail, along with the administrative and engineering controls in place to ensure the safety of the facility. Special emphasis is placed on the analyses of potential risks to school operations and personnel which may be posed by their close proximity to the plant. A recent Safety Systems Management Assay (SSMA) was used as a guide in describing both routine operations and potential credible accident scenarios at the Pinellas Plant site. The Safety Assessment concluded that, although potential accidents at the Pinellas Plant could result in injury to personnel on the school site, the low probability of these incidents would make operation of the school an acceptable risk. The risks associated with routine operations at the plant are similar to those encountered at a large-scale electronics manufacturing plant. Numerous safeguards are in place to limit the effects of any credible accident on the Pinellas Plant and school site. 32 refs., 18 figs., 33 tabs.

  8. Ibogaine: complex pharmacokinetics, concerns for safety, and preliminary efficacy measures.

    PubMed

    Mash, D C; Kovera, C A; Pablo, J; Tyndale, R F; Ervin, F D; Williams, I C; Singleton, E G; Mayor, M

    2000-09-01

    Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the roots of Tabernanthe Iboga (Apocynaceae family), a rain forest shrub that is native to western Africa. Ibogaine is used by indigenous peoples in low doses to combat fatigue, hunger and thirst, and in higher doses as a sacrament in religious rituals. Members of American and European addict self-help groups have claimed that ibogaine promotes long-term drug abstinence from addictive substances, including psychostimulants and opiates. Anecdotal reports attest that a single dose of ibogaine eliminates opiate withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug craving for extended periods of time. The purported efficacy of ibogaine for the treatment of drug dependence may be due in part to an active metabolite. The majority of ibogaine biotransformation proceeds via CYP2D6, including the O-demethylation of ibogaine to 12-hydroxyibogamine (noribogaine). Blood concentration-time effect profiles of ibogaine and noribogaine obtained for individual subjects after single oral dose administrations demonstrate complex pharmacokinetic profiles. Ibogaine has shown preliminary efficacy for opiate detoxification and for short-term stabilization of drug-dependent persons as they prepare to enter substance abuse treatment. We report here that ibogaine significantly decreased craving for cocaine and heroin during inpatient detoxification. Self-reports of depressive symptoms were also significantly lower after ibogaine treatment and at 30 days after program discharge. Because ibogaine is cleared rapidly from the blood, the beneficial aftereffects of the drug on craving and depressed mood may be related to the effects of noribogaine on the central nervous system.

  9. Aging of nuclear power plant safety cables

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Salazar, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an extensive aging program on polymeric materials stripped from unused nuclear reactor safety cables are described. Mechanical damage was monitored after room temperature aging in a Co-60 gamma radiation source at various humidities and radiation dose rates ranging from 1.2 Mrad/h to 2 krad/h. For chloroprene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene, and silicone materials, the mechanical degradation was found to depend only on the total integrated radiation dose, implying that radiation dose rate effects are small. On the other hand, strong evidence for radiation dose rate effects were found for an ethylene propylene rubber material and a cross-linked polyolefin material. Humidity effects were determined to be insignificant for all the materials studied.

  10. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE's expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  11. A preliminary review of energy savings from EADC plant audits

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Kinzey, B.R.; Kaae, P.S.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews the long-term energy savings attributed to industrial plant energy audits conducted under the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Center (EADC) Program. By the end of FY91, this program is expected to have performed over 3600 plant energy audits since it began in late 1976. During FY91, 500 of the 3600 are expected to be completed. Currently, 18 universities participate in the program. DOE`s expansion plan, as specified in the National Energy Strategy, calls for adding three universities to the program during FY92. This review, requested by the OIT as part of their program planning effort, is preliminary and limited in scope. The primary purpose of this paper is to independently assess the accuracy of past energy savings reporting, specifically: whether a 2-year assessment horizon for identifying implemented ECOs captures all the ECOs implemented under the program whether the number of implemented ECOs and thus, the energy savings associated with program audits, significantly decrease in years 3 through 7 after the audit.

  12. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  13. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, D.W.; Brenza, P.T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U. S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one-dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus-Venus-Earth-Jupiter Gravity Assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety, Analysis Report (USAR) are discussed in this document.

  14. Preliminary reentry safety assessment of the General Purpose Heat Source module for the Cassini mission: Aerospace Nuclear Safety Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conn, D. W.; Brenza, P. T.

    1993-04-01

    As asked by the U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Special Applications, and in support of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Cassini mission, The Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has conducted preliminary one dimensional ablation and thermal analyses of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The predicted earth entry conditions provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for a Cassini Venus - Venus - Earth - Jupiter gravity assist (VVEJGA) trajectory were used as initial conditions. The results of this study, which constitute the initial reentry analysis assessment leading to the Cassini Updated Safety Analysis Report (USAR), are discussed in this document.

  15. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wojtecki, Lars; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Hartmann, Christian Johannes; Elben, Saskia; Omlor, Sonja; Schnitzler, Alfons; Vesper, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD. PMID:27589813

  16. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington's Disease-Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety.

    PubMed

    Wojtecki, Lars; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Hartmann, Christian Johannes; Elben, Saskia; Omlor, Sonja; Schnitzler, Alfons; Vesper, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD. PMID:27589813

  17. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  18. Safety risks for animals fed genetic modified (GM) plants.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, G; Marsan, P Ajmone

    2005-08-01

    GM plants are widely grown all over the world, but many constraints still tend to discourage their use in Europe. Potential risks suggested to be associated with the use of GM are unexpected gene effects, allergenic potential, antibiotic resistance, gene flow. GM feed safety is presently evaluated by adopting the concept of GM substantial equivalence, by comparison with non-GM isogenic crops. Comparison is based on a wide spectrum of chemical components and on livestock performance. From the available experimental data, currently utilized GM plants appear safe and show no effects on animals or animal products. Hence, although they potentially exist, safety risks caused by the use of GM plants appear to be so low as be negligible in comparison with their potential benefits, if appropriately designed. GM plants represent a valuable option for future breeding, to increase yield while reducing the use of pesticides, improve plant adaptation to unfavourable environments, and produce better quality crops, also from a nutritional point of view. Nonetheless, GM crops are novel foods and the assessment of their safety using a scientific sound approach seems essential to protect the environment, as well as the health of humans and livestock.

  19. The Safety of Cruciferous Plants in Humans: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ori; Galicia-Connolly, Elaine; Adams, Denise; Surette, Soleil; Vohra, Sunita; Yager, Jerome Y.

    2012-01-01

    Some cruciferous plants may serve as preventive treatments for several medical conditions; our objective was to systematically investigate their safety in humans. Four electronic databases were searched, and, of 10,831 references identified, 50 were included. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers, whereafter the association between interventions and adverse events was assessed. Adverse events in 53 subjects were identified through clinical trials; of these, altered drug metabolism was rated as certainly/likely caused by cruciferous plants. Adverse events in 1247 subjects were identified through observational studies, of which none received high causality ratings. Adverse events in 35 subjects were identified through case reports, of which allergies and warfarin resistance were rated as certainly/likely caused by cruciferous plants. We conclude that cruciferous plants are safe in humans, with the exception of allergies. Individuals treated with warfarin should consult their physician. Further investigation of uses of cruciferous plants in preventative medicine is warranted. PMID:22500092

  20. Mapping the nomological network of employee self-determined safety motivation: A preliminary measure in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Tetrick, Lois E

    2016-09-01

    The present study introduced a preliminary measure of employee safety motivation based on the definition of self-determination theory from Fleming (2012) research and validated the structure of self-determined safety motivation (SDSM) by surveying 375 employees in a Chinese high-risk organization. First, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the factor structure of SDSM, and indices of five-factor model CFA met the requirements. Second, a nomological network was examined to provide evidence of the construct validity of SDSM. Beyond construct validity, the analysis also produced some interesting results concerning the relationship between leadership antecedents and safety motivation, and between safety motivation and safety behavior. Autonomous motivation was positively related to transformational leadership, negatively related to abusive supervision, and positively related to safety behavior. Controlled motivation with the exception of introjected regulation was negatively related to transformational leadership, positively related to abusive supervision, and negatively related to safety behavior. The unique role of introjected regulation and future research based on self-determination theory were discussed. PMID:27240123

  1. Mapping the nomological network of employee self-determined safety motivation: A preliminary measure in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li; Tetrick, Lois E

    2016-09-01

    The present study introduced a preliminary measure of employee safety motivation based on the definition of self-determination theory from Fleming (2012) research and validated the structure of self-determined safety motivation (SDSM) by surveying 375 employees in a Chinese high-risk organization. First, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the factor structure of SDSM, and indices of five-factor model CFA met the requirements. Second, a nomological network was examined to provide evidence of the construct validity of SDSM. Beyond construct validity, the analysis also produced some interesting results concerning the relationship between leadership antecedents and safety motivation, and between safety motivation and safety behavior. Autonomous motivation was positively related to transformational leadership, negatively related to abusive supervision, and positively related to safety behavior. Controlled motivation with the exception of introjected regulation was negatively related to transformational leadership, positively related to abusive supervision, and negatively related to safety behavior. The unique role of introjected regulation and future research based on self-determination theory were discussed.

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2001-01-26

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item.

  3. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  4. Preliminary safety concept for disposal of the very low level radioactive waste in Romania.

    PubMed

    Niculae, O; Andrei, V; Ionita, G; Duliu, O G

    2009-05-01

    In Romania, there are certain nuclear installations in operation or under decommissioning, all of them representing an important source of very low level waste (VLLW). This paper presents an overview on the approach of the VLLW management in Romania, focused on those resulted from the nuclear power plants decommissioning. At the same time, the basic elements of safety concept, together with some safety evaluations concerning VLLW repository are presented and discussed too.

  5. Preliminary safety concept for disposal of the very low level radioactive waste in Romania.

    PubMed

    Niculae, O; Andrei, V; Ionita, G; Duliu, O G

    2009-05-01

    In Romania, there are certain nuclear installations in operation or under decommissioning, all of them representing an important source of very low level waste (VLLW). This paper presents an overview on the approach of the VLLW management in Romania, focused on those resulted from the nuclear power plants decommissioning. At the same time, the basic elements of safety concept, together with some safety evaluations concerning VLLW repository are presented and discussed too. PMID:19231221

  6. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  7. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  8. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  9. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  10. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  11. Response to Absorber-Focus Coil Preliminary Safety ReviewPanel

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov,Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael S.

    2004-07-21

    In this document we provide responses to the various issues raised in the report of the Preliminary Safety Review Panel (see http://mice.iit.edu/mnp/MICE0069.pdf). In some cases we have made design changes in response to the Panels suggestions. In other cases, we have chosen not to do so. In a few cases, we indicate our plans, although the tasks have not yet been completed. For simplicity, the responses are organized along the same lines as those of the Panel Report.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2000-04-24

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item.

  13. SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project: Catalytic. System design final report. Volume 2. Preliminary pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The preliminary design of a solar water desalination pilot plant is presented. Pilot plant drawings and process descriptions are provided. Use of solar and wind energy are discussed. Testing, performance and cost of the pilot plant are studied. (BCS)

  14. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios.

  15. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  16. Keeping rail on track: preliminary findings on safety culture in Australian rail.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Verna; Rainbird, Sophia; Dorrian, Jill; Paterson, Jessica; Cattani, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    'Safety culture' is identified in the literature as a critical element of healthy and safe workplaces. How can rail organizations ensure that consistently effective work health and safety cultures are maintained across the diversity of their operations? This paper reports on research that is currently underway in the Australian rail industry aimed at producing a Model of Best Practice in Safety Culture for the industry. Located in rail organizations dedicated to the mining industry as well as urban rail and national freight operations, the research examines the constructs of organizational culture that impact on the development and maintenance of healthy and safe workplaces. The research uses a multi-method approach incorporating quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus groups, interviews and document analysis) methods along with a participative process to identify interventions to improve the organization and develop plans for their implementation. The research uses as its analytical framework the 10 Platinum Rules, from the findings of earlier research in the New South Wales (Australia) mining industry, Digging Deeper. Data collection is underway at the time of writing and preliminary findings are presented at this stage. The research method may be adapted for use as a form of organizational review of safety and health in organizational culture. PMID:22317370

  17. Plant natural variability may affect safety assessment data.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rita; Oliveira, Margarida

    2010-12-01

    Before market introduction, genetic engineered (GE) food products, like any other novel food product, are subjected to extensive assessment of their potential effects on human health. In recent years, a number of profiling technologies have been explored aiming to increase the probability of detecting any unpredictable unintended effect and, consequently improving the efficiency of GE food safety assessment. These techniques still present limitations associated with the interpretation of the observed differences with respect to their biological relevance and toxicological significance. In order to address this issue, in this study, we have performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of five different ears of five different MON810 maize plants and of other five of the non-transgenic near-isogenic line. We have also performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of the pool of the five protein extractions of MON810 and control lines. We have notice that, in this example, the exclusive use of data from 2D-electrophoresed pooled samples, to compare these two lines, would be insufficient for an adequate safety evaluation. We conclude that, when using "omics" technologies, it is extremely important to eliminate all potential differences due to factors not related to the ones under study, and to understand the role of natural plant-to-plant variability in the encountered differences.

  18. Ares-I-X Vehicle Preliminary Range Safety Malfunction Turn Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaty, James R.; Starr, Brett R.; Gowan, John W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Ares-I-X is the designation given to the flight test version of the Ares-I rocket (also known as the Crew Launch Vehicle - CLV) being developed by NASA. As part of the preliminary flight plan approval process for the test vehicle, a range safety malfunction turn analysis was performed to support the launch area risk assessment and vehicle destruct criteria development processes. Several vehicle failure scenarios were identified which could cause the vehicle trajectory to deviate from its normal flight path, and the effects of these failures were evaluated with an Ares-I-X 6 degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) digital simulation, using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories Version 2 (POST2) simulation framework. The Ares-I-X simulation analysis provides output files containing vehicle state information, which are used by other risk assessment and vehicle debris trajectory simulation tools to determine the risk to personnel and facilities in the vicinity of the launch area at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to develop the vehicle destruct criteria used by the flight test range safety officer. The simulation analysis approach used for this study is described, including descriptions of the failure modes which were considered and the underlying assumptions and ground rules of the study, and preliminary results are presented, determined by analysis of the trajectory deviation of the failure cases, compared with the expected vehicle trajectory.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  20. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  1. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  2. Preliminary Identification of Accident Initiating Events for IFE Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Latkowsk, J. F.

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents initial results of a task to identify accident initiating events for inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs. Initiating events (IEs) are a fundamental building block of a probabilistic risk assessment; they are the ‘accident starters’ that are analyzed to determine the risks posed to members of the public in the vicinity of the power plant. The IE results for the SOMBRERO design are presented in tabular form. The SOMBRERO design was analyzed since it is representative of dry chamber wall, laser driven designs. This work is used to characterize IFE plant risk and to identify potential design changes that would mitigate the plant risk.

  3. Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Doss, A.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phenolic compounds and cardie glycoside distribution in five medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Psassiflora edulis Sims, Berberis tinctoria Lesch, Sphaeranthus indicus Linn, and Solanum trilobatum Linn. All the plants were found to contain Phenols, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Saponins and Tannin except for the absence of flavonoids and Terpenoids in A. longifolia (L.) Nees and Alkaloids in, P edulis Sims, A.longifolia (L.) Nees, B. tinctoria Lesch and S. indicus Linn. respectively. The significance of the plants in traditional medicine and the importance of the distribution of these chemical constituents were discussed with respect to the role of these plants in ethnomedicine in India. PMID:22557345

  4. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), The NSLS 200 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.; Ackerman, A.I.; Dickinson, T.; Heese, R.N.; Larson, R.A.; Neuls, C.W.; Pjerov, S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1993-06-15

    The radiological, fire and electrical hazards posed by a 200 MeV electron Linear Accelerator, which the NSLS Department will install and commission within a newly assembled structure, are addressed in this Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Although it is clear that this accelerator is intended to be the injector for a future experimental facility, we address only the Linac in the present PSAR since neither the final design nor the operating characteristics of the experimental facility are known at the present time. The fire detection and control system to be installed in the building is judged to be completely adequate in terms of the marginal hazard presented - no combustible materials other than the usual cabling associated with such a facility have been identified. Likewise, electrical hazards associated with power supplies for the beam transport magnets and accelerator components such as the accelerator klystrons and electron gun are classified as marginal in terms of potential personnel injury, cost of equipment lost, program downtime and public impact perceptions as defined in the BNL Environmental Safety and Health Manual and the probability of occurrence is deemed to be remote. No unusual features have been identified for the power supplies or electrical distribution system, and normal and customary electrical safety standards as practiced throughout the NSLS complex and the Laboratory are specified in this report. The radiation safety hazards are similarly judged to be marginal in terms of probability of occurrence and potential injury consequences since, for the low intensity operation proposed - a factor of 25 less than the maximum Linac capability specified by the vendor - the average beam power is only 0.4 watts. The shielding specifications given in this report will give adequate protection to both the general public and nonradiation workers in areas adjacent to the building as well as radiation workers within the controlled access building.

  5. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brunett, A. J.; Fei, T.; Strons, P. S.; Papadias, D. D.; Hoffman, E. A.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Connaway, H. M.; Wright, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    Report (FSAR) [3]. Depending on the availability of historical data derived from HEU TREAT operation, results calculated for the LEU core are compared to measurements obtained from HEU TREAT operation. While all analyses in this report are largely considered complete and have been reviewed for technical content, it is important to note that all topics will be revisited once the LEU design approaches its final stages of maturity. For most safety significant issues, it is expected that the analyses presented here will be bounding, but additional calculations will be performed as necessary to support safety analyses and safety documentation. It should also be noted that these analyses were completed as the LEU design evolved, and therefore utilized different LEU reference designs. Preliminary shielding, neutronic, and thermal hydraulic analyses have been completed and have generally demonstrated that the various LEU core designs will satisfy existing safety limits and standards also satisfied by the existing HEU core. These analyses include the assessment of the dose rate in the hodoscope room, near a loaded fuel transfer cask, above the fuel storage area, and near the HEPA filters. The potential change in the concentration of tramp uranium and change in neutron flux reaching instrumentation has also been assessed. Safety-significant thermal hydraulic items addressed in this report include thermally-induced mechanical distortion of the grid plate, and heating in the radial reflector.

  6. Plant protection system to assure criticality safety in uranium extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The criticality safety of uranium reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant depends on the control of the uranium concentration in large vessels. Many of these controls are high-quality barriers meeting the standards of a plant protective system (PPS). The first-cycle extraction PPS has been in use since 1979; the second-cycle extraction system will be equipped with a PPS shortly and the fluorinel dissolution process has had an extensive PPS since startup in 1984. The criteria for these PPSs are based on reactor development technology standard C16-IT and standard 603 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. These reactor plant standards were adapted and formalized for the conditions of fuel processing. The application to the first-cycle extraction operation is described in this paper. The PPS has worked reliably and effectively since its installation. Component malfunction causes inadvertent system trips less than annually. The system provides assurance of a controlled operation with little effect on productivity. As such it relieves the burden on operational supervision. In the only know PPS challenge, the CX nitric acid concentration monitor detected the results of a nitric acid leak into the makeup tank after sampling and prevented an increase in uranium concentration in the downstream mixer settler vessel.

  7. Optimising the design of preliminary toxicity studies for pharmaceutical safety testing in the dog.

    PubMed

    Smith, David; Combes, Robert; Depelchin, Olympe; Jacobsen, Soren Dyring; Hack, Ruediger; Luft, Joerg; Lammens, Lieve; von Landenberg, Friedrich; Phillips, Barry; Pfister, Rudolf; Rabemampianina, Yvon; Sparrow, Susan; Stark, Claudia; Stephan-Gueldner, Markus

    2005-03-01

    A working party, comprising two animal welfare organisations and some 12 pharmaceutical companies in Europe, was established to minimise the use of the dog in safety testing. As first step, the participants defined the major objectives of preliminary dose-range finding/MTD toxicity studies in non-rodents, defined the principles and requirements for this study type and agreed on a proposal for an optimised study design, based on collective experience of conducting such studies in industry, involving an evaluation of 100 individual study data sets. The suggested study design is explained and described, and reflects current best practice in the pharmaceutical industry in Europe. The implementation of such an optimised design is believed to result in a reduction in the overall numbers of animals used for this purpose, without jeopardising the scientific rationale and usefulness of the studies for informing the conduct of later regulatory studies.

  8. Preliminary Safety Information Document for the Standard MHTGR. Volume 1, (includes latest Amendments)

    SciTech Connect

    1986-12-01

    With NRC concurrence, the Licensing Plan for the Standard HTGR describes an application program consistent with 10CFR50, Appendix O to support a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) review and design certification of an advanced Standard modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) design. Consistent with the NRC's Advanced Reactor Policy, the Plan also outlines a series of preapplication activities which have as an objective the early issuance of an NRC Licensability Statement on the Standard MHTGR conceptual design. This Preliminary Safety Information Document (PSID) has been prepared as one of the submittals to the NRC by the US Department of Energy in support of preapplication activities on the Standard MHTGR. Other submittals to be provided include a Probabilistic Risk Assessment, a Regulatory Technology Development Plan, and an Emergency Planning Bases Report.

  9. Los Alamos National Laboratory corregated metal pipe saw facility preliminary safety analysis report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1990-09-19

    This Preliminary Safety Analysis Report addresses site assessment, facility design and construction, and design operation of the processing systems in the Corrugated Metal Pipe Saw Facility with respect to normal and abnormal conditions. Potential hazards are identified, credible accidents relative to the operation of the facility and the process systems are analyzed, and the consequences of postulated accidents are presented. The risk associated with normal operations, abnormal operations, and natural phenomena are analyzed. The accident analysis presented shows that the impact of the facility will be acceptable for all foreseeable normal and abnormal conditions of operation. Specifically, under normal conditions the facility will have impacts within the limits posted by applicable DOE guidelines, and in accident conditions the facility will similarly meet or exceed the requirements of all applicable standards. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jing Jing; Sun, Xiao Hong; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp was investigated by examining the physicochemical and microbiological changes, sarcoplasmic proteins and enzymatic activities. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice had an obvious (p<0.05) capability in limiting the changes of pH and shrinkage of muscle fibers in shrimp. Plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE indicated that AEW greatly inhibited growth of bacteria on shrimp. Additionally, AEW ice had no adverse effects on sarcoplasmic proteins by SDS-PAGE method. And AEW ice displayed inhibitory activity (p<0.05) toward cathepsin B and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), although it did not present positive effects on inhibiting cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and lipase activity. Thus, this study brought new evidence to further demonstrate that AEW ice can serve as a promising technology for improving the quality of aquatic products in food industry.

  11. Preliminary safety criteria for organic watch list tanks at the Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, A.B.; Stewart, J.L.; Turner, O.A.; Plys, M.G.; Malinovic, B.; Grigsby, J.M.; Camaioni, D.M.; Heasler, P.G.; Samuels, W.O.; Toth, J.J.

    1995-11-01

    Condensed-phase, rapid reactions of organic salts with nitrates/nitrites in Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste single-shell tanks could lead to structural failure of the tanks resulting in significant releases of radionuclides and toxic materials. This report establishes appropriate preliminary safety criteria to ensure that tank wastes will be maintained safe. These criteria show that if actual dry wastes contain less than 1.2 MJ/kg of reactants reaction energy or less 4.5 wt % of total organic carbon, then the waste will be safe and will not propagate if ignited. Waste moisture helps to retard reactions; when waste moisture exceeds 20 wt %, rapid reactions are prevented, regardless of organic carbon concentrations. Aging and degradation of waste materials has been considered to predict the types and amounts to organic compounds present in the waste. Using measurements of 3 waste phases (liquid, salt cake, and sludge) obtained from tank waste samples analyzed in the laboratory, analysis of variance (ANOVA) models were used to estimate waste states for unmeasured tanks. The preliminary safety criteria are based upon calorimetry and propagation testing of likely organic compounds which represent actual tank wastes. These included sodium salts of citrate, formate, acetate and hydroxyethylethylenediaminetricetate (HEDTA). Hot cell tests of actual tank wastes are planned for the future to confirm propagation tests performed in the laboratory. The effects of draining liquids from the tanks which would remove liquids and moisture were considered because reactive waste which is too dry may propagate. Evaporation effects which could remove moisture from the tanks were also calculated. The various ways that the waste could be heated or ignited by equipment failures or tank operations activities were considered and appropriate monitoring and controls were recommended.

  12. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  13. Preliminary Observations of an Equity 2000 Program "Safety Net" through the Lens of the Talent Development Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michael B.; Thompson, Sheila D.; Hughes, Gerunda B.

    As a preliminary step within a comprehensive evaluation plan, direct observation of a "safety-net" academic enrichment component of the College Board's Equity 2000 Program, in the form of the Saturday Academy, was conducted by researchers from the Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk/Howard University (RESPAR/HU)…

  14. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  15. Preliminary perspectives gaines from individual plant examination of external events (IPEEE) seismic and fire submittal review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.T.; Connell, E.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-02-01

    As a result of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) initiated Individual plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program, every operating nuclear power reactor in the United States has performed an assessment of severe accident due to external events. This paper provides a summary of the preliminary insights gained through the review of 24 IPEEE submittals.

  16. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  17. Steam generator tube degradation at the Doel 4 plant influence on plant operation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Scheveneels, G.

    1997-02-01

    The steam generator tubes of Doel 4 are affected by a multitude of corrosion phenomena. Some of them have been very difficult to manage because of their extremely fast evolution, non linear evolution behavior or difficult detectability and/or measurability. The exceptional corrosion behavior of the steam generator tubes has had its drawbacks on plant operation and safety. Extensive inspection and repair campaigns have been necessary and have largely increased outage times and radiation exposure to personnel. Although considerable effort was invested by the utility to control corrosion problems, non anticipated phenomena and/or evolution have jeopardized plant safety. The extensive plugging and repairs performed on the steam generators have necessitated continual review of the design basis safety studies and the adaptation of the protection system setpoints. The large asymmetric plugging has further complicated these reviews. During the years many preventive and recently also defence measures have been implemented by the utility to manage corrosion and to decrease the probability and consequences of single or multiple tube rupture. The present state of the Doel 4 steam generators remains troublesome and further examinations are performed to evaluate if continued operation until June `96, when the steam generators will be replaced, is justified.

  18. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY... Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle Process,'' issued 2006, with...

  19. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  1. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  2. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  3. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant,...

  4. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  5. Mercury exposure on potential plant Ludwigia octovalvis L. - Preliminary toxicological testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrawiq, Huda S. M.; Mushrifah, I.

    2013-11-01

    The preliminary test in phytoremediation is necessaryto determine the ability of plant to survive in media with different concentrations of contaminant. It was conducted to determine the maximum concentration of the contaminant that isharmful to the plant and suppress the plant growth. This study showed the ability of Ludwigia octovalvisto resist mercury (Hg) contaminant in sand containing different concentrations of Hg (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L). The experimental work wasperformed under greenhouse conditions for an observation period of 4 weeks. Throughout the 4 weeks duration, the resultsshowed that 66.66% of the plants withered for on exposure to Hg concentration of 4 mg/L and 100% withered at higher concentrations of 6 and 8 mg/L. The results of this study may serve as a basis for research that aims to study uptake and accumulation of Hg using potential phytoremediation plants.

  6. Safety and Feasibility of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Pediatric Hemiparesis: Randomized Controlled Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. Objective The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. Design A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Participants Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Measurements Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. Results No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. Limitations A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data

  7. Accumulation and effects of sulfadimethoxine in Salix fragilis L. plants: a preliminary study to phytoremediation purposes.

    PubMed

    Michelini, Lucia; Meggio, Franco; La Rocca, Nicoletta; Ferro, Stefania; Ghisi, Rossella

    2012-04-01

    The application of manure to fertilize arable lands is one of the major means through which veterinary sulfonamides (SAs) enter the environment. Little is known about the capacity of woody plants to phytoremediate this class of antibiotics. To this purpose we performed preliminary studies to evaluate Salix fragilis L. response to sulfadimethoxine (SDM) by investigating both its ability to absorb and tolerate doses of SDM found in fresh faeces of treated calves. Forty cuttings were exposed to either 0, 0.5, 1, or 2 mM of SDM for one month. Decreases in photosynthetic electron transport rate and net CO2 assimilation after 25 days for the higher SDM concentrations were noticed. Moreover, alterations in root morphology of treated plants were observed and further investigated through electron microscopy. However, collected data revealed high root accumulation potential. These preliminary results are promising as they demonstrate that Salix fragilis L. can both absorb and tolerate high concentrations of SAs. PMID:22567719

  8. Data used in preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P ); Luzzolino, H. ); Sandha, J.S. )

    1990-12-01

    This report documents the data available as of August 1990 and used by the Performance Assessment Division of Sandia National Laboratories in its December 1990 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Parameter values are presented in table form for the geologic subsystem, engineered barriers, borehole flow properties, climate variability, and intrusion characteristics. Sources for the data and a brief discussion of each parameter are provided. 101 refs., 72 figs., 21 tabs.

  9. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential for TVA's John Sevier and Kingston Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Ellen D; Saulsbury, Bo

    2008-03-01

    This is a preliminary assessment of the potential for geologic carbon sequestration for the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) John Sevier and Kingston power plants. The purpose of this assessment is to make a 'first cut' determination of whether there is sufficient potential for geologic carbon sequestration within 200 miles of the plants for TVA and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to proceed with a joint proposal for a larger project with a strong carbon management element. This assessment does not consider alternative technologies for carbon capture, but assumes the existence of a segregated CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration.

  10. Preliminary Safety Assessment of New Azinesulfonamide Analogs of Aripiprazole using Prokaryotic Models

    PubMed Central

    Powroźnik, Beata; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Marciniec, Krzysztof; Zajdel, Paweł; Pękala, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of the mutagenic potential of new biologically active compounds is of great concern for preliminary toxicity testing and drug development. Methods: The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of some quinoline- and isoquinolinesulfonamide analogs of aripiprazole (1-8), which display potent antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic properties, were evaluated using the Vibrio harveyi assay and OSIRIS Property Explorer software. Additionally, the Ames test was used as the reference. Results: In silico prediction showed that compounds 5 (N-(3-(4-(2,3- dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)quinoline-7-sulfonamide) and 6 (N-(4-(4-(2,3- Dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)quinoline-7-sulfonamide) trigger a mutagenic structural alert. However, this was not confirmed by in vitro assays, as none of the tested compounds displayed mutagenic activity against all tested strains of bacteria. Moreover, compounds 1-8 displayed a protective effect against the mutagenicity induced by a direct acting mutagen NQNO. The most beneficial antimutagenic properties showed compound 5 which exhibited strong antimutagenic properties in all tested V. harveyi strains. High antimutagenic potency of this compound was confirmed in the Ames TA100 assay system. Conclusion: Newly synthesized azinesulfonamide analogs of aripiprazole may be considered as genotoxically safe as they do not display mutagenic activity on the tester strains. Moreover, the tested compounds demonstrated significant antimutagenic properties that can be valuable for prevention of the NQNO genotoxicity. Additionally, it appears that the Vibrio harveyi assay can be applied for primary mutagenicity and antimutagenicity assessment of chemical substances, thus, representing a useful alternative tool for compounds safety evaluation. PMID:27766221

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation and biochemical efficacy of a Carum carvi extract: results from a randomized, triple-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) is known as caraway, and its derivatives find wide medicinal use for health purposes, including for gastrointestinal problems and obesity. Since there is inconsistency among the reports on the safety of this plant in humans, this research was aimed at assessing the safety of a characterized caraway aqueous extract (CAE) in a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy, overweight and obese, healthy women were randomly assigned into placebo (n = 35) and plant extract (n = 35) groups. Participants received either 30 ml/day of CAE or placebo. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 12 weeks for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, urine test, 25-item blood chemistries, and general health status. No significant changes of blood pressure, heart rate, urine specific gravity, and serum blood tests were observed between the two groups before and after treatment. However, in the complete blood count test, red blood cell levels were significantly (p < 0.01) increased, and platelet distribution width was significantly decreased after the dietary CAE treatment, as compared with placebo. No negative changes were observed in the general health status of the two groups. This preliminary study suggests that the oral intake of CAE appears to be without any adverse effects at a dosage of 30 ml daily for a period of 12 weeks.

  12. Preliminary safety evaluation and biochemical efficacy of a Carum carvi extract: results from a randomized, triple-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) is known as caraway, and its derivatives find wide medicinal use for health purposes, including for gastrointestinal problems and obesity. Since there is inconsistency among the reports on the safety of this plant in humans, this research was aimed at assessing the safety of a characterized caraway aqueous extract (CAE) in a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled study. Seventy, overweight and obese, healthy women were randomly assigned into placebo (n = 35) and plant extract (n = 35) groups. Participants received either 30 ml/day of CAE or placebo. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 12 weeks for changes in heart rate, blood pressure, urine test, 25-item blood chemistries, and general health status. No significant changes of blood pressure, heart rate, urine specific gravity, and serum blood tests were observed between the two groups before and after treatment. However, in the complete blood count test, red blood cell levels were significantly (p < 0.01) increased, and platelet distribution width was significantly decreased after the dietary CAE treatment, as compared with placebo. No negative changes were observed in the general health status of the two groups. This preliminary study suggests that the oral intake of CAE appears to be without any adverse effects at a dosage of 30 ml daily for a period of 12 weeks. PMID:24638976

  13. Using game technologies to improve the safety of construction plant operations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongling; Li, Heng; Chan, Greg; Skitmore, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Many accidents occur world-wide in the use of construction plant and equipment, and safety training is considered by many to be one of the best approaches to their prevention. However, current safety training methods/tools are unable to provide trainees with the hands-on practice needed. Game technology-based safety training platforms have the potential to overcome this problem in a virtual environment. One such platform is described in this paper - its characteristics are analysed and its possible contribution to safety training identified. This is developed and tested by means of a case study involving three major pieces of construction plant, which successfully demonstrates that the platform can improve the process and performance of the safety training involved in their operation. This research not only presents a new and useful solution to the safety training of construction operations, but illustrates the potential use of advanced technologies in solving construction industry problems in general.

  14. Nuclear power plants in China's coastal zone: risk and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qingshui; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai; Bi, Xiaoli; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are used as an option to meet the demands for electricity due to the low emission of CO2 and other contaminants. The accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant in 2011 has forced the Chinese government to adjust its original plans for nuclear power. The construction of inland nuclear power plants was stopped, and construction is currently only permitted in coastal zones. However, one obstacle of those plants is that the elevation of those plants is notably low, ranging from 2 to 9 meters and a number of the nuclear power plants are located in or near geological fault zones. In addition, the population density is very high in the coastal zones of China. To reduce those risks of nuclear power plants, central government should close the nuclear power plants within the fault zones, evaluate the combined effects of storm surges, inland floods and tidal waves on nuclear power plants and build closed dams around nuclear power plants to prevent damage from storm surges and tidal waves. The areas without fault zones and with low elevation should be considered to be possible sites for future nuclear power plants if the elevation can be increased using soil or civil materials.

  15. Preliminary design of a solar central receiver for site-specific repowering application (Saguaro Power Plant). Volume II. Preliminary design. Final report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    The solar central receiver technology, site, and specific unit for repowering were selected in prior analyses and studies. The objectives of this preliminary design study were to: develop a solar central receiver repowering design for Saguaro that (1) has potential to be economically competitive with fossil fueled plants in near and long term applications, (2) has the greatest chance for completion without further government funding, (3) will further define technical and economic feasibility of a 66 MWe gross size plant that is adequate to meet the requirements for utility and industrial process heat applications, (4) can potentially be constructed and operated within the next five years, and (5) incorporates solar central receiver technology and represents state-of-the-art development. This volume on the preliminary design includes the following sections: executive summary; introduction; changes from advanced conceptual design; preliminary design; system characteristics; economic analysis; and development plan.

  16. [Preliminary plant inventory of the palm-swamps in the Caribbean of Costa Rica and Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Rueda, Ricardo; Jarquín, Orlando; Munguía, Blanca; Reyes, Aquiles; Coronado, Indiana

    2013-09-01

    In the Caribbean slope of Isthmian Central America, plant associations dominated by the palms Raphia taedigera and Manicaria saccifera develop in poorly drained or waterlogged soils. These associations are known locally as yolillales or palm-swamps, although there are differences in the forest structure and plant diversity associated with both palm species. In this paper, we report the results of a preliminary inventory of tree species found in eight palm-swamps at five locations in southeastern Nicaragua and northeastern Costa Rica. Our data reveal low tree diversity in these swamps with only 60 species accounted in them. This figure is equivalent to close to 8% of the plant species known for this region. In general, R. taedigera dominates flooded areas with extensive hydroperiods and lower floristic diversity, while M. saccifera is often found in flooded forests with more structure and diversity. PMID:24459755

  17. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Mixed Waste Management Facility Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Chapters 1 to 20

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This document provides information on waste management practices, occupational safety, and a site characterization of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A facility description, safety engineering analysis, mixed waste processing techniques, and auxiliary support systems are included.

  19. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to be handled in this

  20. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  1. Preliminary Examination of Safety Issues on a University Campus: Personal Safety Practices, Beliefs & Attitudes of Female Faculty & Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2007-01-01

    University and college campuses are not immune to acts of violence. Unfortunately there is limited information regarding violence in the academic setting among women employees. As such, the purpose of this exploratory research was to examine issues that female faculty and staff members have about safety on and around campus, including concerns…

  2. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  3. 78 FR 67206 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Plants'' on May 1, 2013, (78 FR 25488) for a 60 day public comment period. The public comment period... COMMISSION Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Commission (NRC) is issuing revision 1 to regulatory guide (RG) 1.73, ``Qualification Tests for...

  4. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  5. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed.

  6. Recent advances and safety issues of transgenic plant-derived vaccines.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-jun; Guo, Bin; Huo, Yan-lin; Guan, Zheng-ping; Dai, Jia-kun; Wei, Ya-hui

    2013-04-01

    Transgenic plant-derived vaccines comprise a new type of bioreactor that combines plant genetic engineering technology with an organism's immunological response. This combination can be considered as a bioreactor that is produced by introducing foreign genes into plants that elicit special immunogenicity when introduced into animals or human beings. In comparison with traditional vaccines, plant vaccines have some significant advantages, such as low cost, greater safety, and greater effectiveness. In a number of recent studies, antigen-specific proteins have been successfully expressed in various plant tissues and have even been tested in animals and human beings. Therefore, edible vaccines of transgenic plants have a bright future. This review begins with a discussion of the immune mechanism and expression systems for transgenic plant vaccines. Then, current advances in different transgenic plant vaccines will be analyzed, including vaccines against pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. In view of the low expression levels for antigens in plants, high-level expression strategies of foreign protein in transgenic plants are recommended. Finally, the existing safety problems in transgenic plant vaccines were put forward will be discussed along with a number of appropriate solutions that will hopefully lead to future clinical application of edible plant vaccines.

  7. New large solar photocatalytic plant: set-up and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Malato, S; Blanco, J; Vidal, A; Fernández, P; Cáceres, J; Trincado, P; Oliveira, J C; Vincent, M

    2002-04-01

    A European industrial consortium called SOLARDETOX has been created as the result of an EC-DGXII BRITE-EURAM-III-financed project on solar photocatalytic detoxification of water. The project objective was to develop a simple, efficient and commercially competitive water-treatment technology, based on compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) solar collectors and TiO2 photocatalysis, to make possible easy design and installation. The design, set-up and preliminary results of the main project deliverable, the first European industrial solar detoxification treatment plant, is presented. This plant has been designed for the batch treatment of 2 m3 of water with a 100 m2 collector-aperture area and aqueous aerated suspensions of polycrystalline TiO2 irradiated by sunlight. Fully automatic control reduces operation and maintenance manpower. Plant behaviour has been compared (using dichloroacetic acid and cyanide at 50 mg l(-1) initial concentration as model compounds) with the small CPC pilot plants installed at the Plataforma Solar de Almería several years ago. The first results with high-content cyanide (1 g l(-1)) waste water are presented and plant treatment capacity is calculated.

  8. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  9. [Preliminary study of the antimicrobial activity of traditional plants against E. coli].

    PubMed

    Blech, M F; Guillemin, F; Baure, L; Hartemann, P

    1991-09-01

    The microbiological quality of drinking water is a major public health priority in developing countries. As an alternative proposal to chemical treatment of water, we have studied the antibacterial effectiveness against E. coli of plants traditionally used for antisepsis. Traditional plants were freshly sampled from Burkina Faso and Vietnam. Two of them, Tamarinier and Derris elliptica respectively, were selected for the study. Various part of the plants, i.e. seeds, cloves and fruits were prepared in both decoction and maceration. Their antibacterial activity was assessed using standardized preparations of E. coli (Pasteur 792) in water (10(5), 10(6) and 10(7) germs/ml). Some preparations of Tamarinier showed encouraging results, whereas Derris elliptica was uneffective. Solutions of Tamarinier seeds produced a 4.5 log decrease of the germ concentration in standardized 10(7) germs/ml preparation. Decoction and maceration are still effective 24 h after a 10(4) bacteria/ml overloading. On the other hand, acid pH of clove and fruit solutions explains the slight effectiveness (1 log UFC/g of dry extract/48 h) of these solutions. Though the results are not meeting with the AFNOR requirements for disinfection, this preliminary study demonstrates a bacteriostatic effect of traditional plants against E. coli in water. Further study is needed to valid this property in the field. PMID:1953933

  10. Safety of foods derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John A

    2003-03-01

    Biopharmaceuticals have been available for clinical use for nearly three decades, but foods derived from agribiotechnology have been available for just under a decade. Controversy surrounding foods from genetically modified (GM) plants has focused primarily upon their allergenicity, with lesser concerns about antibiotic resistance genes. Concerns are related to possible environmental impacts on non-human species, including effects on non-target species (e.g., butterflies) and on the development of so-called "super weeds." Food allergies are no more prevalent in foods from GM plants than in conventional foods. Further, the use of antibiotics in the development of GM plants does not pose a significant risk to the human population. Foods from the current GM plant products have been shown not to pose any detrimental effects to humans, and, in fact, nutritionally enhanced products are being developed. GM foods are subjected globally to intense regulatory scrutiny, and extensive data have been provided consistently to regulatory agencies in the United States on a voluntary basis, with mandatory reporting of data soon to be in force. Existing environmental concerns appear to be unjustified on the basis of existing data and experience.

  11. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  12. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".

  13. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  14. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.

  15. [Health & safety in a steel plant: technical and managerial action].

    PubMed

    Fusato, M

    2012-01-01

    The report presents the experience in a steel company to improve the management of issues relating to health and safety of workers. The first part of the work focuses on the description of the interventions made by the company in recent years, which can be divided into technical interventions on production facilities, training and information, organizational activities and specific projects in collaboration with the health service. The second part presents the certification project according to OHSAS 18001, with particular focus on the efforts for a lean management of the documentation required by the management systems and for the automation of internal processes. The last part finally describes in detail the manner in which it was decided to address some issues that significantly affect the factory doctor: the recording and analysis of accidents and medications, management of hazardous substances and personal protective equipment.

  16. Biosafety Test for Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Proposed Environmental and Human Safety Index (EHSI) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Juan I.; Navas, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Arcos, Susana C.; Manzanera, Maximino

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) colonize plants and enhance their growth by different mechanisms. Some of these microorganisms may represent a potential threat to human, animal or plant health; however, their use might be approved in parts of Europe if they have been recommended as plant growth enhancers. The current regulatory framework has resulted in a fragmented, contradictory system, and there is an urgent need to establish harmonized protocols for the predictability, efficiency, consistency and especially the safety of PGPB for human and animal health and for the environment. In response to current efforts to update biosafety policies and provide alternative methods to replace the use of vertebrate animals, we propose a panel of tests and an evaluation system to reliably determine the biosafety of bacterial strains used as PGPB. Based on the results of different tests, we propose a scoring system to evaluate the safety of candidates for PGPB within the limitations of the assays used. PMID:26779168

  17. Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.

    PubMed

    Aberoumand, Ali

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  19. PRELIMINARY NUCLEAR CRITICALITY NUCLEAR SAFETY EVLAUATION FOR THE CONTAINER SURVEILLANCE AND STORAGE CAPABILITY PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Low, M; Matthew02 Miller, M; Thomas Reilly, T

    2007-04-30

    Washington Safety Management Solutions (WSMS) provides criticality safety services to Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) at the Savannah River Site. One activity at SRS is the Container Surveillance and Storage Capability (CSSC) Project, which will perform surveillances on 3013 containers (hereafter referred to as 3013s) to verify that they meet the Department of Energy (DOE) Standard (STD) 3013 for plutonium storage. The project will handle quantities of material that are greater than ANS/ANSI-8.1 single parameter mass limits, and thus required a Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE). The WSMS methodology for conducting an NCSE is outlined in the WSMS methods manual. The WSMS methods manual currently follows the requirements of DOE-O-420.1B, DOE-STD-3007-2007, and the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) SCD-3 manual. DOE-STD-3007-2007 describes how a NCSE should be performed, while DOE-O-420.1B outlines the requirements for a Criticality Safety Program (CSP). The WSRC SCD-3 manual implements DOE requirements and ANS standards. NCSEs do not address the Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) of non-reactor nuclear facilities that may be affected by overt or covert activities of sabotage, espionage, terrorism or other security malevolence. Events which are beyond the Design Basis Accidents (DBAs) are outside the scope of a double contingency analysis.

  20. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  1. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 2, Technical basis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6.

  2. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  3. Preliminary research on eddy current bobbin quantitative test for heat exchange tube in nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Pan; Shao, Wenbin; Liao, Shusheng

    2016-02-01

    For quantitative defects detection research on heat transfer tube in nuclear power plants (NPP), two parts of work are carried out based on the crack as the main research objects. (1) Production optimization of calibration tube. Firstly, ASME, RSEM and homemade crack calibration tubes are applied to quantitatively analyze the defects depth on other designed crack test tubes, and then the judgment with quantitative results under crack calibration tube with more accuracy is given. Base on that, weight analysis of influence factors for crack depth quantitative test such as crack orientation, length, volume and so on can be undertaken, which will optimize manufacture technology of calibration tubes. (2) Quantitative optimization of crack depth. Neural network model with multi-calibration curve adopted to optimize natural crack test depth generated in in-service tubes shows preliminary ability to improve quantitative accuracy.

  4. Anti-pyretic activity of some plants in female albino rats: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Suresh, B; Dhanasekaran, S; Elango, K; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S

    1995-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Ailanthus exceisa (AE). Toddalia asiatica (TA) and Araucaria bidwilli (AB) were screened by the anti-pyretic activity in yeast induced hyperthermic test model in the laboratory. Dose of AE (100), TA (60) and AB (30) mg., equivalent of the plant material per kg. Body weight of the extracts were administered orally to the female albino rats. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were conducted for all the extracts. LD 50 values on oral administration of the extracts were found to be AE (1000), AB (350) and TA (250) mg. per kg. body weight respectively. Both the root and aerial part fractions of TA displayed a pronounced anti-pyretic activity comparable to the standard drug paracetamol. AB oleoresin fraction was also found to show anti-pyretic effect. These observations however, confirm the folk-medical practices still prevailing among the tribes. PMID:22556707

  5. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304

    SciTech Connect

    Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens; Lommerzheim, Andre; Mrugalla, Sabine

    2013-07-01

    Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a

  6. Do ethnobotanical and laboratory data predict clinical safety and efficacy of anti-malarial plants?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over 1200 plant species are reported in ethnobotanical studies for the treatment of malaria and fevers, so it is important to prioritize plants for further development of anti-malarials. Methods The “RITAM score” was designed to combine information from systematic literature searches of published ethnobotanical studies and laboratory pharmacological studies of efficacy and safety, in order to prioritize plants for further research. It was evaluated by correlating it with the results of clinical trials. Results and discussion The laboratory efficacy score correlated with clinical parasite clearance (rs=0.7). The ethnobotanical component correlated weakly with clinical symptom clearance but not with parasite clearance. The safety component was difficult to validate as all plants entering clinical trials were generally considered safe, so there was no clinical data on toxic plants. Conclusion The RITAM score (especially the efficacy and safety components) can be used as part of the selection process for prioritising plants for further research as anti-malarial drug candidates. The validation in this study was limited by the very small number of available clinical studies, and the heterogeneity of patients included. PMID:21411018

  7. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  8. Plant Modernization with Digital Reactor Protection System Safety System Upgrades at US Nuclear Power Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Heckle, Wm. Lloyd; Bolian, Tricia W.

    2006-07-01

    As the current fleet of nuclear power plants in the US reaches 25+ years of operation, obsolescence is driving many utilities to implement upgrades to both their safety and non-safety-related Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems. Digital technology is the predominant replacement technology for these upgrades. Within the last 15 years, digital control systems have been deployed in non-safety- related control applications at many utilities. In addition, a few utilities have replaced small safety-related systems utilizing digital technology. These systems have shown digital technology to be robust, reliable and simpler to maintain. Based upon this success, acceptance of digital technology has gained momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies. Today, in an effort to extend the operating lives of their nuclear stations and resolve obsolescence of critical components, utilities are now pursuing digital technology for replacement of their primary safety systems. AREVA is leading this effort in the United States with the first significant digital upgrade of a major safety system. AREVA has previously completed upgrades to safety-related control systems emergency diesel engine controls and governor control systems for a hydro station which serves as the emergency power source for a nuclear station. Currently, AREVA is implementing the replacement of both the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Engineered Safety Features Actuation System (ESFAS) on all three units at a US PWR site. (authors)

  9. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  10. 77 FR 15399 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... (76 FR 73737), is available under ADAMS Accession No. ML120200484. NRC's PDR: You may examine and... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TS) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-505, Revision...

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  12. 76 FR 35861 - Safety Culture at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... plutonium dioxide (PuO 2 ) wastes discharged by the Plutonium Finishing Plant to the tank farms. The report... report was that the maximum PuO 2 particle size of 10 microns assumed in WTP criticality safety analyses... of this important finding in a timely manner, and actions to better characterize the PuO 2...

  13. Preliminary safety calculations to improve the design of Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Brovchenko, M.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Capellan, N.; Ghetta, V.; Laureau, A.

    2012-07-01

    Molten salt reactors are liquid fuel reactors so that they are flexible in operation but very different in the safety approach from solid fuel reactors. This study bears on the specific concept named Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). Since this new nuclear technology is in development, safety is an essential point to be considered all along the R and D studies. This paper presents the first step of the safety approach: the systematic description of the MSFR, limited here to the main systems surrounding the core. This systematic description is the basis on which we will be able to devise accidental scenarios. Thanks to the negative reactivity feedback coefficient, most accidental scenarios lead to reactor shut down. Because of the decay heat generated in the fuel salt, it must be cooled. After the description of the tools developed to calculate the residual heat, the different contributions are discussed in this study. The decay heat of fission products in the MSFR is evaluated to be low (3% of nominal power), mainly due to the reprocessing that transfers the fission products to the gas reprocessing unit. As a result, the contribution of the actinides is significant (0.5% of nominal power). The unprotected loss of heat sink transients are studied in this paper. It appears that slow transients are favorable (> 1 min) to minimize the temperature increase of the fuel salt. This work will be the basis of further safety studies as well as an essential parameter for the design of the draining system. (authors)

  14. Preliminary Accident Analysis for Construction and Operation of the Chornobyl New Safety Confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Batiy, Valeriy; Rubezhansky, Yruiy; Rudko, Vladimir; shcherbin, vladimir; Yegorov, V; Schmieman, Eric A.; Timmins, Douglas C.

    2005-08-08

    Analysis of potential exposure of personal and population during construction and exploitation of the New Safe Confinement was made. Scenarios of hazard event development were ranked. It is shown, that as a whole construction and exploitation of the NSC are in accordance with actual radiation safety norms of Ukraine.

  15. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  16. Feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of measurement-based care depression treatment for HIV patients in Bamenda, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Pence, Brian W; Gaynes, Bradley N; Atashili, Julius; O'Donnell, Julie K; Kats, Dmitry; Whetten, Kathryn; Njamnshi, Alfred K; Mbu, Tabenyang; Kefie, Charles; Asanji, Shantal; Ndumbe, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Depression affects 18-30 % of HIV-infected patients in Africa and is associated with greater stigma, lower antiretroviral adherence, and faster disease progression. However, the region's health system capacity to effectively identify and treat depression is limited. Task-shifting models may help address this large mental health treatment gap. Measurement-Based Care (MBC) is a task-shifting model in which a Depression Care Manager guides a non-psychiatric (e.g., HIV) provider in prescribing and managing antidepressant treatment. We adapted MBC for depressed HIV-infected patients in Cameroon and completed a pilot study to assess feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy. We enrolled 55 participants; all started amitriptyline 25-50 mg daily at baseline. By 12 weeks, most remained at 50 mg daily (range 25-125 mg). Median (interquartile range) PHQ-9 depressive severity scores declined from 13 (12-16) (baseline) to 2 (0-3) (week 12); 87 % achieved depression remission (PHQ-9 <5) by 12 weeks. Intervention fidelity was high: HIV providers followed MBC recommendations at 96 % of encounters. Most divergences reflected a failure to increase dose when indicated. No serious and few bothersome side effects were reported. Most suicidality (prevalence 62 % at baseline; 8 % at 12 weeks) was either passive or low-risk. Participant satisfaction was high (100 %), and most participants (89 %) indicated willingness to pay for medications if MBC were implemented in routine care. The adapted MBC intervention demonstrated high feasibility, safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy in this uncontrolled pilot study. Further research should assess whether MBC could improve adherence and HIV outcomes in this setting. PMID:24558099

  17. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool

  18. Vulnerability, safety and response of nuclear power plants to the hydroclimatic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János Katona, Tamás; Vilimi, András

    2016-04-01

    The Great Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, and the severe accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant 2011 alerted the nuclear industry to danger of extreme rare natural hazards. The subsequent "stress tests" performed by the nuclear industry in Europe and all over the world identifies the nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities and define the measures for increasing the plant safety. According to the international practice of nuclear safety regulations, the cumulative core damage frequency for NPPs has to be 10-5/a, and the cumulative frequency of early large release has to be 10-6/a. In case of operating plants these annual probabilities can be little higher, but the licensees are obliged to implement all reasonable practicable measures for increasing the plant safety. For achieving the required level of safety, design basis of NPPs for natural hazards has to be defined at the 10-4/a ⎯10-5/a levels of annual exceedance probability. Tornado hazard is some kind of exception, e.g., the design basis annual probability for tornado in the US is equal to 10-7/a. Design of the NPPs shall provide for an adequate margin to protect items ultimately necessary to prevent large or early radioactive releases in the event of levels of natural hazards exceeding those to be considered for design. The plant safety has to be reviewed for accounting the changes of the environmental conditions and natural hazards in case of necessity, but as minimum every ten years in the frame of periodic safety reviews. Long-term forecast of environmental conditions and hazards has to be accounted for in the design basis of the new plants. Changes in hydroclimatic variables, e.g., storms, tornadoes, river floods, flash floods, extreme temperatures, droughts affect the operability and efficiency as well as the safety the NPPs. Low flow rates and high water temperature in the rivers may force to operate at reduced power level or shutdown the plant (Cernavoda NPP, Romania, August 2009). The

  19. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... identification as Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1208 on August 22, 2012 (77 FR 50722) for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.''...

  20. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  1. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  2. Preliminary assessment of perchlorate in ecological receptors at the Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant (LHAAP), Karnack, Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, P N; Theodorakis, C W; Anderson, T A; Kendall, R J

    2001-10-01

    There have been increasing human health and ecological concerns about ionic perchlorate (ClO4-) since it was detected in drinking water sources in 1997. Perchlorate is known to affect thyroid function, causing subsequent hormone disruption and potential perturbations of metabolic activities. According to current estimates, perchlorate is found in the surface of groundwater of 14 states, including Texas. Longhorn Army Ammunition Plant, located in east central Texas, was a facility historically associated with perchlorate-containing propellants and rocket motors. Subsequently, perchlorate contamination in ground and surface waters at the facility has been reported. Soil, sediment, water, vegetation, and animal tissue samples were collected from several locations within the plant for a preliminary site assessment of perchlorate contamination. Perchlorate concentrations ranged from 555-5,557,000 ppb in vegetation, 811-2038 ppb in aquatic insects, below detection limits (ND) to 207 ppb in fish, ND-580 ppb in frogs, and ND-2328 ppb in mammals. Consistent with our hypothesis, aquatic organisms inhabiting perchlorate-contaminated surface water bodies contained detectable concentrations of perchlorate. Additionally, terrestrial organisms were exposed through pathways not necessarily related to contaminated surface waters. Therefore, these data demonstrate that aquatic and terrestrial species are exposed to perchlorate in the environment. To our knowledge, this represents the first incidence of perchlorate exposure among wild animals reported in the scientific literature.

  3. Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

    1986-03-20

    A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

  4. Health and safety. Preliminary comparative assessment of the satellite power system (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L.J.; Gasper, J.R.; Brown, C.D.

    1980-04-01

    Existing data on the health and safety risks of a satellite power system and four electrical generation systems are analyzed: a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine, a fission power system with fuel reprocessing, a central-station, terrestrial, solar-photovoltaic power system, and a first-generation design for a fusion power system. The systems are compared on the basis of expected deaths and person-days lost per year associated with 1000 MW of average electricity generation and the number of health and safety risks that are identified as potentially significant but unquantifiable. The appendices provide more detailed information on risks, uncertainties, additional research needed, and references for the identified impacts of each system.

  5. Health and safety: Preliminary comparative assessment of the Satellite Power System (SPS) and other energy alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habegger, L. J.; Gasper, J. R.; Brown, C.

    1980-01-01

    Data readily available from the literature were used to make an initial comparison of the health and safety risks of a fission power system with fuel reprocessing; a combined-cycle coal power system with a low-Btu gasifier and open-cycle gas turbine; a central-station, terrestrial, solar photovoltaic power system; the satellite power system; and a first-generation fusion system. The assessment approach consists of the identification of health and safety issues in each phase of the energy cycle from raw material extraction through electrical generation, waste disposal, and system deactivation; quantitative or qualitative evaluation of impact severity; and the rating of each issue with regard to known or potential impact level and level of uncertainty.

  6. An assessment of criticality safety at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado, July--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Roger J.

    1989-09-01

    This is a report on the 1989 independent Criticality Safety Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant, primarily in response to public concerns that nuclear criticality accidents involving plutonium may have occurred at this nuclear weapon component fabrication and processing plant. The report evaluates environmental issues, fissile material storage practices, ventilation system problem areas, and criticality safety practices. While no evidence of a criticality accident was found, several recommendations are made for criticality safety improvements. 9 tabs.

  7. Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol.

    PubMed

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2009-03-15

    The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria.

  8. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  9. Preliminary safety analysis of the Baita Bihor radioactive waste repository, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Little, Richard; Bond, Alex; Watson, Sarah; Dragolici, Felicia; Matyasi, Ludovic; Matyasi, Sandor; Thorne, Mike

    2007-07-01

    A project funded under the European Commission's Phare Programme 2002 has undertaken an in-depth analysis of the operational and post-closure safety of the Baita Bihor repository. The repository has accepted low- and some intermediate-level radioactive waste from industry, medical establishments and research activities since 1985 and the current estimate is that disposals might continue for around another 20 to 35 years. The analysis of the operational and post-closure safety of the Baita Bihor repository was carried out in two iterations, with the second iteration resulting in reduced uncertainties, largely as a result taking into account new information on the hydrology and hydrogeology of the area, collected as part of the project. Impacts were evaluated for the maximum potential inventory that might be available for disposal to Baita Bihor for a number of operational and postclosure scenarios and associated conceptual models. The results showed that calculated impacts were below the relevant regulatory criteria. In light of the assessment, a number of recommendations relating to repository operation, optimisation of repository engineering and waste disposals, and environmental monitoring were made. (authors)

  10. Preliminary safety analysis report for the Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    OSCAR,DEBBY S.; WALKER,SHARON ANN; HUNTER,REGINA LEE; WALKER,CHERYL A.

    1999-12-01

    The Auxiliary Hot Cell Facility (AHCF) at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) will be a Hazard Category 3 nuclear facility used to characterize, treat, and repackage radioactive and mixed material and waste for reuse, recycling, or ultimate disposal. A significant upgrade to a previous facility, the Temporary Hot Cell, will be implemented to perform this mission. The following major features will be added: a permanent shield wall; eight floor silos; new roof portals in the hot-cell roof; an upgraded ventilation system; and upgraded hot-cell jib crane; and video cameras to record operations and facilitate remote-handled operations. No safety-class systems, structures, and components will be present in the AHCF. There will be five safety-significant SSCs: hot cell structure, permanent shield wall, shield plugs, ventilation system, and HEPA filters. The type and quantity of radionuclides that could be located in the AHCF are defined primarily by SNL/NM's legacy materials, which include radioactive, transuranic, and mixed waste. The risk to the public or the environment presented by the AHCF is minor due to the inventory limitations of the Hazard Category 3 classification. Potential doses at the exclusion boundary are well below the evaluation guidelines of 25 rem. Potential for worker exposure is limited by the passive design features incorporated in the AHCF and by SNL's radiation protection program. There is no potential for exposure of the public to chemical hazards above the Emergency Response Protection Guidelines Level 2.

  11. Use of artificial intelligence to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, the sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which the available raw data can be converted into and assimilated as meaningful knowledge. Plant personnel are sometimes affected by stress and emotion, which may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems can take some of the uncertainty and guesswork out of their decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. Application of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, to control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and improve power plant safety and reliability. 12 refs.

  12. Economic, ecological, food safety, and social consequences of the deployment of bt transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Shelton, A M; Zhao, J-Z; Roush, R T

    2002-01-01

    Transgenic plants expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are revolutionizing agriculture. Bt, which had limited use as a foliar insecticide, has become a major insecticide because genes that produce Bt toxins have been engineered into major crops grown on 11.4 million ha worldwide in 2000. Based on the data collected to date, generally these crops have shown positive economic benefits to growers and reduced the use of other insecticides. The potential ecological and human health consequences of Bt plants, including effects on nontarget organisms, food safety, and the development of resistant insect populations, are being compared for Bt plants and alternative insect management strategies. Scientists do not have full knowledge of the risks and benefits of any insect management strategies. Bt plants were deployed with the expectation that the risks would be lower than current or alternative technologies and that the benefits would be greater. Based on the data to date, these expectations seem valid.

  13. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  14. Preliminary analysis of the safety and environmental impact of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.V.; Jalbert, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) is a facility dedicated to the development of technologies associated with the D-T fuel cycle of future fusion reactors while demonstrating that TSTA can be operated safely with no significant losses to the environment. During the initial design stage of TSTA, a safety analysis was performed which investigated the effects of major subsystem component failure, the meteorology and seismicity of the site and their possible effect on the facility, and accident scenarios which result in tritium releases. Major releases of tritium to the environment are considered highly improbable since they require a compound failure of primary and secondary containment, along with either a breach of the building or a failure of the Emergency Tritium Cleanup system. Accidental releases caused by natural phenomena (earthquake, tornado, etc.) are considered highly improbable (< 10/sup -0//yr).

  15. On-shift training of plant personnel on environmental, safety and health regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.

    1996-08-01

    As one of the standing committees under the American Petroleum Institute (API) General Committee of Refining, the Central Committee on Training and Development has several goals. These include improving plant operations and maintenance, reducing occupational injuries and illnesses, reducing the incidence of fires, maintaining effective environmental controls, and improving plant security. An additional responsibility is to develop cost and resource effective training materials. One of the activities the committee uses to achieve its goal is by sponsoring a series of biannual regional training conferences that attract participants from a variety of refineries and petrochemical plants. During the 1995 Spring Conferences, conference attendees were asked if on-shift training of plant personnel on environmental, safety and health was being utilized to assist compliance efforts and to achieve cost and resource effective training. In general, use of on-shift training is increasingly finding acceptance among the sites. One west coast refiner reported that their refinery had implemented a program of on-shift training for plant personnel on all environmental, safety and health regulations, and had achieved nearly one-hundred percent compliance through the first quarter of the effort.

  16. Evaluation of a non-targeted "omic" approach in the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Metzdorff, S B; Kok, E J; Knuthsen, P; Pedersen, J

    2006-09-01

    Genetically modified plants must be approved before release in the European Union, and the approval is generally based upon a comparison of various characteristics between the transgenic plant and a conventional counterpart. As a case study, focusing on safety assessment of genetically modified plants, we here report the development and characterisation of six independently transformed ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA lines modified in the flavonoid biosynthesis. Analyses of integration events and comparative analysis for characterisation of the intended effects were performed by PCR, quantitative Real-time PCR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analysis by cDNA microarray was used as a non-targeted approach for the identification of potential unintended effects caused by the transformation. The results revealed that, although the transgenic lines possessed different types of integration events, no unintended effects were identified. However, we found that the majority of genes showing differential expression were identified as stress-related genes and that environmental conditions had a large impact on the expression of several genes, proteins, and metabolites. We suggest that the microarray approach has the potential to become a useful tool for screening of unintended effects, but state that it is crucial to have substantial information on the natural variation in traditional crops in order to be able to interpret "omics" data correctly within the framework of food safety assessment strategies of novel plant varieties, including genetically modified plant varieties.

  17. Probabilistic Safety Study Applications Program for inspection of the Indian Point Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Fullwood, R.; Fresco, A.

    1986-03-01

    By prioritizing the various areas of interest for inspection and by better defining inspection needs, the NRC expects to make more effective use of finite inspection resources by concentrating on those potential areas most significant to safety. Through review and application of the Indian Point Unit 3 Probabilistic Safety Study's numerical data and event tree modeling, and by utilizing related documents, a technical basis for prioritizing areas for NRC inspection has been developed. This was then tested at the plant site for the NRC Operating Reactor Inspection Program, I and E Manual Chapter 2515. Inspection activities addressed include normal operations, system and component testing, maintenance and surveillance. A computer program entitled NSPKTR, which was developed specifically for this program, modeled the internal plant states to the system level and performed the risk and importance calculations. 17 refs., 21 tabs.

  18. Safety implications of cultural and cognitive issues in nuclear power plant operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Paulo V R; Dos Santos, Isaac L; Vidal, Mario C R

    2006-03-01

    This research project was designed to investigate cultural and cognitive issues related to the work of nuclear power plant operators during their time on the job in the control room and during simulator training (emergency situations), in order to show how these issues impact on plant safety. The modeling of the operators work deals with the use of operational procedures, the constant changes in the focus of attention and the dynamics of the conflicting activities. The paper focuses on the relationships between the courses of action of the different operators and the constraints imposed by their working environment. It shows that the safety implications of the control room operators' cognitive and cultural issues go far beyond the formal organizational constructs usually implied. Our findings indicate that the competence required for the operators are concerned with developing the possibility of constructing situation awareness, managing conflicts, gaps and time problems created by ongoing task procedures, and dealing with distractions, developing skills for collaborative work.

  19. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  20. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  1. Implementation of external hazards in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manorma; Klug, Joakim; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The paper will focus on the discussion on implementation of external hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods for the extreme external hazards mainly focused on Seismic, Flooding, Meteorological Hazards (e.g. Storm, Extreme temperature, snow pack), Biological infestation, Lightening hazards, Accidental Aircraft crash and man- made hazards including natural external fire and external explosion. This will include discussion on identification of some good practices on the implementation of external hazards in Level 1 PSA, with a perspective of development of extended PSA and introduction of relevant modelling for external hazards in an existing Level 1 PSA. This paper is associated to the European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) which gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and which aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants.

  2. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  3. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  4. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  5. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  6. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  7. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  8. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  9. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  10. Deviance in Space Habitats: A Preliminary Look at Health and Safety Violations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pass, J.

    It is easy to take a well-functioning complex system for granted, even when we do not quite understand how it will work in great detail before starting it up for the first time, or exactly how it works thereafter (given its complexity). At the system level, the normal operation of the space habitat can result in accidents. On the personal level, complacency, and the false sense of security that comes with it, become the enemy quite quickly and usually without much - or any - notice. Workers do not intend to overlook important signs of behavioral aberrations or equipment malfunctions, but they may lose their sharpness and objectivity over time. In isolated settings, a variety of causes can result in devastating accidents, which may result in illnesses, injuries, and deaths. In the worst circumstances, within the confines of a space habitat or spacecraft, an entire population could be lost. Oil refineries provide a good, though obviously imperfect, analogy for the space habitat. Refineries are complex systems that transport and process oils and fuels at varying steps during the refining process within a complex system. Space habitats represent even more extreme closed systems. There is often no escape, as the habitat provides the atmosphere and other elements necessary for survival. Inhabitants of space habitats must avoid the types of accidents that have occurred in refineries on Earth if they expect to survive as individuals and as a social system. Submarines present a better analogy of a closed system. A challenge that never disappears relates to the possibility that the system may operate on a "normally" on one day and then malfunction on another day for no apparent reason. Another challenge among members of a space society is to avoid complacency, because an imminent failure may occur at any time. Yet another challenge is to avoid engaging in health and safety violations in order to serve expediency due to pressures exerted by superiors and for other reasons

  11. Results from One- and Two- Phase Fluid Flow Calculations within the Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site - 13310

    SciTech Connect

    Kock, Ingo; Larue, Juergen; Fischer, Heidi; Frieling, Gerd; Navarro, Martin; Seher, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Rock salt is one of the possible host rock formations for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in Germany. The Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site (Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse Gorleben, VSG) evaluates the long-term safety of a hypothetical repository in the salt dome of Gorleben, Germany. A mature repository concept and detailed knowledge of the site allowed a detailed process analysis within the project by numerical modeling of single-phase and two-phase flow. The possibility of liquid transport from the shafts to the emplacement drifts is one objective of the present study. Also, the implications of brine inflow on radionuclide transport and gas generation are investigated. Pressure build-up due to rock convergence and gas generation, release of volatile radionuclides from the waste and pressure-driven contaminant transport were considered, too. The study confirms that the compaction behavior of salt grit backfill is one of the most relevant factors for the hydrodynamic evolution of the repository and the transport of contaminants. Due to the interaction between compaction, saturation and pore pressure, complex flow patterns evolve. Emplacement drifts serve as gas sinks or sources at different times. In most calculation cases, the backfill reaches its final porosity after a few hundred years. The repository is then sealed and radionuclides can only be transported by diffusion in the liquid phase. Estimates for the final porosity of compacted backfill range between 0 % and 2 %. The exact properties of the backfill regarding single- and two-phase flow are not well known for this porosity range. The study highlights that this uncertainty has a profound impact on flow and transport processes over long time-scales. Therefore, more research is needed to characterize the properties of crushed salt grit at low porosities or to reduce the adverse effects of possible higher porosities by repository optimization. (authors)

  12. Preliminary Recommendations for the Collection, Storage, and Analysis of UAS Safety Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enomoto, Francis; Bushnell, David; Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh; Schumann, Johann

    2013-01-01

    Although the use of UASs in military and public service operations is proliferating, civilian use of UASs remains limited in the United States today. With efforts underway to accommodate and integrate UASs into the NAS, a proactive understanding of safety issues, i.e., the unique hazards and the corresponding risks that UASs pose not only through their operations for commercial purposes, but also to existing operations in the NAS, is especially important so as to (a) support the development of a sound regulatory basis, (b) regulate, design and properly equip UASs, and (c) effectively mitigate the risks posed. Data, especially about system and component failures, incidents, and accidents, provides valuable insight into how performance and operational capabilities/limitations contribute to hazards. Since the majority of UAS operations today take place in a context that is significantly different from the norm in civil aviation, i.e., with different operational goals and standards, identifying that which constitutes useful and sufficient data on UASs and their operations is a substantial research challenge.

  13. OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) stationkeeping subsystems (SKSS). Review of conceptual and preliminary designs of Pilot Plant SKSS. Appendix. Recommendations for OTEC commercial plant SKSS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-15

    The aim of the study is primarily an assessment of the adequacy, accuracy, and practicality of the proposed designs, in order to make comment on the feasibility of developing a viable station-keeping subsystems (SKSS) for the OTEC Pilot Plant. Included in this report is information on: design criteria and safety factors; environmental data and response analysis; materials and components; deployment concept; maintenance and replacement concepts; concept evaluation - risk/reliability/cost; and recommendations for OTEC commercial plant station-keeping subsystems.

  14. Impact of mechanical- and maintenance-induced failures of main reactor coolant pump seals on plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M A; Boccio, J L; Mitra, S

    1985-12-01

    This document presents an investigation of the safety impact resulting from mechanical- and maintenance-induced reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failures in nuclear power plants. A data survey of the pump seal failures for existing nuclear power plants in the US from several available sources was performed. The annual frequency of pump seal failures in a nuclear power plant was estimated based on the concept of hazard rate and dependency evaluation. The conditional probability of various sizes of leak rates given seal failures was then evaluated. The safety impact of RCP seal failures, in terms of contribution to plant core-melt frequency, was also evaluated for three nuclear power plants. For leak rates below the normal makeup capacity and the impact of plant safety were discussed qualitatively, whereas for leak rates beyond the normal make up capacity, formal PRA methodologies were applied. 22 refs., 17 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Human studies on abecarnil a new beta-carboline anxiolytic: safety, tolerability and preliminary pharmacological profile.

    PubMed Central

    Duka, T; Schütt, B; Krause, W; Dorow, R; McDonald, S; Fichte, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Abecarnil (isopropyl-6-benzyloxy-4-methoxymethyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate), a beta-carboline with high affinity for benzodiazepine receptors, was tested in healthy male subjects; single doses of abecarnil were given in five dosage levels (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg) and in a multiple dose study in four dosage levels (15 mg, 30 mg, 60 mg, 90 mg day-1) for 7 days. On two days following multiple dose treatment, placebo was given in single-blind conditions (follow-up). In each dosage level, in both studies drug was given to 10 subjects (7: verum, 3: placebo). 2. Safety and tolerability were evaluated by changes in vital signs, incidence and severity of adverse reactions and biochemical and haematological screening. Drug effects were estimated utilizing a bipolar visual analogue scale (poles: 'sleepy'-'alert') and a psychomotor task, the digit symbol substitution task. The pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses were also determined in the multiple dose study. 3. Abecarnil was generally well tolerated. In the single dose study the most frequently reported side effects associated with abecarnil at high doses (20 and 40 mg) were dizziness, unsteady gait, and lack of concentration. A decrement in performance on the digit symbol substitution task was also observed in the two high dosage groups 20 mg and 40 mg. Evaluation of visual analogue scale ratings did not reveal a sedative effect even at higher doses. 4. In the multiple dose study the most frequently reported side effects during the treatment period were dizziness, unsteady gait, and lack of concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8097921

  16. Artemisinin-naphthoquine combination therapy for uncomplicated pediatric malaria: a tolerability, safety, and preliminary efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, John; Moore, Brioni; Lee, Sook Ting; Senn, Michèle; Griffin, Susan; Lautu, Dulci; Salman, Sam; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M E

    2012-05-01

    Artemisinin-naphthoquine (ART-NQ) is a fixed-dose coformulated antimalarial therapy recommended as a single-dose treatment and marketed in Papua New Guinea among other tropical countries. We conducted a tolerability, safety, and efficacy study of ART-NQ for Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 12 years with uncomplicated malaria, comparing single-dose ART-NQ (15 and 6 mg/kg of body weight) given with water (group 1; n = 15), single-dose ART-NQ (22 and 9 mg/kg) given with milk (group 2; n = 17), or two daily doses of 22 and 9 mg/kg given with water (group 3; n = 16). Of the 48 children (45 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, 2 with Plasmodium vivax malaria, and 1 with mixed-species malaria), 2 in group 2 did not attend all follow-up assessments. All regimens were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events. There were no clinically significant changes in pulse, blood pressure, rate-corrected electrocardiographic QT, routine biochemistry/hematology, or hearing after treatment. Fever clearance was prompt. Mean 50% parasite clearance times were 4, 4, and 5 h for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. One group 1 patient had PCR-confirmed P. falciparum recrudescence at day 23; four had PCR-confirmed P. falciparum reinfections on day 28 or 42; and three had P. vivax infections detected on day 42. The only recurrent parasitemia in groups 2 and 3 occurred in a group 2 child who developed a P. vivax infection on day 42. Day 14 gametocyte positivity levels were 20%, 27%, and 9% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The lower single ART-NQ dose was associated with relatively frequent recurrence of parasitemia, but the prolonged gametocytemia in all three groups has implications for the transmission of malaria.

  17. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Marta; Pérez, Eulàlia; Abanades, Sergio; Vidal, Xavier; Saura, Cristina; Majem, Margarita; Arriola, Edurne; Rabanal, Manel; Pastor, Antoni; Farré, Magí; Rams, Neus; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Capellà, Dolors

    2010-01-01

    AIMS Despite progress in anti-emetic treatment, many patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This is a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial designed to evaluate the tolerability, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of an acute dose titration of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM) containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, taken in conjunction with standard therapies in the control of CINV. METHODS Patients suffering from CINV despite prophylaxis with standard anti-emetic treatment were randomized to CBM or placebo, during the 120 h post-chemotherapy period, added to standard anti-emetic treatment. Tolerability was measured as the number of withdrawals from the study during the titration period because of adverse events (AEs). The endpoint for the preliminary efficacy analysis was the proportion of patients showing complete or partial response. RESULTS Seven patients were randomized to CBM and nine to placebo. Only one patient in the CBM arm was withdrawn due to AEs. A higher proportion of patients in the CBM group experienced a complete response during the overall observation period [5/7 (71.4%) with CMB vs. 2/9 (22.2%) with placebo, the difference being 49.2% (95% CI 1%, 75%)], due to the delayed period. The incidence of AEs was higher in the CBM group (86% vs. 67%). No serious AEs were reported. The mean daily dose was 4.8 sprays in both groups. CONCLUSION Compared with placebo, CBM added to standard antiemetic therapy was well tolerated and provided better protection against delayed CINV. These results should be confirmed in a phase III clinical trial. PMID:21039759

  18. A preliminary investigation of pollution in the River Yamuna, Delhi, India: Metal concentrations in river bank soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Mehra, A; Banerjee, D K

    1989-12-01

    A preliminary study of inorganic elements in the river bank soil and plants from the River Yamuna in Delhi has been carried out. Soil at Okhla, near the Water Works plant has a high zinc content (1,215 μg g(-1) and this is reflected in the high concentration of zinc (2,029 μg g(-1)) in Eichhornia plants growing in the river at this point. Although in general the aluminium content of the soils is low in comparison with the world mean, soil near the effluent from the ash settling basins of the Indraprathsa Power Station contains elevated aluminium.Eichhornia plants growing near this effluent are stunted and unhealthy, and is suggested that, taking into account the high pH, possible causes are toxicity from aluminium or boron. PMID:24202425

  19. A preliminary investigation of pollution in the River Yamuna, Delhi, India: Metal concentrations in river bank soils and plants.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Mehra, A; Banerjee, D K

    1989-12-01

    A preliminary study of inorganic elements in the river bank soil and plants from the River Yamuna in Delhi has been carried out. Soil at Okhla, near the Water Works plant has a high zinc content (1,215 μg g(-1) and this is reflected in the high concentration of zinc (2,029 μg g(-1)) in Eichhornia plants growing in the river at this point. Although in general the aluminium content of the soils is low in comparison with the world mean, soil near the effluent from the ash settling basins of the Indraprathsa Power Station contains elevated aluminium.Eichhornia plants growing near this effluent are stunted and unhealthy, and is suggested that, taking into account the high pH, possible causes are toxicity from aluminium or boron.

  20. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed. PMID:21296423

  1. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary. PMID:27317828

  2. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary.

  3. Thermal process of fluff: preliminary tests on a full-scale treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mancini, G; Tamma, R; Viotti, P

    2010-01-01

    Until only recently fluff has been largely disposed of in controlled landfill sites. However, in Europe environmental regulations, including the EU Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC and ELV (End of Life Vehicle) Directive 2000/53/EC, have dramatically increased the pressure on all stakeholders to develop alternative solutions. As increasingly stringent legislation forces Shredder Residues (SR) to be diverted from landfilling, newly developed technologies will be in a position to compete for the market value of disposing of the waste. However, the fluff waste stream is so variable that it cannot be automatically assumed that processes developed for one type of fluff will prove to be suitable for other fluff streams. This situation has contributed towards convincing stakeholders to withhold investment funds or delay taking decisions as to how best to proceed; as a consequence, very few technologies have been fully developed on a commercial basis. It is of particular interest therefore that commercial alternatives to be used in dealing with this complex waste stream should be identified. The present paper illustrates the findings of a full-scale thermal treatment performed on SR samples obtained from various shredding plants. The outcome of the study provides an important contribution towards assessing the feasibility and reliability of the process, thus constituting a basic prerequisite for process performance evaluation. The full-scale plant, designed for the thermo-valorization of tyres, was purpose-modified to allow for fluff combustion. Three different fluff compositions (car fluff with different percentage of shredding, whites and 100% car fluff) were taken into consideration. Both the raw samples and solid products were thoroughly characterized. Combustion emissions were continuously analyzed during the test period, alternatively operating for tyre and fluff combustion. Classification of combustion residues for landfill disposal was carried out indicating only 2

  4. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    -tree procedure. Earlier studies have shown that the potentially liquefiable layer at Paks Nuclear Power Plant is situated in relatively large depth. Therefore the applicability and adequacy of the methods at high overburden pressure is important. In case of existing facilities, the geotechnical data gained before construction aren't sufficient for the comprehensive liquefaction analysis. Performance of new geotechnical survey is limited. Consequently, the availability of the data has to be accounted while selection the analysis methods. Considerations have to be made for dealing with aleatory uncertainty related to the knowledge of the soil conditions. It is shown in the paper, a careful comparison and analysis of the results obtained by different methodologies provides the basis of the selection of practicable methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant for beyond design basis liquefaction hazard.

  5. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for testing of computer...

  6. 77 FR 50720 - Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1207, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of... software and computer systems as described in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers...

  7. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  8. The effect of leader communication style on safety-conscious work environments at domestic nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Edward Michael

    Public risk from unsafe nuclear power plant operations increases when plant workers are reluctant to raise issues and concerns. The effect of leader communication style on the safety-conscious work environment (SCWE) at domestic nuclear power plants was evaluated using a descriptive quantitative research study. A sample of 379 plant employees was surveyed to determine leader communication style elements that foster SCWE. The results reveal that leader communication style significantly affects a safety-conscious work environment. Specific attributes such as wit, articulation, self-disclosure, and social composure, confirmation, and experience, were proven to directly affect worker's likelihood to raise issues and concerns. The direct effect of leader, communication style on safe plant operations and the communication actions leaders can take to improve the safety of those operations is discussed.

  9. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  10. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  11. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  12. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-01-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  13. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-04-05

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made a preliminary assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. Two IHX designs namely, shell and tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in the assessment. Printed circuit heat exchanger, among various compact heat exchanger (HX) designs, was selected for the analysis. Irrespective of the design, the material considerations for the construction of the HX are essentially similar, except may be in the fabrication of the units. As a result, we have reviewed in detail the available information on material property data relevant for the construction of HX and made a preliminary assessment of several relevant factors to make a judicious selection of the material for the IHX. The assessment included four primary candidate alloys namely, Alloy 617 (UNS N06617), Alloy 230 (UNS N06230), Alloy 800H (UNS N08810), and Alloy X (UNS N06002) for the IHX. Some of the factors addressed in this report are the tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, toughness properties for the candidate alloys, thermal aging effects on the mechanical properties, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code compliance

  14. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  15. Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Information Document, Amendment 10. GCFR residual heat removal system criteria, design, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of safety design bases to support the conceptual design of the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) residual heat removal (RHR) systems. The report is structured to enable the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to review and comment in the licensability of these design bases. This report also presents information concerning a specific plant design and its performance as an auxiliary part to assist the NRC in evaluating the safety design bases.

  16. Preventive techniques of pollution control, the reliability and safety in core sectors including thermal power plant installations and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a study of pollution control techniques, thermal power plant reliability and safety, and economics. Included are some illustrative examples dealing with pollution control. Topics include environmental planning, prevention strategy, pesticide use, food pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, thermal power plant emissions, and pollution control equipment.

  17. Optical fiber sensors to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdinand, P.; Magne, S.; Laffont, G.

    2013-09-01

    Safety must always prevail in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), as shown at Fukushima-Daiichi. So, innovations are clearly needed to strengthen instrumentations, which went inoperative during this nuclear accident as a consequence of power supply losses. Possible improvements concern materials and structures, which may be remotely monitored thanks to Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS). We detail topics involving OFS helpful for monitoring, in nominal conditions as well as during a severe accident. They include distributed sensing (Rayleigh, Raman, Brillouin) for both temperature sensing and structure monitoring as well as H2 concentration and ionizing radiation monitoring. For future plants, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are considered up to high temperature for sodium-cooled fast reactor monitoring. These applications can benefit from fiber advantages: sensor multiplexing, multi-km range, no risk-to-people, no common failure mode with other technologies, remote sensing, and the ability to operate in case of power supply lost in the NPP.

  18. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H. |

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP`s compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data.

  19. Medicinal plants in the treatment of women's disorders: Analytical strategies to assure quality, safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Montoro, Paola; Mari, Angela; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2015-09-10

    During last decades an increasing number of herbal products specifically targeting women's disorders has appeared in the worldwide marketplace. This growth highlights the need for a critical evaluation of quality, safety and efficacy of these products. Analytical techniques applied to the quality control of the main medicinal plants used for women health (relief of menopause and menstrual related symptoms) have been reviewed. Thanks to the innovation in analytical technology, identification and detection of secondary metabolites dramatically improved. In particular, hyphenated techniques have proved to be the most suitable for the rapid identification of compounds in plant matrix. Moreover, taking into account that differences in sample quality are not only found in the main compounds or in the chemical markers but also in the low-concentration compounds, fingerprint analysis might be a simple way for identification and quality control of herbal products containing a large number of low amounts of unknown compounds. Furthermore in several papers the informations obtained from the analysis of a plant have been processed by statistical elaborations. Medicinal plants here discussed are classified on the basis of the chemical markers used for their quality control.

  20. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  1. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  2. Technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Tanaka, T.J.; Antonescu, C.E.

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. This research was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). ORNL investigated potential failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies to environmental stressors, including electromagnetic/radio-frequency interference, temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. An experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) was constructed for the tests. SNL performed smoke exposure tests on digital components and circuit boards to determine failure mechanisms and the effect of different packaging techniques on smoke susceptibility. These studies are expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems by addressing the following: (1) adequacy of the present preferred test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging in qualification testing for equipment that is to be located in mild environments; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach to address smoke in a qualification program.

  3. Concentration of Actinides in Plant Mounds at Safety Test Nuclear Sites in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Shafer; Jenna Gommes

    2008-09-15

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around large shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. Believed to be an important factor in their formation, the shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, {sup 241}Am, and U in plant mounds at safety test sites. The NAEG studies found concentrations of these contaminants to be greater in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. For example, at Project 57 on the NTTR, it was estimated that 15 percent of the radionuclide inventory of the site was associated with shrub mounds, which accounted for 17 percent of the surface area of the site, a ratio of inventory to area of 0.85. At Clean Slate III at the TTR, 29 percent of the inventory was associated with approximately 32 percent of the site covered by shrub mounds, a ratio of 0.91. While the total inventory of radionuclides in intershrub areas was greater, the ratio of radionuclide inventory to area was 0.40 and 0.38, respectively, at the two sites. The comparison between the shrub mounds and adjacent desert pavement areas was made for only the top 5 cm since radionuclides at safety test sites are concentrated in the top 5 cm of intershrub areas. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with the shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. As part of its Environmental Restoration Soils Subproject, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear

  4. Continuous Improvement and the Safety Case for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geologic Repository - 13467

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Nelson, Roger; Leigh, Christi

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geologic repository 2150 feet (650 m) below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP permanently disposes of transuranic waste from national defense programs. Every five years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submits an application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to request regulatory-compliance re-certification of the facility for another five years. Every ten years, DOE submits an application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for the renewal of its hazardous waste disposal permit. The content of the applications made by DOE to the EPA for re-certification, and to the NMED for permit-renewal, reflect any optimization changes made to the facility, with regulatory concurrence if warranted by the nature of the change. DOE points to such changes as evidence for its having taken seriously its 'continuous improvement' operations and management philosophy. Another opportunity for continuous improvement is to look at any delta that may exist between the re-certification and re-permitting cases for system safety and the consensus advice on the nature and content of a safety case as being developed and published by the Nuclear Energy Agency's Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) expert group. DOE at WIPP, with the aid of its Science Advisor and teammate, Sandia National Laboratories, is in the process of discerning what can be done, in a reasonably paced and cost-conscious manner, to continually improve the case for repository safety that is being made to the two primary regulators on a recurring basis. This paper will discuss some aspects of that delta and potential paths forward to addressing them. (authors)

  5. Safety assessment considerations for food and feed derived from plants with genetic modifications that modulate endogenous gene expression and pathways.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D; Petrick, Jay S

    2008-08-01

    The current globally recognized comparative food and feed safety assessment paradigm for biotechnology-derived crops is a robust and comprehensive approach for evaluating the safety of both the inserted gene product and the resulting crop. Incorporating many basic concepts from food safety, toxicology, nutrition, molecular biology, and plant breeding, this approach has been used effectively by scientists and regulatory agencies for 10-15 years. Current and future challenges in agriculture include the need for improved yields, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improved nutrition. The next generation of biotechnology-derived crops may utilize regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors that modulate gene expression and/or endogenous plant pathways. In this review, we discuss the applicability of the current safety assessment paradigm to biotechnology-derived crops developed using modifications involving regulatory proteins. The growing literature describing the molecular biology underlying plant domestication and conventional breeding demonstrates the naturally occurring genetic variation found in plants, including significant variation in the classes, expression, and activity of regulatory proteins. Specific examples of plant modifications involving insertion or altered expression of regulatory proteins are discussed as illustrative case studies supporting the conclusion that the current comparative safety assessment process is appropriate for these types of biotechnology-developed crops.

  6. Preliminary Authorization Basis Document For the Proposed Biological Safety Level 3 (BSL-3) Facility (B368) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Altenbach, T; Nguyen, S

    2005-01-04

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management (ISM) System Description (LLNL 2002) and the Task Plan for the Preparation of Authorization Basis Documentation for the proposed Biosafety Level 3 Laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (DOE 2002a) require a PABD be prepared for the proposed BSL-3 Facility. NNSA-OAK approval is required prior to its construction. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) formalizes and documents the hazard evaluation and its results for the Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) facility. The PABD for the proposed BSL-3 facility provides the following information: (1) BSL-3 facility's site description; (2) general description of the BSL-3 facility and its operations; (3) identification of facility hazards; (4) generic hazard analysis; (5) identification of controls important to safety; and (6) safety management programs. The PABD characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility and provides the basis for its hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required and the level of review and approval for the safety analysis. The hazards of primary concern associated with the BSL-3 facility are biological. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of biological materials and activities with the BSL-3 threshold established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for BSL-3 facilities.

  7. Colonisation trends of the invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera, along river corridors: some preliminary findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, Phil; Kuhn, Brigitte; Kuhn, Nikolaus

    2016-04-01

    Originating from the Himalayas, the highly invasive plant, Impatiens glandulifera (Himalayan Balsam), is now found on three separate continents, with a distribution that includes most temperate European countries, large areas of east and west North America and parts of New Zealand. As a ruderal species, it prefers damp, shady and fertile soils that are frequently disturbed. This means that it commonly occurs along the riparian zone of rivers and streams. Being highly sensitivity to cold weather, however, whole stands suddenly and often simultaneously die-off; leaving riparian areas bare or partially devoid of vegetation. These lifecycle traits have implicated it in promoting soil erosion in affected river systems in temperate regions. Recent work undertaken by members of the Physical Geography & Environmental Change Research Group, University of Basel, has documented erosion rates along a section of contaminated river systems in northwest Switzerland, and southwest UK. Collectively, these data now span a total of seven separate germination and die-off cycles. Results from both river systems over all monitoring campaigns indicate that soil loss from areas contaminated with I. glandulifera is significantly greater than comparable areas supporting perennial vegetation. Crucially, however, extremely high-magnitude erosion was recorded at approximately 30% of contaminated areas (n=41). Reasons for high disturbance levels focus on the possibility that I. glandulifera tends to colonise depositional areas within a flood-zone. As those areas act as foci for the accretion of flood-derived sediment, the ability of this material to resist subsequent mobilisation processes is low due to limited cohesion, poor compaction and undeveloped soil structure. We hypothesis, therefore, that the tendency of I. glanduilfera to grow in depositional sites will be reflected in a number of key physico-chemical traits associated with soils in such areas; namely lower in-situ bulk

  8. Specifications for and preliminary design of a plant growth chamber for orbital experimental experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, H. C.; Simmonds, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    It was proposed that plant experiments be performed on board the space shuttle. To permit the proper execution of most tests, the craft must contain a plant growth chamber which is adequately designed to control those environmental factors which can induce changes in a plant's physiology and morphology. The various needs of, and environmental factors affecting, plants are identified. The permissilbe design, construction and performance limits for a plant-growth chamber are set, and tentative designs were prepared for units which are compatible with both the botanical requirements and the constraints imposed by the space shuttle.

  9. Opinions of Turkish Parents and Teachers About Safety Skills Instruction to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Nursinem; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-08-01

    Safety skills instruction should be regarded as one of the important teaching areas. A descriptive study was designed to reveal the opinions of Turkish parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders regarding safety skills instruction. Data were collected through interview and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that (a) both parents and teachers were able to define safety skills, (b) they found safety skills instruction important and necessary, (c) rather than providing systematic instruction they use natural occurrences as teaching opportunities and prevention behaviors, (d) parents have never had a conversation with teachers about safety skills instruction, and (e) neither parents nor teachers have enough knowledge and experience for teaching safety skills. Implications for implementing safety training are discussed.

  10. Safety of virus-resistant transgenic plants two decades after their introduction: lessons from realistic field risk assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Marc; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Potential safety issues have been raised with the development and release of virus-resistant transgenic plants. This review focuses on safety assessment with a special emphasis on crops that have been commercialized or extensively tested in the field such as squash, papaya, plum, grape, and sugar beet. We discuss topics commonly perceived to be of concern to the environment and to human health--heteroencapsidation, recombination, synergism, gene flow, impact on nontarget organisms, and food safety in terms of allergenicity. The wealth of field observations and experimental data is critically evaluated to draw inferences on the most relevant issues. We also express inside views on the safety and benefits of virus-resistant transgenic plants, and recommend realistic risk assessment approaches to assist their timely deregulation and release.

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  12. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Medicinal Plants or Related Natural Products for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Nascimento, Simone; DeSantana, Josimari Melo; Ribeiro, Êurica Adélia Nogueira; da Silva, Daniel Lira; Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effects of medicinal plants (MPs) or related natural products (RNPs) on fibromyalgia (FM) patients, we evaluate the possible benefits and advantages of MP or RNP for the treatment of FM based on eight randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) involving 475 patients. The methodological quality of all studies included was determined according to JADAD and “Risk of Bias” with the criteria in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. Evidence suggests significant benefits of MP or RNP in sleep disruption, pain, depression, joint stiffness, anxiety, physical function, and quality of life. Our results demonstrated that MP or RNP had significant effects on improving the symptoms of FM compared to conventional drug or placebo; longer tests are required to determine the duration of the treatment and characterize the long-term safety of using MP, thus suggesting effective alternative therapies in the treatment of pain with minimized side effects. PMID:23861696

  14. Pantex Plant final safety analysis report, Zone 4 magazines. Staging or interim storage for nuclear weapons and components: Issue D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains a detailed description and evaluation of the significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) issues associated with the operations of the Pantex Plant modified-Richmond and steel arch construction (SAC) magazines in Zone 4. It provides (1) an overall description of the magazines, the Pantex Plant, and its surroundings; (2) a systematic evaluations of the hazards that could occur as a result of the operations performed in these magazines; (3) descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards; and (4) analyses of potential accidents and their associated risks.

  15. Preliminary energy balance and economics of a farm-scale ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, D.; McKinnon, T.

    1980-05-01

    The energy balance and economics of grain to ethanol plants are matters of current national interest, as we strive to deal with our liquid fuel supply problems. This report prepared at the request of the Department of Energy, examines the energy balance and economic questions for a particular farm-scale plant in Campo, Colo. It shows that such plants may have a place in our national liquid fuel supply system.

  16. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  17. Preliminary Dynamic Modeling of the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Melter Offgas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. III

    2001-09-21

    This report documents preliminary versions of the models that include the components of the offgas systems from the melters through the exhaust stacks and the vessel ventilation systems. The models consider only the two major chemical species in the offgas stream: air and steam or water vapor. Model mass and energy balance calculations are designed to show the dynamic behavior of gas pressure and flow throughout the offgas systems in response to transient driving forces.

  18. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.L.; Coles, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation.

  19. Pedigree Analysis of the MELCOR 1.8.2 Code to be Used for ITER’s Report Preliminary on Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Moore; Brad J. Merrill

    2007-06-01

    This report documents the pedigree analysis of the MELCOR 1.8.2 code to be used for ITER’s Report Preliminary on Safety. To pedigree the code the process involved four steps. First, taking the modified MELCOR 1.8.2 code used by the ITER Joint Central Team (JCT) for analyses in previous ITER Safety Assessments and compared the FORTRAN code of this version line-by-line to the original 1.8.2 version of MELCOR. The second step was a non-regression analysis which involves comparing the results from the pedigreed version against those predicted by the original, unmodified version of MELCOR 1.8.2. The third step involved comparing the pedigreed version results to results from the MELCOR version used by the ITER JCT for the Generic Site Safety Report (GSSR) against a set of accident problems analyzed for the safety report. The fourth and final step involved a comparison between the pedigreed version of the code and the developmental test problems cited in the change documents referenced in this report. The results from the pedigree process are described in this report.

  20. Opinions of Turkish Parents and Teachers about Safety Skills Instruction to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Nursinem; Tekin-Iftar, Elif

    2016-01-01

    Safety skills instruction should be regarded as one of the important teaching areas. A descriptive study was designed to reveal the opinions of Turkish parents and teachers of children with autism spectrum disorders regarding safety skills instruction. Data were collected through interview and analyzed descriptively. Findings showed that (a) both…

  1. Asking Students about the Importance of Safety Skills Instruction: A Preliminary Analysis of What They Think Is Important

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Krupp, Michael; Spooner, Fred; Zakas, Tracie-Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of safety skills instruction is well acknowledged and available data suggest individuals with varying disabilities sustain injuries from accidents at a rate that is comparable to or may exceed the normative population, many students do not receive systematic safety skills instruction. Findings on the extent to which…

  2. PRB coal safety design considerations for new greenfield plants: an EPCC's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.

    2007-11-15

    The article reviews the design and safety aspects to consider in a new greenfield Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired power plant such as the 200 MW TS Power Plant (TSPP) in Nevada that Fluor is working on as an engineering, procurement and construction contractor (EPCC). PRB coals can become fragmented and form coal dust that is highly volatile and easily self-ignited. Coal handling systems incorporate features to minimise dust, such as totally enclosed chute works, 'spoon drops' to reduce impact turbulence, and overflow hoods. Conveyors have extended skirtboards and tight clearances between the wear plates and the belts. Storage piles are designed to have high compaction to deprive oxygen and dust suppression monitor hydrants to minimise dust and assist in compaction. The coal silo filling bay is designed to minimise dust once the coal is crushed, and attention is paid to cleaning and lighting. The silos are designed to ensure mass flow to the feeder and incorporate a carbon monoxide monitor and an F-500 fire suppressant. 3 photos.

  3. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  4. Preliminary energy balance and economic of a farm-scale ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, D.; McKinnon, T.

    1980-05-01

    A small-scale ethanol plant was designed, built, tested, and modified over the past 18 months. The plant currently operating is the second design. A third, and probably final, design will be installed and operating within a few months. The current plant produces approximately 30 gal/hr of 190-proof alcohol on a continuous basis. The new plant will produce 50 gal/hr of 200-proof alcohol. A key feature is the relatively low process heat requirement, which is achieved by extensive use of waste-heat recovery heat exchangers. This is manifested in the low temperatures of the process output streams. Acting on the request of the Office of Alcohol Fuels, US Department of Energy, and at the invitation of the owners, representatives from the Solar Energy Research Institute evaluated the energy balance on the plant. The objective was to help clear up the controversy surrounding the net energy benefit of ethanol production. Although the study was site-specific to the plant and limited in scope, it is indicative of the potential performance of grain-to-ethanol plants in general.

  5. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-11-07

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  6. A preliminary classification of wetland plant communities in north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.; Johnson, D.H.

    1973-01-01

    A classification of wetland plant communities was developed for a study area in north-central Minnesota in order to analyze data on waterfowl use of habitat that were gathered by radio telemetry. The classification employs features of several earlier classifications in addition to new classes for bogs and lakeshore communities. Brief descriptions are given for each community, and the important plant species are listed. Discriminant function analysis was used for 40 plant species. Seventy-five percent of the stands studied were classified correctly by this technique. Average probabilities of assignment to communities were calculated and helped to identify distinct and poorly defined communities as well as the relationship among communities.

  7. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  8. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland.

  9. Improving power plant efficiency and safety through better knowledge of flow-rates: The EDF approach

    SciTech Connect

    Piguet, M.

    1998-07-01

    The flow-rate is an important parameter in power plant operation for both performance and safety purposes. As an example, in nuclear and fossil power plants, the uncertainty concerning thermal and electrical powers is directly connected to the uncertainty of the feedwater flow. In real conditions, the flow-rate is often incorrectly determined due to various phenomena among which are incorrect installation conditions, wrong calibrations and drift, erosion or fouling of the flowmeters. These phenomena may lead to systematic errors which can represent several percents of the measured value and which can induce a critical loss of profit. This paper presents the strategy and means of EDF's R and D Division to improve actual accuracy of flowmeters used in power plants. The experimental approach has always been an efficient way to investigate and make a diagnosis of real situations. The EVEREST loop is a dedicated rig within EDF for the study of liquid flow metering problems. It enables to calibrate industrial flowmeters, evaluate prototypes and study the specific installation conditions of flowmeters. It is often noticed that flowmeters do not respect the standards in terms of straight lengths upstream from the meter. A practical example (1,300 MW unit feedwater flow) illustrates the possibility the EVEREST loop offers to reproduce the geometry of the hydraulic circuit and flow conditions. The impact of the actual installation conditions on the flowmeter accuracy can be thus determined and the flowmeter can be possibly recalibrated in order to reduce or correct a systematic bias. The EDF tool is presented with examples of accuracy and experimental and numerical modeling.

  10. Plants for passive cooling. A preliminary investigation of the use of plants for passive cooling in temperate humid climates

    SciTech Connect

    Spirn, A W; Santos, A N; Johnson, D A; Harder, L B; Rios, M W

    1981-04-01

    The potential of vegetation for cooling small, detached residential and commercial structures in temperate, humid climates is discussed. The results of the research are documented, a critical review of the literature is given, and a brief review of energy transfer processes is presented. A checklist of design objectives for passive cooling, a demonstration of design applications, and a palette of selected plant species suitable for passive cooling are included.

  11. Preliminary Modelling of Mass Flux at the Surface of Plant Leaves within the MELiSSA Higher Plant Compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmberg, Madeleine; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    The ESA project Micro Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an ecosystem of micro-organisms and higher plants, constructed with the objective of being operated as a tool to understand artificial ecosystems to be used for a long-term or permanent manned planetary base (e.g. Moon or Mars). The purpose of such a system is to provide for generation of food, water recycling, atmospheric regeneration and waste management within defined standards of quality and reliability. As MELiSSA consists of individual compartments which are connected to each other, the robustness of the system is fully dependent on the control of each compartment, as well as the flow management between them. Quality of consumables and reliability of the ecosystem rely on the knowledge, understanding and control of each of the components. This includes the full understanding of all processes related to the higher plants. To progress in that direction, this paper focuses on the mechanical processes driving the gas and liquid exchanges between the plant leaf and its environment. The process responsible for the mass transfer on the surface of plant leaves is diffusion. The diffusion flux is dependent on the behaviour of the stoma of the leaf and also on the leaf boundary layer (BL). In this paper, the physiology of the leaf is briefly examined in order to relate parameters such as light quality, light quantity, CO2 concentration, temperature, leaf water potential, humidity, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) gradients and pollutants to the opening or closing of stomata. The diffusion process is described theoretically and the description is compared to empirical approaches. The variables of the BL are examined and the effect airflow in the compartment has on the BL is investigated. Also presented is the impact changes in different environmental parameters may have on the fluid exchanges. Finally, some tests, to evaluate the accuracy of the concluded model, are suggested.

  12. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  13. Organization and management of the plant safety evaluation of the VVER-440/230 units at Novovoronezh.

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, C. M.; Pizzica, P.; Puglia, W. J.; Rozin, V.

    1999-05-13

    As part of the Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety (SDRS) element of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), the US Department of Energy (US DOE) is funding a plant safety evaluation (PSE) project for the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant (NvNPP). The Novovoronezh PSE Project is a multi-faceted project with participants from sixteen different international organizations from five different countries scattered across eleven time zones. The purpose of this project is to provide a thorough Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) and Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) for Units 3 and 4 of the NvNPP. In addition, this project provides assistance to the operation organizations in meeting their international commitments in support of safety upgrades, and their regulatory requirements for the conduct of safety analyses. Managing this project is a complex process requiring numerous management tools, constant monitoring, and effective communication skills. Employing management tools to resolve unanticipated problems one of the keys to project success. The overall scope, programmatic context, objectives, project interactions, communications, practical hindrances, and lessons learned from the challenging performance of the PSE project are summarized in this paper.

  14. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mouradian, E. M.

    1983-12-31

    Thermal analyses for the preliminary design phase of the Receiver of the Carrizo Plains Solar Power Plant are presented. The sodium reference operating conditions (T/sub in/ = 610/sup 0/F, T/sub out/ = 1050/sup 0/F) have been considered. Included are: Nominal flux distribution on receiver panal, Energy input to tubes, Axial temperature distribution; sodium and tubes, Sodium flow distribution, Sodium pressure drop, orifice calculations, Temperature distribution in tube cut (R-0), Backface structure, and Nonuniform sodium outlet temperature. Transient conditions and panel front face heat losses are not considered. These are to be addressed in a subsequent design phase. Also to be considered later are the design conditions as variations from the nominal reference (operating) condition. An addendum, designated Appendix C, has been included describing panel heat losses, panel temperature distribution, and tube-manifold joint thermal model.

  15. Preliminary safety assessment of a membrane-bound delta 9 desaturase candidate protein for transgenic oilseed crops.

    PubMed

    Madduri, Krishna M; Schafer, Barry W; Hasler, James M; Lin, Gaofeng; Foster, Mendy L; Embrey, Shawna K; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Song, Ping; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Gachotte, Daniel J; Herman, Rod A

    2012-10-01

    A gene encoding delta 9 desaturase (D9DS), an integral membrane protein, is being considered for incorporation into oilseed crops to reduce saturated fatty acids and thus improve human nutritional value. Typically, a safety assessment for transgenic crops involves purifying heterologously produced transgenic proteins in an active form for use in safety studies. Membrane-bound proteins have been very difficult to isolate in an active form due to their inherent physicochemical properties. Described here are methods used to derive enriched preparations of the active D9DS protein for use in early stage safety studies. Results of these studies, in combination with bioinformatic results and knowledge of the mode of action of the protein, along with a history of safe consumption of related proteins, provides a weight of evidence supporting the safety of the D9DS protein in food and feed.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  17. Preliminary Investigation of Plant Communities within Camassia quamash Habitats on the Flathead Indian Reservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringland, M.; Diller, B.

    2014-12-01

    Wetland destruction and disruption across the country has resulted in loss of habitat and diversity, leading to major ecosystem change. This study considers Camassia quamash (blue camas) as an indicator of wetland health and, in light of recent decrease in camas populations, as the subject species for a reintroduction project due to the plant's cultural significance. The bulb from which camas grows was a major subsistence commodity for tribes living in the Pacific Northwest and was once the second most-traded item in the region after salmon. Conservation management practices recommend detailed analysis of the target species' habitat in order to determine characteristics necessary for reestablishment. It was hypothesized that certain species, specifically exotic or invasive plants, may present deleterious competition for blue camas. Plant community dynamics associated with camas populations were studied using plot and transect sampling to measure camas density and species coverage. Statistical analysis was used to calculate camas density, frequency, site diversity, and correlation of each plant species with camas. One study site at Evaro, MT was found to have the highest level of plant diversity and highest abundance of camas. However, of the 83 species identified, none were found to have significant positive or negative correlation with camas prevalence, and no data supported the hypothesis of exotic or invasive competition.

  18. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  19. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume I. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard) solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report also discusses plant performance, operations and maintenance, development, and facility cost estimate and economic analysis.

  20. Integration of Biorefineries and Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants - A Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Sherrell R; Flanagan, George F; Borole, Abhijeet P

    2009-03-01

    Biomass-based ethanol and nuclear power are two viable elements in the path to U.S. energy independence. Numerous studies suggest nuclear power could provide a practical carbon-free heat source alternative for the production of biomass-based ethanol. In order for this coupling to occur, it is necessary to examine the interfacial requirements of both nuclear power plants and bioethanol refineries. This report describes the proposed characteristics of a small cogeneration nuclear power plant, a biochemical process-based cellulosic bioethanol refinery, and a thermochemical process-based cellulosic biorefinery. Systemic and interfacial issues relating to the co-location of either type of bioethanol facility with a nuclear power plant are presented and discussed. Results indicate future co-location efforts will require a new optimized energy strategy focused on overcoming the interfacial challenges identified in the report.

  1. Conceptual Software Reliability Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, H.

    2000-04-03

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to predict the potential reliability of software to be used in a digital system instrumentation and control system. The reliability prediction is to make use of existing measures of software reliability such as those described in IEEE Std 982 and 982.2. This prediction must be of sufficient accuracy to provide a value for uncertainty that could be used in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the purposes of the project, reliability was defined to be the probability that the digital system will successfully perform its intended safety function (for the distribution of conditions under which it is expected to respond) upon demand with no unintended functions that might affect system safety. The ultimate objective is to use the identified measures to develop a method for predicting the potential quantitative reliability of a digital system. The reliability prediction models proposed in this report are conceptual in nature. That is, possible prediction techniques are proposed and trial models are built, but in order to become a useful tool for predicting reliability, the models must be tested, modified according to the results, and validated. Using methods outlined by this project, models could be constructed to develop reliability estimates for elements of software systems. This would require careful review and refinement of the models, development of model parameters from actual experience data or expert elicitation, and careful validation. By combining these reliability estimates (generated from the validated models for the constituent parts) in structural software models, the reliability of the software system could then be predicted. Modeling digital system reliability will also require that methods be developed for combining reliability estimates for hardware and software. System structural models must also be developed in order to predict system reliability based upon the reliability

  2. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration <1000 ppm, play a structural role in the organisms and use proteins as a carrier to their target site. Their toxicity depends on their concentration, speciation and reactions with other elements. In volcanic environments, significant amounts of trace elements discharged from gas emissions, contribute to produce air particulate. Nisyros Island is a stratovolcano located at the South Aegean active Volcanic Arc. Intense hydrothermal activity characterise the Lakki caldera. In particular, the fumaroles located in the craters of Stefanos, Kaminakia, Lofos Dome and the area comprising Phlegeton, Polyvotes Micros and Polyvotes Megalos discharge hydrothermal fluids rich in H2O (91- 99%), SO2 and H2S. Their temperatures are almost 100o C and H2S is highly abundant accounting for 8-26 % of the released dry gas phase. On June 2013, during a multidisciplinary field trip on Nisyros island, 39 samples of top soils and 31 of endemic plants (Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the plant Rho protein ROP5

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Christoph Berken, Antje

    2007-12-01

    Crystals of the plant Rho protein ROP5 from A. thaliana have been obtained that diffract to 1.53 Å resolution. The small G protein ROP5 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. ROP5 crystals were obtained using PEG 3000 as precipitant and belong to space group P2{sub 1}. A data set was collected to 1.53 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation at 100 K. A clear molecular-replacement solution was found using ROP4–GDP of the ROP4–GDP–PRONE8 complex as the search model.

  4. Clathrate desalination plant preliminary research study. Water treatment technology program report No. 5 (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, R.A.; Andersen, R.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report presents preliminary research, design, and cost estimates for a clathrate freeze desalination method and system. A clathrate former is injected through the inner pipe of a submerged pipeline to a predetermined ocean depth at which the ocean temperture is less than the clathrate forming temperture. The agent combines with seawater within the annulus of the outer pipe to form a slurry of clathrate ice crystals and brine that is pumped to the surface. The clathrate forming agent may be recovered for reinjection or discarded. The melting of the clathrate ice and the return line of brine water to the ocean provide cold water sources that can be used to cool refrigerant in air conditioning systems in local buildings. The system depicted uses the hydrocarbon HCFC R141b (Dichloromonofluoroethane- CCl2FCH3) as the clathrate forming agent with lesser attention on HCFC R22 (Chlorodifluoromethane - CHClF2) and carbon dioxide (C02).

  5. Chemical and Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Efficacy, Safety, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2016-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases today are arthropod-borne and cannot be prevented by vaccinations. Because insect repellents offer important topical barriers of personal protection from arthropod-borne infectious diseases, the main objectives of this article were to describe the growing threats to public health from emerging arthropod-borne infectious diseases, to define the differences between insect repellents and insecticides, and to compare the efficacies and toxicities of chemical and plant-derived insect repellents. Internet search engines were queried with key words to identify scientific articles on the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of chemical and plant-derived topical insect repellants and insecticides to meet these objectives. Data sources reviewed included case reports; case series; observational, longitudinal, and surveillance studies; and entomological and toxicological studies. Descriptive analysis of the data sources identified the most effective application of insect repellents as a combination of topical chemical repellents, either N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (formerly N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, or DEET) or picaridin, and permethrin-impregnated or other pyrethroid-impregnated clothing over topically treated skin. The insecticide-treated clothing would provide contact-level insecticidal effects and provide better, longer lasting protection against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes and ticks than topical DEET or picaridin alone. In special cases, where environmental exposures to disease-transmitting ticks, biting midges, sandflies, or blackflies are anticipated, topical insect repellents containing IR3535, picaridin, or oil of lemon eucalyptus (p-menthane-3, 8-diol or PMD) would offer better topical protection than topical DEET alone. PMID:26827259

  6. Mathematical aspects of assessing extreme events for the safety of nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potempski, Slawomir; Borysiewicz, Mieczyslaw

    2015-04-01

    In the paper the review of mathematical methodologies applied for assessing low frequencies of rare natural events like earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or tornadoes, floods (in particular flash floods and surge storms), lightning, solar flares, etc., will be given in the perspective of the safety assessment of nuclear plants. The statistical methods are usually based on the extreme value theory, which deals with the analysis of extreme deviation from the median (or the mean). In this respect application of various mathematical tools can be useful, like: the extreme value theorem of Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko leading to possible choices of general extreme value distributions, or the Pickands-Balkema-de Haan theorem for tail fitting, or the methods related to large deviation theory. In the paper the most important stochastic distributions relevant for performing rare events statistical analysis will be presented. This concerns, for example, the analysis of the data with the annual extreme values (maxima - "Annual Maxima Series" or minima), or the peak values, exceeding given thresholds at some periods of interest ("Peak Over Threshold"), or the estimation of the size of exceedance. Despite of the fact that there is a lack of sufficient statistical data directly containing rare events, in some cases it is still possible to extract useful information from existing larger data sets. As an example one can consider some data sets available from the web sites for floods, earthquakes or generally natural hazards. Some aspects of such data sets will be also presented taking into account their usefulness for the practical assessment of risk for nuclear power plants coming from extreme weather conditions.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of impingement and entrainment by ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.

    1980-08-01

    As part of the OTEC Environmental Assessment Program, the historical data from the candidate OTEC resource areas were examined and the effects of OTEC impingement and entrainment were assessed. The results of these investigations are presented. Suggestions to complete the OTEC site characterization are given when the available information is insufficient to assess the effects of an OTEC plant.

  8. 78 FR 44924 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which... products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to... the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41357-41358, Docket No. APHIS-2012- 0035),...

  9. 78 FR 44926 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which... products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is reason to... Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41359-41361, Docket No. APHIS-2012- 0027), APHIS announced...

  10. 78 FR 45169 - GENECTIVE SA; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental Assessment, Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... in 7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic... and products altered or produced through genetic engineering that are plant pests or that there is... notice \\2\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41353-41354, Docket No....

  11. Rocks, Minerals, Plants, Wildlife; A Preliminary Bibliography of Identification Media for Use in Minnesota Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Nancy B.

    This research paper involved preparing a bibliography for use in Minnesota schools of media for the identification of rocks, minerals, plants and wildlife found in Minnesota. The completed bibliography would also be applicable to the surrounding states and the neighboring parts of Canada. Each entry in the bibliography includes level of interest…

  12. Secondary School Students' Misconceptions about Photosynthesis and Plant Respiration: Preliminary Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svandova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the common misconceptions of lower secondary school students regarding the concepts of photosynthesis and plant respiration. These are abstract concepts which are difficult to comprehend for adults let alone for lower secondary school students. Research of the students misconceptions are conducted worldwide. The researches…

  13. Preliminary surficial geologic map of the Rocky Flats Plant and vicinity, Jefferson and Boulder Counties, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Shroba, R.R.; Carrara, P.E.

    1994-11-01

    This report contains a 1:6000 scale map of the 3-mile by 4-mile rectangular area surrounding the Rocky Flats Plant. The map shows the surface deposits estimated to be at least one meter thick. The accompanying report contains a detailed description of the map units, a discussion of the Rocky Flats alluvium and landslides, and cited references. 37 references.

  14. PLUTONIUM UPTAKE AND BEHAVIOR IN PLANTS OF THE DESERT SOUTHWEST: A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, E.; Duff, M.; Ferguson, C.

    2011-03-01

    Eight species of desert vegetation and associated soils were collected from the Nevada National Security Site (N2S2) and analyzed for 238Pu and 239+240Pu concentrations. Amongst the plant species sampled were: atmospheric elemental accumulators (moss and lichen), the very slow growing, long-lived creosote bush and the rapidly growing, short-lived cheatgrass brome. The diversity of growth strategies provided insight into the geochemical behavior and bio-availability of Pu at the N2S2. The highest concentrations of Pu were measured in the onion moss (24.27 Bq kg-1 238Pu and 52.78 Bq kg-1 239+240Pu) followed by the rimmed navel lichen (8.18 Bq kg-1 and 18.4 Bq kg-1 respectively), pointing to the importance of eolian transport of Pu. Brome and desert globemallow accumulated between 3 and 9 times higher concentrations of Pu than creosote and sage brush species. These results support the importance of species specific elemental accumulation strategies rather than exposure duration as the dominant variable influencing Pu concentrations in these plants. Total vegetation elemental concentrations of Ce, Fe, Al, Sm and others were also analyzed. Strong correlations were observed between Fe and Pu. This supports the conclusion that Pu was accumulated as a consequence of the active accumulation of Fe and other plant required nutrients. Cerium and Pu are considered to be chemical analogs. Strong correlations observed in plants support the conclusion that these elements displayed similar geochemical behavior in the environment as it related to the biochemical uptake process of vegetation. Soils were also sampled in association with vegetation samples. This allowed for the calculation of a concentration ratio (CR). The CR values for Pu in plants were highly influenced by the heterogeneity of Pu distribution among sites. Results from the naturally occurring elements of concern were more evenly distributed between sample sites. This allowed for the development of a pattern of plant

  15. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration☆

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological

  16. Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Plant Growth and on Soil Magnetic Properties: Preliminary Results from Controlled Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, B.; Cioppa, M. T.

    2009-05-01

    The effects of an iron pollutant (magnetite, <5µm) on both tomato plants and their growth media (soil) in garden pots have been examined in this study. Morphological differences in the plants subjected to different concentrations (0.04 mg/kg and 0.4mg/kg) of the pollutant have been monitored at different ontogenic stages by measuring plant height and leaf colour, using a reflectance spectrometer (USB 4000). The surface magnetic susceptibility (MS) of the growth media has been measured using the Bartington MS2 system on a weekly basis. The changes in soil magnetic properties and some trace element concentrations of elements potentially associated with Fe have been determined through magnetic and chemical methods. The preliminary results in the control samples and a few of the contaminated samples show that exposure to iron contaminant can affect plant growth significantly, and can change the magnetic susceptibility of the growth media. Distinct morphological differences are observed in plants subjected to different treatments. The control plants are much taller (30-40cm, measured to date) compared to low-contamination (20-30cm) and high- contamination plants (10-15cm). In contrast, the mean brightness and saturation values of the leaves did not vary substantially. These colour parameters were hypothesized to vary significantly; however an explanation for their similarity is still being researched. The average decrease in MS is about 23% in the control soil. From a theoretical perspective, with the decrease in MS, there should be a corresponding decrease in iron minerals, which should be observable by chemical methods. However the MS values increased in most of the samples with contaminated soils but the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We would expect that, in such a controlled environment, any changes in soil magnetic properties and trace element concentrations must be due to the plant growth and its effects on the surrounding soil. The background values

  17. Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements.

  18. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  19. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation.

  20. Criticality safety analysis for remote handled TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed to store transuranic (TRU) waste underground in a mined salt bed. All fissile nuclides except U/sup 235/ are considered TRU nuclides. This report presents the results of the nuclear criticality analysis for Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste stored at the WIPP site. The RH waste material will be contained in steel canisters that are five feet or ten feet long. Each ten foot canister is capable of holding three 55 gallon drums of waste material. The five foot canisters are to be welded together to form one ten foot long canister. In general the fissile waste material is mainly surface contamination on clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, etc., or mixed in a borosilicate glass matrix or concrete. Other fissile material may be contained in absorbent mixtures. As a result, the fissile material will typically be spread over a large fraction of the volume in most of the waste storage canisters. Typical isotopic content of the fissile/other radioactive material is shown in Table 1-1. This analysis will analyze the RH waste storage and handling configurations at the WIPP site to show that up to 600 grams of fissile material per ten foot canister can be received and stored at the site without criticality safety concerns. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  2. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a)...

  3. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics. PMID:23356378

  4. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics.

  5. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  6. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ya, Wang; Chun-Meng, Zhao; Tao, Guo; Yi-Lin, Zhu; Ping, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant materials, we investigated 44 plants, which were evaluated for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were conducted to evaluate these activities. Among all tested plant extracts, Morus alba L. (positive control), Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Momordica charantia L., Cuminum cyminum L. et al. exhibit higher tyrosinase inhibition. Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Rosa rugosa Thunb. and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. perform the highest antioxidant activity, similar to vitamin C (the positive control). A low positive correlation is found in the DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Considering these factors, the extracts of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Alpinia officinarum Hance and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. exhibit high anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities and could be used in the cosmetic industry. Further studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties of these plant extracts. PMID:26408894

  7. Study of Occupational Safety and Health Audit on Facilities at Ungku Omar College, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM): A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariffin, Kadir; Ahmad, Shaharuddin; Aiyub, Kadaruddin; Awang, Azhan; Aziz, Azmi; Mohamad, Lukman Z.; Mamat, Samsu Adabi

    2010-01-01

    Occupational safety and health (OSH) in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) is being considered as an important program to measure employee and student welfare and well-being. During academic session, apart from attending lectures, laboratory works, tutorial and library search, majority of students spend most of their time in residential…

  8. A Preliminary Investigation of Parents' Opinions about Safety Skills Instruction: An Apparent Discrepancy between Importance and Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agran, Martin; Krupp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The available data suggest that both students and adults with disabilities sustain injuries and are victims of crimes at high levels. Despite these alarming data, several researchers have suggested that safety skills instruction has largely been ignored as a curricular domain. Further, although parents can serve a critical function in educational…

  9. A phase 1 trial of the Fc-engineered CD19 antibody XmAb5574 (MOR00208) demonstrates safety and preliminary efficacy in relapsed CLL

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Farrukh; Flinn, Ian W.; Berdeja, Jesus G.; Wiley, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Sharmeen; Huang, Ying; Lozanski, Gerard; Foster, Paul A.; Byrd, John C.

    2014-01-01

    CD19 is ubiquitously expressed on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells and is therefore an attractive candidate for antibody targeting. XmAb5574 (aka MOR00208) is a novel humanized CD19 monoclonal antibody with an engineered Fc region to enhance Fcγ receptor binding affinity. Here we report results of a first in human phase 1 trial of XmAb5574 in patients with relapsed or refractory CLL. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled to 6 escalating dose levels, with expansion at the highest dose level of 12 mg/kg. Nine doses of XmAb5574 were infused over 8 weeks. No maximal tolerated dose was reached, and the drug was generally well tolerated, with infusion reactions of grades 1 and 2 being the most common toxicities. Grade 3 and 4 toxicities occurred in 5 patients and included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, increased aspartate aminotransferase, febrile neutropenia, and tumor lysis syndrome. XmAb5574 showed preliminary efficacy, with 18 patients (66.7%) responding by physical examination criteria and laboratory studies, and 8 patients (29.6%) responding by computed tomography criteria. Pharmacokinetics showed a half-life of 14 days with clearance that was not dose-dependent. In conclusion, this phase 1 trial demonstrates safety and preliminary efficacy of a novel Fc-engineered CD19 monoclonal antibody XmAb5574 and justifies movement into the phase 2 setting. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01161511. PMID:25301708

  10. Seasonal occurrence, removal efficiencies and preliminary risk assessment of multiple classes of organic UV filters in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Mirabelle M P; Leung, H W; Lam, Paul K S; Murphy, Margaret B

    2014-04-15

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters are applied widely in personal care products (PCPs), but the distribution and risks of these compounds in the marine environment are not well known. In this study, the occurrence and removal efficiencies of 12 organic UV filters in five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) equipped with different treatment levels in Hong Kong, South China, were investigated during one year and a preliminary environmental risk assessment was carried out. Using a newly developed simultaneous multiclass quantification liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDM), 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP-1), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), benzophenone-4 (BP-4) and 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) were frequently (≥80%) detected in both influent and effluent with mean concentrations ranging from 23 to 1290 ng/L and 18-1018 ng/L, respectively; less than 2% of samples contained levels greater than 1000 ng/L. Higher concentrations of these frequently detected compounds were found during the wet/summer season, except for BP-4, which was the most abundant compound detected in all samples in terms of total mass. The target compounds behaved differently depending on the treatment level in WWTPs; overall, removal efficiencies were greater after secondary treatment when compared to primary treatment with >55% and <20% of compounds showing high removal (defined as >70% removal), respectively. Reverse osmosis was found to effectively eliminate UV filters from effluent (>99% removal). A preliminary risk assessment indicated that BP-3 and EHMC discharged from WWTPs may pose high risk to fishes in the local environment.

  11. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification Enhancement Review of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS, C.R.

    2000-02-09

    The primary purpose of the verification enhancement review was for the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) to verify contractor readiness for the independent DOE Integrated Safety Management System Verification (ISMSV) on the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). Secondary objectives included: (1) to reinforce the engagement of management and to gauge management commitment and accountability; (2) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct public involvement; (3) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of direct worker involvement; (4) to evaluate the ''value added'' benefit of the panel-to-panel review approach; and, (5) to evaluate the utility of the review's methodology/adaptability to periodic assessments of ISM status. The review was conducted on December 6-8, 1999, and involved the conduct of two-hour interviews with five separate panels of individuals with various management and operations responsibilities related to PFP. A semi-structured interview process was employed by a team of five ''reviewers'' who directed open-ended questions to the panels which focused on: (1) evidence of management commitment, accountability, and involvement; and, (2) consideration and demonstration of stakeholder (including worker) information and involvement opportunities. The purpose of a panel-to-panel dialogue approach was to better spotlight: (1) areas of mutual reinforcement and alignment that could serve as good examples of the management commitment and accountability aspects of ISMS implementation, and, (2) areas of potential discrepancy that could provide opportunities for improvement. In summary, the Review Team found major strengths to include: (1) the use of multi-disciplinary project work teams to plan and do work; (2) the availability and broad usage of multiple tools to help with planning and integrating work; (3) senior management presence and accessibility; (4) the institutionalization of worker involvement; (5) encouragement of self-reporting and self

  12. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, S.P.

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  13. Preliminary TES design optimization study for a simple periodic brick plant

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.B.; Olszewski, M.; Solomon, A.D.

    1989-03-01

    A general optimization method has been developed for maximizing the return on investment for a brick plant re-using waste heat with the capability of storing energy over periods when a kiln is not operating. The duct connections between devices and storage along with the operating schedule of flow rates in these ducts are the independent variables available for control. A combination of combinatorial search algorithms along with a dynamic programming model and the simplex method are layered to provide the optimization technique.

  14. Preliminary Screening of Endophytic Fungi from Medicinal Plants in Malaysia for Antimicrobial and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Son; Kqueen, Cheah Yoke

    2002-01-01

    The screening of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeast and fungi was carried out on isopropanol extracts prepared from 121 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal plants in Malaysia. Sensitivity was found to vary among the microorganisms. Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Alternaria sp. were susceptible to extracts from three, two and two isolates of endophytic fungi, respectively. None were found effective against Salmonella typhimurium. Sixteen endophytic fungal isolates tested were also found to exhibit antitumor activity in the yeast cell-based assay. PMID:22844221

  15. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle.

  16. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  17. Environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from industrial plants in China: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Chen, Yuan; Li, Jinhui; Li, Ying; Li, Huafen

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies have shown the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in various environmental media, attention to their distribution in the environmental media surrounding industrial facilities is limited. In this study, eight PBDEs congeners (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -209) were investigated in surface soils and water samples collected from commercial PBDE manufacturers, flame-retardant plastic modification plants and waste electrical and electronic equipment recycling facilities in China. Analysis of target compounds was performed using the model NCI GC-MS in SIM mode. The concentrations of ∑8PBDEs varied from 193.1 to 22,004.3 ng/L in water samples and from 1209.3 to 226,906 ng/g dry wt in surface soils, respectively. More severe PBDE contamination, when compared with previously reported data, was found in industrial areas in this study. This indicates that these industrial areas are highly polluted with PBDEs. BDE-209 was the predominant congener, accounting for more than 94% in this study, except for a 68.75% portion at one site. Our results show that PBDE manufacturing and flame-retardant plastic modification plants, easily overlooked by the public, are two primary PBDE pollution sources although they affect surrounding areas. Further research is needed, aimed at managing industrial PBDE emissions and eliminating environmental PBDE pollution, to investigate the material flows and environmental fates of PBDEs in all stages of the life cycle. PMID:26728288

  18. Technical basis for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of studies sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. The studies were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The studies address the following: (1) adequacy of the present test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred (i.e., Regulatory Guide-endorsed) standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging for equipment to be located in a benign environment; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach for addressing the impact of smoke in digital equipment qualification programs. Significant findings from the studies form the technical basis for a recommended approach to the environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants.

  19. Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 171 -- Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) failure from a loop subsequent to LOCA: Assessment of plant vulnerability and CDF contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Samanta, P.; Chu, L.; Yang, J.

    1998-03-01

    Generic Safety Issue 171 (GSI-171), Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) from a Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) subsequent to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), deals with an accident sequence in which a LOCA is followed by a LOOP. This issue was later broadened to include a LOOP followed by a LOCA. Plants are designed to handle a simultaneous LOCA and LOOP. In this paper, the authors address the unique issues that are involved i LOCA with delayed LOOP (LOCA/LOOP) and LOOP with delayed LOCA (LOOP/LOCA) accident sequences. LOCA/LOOP accidents are analyzed further by developing event-tree/fault-tree models to quantify their contributions to core-damage frequency (CDF) in a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor (PWR and a BWR). Engineering evaluation and judgments are used during quantification to estimate the unique conditions that arise in a LOCA/LOOP accident. The results show that the CDF contribution of such an accident can be a dominant contributor to plant risk, although BWRs are less vulnerable than PWRs.

  20. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-01

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  1. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  2. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  3. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  4. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  5. A preliminary study of patients' perceptions on the implementation of the WHO surgical safety checklist in women who had Cesarean sections.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takashi; Tani, Megumi; Taniwaki, Miki; Ogata, Kimiyo; Yokoyama, Masataka

    2015-06-01

    The surgical safety checklist (SSCL), developed by the World Health Organization, is widely implemented by surgical staff for the improvement of their communication, teamwork, and safety culture in the operating room. However, there is no research available addressing the question of how surgical patients perceive the implementation of the SSCL. In order to address this issue, a questionnaire-based preliminary study was conducted for patients who had undergone elective Cesarean section under awake regional anesthesia. Although most participants had not been informed about the implementation of the SSCL before surgery, all of the patients were aware that the SSCL had been performed in the operating room. Over 80% of patients answered that the implementation of the SSCL could help to reduce their feelings of anxiety, tension, and fear, as well as enhance their feeling of security. Furthermore, most patients answered that they were able to understand the components as well as the purpose of the SSCL, and considered that the SSCL should be implemented. These results suggest that awake patients undergoing Cesarean section perceive the implementation of the SSCL to be a highly positive aspect of their surgical care. PMID:25374137

  6. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun. PMID:19245460

  7. A Preliminary Survey of Terrestrial Plant Communities in the Sierra de los Valles

    SciTech Connect

    Randy G. Balice

    1998-10-01

    To more fully understand the species compositions and environmental relationships of high-elevation terrestrial plant communities in the Los Alamos region, 30 plots in randomly selected, upland locations were sampled for vegetation, topographic, and soils characteristics. The locations of these plots were constrained to be above 2,134 m (7,000 ft) above mean sea level. The field results were summarized, analyzed, and incorporated into a previously developed classification of vegetation and land cover types. The revised and updated discussions of the environmental relationships at these sites and their associated species compositions are included in this report. A key to the major land cover types in the Los Alamos region was also revised in accordance with the new information and included herein its entirety.

  8. Preliminary Feasibility Assessment of Integrating CCHP with NW Food Processing Plant #1: Modeling Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Michael G.; Srivastava, Viraj; Wagner, Anne W.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Thornton, John

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has launched a project funded by the Bonneville Power Association (BPA) to identify strategies for increasing industrial energy efficiency and reducing energy costs of Northwest Food Processors Association (NWFPA) plants through deployment of novel combinations and designs of variable-output combined heat and power (CHP) distributed generation (DG), combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) DG and energy storage systems. Detailed evaluations and recommendations of CHP and CCHP DG systems will be performed for several Northwest (NW) food processing sites. The objective is to reduce the overall energy use intensity of NW food processors by 25% by 2020 and by 50% by 2030, as well as reducing emissions and understanding potential congestion reduction impacts on the transmission system in the Pacific Northwest.

  9. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun.

  10. Preliminary analysis of treatment strategies for transuranic wastes from reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Schneider, K.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Yasutake, K.M.; Allen, R.P.

    1985-07-01

    This document provides a comparison of six treatment options for transuranic wastes (TRUW) resulting from the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel. Projected transuranic waste streams from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP), the reference fuel reprocessing plant in this report, were grouped into the five categories of hulls and hardware, failed equipment, filters, fluorinator solids, and general process trash (GPT) and sample and analytical cell (SAC) wastes. Six potential treatment options were selected for the five categories of waste. These options represent six basic treatment objectives: (1) no treatment, (2) minimum treatment (compaction), (3) minimum number of processes and products (cementing or grouting), (4) maximum volume reduction without decontamination (melting, incinerating, hot pressing), (5) maximum volume reduction with decontamination (decontamination, treatment of residues), and (6) noncombustible waste forms (melting, incinerating, cementing). Schemes for treatment of each waste type were selected and developed for each treatment option and each type of waste. From these schemes, transuranic waste volumes were found to vary from 1 m/sup 3//MTU for no treatment to as low as 0.02 m/sup 3//MTU. Based on conceptual design requirements, life-cycle costs were estimated for treatment plus on-site storage, transportation, and disposal of both high-level and transuranic wastes (and incremental low-level wastes) from 70,000 MTU. The study concludes that extensive treatment is warranted from both cost and waste form characteristics considerations, and that the characteristics of most of the processing systems used are acceptable. The study recommends that additional combinations of treatment methods or strategies be evaluated and that in the interim, melting, incineration, and cementing be further developed for commercial TRUW. 45 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  11. Preliminary examination of the efficacy and safety of a standardized chamomile extract for chronic primary insomnia: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite being the most commonly used herbal for sleep disorders, chamomile's (Matricaria recutita) efficacy and safety for treating chronic primary insomnia is unknown. We examined the preliminary efficacy and safety of chamomile for improving subjective sleep and daytime symptoms in patients with chronic insomnia. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial in 34 patients aged 18-65 years with DSM-IV primary insomnia for ≥ 6-months. Patients were randomized to 270 mg of chamomile twice daily or placebo for 28-days. The primary outcomes were sleep diary measures. Secondary outcomes included daytime symptoms, safety assessments, and effect size of these measures. Results There were no significant differences between groups in changes in sleep diary measures, including total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency, sleep latency, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep quality, and number of awakenings. Chamomile did show modest advantage on daytime functioning, although these did not reach statistical significance. Effect sizes were generally small to moderate (Cohen's d ≤ 0.20 to < 0.60) with sleep latency, night time awakenings, and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), having moderate effect sizes in favor of chamomile. However, TST demonstrated a moderate effect size in favor of placebo. There were no differences in adverse events reported by the chamomile group compared to placebo. Conclusion Chamomile could provide modest benefits of daytime functioning and mixed benefits on sleep diary measures relative to placebo in adults with chronic primary insomnia. However, further studies in select insomnia patients would be needed to investigate these conclusions. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01286324 PMID:21939549

  12. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants: Application to SPIN N4

    SciTech Connect

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1995-04-01

    1300 MWe pressurised water reactors (PWRs), like the 1400 MWe reactors, operate with microprocessor-based safety systems. This is particularly the case for the Digital Integrated Protection System (SPIN), which trips the reactor in an emergency and sets in action the safeguard functions. The softwares used in these systems must therefore be highly dependable in the execution of their functions. In the case of SPIN, three players are working at different levels to achieve this goal: the protection system manufacturer, Merlin Gerin; the designer of the nuclear steam supply system, Framatome; the operator of the nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF), which is also responsible for the safety of its installations. Regulatory licenses are issued by the French safety authority, the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (French abbreviation DSIN), subsequent to a successful examination of the technical provisions adopted by the operator. This examination is carried out by the IPSN and the standing group on nuclear reactors. This communication sets out: the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs (N4 series); the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate the safety software of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors.

  13. Preparation, preliminary characterization, antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from the flower of tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Xu, Renjie; Ye, Hong; Sun, Yi; Tu, Youying; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the crude polysaccharides from the flowers of tea plant (Camellia sinensis) (TFPS) were prepared with hot water and further fractionated on a DEAE-52 cellulose chromatography to afford three purified fractions of TFPS-1, TFPS-2 and TFPS-3. Then, their preliminary structures, antioxidant and antitumor activities in vitro and hepatoprotective activity in vivo were investigated. Compared with TFPS-2 and TFPS-3, TFPS-1 had relative higher content of sulfate and relative complicated monosaccharide composition. In addition, TFPS-1 and TFPS-3 showed relative stronger antioxidant activity and inhibitory activity on the growth of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, we demonstrated that crude TFPS significantly prevented the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, reduced the formation of malondialdehyde and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury mice. The results suggested that TFPS should be a potent natural polymer with antioxidant, hepatoprotective and antitumor activities.

  14. Preliminary model of repository chemistry for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H. ); Gbric-Galic, D. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Reed, D.T. ); Tong, X. and Associates, Palo Alto, CA ); Vreeland, R.H. . Dept. of Biology); Westerman, R.E. )

    1990-01-01

    The design-basis, defense-related, transuranic (TRU) waste to be emplaced in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) could, if sufficient H{sub 2}O and nutrients were present, produce as much as 1,500 moles of gas per drum of waste. Gas production could pressurize the repository to 150 atm (lithostatic pressure) and perhaps higher. Anoxic corrosion of Fe and Fe-base alloys and microbial degradation of cellulosics are the processes of greatest concern, but radiolysis of brine could also be important. The proposed backfill additives CaCO{sub 3}, CaO, CuSO{sub 4}, KOH, and NaOH may remove or prevent the production of some of the expected gases. Because of the heterogeneous nature of design-basis waste, the Eh and pH of any brine present in WIPP disposal rooms could vary significantly over short distances after reacting with the waste. The WIPP Project is investigating the consequences of gas production and considering engineered alternatives, including reprocessing the waste, to reduce gas production rates or potentials. Reprocessing would also reduce the range of Eh and pH expected for the repository. 12 refs.

  15. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Baker, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimer’s disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, μg /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  17. Preliminary issues associated with the next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Moisseytsev, A.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant, with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 850-950 °C. In this concept, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, a nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. This paper assesses the issues pertaining to shell-and-tube and compact heat exchangers. A detailed thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop inside both printed circuit and shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The analysis included evaluation of the role of key process parameters, geometrical factors in heat exchanger designs, and material properties of structural alloys. Calculations were performed for helium-to-helium, helium-to-helium/nitrogen, and helium-to-salt heat exchangers.

  18. [Preliminary study of the safety and immunogenicity of the attenuated VD47/25 strain of camelpoxvirus].

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Ba-Vy; Guerre, L; Saint-Martin, G

    1996-01-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of the attenuated VD47/25 strain of camelpoxvirus were tested on 30 camel calves in Mauritania. Post-inoculation clinical symptoms were absent during the 40 days of observation. Serum samples collected during this period showed low levels of neutralizing antibodies (1/4-1/16). In vivo titration of a virulent strain of camelpoxvirus in vaccinated camels and control animals enabled the calculation of the PD50 (50% protective dose) which contained the equivalent of 10(3.7) TCID50 (50% cell culture infective dose). Other studies are still required to determine the dose of this vaccine needed to protect 95% of vaccinated animals.

  19. Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

  20. Safety assessment of the tritium recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Safety Assessment (SA) contains descriptions and evaluations of the environmental, health, and safety issues associated with the Tritium Recovery System (TRS) at the Pinellas Plant. It provides: 1. site and facility descriptions, 2. an overall description of the TRS and its operations, 3. an evaluation of the hazards associated with TRS operations, 4. descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate identified hazards, and 5. assessment of potential accidents and their associated risks. This SA contains the results of safety evaluations of TRS operations, equipment, and supplied systems. The evaluations include, as appropriate, preliminary hazards listings, qualitative risk assessments, and quantitative risk assessments.

  1. Extraction and use of historical extreme climate databases for nuclear power plants safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bertin, Xavier; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs) related to natural hazards are a matter of major interest to the nuclear community in France and many European countries. Over the past fewer decades, France has experienced many of these events such as heat waves (2003 and 2006), heavy snowstorms (1958, 1990 and 1992), storms which have given rise to heavy rain and severe floods (1992, 1999, 2010), strong straight-line wind and extreme marine surges (1987, 1999 and 2010) much larger than the other local observations (outliers). These outliers had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme surges calculated with the current statistical methods. The estimation of extreme surges then requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a more solid theoretical framework and using more reliable databases for the assessment of hazards to design NPPs to low or extremely low probabilities of failure. These databases can be produced by collecting historical information (HI) about severe climatic events occurred over short and long timescales. As a matter of fact, natural hazards such as heat waves, droughts, floods, severe storms and snowstorms have affected France and many European countries since the dawn of time. These events would have been such horrific experiences that if they really occurred, there would be unmistakable traces of them. They must have left clues. These catastrophic events have been unforgettably engraved in people's minds and many of them have been traced in archives and history textbooks. The oldest events have certainly left clues and traces somewhere in the geological layers of the earth or elsewhere. The construction of the historical databases and developing probabilistic approaches capable of integrating them correctly is highly challenging for the scientific community (Translating these geological clues to historical data to build historical databases that can be used by the statistical models is a different

  2. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future. PMID:23315723

  3. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  4. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  5. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, A.S.; Fecht, B.A.; Powers, T.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Bian, S.H.; Daling, P.M.; Eschbach, E.J.; Allen, C.H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the fifth in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 23 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of winter 1986, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.''

  6. Preliminary Thermal Modeling of HI-STORM 100 Storage Modules at Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI

    SciTech Connect

    Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-17

    Thermal analysis is being undertaken at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of inspections of selected storage modules at various locations around the United States, as part of the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Research and Development. This report documents pre-inspection predictions of temperatures for two modules at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant ISFSI identified as candidates for inspection. These are HI-STORM 100 modules of a site-specific design for storing PWR 17x17 fuel in MPC-32 canisters. The temperature predictions reported in this document were obtained with detailed COBRA-SFS models of these storage systems, with the following boundary conditions and assumptions. • storage module overpack configuration based on FSAR documentation of HI-STORM100S-218, Version B; due to unavailability of site-specific design data for Diablo Canyon ISFSI modules • Individual assembly and total decay heat loadings for each canister, based on at-loading values provided by PG&E, “aged” to time of inspection using ORIGEN modeling o Special Note: there is an inherent conservatism of unquantified magnitude – informally estimated as up to approximately 20% -- in the utility-supplied values for at-loading assembly decay heat values • Axial decay heat distributions based on a bounding generic profile for PWR fuel. • Axial location of beginning of fuel assumed same as WE 17x17 OFA fuel, due to unavailability of specific data for WE17x17 STD and WE 17x17 Vantage 5 fuel designs • Ambient conditions of still air at 50°F (10°C) assumed for base-case evaluations o Wind conditions at the Diablo Canyon site are unquantified, due to unavailability of site meteorological data o additional still-air evaluations performed at 70°F (21°C), 60°F (16°C), and 40°F (4°C), to cover a range of possible conditions at the time of the inspection. (Calculations were also performed at

  7. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question.

  8. Safety Aspects of Nuclear Desalination with Innovative Systems; the EURODESAL Project

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandroni, C.; Cinotti, L.; Mini, G.; Nisan, S.

    2002-07-01

    The proposed paper reports the results of a preliminary investigation on safety impact deriving from the coupling of a desalination plant with a 600 MWe Passive Design PWR like the AP600 Nuclear Power Plant. This evaluation was performed in the frame of the EURODESAL Project of the 5. EURATOM Framework Programme. (authors)

  9. An investigation and analysis of safety issues in Polish small construction plants.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is a booming sector of the Polish economy; however, it is stigmatised by a lower classification due to high occupational risks and an unsatisfactory state of occupational safety. Safety on construction sites is compromised by small construction firms which dominate the market and have high accident rates. This article presents the results of studies (using a checklist) conducted in small Polish construction companies in terms of selected aspects of safety, such as co-operation with the general contractor, occupational health and safety documents, occupational risk assessment, organization of work, protective gear and general work equipment. The mentioned studies and analyses provided the grounds to establish the main directions of preventive measures decreasing occupational risk in small construction companies, e.g., an increase in engagement of investors and general contractors, improvement of occupational health and safety (OSH) documents, an increase in efficiency of construction site managers, better stability of employment and removal of opposing objectives between economic strategy and work safety. PMID:26694002

  10. An investigation and analysis of safety issues in Polish small construction plants

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is a booming sector of the Polish economy; however, it is stigmatised by a lower classification due to high occupational risks and an unsatisfactory state of occupational safety. Safety on construction sites is compromised by small construction firms which dominate the market and have high accident rates. This article presents the results of studies (using a checklist) conducted in small Polish construction companies in terms of selected aspects of safety, such as co-operation with the general contractor, occupational health and safety documents, occupational risk assessment, organization of work, protective gear and general work equipment. The mentioned studies and analyses provided the grounds to establish the main directions of preventive measures decreasing occupational risk in small construction companies, e.g., an increase in engagement of investors and general contractors, improvement of occupational health and safety (OSH) documents, an increase in efficiency of construction site managers, better stability of employment and removal of opposing objectives between economic strategy and work safety. PMID:26694002

  11. An investigation and analysis of safety issues in Polish small construction plants.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is a booming sector of the Polish economy; however, it is stigmatised by a lower classification due to high occupational risks and an unsatisfactory state of occupational safety. Safety on construction sites is compromised by small construction firms which dominate the market and have high accident rates. This article presents the results of studies (using a checklist) conducted in small Polish construction companies in terms of selected aspects of safety, such as co-operation with the general contractor, occupational health and safety documents, occupational risk assessment, organization of work, protective gear and general work equipment. The mentioned studies and analyses provided the grounds to establish the main directions of preventive measures decreasing occupational risk in small construction companies, e.g., an increase in engagement of investors and general contractors, improvement of occupational health and safety (OSH) documents, an increase in efficiency of construction site managers, better stability of employment and removal of opposing objectives between economic strategy and work safety.

  12. The effects of electric power industry restructuring on the safety of nuclear power plants in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Thomas S.

    Throughout the United States the electric utility industry is restructuring in response to federal legislation mandating deregulation. The electric utility industry has embarked upon an extraordinary experiment by restructuring in response to deregulation that has been advocated on the premise of improving economic efficiency by encouraging competition in as many sectors of the industry as possible. However, unlike the telephone, trucking, and airline industries, the potential effects of electric deregulation reach far beyond simple energy economics. This dissertation presents the potential safety risks involved with the deregulation of the electric power industry in the United States and abroad. The pressures of a competitive environment on utilities with nuclear power plants in their portfolio to lower operation and maintenance costs could squeeze them to resort to some risky cost-cutting measures. These include deferring maintenance, reducing training, downsizing staff, excessive reductions in refueling down time, and increasing the use of on-line maintenance. The results of this study indicate statistically significant differences at the .01 level between the safety of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants and boiling water reactor nuclear power plants. Boiling water reactors exhibited significantly more problems than did pressurized water reactors.

  13. Evaluation of station blackout accidents at nuclear power plants: Technical findings related to unresolved safety issue A-44: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    ''Station Blackout,'' which is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power in a nuclear power plant, has been designated as Unresolved Safety Issue A-44. Because many safety systems required for reactor core decay heat removal and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. This report documents the findings of technical studies performed as part of the program to resolve this issue. The important factors analyzed include: the fequency of loss of offsite power; the probability that emergency or onsite AC power supplies would be unavailable; the capability and reliability of decay heat removal systems independent of AC power; and the likelihood that offsite power would be restored before systems that cannot operate for extended periods without AC power fail, thus resulting in core damage. This report also addresses effects of different designs, locations, and operational features on the estimated frequency of core damage resulting from station blackout events.

  14. Safety and Preliminary Efficacy of the Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Huperzine A as a Treatment for Cocaine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Verrico, Christopher D.; Newton, Thomas F.; Mahoney, James J.; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cholinergic transmission is altered by drugs of abuse and contributes to psychostimulant reinforcement. In particular, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, like huperzine A, may be effective as treatments for cocaine use disorder. Methods: The current report describes results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in which participants (n=14–17/group) were randomized to huperzine A (0.4 or 0.8mg) or placebo. Participants received randomized infusions of cocaine (0 and 40mg, IV) on days 1 and 9. On day 10, participants received noncontingent, randomized infusions of cocaine (0 and 20mg, IV) before making 5 choices to receive additional infusions. Results: Huperzine A was safe and well-tolerated and compared with placebo, treatment with huperzine A did not cause significant changes in any cocaine pharmacokinetic parameters (all P>.05). Time-course and peak effects analyses show that treatment with 0.4mg of huperzine A significantly attenuated cocaine-induced increases of “Any Drug Effect,” “High,” “Stimulated,” “Willing to Pay,” and “Bad Effects” (all P>.05). Conclusions: The current study represents a significant contribution to the addiction field since it serves as the first published report on the safety and potential efficacy of huperzine A as a treatment for cocaine use disorder. PMID:26364275

  15. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente

    2014-09-15

    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  16. Pinellas Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1989: Environmental Health and Safety Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant is a government-owned facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the GE Neutron Devices (GEND). The plant's work force is approximately 1700 employees is engaged in the design, development and manufacture of special electronic and mechanical nuclear weapon components. The environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to: determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms for environmental releases, provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards, assess the concentrations of these discharges in the on-site and off-site environment, and provide a data base for computer programs to calculate the potential dose to the public resulting from the operation of the Pinellas Plant. The environmental effects of radiological and nonradiological effluents from the operation of the Pinellas Plant have been demonstrated to be significant. This paper discussing the environmental monitoring programs at the Pinellas Plant. 29 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Cognitive decision errors and organization vulnerabilities in nuclear power plant safety management: Modeling using the TOGA meta-theory framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, M.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepiellis, M.; Wronikowska, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety modeling, the perception of the role of socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) is continuously increasing. Today, the focus is especially on the identification of human and organization decisional errors caused by operators and managers under high-risk conditions, as evident by analyzing reports on nuclear incidents occurred in the past. At present, the engineering and social safety requirements need to enlarge their domain of interest in such a way to include all possible losses generating events that could be the consequences of an abnormal state of a NPP. Socio-cognitive modeling of Integrated Nuclear Safety Management (INSM) using the TOGA meta-theory has been discussed during the ICCAP 2011 Conference. In this paper, more detailed aspects of the cognitive decision-making and its possible human errors and organizational vulnerability are presented. The formal TOGA-based network model for cognitive decision-making enables to indicate and analyze nodes and arcs in which plant operators and managers errors may appear. The TOGA's multi-level IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) model of abstract intelligent agents (AIAs) is applied. In the NPP context, super-safety approach is also discussed, by taking under consideration unexpected events and managing them from a systemic perspective. As the nature of human errors depends on the specific properties of the decision-maker and the decisional context of operation, a classification of decision-making using IPK is suggested. Several types of initial situations of decision-making useful for the diagnosis of NPP operators and managers errors are considered. The developed models can be used as a basis for applications to NPP educational or engineering simulators to be used for training the NPP executive staff. (authors)

  18. A preliminary study on the safety and efficacy of a novel fractional CO₂ laser with synchronous radiofrequency delivery.

    PubMed

    Gotkin, Robert H; Sarnoff, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    Building upon the fractional CO₂ technology incorporated into the first generation SmartXide DOT (DEKA / ElEn, SpA, Calenzano, Italy) introduced in the U.S. in 2008, a second generation SmartXide Quadro has recently been introduced. This is a versatile device that has the ability to combine fractional CO₂ laser output for skin resurfacing with the synchronous delivery of bipolar radiofrequency (RF) energy for deeper, more diffuse heating. A pilot study was undertaken to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the SmartXide Quadro, employing both fractional CO₂ laser output combined with the synchronous delivery of radiofrequency energy for the treatment of facial rhytides and acne scars. Ten patients, all women, six with facial rhytides and four with acne scarring, were treated with the SmartXide Quadro, a variably pulsed CO₂ laser with Pulse Shape Design® technology, a microablative DOT scanner and synchronized bipolar RF emission. Each patient was treated with a single fractional CO₂ laser-RF treatment; laser and RF parameters varied according to the severity of the rhytides or acne scars and were based upon both manufacturer-recommended settings and surgeon experience. Follow-up was at three days, one week, 2 weeks, and one month, three months, and six months after treatment. Results were judged by comparison of preoperative and post-operative photos evaluated by independent physicians, preoperative and post-operative grading by treating physicians, subjective evaluation of results by the patients themselves, and tabulation and categorization of adverse events (AEs). The SmartXide Quadro variably pulsed CO₂ laser with a microablative DOT scanner, with synchronous delivery of bipolar RF energy emission, proved to be both safe and effective in the treatment of facial rhytides and acne scars. The single treatment protocol was well tolerated and recovery was similar to fractional CO₂ laser skin resurfacing alone. The AEs were minimal and no significant

  19. Development of large-capacity main steam isolation valves and safety relief valves for next-generation BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Shin-ichi Furukawa; Gen Itoh; Kikuo Takeshima

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of high capacity main steam isolation valves (MSIV) and safety relief valves (SRV) for the main steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The next-generation BWR plants, which are planned to have higher thermal power, have raised concerns relating to the main steam line of an increase in maintenance work to SRVs and erosion of the MSIV valve seat due to the increased main steam flow velocity. In this research project, the capacity of the MSIV and SRV was increased and the valve configuration was changed in an attempt to solve these problems. (authors)

  20. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  1. A preliminary user-friendly, digital console for the control room parameters supervision in old-generation Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Memmi, F.; Falconi, L.; Cappelli, M.; Palomba, M.; Santoro, E.; Bove, R.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    Improvements in the awareness of a system status is an essential requirement to achieve safety in every kind of plant. In particular, in the case of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), a progress is crucial to enhance the Human Machine Interface (HMI) in order to optimize monitoring and analyzing processes of NPP operational states. Firstly, as old-fashioned plants are concerned, an upgrading of the whole console instrumentation is desirable in order to replace an analog visualization with a full-digital system. In this work, we present a novel instrument able to interface the control console of a nuclear reactor, developed by using CompactRio, a National Instruments embedded architecture and its dedicated programming language. This real-time industrial controller composed by a real-time processor and FPGA modules has been programmed to visualize the parameters coming from the reactor, and to storage and reproduce significant conditions anytime. This choice has been made on the basis of the FPGA properties: high reliability, determinism, true parallelism and re-configurability, achieved by a simple programming method, based on LabVIEW real-time environment. The system architecture exploits the FPGA capabilities of implementing custom timing and triggering, hardware-based analysis and co-processing, and highest performance control algorithms. Data stored during the supervisory phase can be reproduced by loading data from a measurement file, re-enacting worthwhile operations or conditions. The system has been thought to be used in three different modes, namely Log File Mode, Supervisory Mode and Simulation Mode. The proposed system can be considered as a first step to develop a more complete Decision Support System (DSS): indeed this work is part of a wider project that includes the elaboration of intelligent agents and meta-theory approaches. A synoptic has been created to monitor every kind of action on the plant through an intuitive sight. Furthermore, another important

  2. Pilot program to identify valve failures which impact the safety and operation of light water nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tsacoyeanes, J. C.; Raju, P. P.

    1980-04-01

    The pilot program described has been initiated under the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Safety Research and Development Program and has the following specific objectives: to identify the principal types and causes of failures in valves, valve operators and their controls and associated hardware, which lead to, or could lead to plant trip; and to suggest possible remedies for the prevention of these failures and recommend future research and development programs which could lead to minimizing these valve failures or mitigating their effect on plant operation. The data surveyed cover incidents reported over the six-year period, beginning 1973 through the end of 1978. Three sources of information on valve failures have been consulted: failure data centers, participating organizations in the nuclear power industry, and technical documents.

  3. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  4. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 5

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    This is the sixth in a series of reports to document the development and use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose, and cost impacts of implementing potential resolutions to reactor safety issues (see NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews, et al., 1983). This report contains the results of issue-specific analyses for 34 generic issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information at the time the issues were examined and approximately 2 staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced as one consideration in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues (Emrit, et al., 1983).

  5. Guidelines for nuclear-power-plant safety-issue-prioritization information development

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Bickford, W.E.; Konzek, G.J.; Strenge, D.L.; Smith, R.I.; Weakley, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a methodology, with examples, to calculate - to an approximation serviceable for prioritization purposes - the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. This report is an applications guide to issue-specific calculations. A description of the approach, mathematical models, worksheets and step-by-step examples are provided. Analysis using this method is intended to provide comparable results for many issues at a cost of two staff-weeks per issue. Results will be used by the NRC to support decisions related to issue priorities in allocation of resources to complete safety issue resolutions.

  6. Review guidelines on software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Koch, S.; Tai, A.; Wendelboe, D.

    1996-06-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada, C/C++, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Logic, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Sequential Function Charts, Pascal, and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.s

  7. The Efficacy and Safety of Arbekacin and Vancomycin for the Treatment in Skin and Soft Tissue MRSA Infection: Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Hee; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Moon, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Ju-Sin; Won, Kyoung-Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections, and use of vancomycin for the treatment of MRSA infection has increased. Unfortunately, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus have been reported, as well as vancomycin-resistant S. aureus. Arbekacin is an antibacterial agent and belongs to the aminoglycoside family of antibiotics. It was introduced to treat MRSA infection. We studied the clinical and bacteriological efficacy and safety of arbekacin compared to vancomycin in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective case-control study of patients who were admitted to tertiary Hospital from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2010, and received the antibiotics arbekacin or vancomycin. All the skin and soft tissue MRSA infected patients who received arbekacin or vancomycin were enrolled during the study period. The bacteriological efficacy response (BER) was classified with improved and failure. The improved BER was defined as no growth of MRSA, where failure was defined as growth of MRSA, culture at the end of therapy or during treatment. Clinical efficacy response (CER) was classified as improved and failure. Improved CER was defined as resolution or reduction of the majority of signs and symptoms related to the original infection. Failure was defined as no resolution and no reduction of majority of the signs and symptoms, or worsening of one or more signs and symptoms, or new symptoms or signs associated with the original infection or a new infection. Results Totally, 122 patients (63/99 in arbekacin, 59/168 in vancomycin group) with skin and soft tissue infection who recieved arbekacin or vancomcyin at least 4 days were enrolled and analysed. The bacteriological efficacy response [improved, arbekacin vs vancomycin; 73.0% (46/63), 95% confidence interval (CI) 60.3 to 83.4% vs 83.1% (49/59), 95% CI 71.0 to 91.6%] and clinical efficacy

  8. Nutraceutical value and safety of tomato fruits produced by mycorrhizal plants.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, M; Avio, L; Barale, R; Ceccarelli, N; Cristofani, R; Iezzi, A; Mignolli, F; Picciarelli, P; Pinto, B; Reali, D; Sbrana, C; Scarpato, R

    2012-01-01

    Tomato fruit has assumed the status of 'functional food' due to the association between its consumption and a reduced likelihood of certain types of cancers and CVD. The nutraceutical value of tomatoes can be affected by the cultivation conditions, e.g. the phytochemical content of the fruits may increase with the establishment of beneficial mycorrhizal symbioses in the plants. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to gain knowledge on the antioxidant, oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic and genotoxic activity of tomato fruits produced by mycorrhizal plants. The present results showed that the symbiosis positively affected the growth and mineral nutrient content of tomato plants and enhanced the nutritional and nutraceutical value of tomato fruits through modifications of plant secondary metabolism, which led to increased levels of lycopene in fruits obtained from mycorrhizal plants, compared with controls. Moreover, such changes did not result in the production of mutagenic compounds, since tomato extracts induced no in vitro genotoxic effects. Fruit extracts, both hydrophilic and the lipophilic fractions, originating from mycorrhizal plants strongly inhibited 17-β-oestradiol-human oestrogen receptor binding, showing significantly higher anti-oestrogenic power compared with controls. The present study shows that beneficial plant symbionts, such as mycorrhizal fungi, can lead to the production of safe and high-quality food, which is an important societal issue strongly demanded by both consumers and producers.

  9. An evaluation of the environmental fate and behavior of munitions materiel (tetryl and polar metabolites of TNT) in soil and plant systems. Preliminary evaluation of TNT-polar metabolites in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-09-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.

  10. Enteric Pathogen-Plant Interactions: Molecular Connections Leading to Colonization and Growth and Implications for Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vaz, Betsy M.; Fink, Ryan C.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Leafy green vegetables have been identified as a source of foodborne illnesses worldwide over the past decade. Human enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, have been implicated in numerous food poisoning outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the establishment of pathogenic bacteria in or on vegetable plants is critical for understanding and ameliorating this problem as well as ensuring the safety of our food supply. While previous studies have described the growth and survival of enteric pathogens in the environment and also the risk factors associated with the contamination of vegetables, the molecular events involved in the colonization of fresh produce by enteric pathogens are just beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings on the interactions of several bacterial pathogens with leafy green vegetables. Changes in gene expression linked to the bacterial attachment and colonization of plant structures are discussed in light of their relevance to plant-microbe interactions. We propose a mechanism for the establishment and association of enteric pathogens with plants and discuss potential strategies to address the problem of foodborne illness linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables. PMID:24859308

  11. Preliminary radiological safety assessment for decommissioning of thoria dissolver of the ²³³U pilot plant, Trombay.

    PubMed

    Priya, S; Srinivasan, P; Gopalakrishnan, R K

    2012-01-01

    The thoria dissolver, used for separation of (233)U from reactor-irradiated thorium metal and thorium oxide rods, is no longer operational. It was decided to carry out assessment of the radiological status of the dissolver cell for planning of the future decommissioning/dismantling operations. The dissolver interiors are expected to be contaminated with the dissolution remains of irradiated thorium oxide rods in addition to some of the partially dissolved thoria pellets. Hence, (220)Rn, a daughter product of (228)Th is of major radiological concern. Airborne activity of thoron daughters (212)Pb (Th-B) and (212)Bi (Th-C) was estimated by air sampling followed by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of filter papers. By measuring the full-energy peaks counts in the energy windows of (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (208)Tl, concentrations of thoron progeny in the sampled air were estimated by applying the respective intrinsic peak efficiency factors and suitable correction factors for the equilibration effects of (212)Pb and (212)Bi in the filter paper during the delay between sampling and counting. Then the thoron working level (TWL) was evaluated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) methodology. Finally, the potential effective dose to the workers, due to inhalation of thoron and its progeny during dismantling operations was assessed by using dose conversion factors recommended by ICRP. Analysis of filter papers showed a maximum airborne thoron progeny concentration of 30 TWLs inside the dissolver. PMID:21447504

  12. Preliminary radiological safety assessment for decommissioning of thoria dissolver of the ²³³U pilot plant, Trombay.

    PubMed

    Priya, S; Srinivasan, P; Gopalakrishnan, R K

    2012-01-01

    The thoria dissolver, used for separation of (233)U from reactor-irradiated thorium metal and thorium oxide rods, is no longer operational. It was decided to carry out assessment of the radiological status of the dissolver cell for planning of the future decommissioning/dismantling operations. The dissolver interiors are expected to be contaminated with the dissolution remains of irradiated thorium oxide rods in addition to some of the partially dissolved thoria pellets. Hence, (220)Rn, a daughter product of (228)Th is of major radiological concern. Airborne activity of thoron daughters (212)Pb (Th-B) and (212)Bi (Th-C) was estimated by air sampling followed by high-resolution gamma spectrometry of filter papers. By measuring the full-energy peaks counts in the energy windows of (212)Pb, (212)Bi and (208)Tl, concentrations of thoron progeny in the sampled air were estimated by applying the respective intrinsic peak efficiency factors and suitable correction factors for the equilibration effects of (212)Pb and (212)Bi in the filter paper during the delay between sampling and counting. Then the thoron working level (TWL) was evaluated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) methodology. Finally, the potential effective dose to the workers, due to inhalation of thoron and its progeny during dismantling operations was assessed by using dose conversion factors recommended by ICRP. Analysis of filter papers showed a maximum airborne thoron progeny concentration of 30 TWLs inside the dissolver.

  13. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Technical Specifications Westinghouse Plants,'' to permit, for some systems, entry into a hot shutdown (Mode... ISTS to permit, for some systems, entry into a hot shutdown (Mode 4) end state rather than a...

  14. Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

  15. Baseline milestone HWVP-87-V110202F: Preliminary evaluation of noble metal behavior in the Hanford waste vitrification plant reference glass HW-39

    SciTech Connect

    Geldart, R.W.; Bates, S.O.; Jette, S.J.

    1996-03-01

    The precipitation and aggregation of ruthenium (Ru), rhodium (RLh) and palladium (Pd) in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) low chromium reference glass HLW-39 were investigated to determine if there is a potential for formation of a noble metal sludge in the HWVP ceramic melter. Significant noble metal accumulations on the floor of the melter will result in the electrical shorting of the electrodes and premature failure of the melter. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary information on the characteristics of noble metals in a simulated HWVP glass. Following a preliminary literature view to obtain information concerning the noble metals behavior, a number of variability studies were initiated. The effects of glass redox conditions, melt temperature, melting time and noble metal concentration on the phase characteristics of these noble metals were examined.

  16. Evaluation of operational safety at Babcock and Wilcox Plants: Volume 2, Thermal-hydraulic results

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatley, P.D.; Davis, C.B.; Callow, R.A.; Fletcher, C.D.; Dobbe, C.A.; Beelman, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research program to develop a methodology to assess the operational performance of Babcock and Wilcox plants and to apply this methodology on a trial basis. The methodology developed for analyzing Babcock and Wilcox plants integrated methods used in both thermal-hydraulics and human factors and compared results with information used in the assessment of risk. The integrated methodology involved an evaluation of a selected plant for each pressurized water reactor vendor during a limited number of transients. A plant was selected to represent each vendor, and three transients were identified for analysis. The plants were Oconee Unit 1 for Babcock and Wilcox, H.B. Robinson Unit 2 for Westinghouse, and Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 for Combustion Engineering. The three transients were a complete loss of all feedwater, a small-break loss-of-coolant accident, and a steam-generator overfill with auxiliary feedwater. Included in the integrated methodology was an assessment of the thermal-hydraulic behavior, including event timing, of the plants during the three transients. Thermal-hydraulic results are presented in this volume (Volume 2) of the report. 26 refs., 30 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 3

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Counts, C.A.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Powers, T.B.; Weakley, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This supplemental report is the fourth in a series that document and use methods developed to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. The initial report in this series was published by Andrews et al. in 1983 as NUREG/CR-2800. This supplement consists of two parts describing separate research efforts: (1) an alternative human factors methodology approach, and (2) a prioritization of the NRC's Human Factors Program Plan. The alternative human factors methodology approach may be used in specific future cases in which the methods identified in the initial report (NUREG/CR-2800) may not adequately assess the proper impact for resolution of new safety issues. The alternative methodology included in this supplement is entitled ''Methodology for Estimating the Public Risk Reduction Affected by Human Factors Improvement.'' The prioritization section of this report is entitled ''Prioritization of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan.''

  18. Preliminary design of a solar central receiver for a site-specific repowering application (Saguaro Power Plant). Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, E.R.

    1983-09-01

    The preliminary design of a solar central receiver repowered gas/oil fired steam-Rankine cycle electric power generation plant was completed. The design is based on a central receiver technology using molten salt (60% NaNO/sub 3/, 40% KNO/sub 3/, by weight) for the heat transport and thermal storage fluid. Unit One of APS's Saguaro power plant located 43 km (27 mi) northwest of Tucson, AZ, is to be repowered. The selection of both the site and the molten salt central receiver promotes a near-term feasibility demonstration and cost-effective power production from an advanced solar thermal technology. The recommended system concept is to repower the existing electric power generating system at the minimum useful level (66 MW/sub e/ gross) using a field of 4850 Martin Marietta second-generation (58.5 m/sup 2/) heliostats and a storage capacity of 4.0 hours. The storage capacity will be used to optimize dispatch of power to the utility system. The preliminary design was based on the use of the systems approach to design where the overall project was divided into systems, each of which is clearly bounded, and performs specific functions. The total project construction cost was estimated to be 213 million in 1983 dollars. The plant will be capable of displacing fossil energy equivalent to 2.4 million barrels of No. 6 oil in its first 10 years of operation.

  19. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features.

  20. 100 MWe Baseload Molten Salt Plant Phase 1 & 2 Summary Report: Summary of Conceptual Design, Preliminary Design, Commercialization and Risk Reduction Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, Craig; Kraft, Dave; Moursund, Carter; Santelmann, Ken; Greaney, Andy; Zillmer, Andrew; Heap, Andy; Sakadjian, Bartev; Hannemann, Chris; Rogers, Dale; Gross, David; Wasyluk, David; Fondriest, Ed; Soni, Gaurav; Bindra, Hitesh; Marshall, Jason; Risner, Jeremy; Pacheco, Jim; Martin, Joe; Montesano, Kevin; Foder, Matt; Zavodny, Maximillian; Slack, Mike; Donnellan, Nathan; Sage, William

    2012-11-27

    This document describes steps taken to develop our conceptual and preliminary designs of a modular concept for deploying a 75% capacity factor, 100-MWe solar power plant. The modular approach consists of 14 solar power towers interconnected by hot and cold salt piping leading back to a central power block where the salt storage tanks and power generation systems are located. The plant is described in several sections. First, the overall plant is described, including the general arrangement, process and heat flow diagrams, system interface definitions, and electrical description. Next, each system is described in detail following the flow of energy from incident sunlight, through the plant, to the grid. These systems include the solar collector system (SCS), solar receiver system (SRS), thermal storage system (TSS), steam generator system (SGS), and power generation system (PGS). Then, the plant control system (PCS) and balance of plant (BOP) are discussed as supporting entities. Each system of the plant is described in sufficient detail to allow for the following to be developed: material cost, erection cost, project schedule, EPC bids, detailed performance modeling, and operations and maintenance cost. Cost, schedule, and performance estimates are not described in this document. Two approaches to demonstration of the technology are presented: a single tower integrated into an existing power block and a four tower stand alone 50 MWe power plant. Various demonstration partners have expressed interested in both approaches. The process by which a detailed plant performance model was developed is described to support the development of accurate LCOE data. Information on material and instrument testing is also provided for critical materials and instruments required for molten salt service.

  1. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  2. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: (1) Degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; (2) Assessment and remediation: i.e., component selection, in- service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions; and (3) Estimation of performance at present or some future point in time: i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk. Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  3. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  4. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  5. 77 FR 58421 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... Honcharik, Senior Project Manager, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001... applicable to all nuclear reactor power plants. The proposed change revises the surveillance...

  6. Safety significance of inadvertent operation of motor operated valves in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Hall, R.E.

    1994-05-01

    This report addresses concerns about the consequences of valve mispositioning which were brought to the forefront following an event at Davis Besse in 1985 (NRC, 1985a). The concern related to the ability to reposition ``position changeable`` motor operated valves (MOVs) in the event of their inadvertent operation from the control room and was documented in Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Bulletin 85-03 (NRC, 1985b) and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10 (NRC, 1989). The mispositioned MOVs may not be able to be returned to their required position due to high differential pressure (dP) or high flow conditions across the valves. The inability to reposition such valves may have significant safety consequences as in the Davis Besse event. However, full consideration of such mispositioning in safety analyses and in MOV test programs can be labor intensive and expensive. Industry raised concerns that consideration of position changeable valves under GL 89-10 would not decrease the probability of core damage to an extent which would justify licensee costs. As a response, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has conducted separate scoping studies for both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRS) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques to determine if such valve mispositioning by itself is significant to safety. The approach utilized internal events PRA models to survey the order of magnitude of the risk significance of valve mispositioning by considering the failure of selected position changeable MOVS. The change in core damage frequency (CDF) was determined for each valve considered and the results were presented as a risk increase ratio for each of four assumed MOV failure rates. The risk increase ratios resulting from this failure rate sensitivity study can be used as a basis for a judgement determination of the risk significance of the MOV mispositioning issue for BWRs and PWRS.

  7. Hydrogen-burn survival: preliminary thermal model and test results

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, W.H.; Ratzel, A.C.; Kempka, S.N.; Furgal, D.T.; Aragon, J.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report documents preliminary Hydrogen Burn Survival (HBS) Program experimental and analytical work conducted through February 1982. The effects of hydrogen deflagrations on safety-related equipment in nuclear power plant containment buildings are considered. Preliminary results from hydrogen deflagration experiments in the Sandia Variable Geometry Experimental System (VGES) are presented and analytical predictions for these tests are compared and discussed. Analytical estimates of component thermal responses to hydrogen deflagrations in the upper and lower compartments of an ice condenser, pressurized water reactor are also presented.

  8. Safety analysis report for packaging, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, model DC-1 package with HEU oxide contents. Change pages for Rev.1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the Model DC-1 package with highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide contents has been prepared in accordance with governing regulations form the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Transportation and orders from the Department of energy. The fundamental safety requirements addressed by these regulations and orders pertain to the containment of radioactive material, radiation shielding, and nuclear subcriticality. This report demonstrates how these requirements are met.

  9. Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.

    PubMed

    Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Håkansson, Sebastian; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-08-01

    During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential.

  10. Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed.

  11. Salmonella and produce: survival in the plant environment and implications in food safety.

    PubMed

    Fatica, Marianne K; Schneider, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    There has been a continuous rise in the number of produce-based foodborne outbreaks in the recent decades despite the perception that foodborne diseases were primarily linked to animal-based products. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 95% of Salmonella-based infections originate from foodborne sources, with multiple produce-based salmonellosis outbreaks occurring since 1990. The contamination of produce in both the pre-harvest and post-harvest produce environments is challenging to eliminate since produce is consumed as a raw, fresh commodity. Salmonella spp. contamination is possible through contact with the produce in the field as well as in the processing facility. The field contamination of produce infers the ability of Salmonella spp. to survive on the plant surface. The fitness of Salmonella spp. in the plant habitat is limited as opposed to naturally plant-associated bacteria, but survival is possible. The use of intensive farming practices, globalization of food products, high demand for convenience food products, and increased foodborne disease surveillance also have unknown ramifications in the ascending trends of produce-based outbreaks. A better understanding of the ecology of Salmonella spp. in the plant environment as well as the processing, food handling, and surveillance factors affecting the incidence of foodborne outbreaks will provide a comprehensive view of the etiology and epidemiology of produce-associated foodborne outbreaks. An understanding of the outbreaks and the factors facilitating produce contamination will allow for the development of intervention procedures and strategies to reduce the risk of produce contamination by Salmonella spp.

  12. Comparison of methods for uncertainty analysis of nuclear-power-plant safety-system fault-tree models. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, H F; Beckman, R J; Campbell, K; Whiteman, D E; Booker, J M

    1983-04-01

    A comparative evaluation is made of several methods for propagating uncertainties in actual coupled nuclear power plant safety system faults tree models. The methods considered are Monte Carlo simulation, the method of moments, a discrete distribution method, and a bootstrap method. The Monte Carlo method is found to be superior. The sensitivity of the system unavailability distribution to the choice of basic event unavailability distribution is also investigated. The system distribution is also investigated. The system distribution is especially sensitive to the choice of symmetric versus asymmetric basic event distributions. A quick-and dirty method for estimating percentiles of the system unavailability distribution is developed. The method identifies the appropriate basic event distribution percentiles that should be used in evaluating the Boolean system equivalent expression for a given fault tree model to arrive directly at the 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of the system unavailability distribution.

  13. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Shaber, C.R.; Thurow, T.L.

    1981-11-17

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  14. Cost update: Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-06-01

    The cost estimates originally developed in NUREG/CR-1266 for commissioning a reference low-enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plant are updated from 1978 to early 1993 dollars. During this time, the costs for labor and materials increased approximately at the rate of inflation, the cost of energy increased more slowly than the rate of inflation, and the cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal increased much more rapidly than the rate of inflation. The results of the analysis indicate that the estimated costs for the immediate dismantlement and decontamination for unrestricted facility release (DECON) of the reference plant have increased from the mid-1978 value of $3.57 million to $8.08 million in 1993 with in-compact low-level radioactive waste disposal at the US Ecoloay facility near Richland, Washington. The cost estimate rises to $19.62 million with out-of-compact radioactive waste disposal at the Chem-Nuclear facility near Barnwell, South Carolina. A methodology and a formula are presented for estimating the cost of decommissioning the reference uranium fuel fabrication plant at some future time, based on these early 1993 cost estimates. The formula contains essentially the same elements as the formula given in 10 CFR 50.75 for escalating the decommissioning costs for nuclear power reactors to some future time.

  15. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union.

  16. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union. PMID:22946164

  17. Occupational Health and Safety Issues in Ontario Sawmills and Veneer/Plywood Plants: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Dave K.; Demers, Cecil; Shaw, Don; Verma, Paul; Kurtz, Lawrence; Finkelstein, Murray; des Tombe, Karen; Welton, Tom

    2010-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted within the Ontario sawmill and veneer/plywood manufacturing industry. Information was collected by postal questionnaire and observational walk-through surveys. Industrial hygiene walk-through surveys were conducted at 22 work sites, and measurements for wood dust, noise, and bioaerosol were taken. The aim of the study was to obtain data on the current status regarding health and safety characteristics and an estimate of wood dust, noise, and bioaerosol exposures. The occupational exposure to wood dust and noise are similar to what has been reported in this industry in Canada and elsewhere. Airborne wood dust concentration ranged between 0.001 mg/m3 and 4.87 mg/m3 as total dust and noise exposure ranged between 55 and 117 dB(A). The study indicates the need for a more comprehensive industry-wide study of wood dust, noise, and bioaersols. PMID:21253473

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tyshko, Nadezhda V; Aksyuk, Irina N; Tutelyan, Victor A

    2007-07-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by growing interest in the problems of biosafety, which are determined, on the one hand, by the wide use of novel biotechnologies and the necessity to develop the adequate precautionary measures, and, on the other hand, by the objective threat of bioterrorism. Therefore, improvement of the estimation system for genetically modified (GM) sources of food and strengthening the control of their circulation are the urgent problems of modern biology and medicine. Russia is one of the countries where the estimation system of food products obtained from the GM sources is rather efficient. The key features of this system are the complex toxicological and epidemiological examinations. One of the main parts of GM food safety assessment is based upon detection of their potentially toxic properties, which could provoke unintended effects of the genetic modification. PMID:17526054

  19. Safety assessment of genetically modified organisms of plant origin in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Tyshko, Nadezhda V; Aksyuk, Irina N; Tutelyan, Victor A

    2007-07-01

    The beginning of the 21st century is characterized by growing interest in the problems of biosafety, which are determined, on the one hand, by the wide use of novel biotechnologies and the necessity to develop the adequate precautionary measures, and, on the other hand, by the objective threat of bioterrorism. Therefore, improvement of the estimation system for genetically modified (GM) sources of food and strengthening the control of their circulation are the urgent problems of modern biology and medicine. Russia is one of the countries where the estimation system of food products obtained from the GM sources is rather efficient. The key features of this system are the complex toxicological and epidemiological examinations. One of the main parts of GM food safety assessment is based upon detection of their potentially toxic properties, which could provoke unintended effects of the genetic modification.

  20. The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Brigotti, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22741061

  1. Safety assessment of plant varieties using transcriptomics profiling and a one-class classifier.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Jeroen P; de Mello, Carla Souza; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Hutten, Ronald C B; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave; Jansen, Jeroen J; Buydens, Lutgarde M C; van der Voet, Hilko; Kok, Esther J

    2014-10-01

    An important part of the current hazard identification of novel plant varieties is comparative targeted analysis of the novel and reference varieties. Comparative analysis will become much more informative with unbiased analytical approaches, e.g. omics profiling. Data analysis estimating the similarity of new varieties to a reference baseline class of known safe varieties would subsequently greatly facilitate hazard identification. Further biological and eventually toxicological analysis would then only be necessary for varieties that fall outside this reference class. For this purpose, a one-class classifier tool was explored to assess and classify transcriptome profiles of potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties in a model study. Profiles of six different varieties, two locations of growth, two year of harvest and including biological and technical replication were used to build the model. Two scenarios were applied representing evaluation of a 'different' variety and a 'similar' variety. Within the model higher class distances resulted for the 'different' test set compared with the 'similar' test set. The present study may contribute to a more global hazard identification of novel plant varieties.

  2. [A preliminary report on the investigation of medicinal plant resources in the Liupan Mountains of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Pu, X; Sun, J; Zhang, G

    1990-02-01

    In this paper, 423 species of medicinal plants belonging to 94 families in Liupan Mountains of Ningzia Hui Autonomous Region have been reported, of which 403 species belonging to 79 families are medicinal spermatophytes. The paper may serve as a reference for medical authorities in developing and utilizing plant resources.

  3. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  4. Evaluation of Safety of Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae), a Plant with Healing Properties.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Tiago Farret; Prado, Lismare da Silva; Santos, Franciele Souza; de Souza, Ana Paula; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Studies have demonstrated the healing properties of extracts obtained from A. chica leaves, which contain anthocyanins and flavonoids. However, few investigations have assessed the safe use of this plant species. In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic effects of a crude aqueous extract, a butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay in TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains and the alkaline comet assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture with and without metabolic activation. The crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste were not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested, and showed negative responses for genotoxicity in CHO cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids such as rutin and luteolin. The lack of mutagenic/genotoxic effects might be due to phytochemical composition with high concentrations of known anti-inflammatory compounds. Thus, the crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves do not appear to pose short-term genotoxic risks.

  5. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    AZARM,M.A.; TRAVIS,R.J.

    1999-11-14

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions.

  6. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  7. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner. PMID

  8. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  9. Safety evaluation of the phosphinothricin acetyltransferase proteins encoded by the pat and bar sequences that confer tolerance to glufosinate-ammonium herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Hérouet, Corinne; Esdaile, David J; Mallyon, Bryan A; Debruyne, Eric; Schulz, Arno; Currier, Thomas; Hendrickx, Koen; van der Klis, Robert-Jan; Rouan, Dominique

    2005-03-01

    Transgenic plant varieties, which are tolerant to glufosinate-ammonium, were developed. The herbicide tolerance is based upon the presence of either the bar or the pat gene, which encode for two homologous phosphinothricin acetyltransferases (PAT), in the plant genome. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the safety assessment reviews the first step of a two-step-approach for the evaluation of the safety of the proteins expressed in plants. It can be used to support the safety of food or feed products derived from any crop that contains and expresses these PAT proteins. The safety evaluation supports the conclusion that the genes and the donor microorganisms (Streptomyces) are innocuous. The PAT enzymes are highly specific and do not possess the characteristics associated with food toxins or allergens, i.e., they have no sequence homology with any known allergens or toxins, they have no N-glycosylation sites, they are rapidly degraded in gastric and intestinal fluids, and they are devoid of adverse effects in mice after intravenous administration at a high dose level. In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the PAT proteins in human food or in animal feed.

  10. Preliminary definition and characterization of a solar industrial process heat technology and manufacturing plant for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Prythero, T.; Meyer, R. T.

    1980-09-01

    A solar industrial process heat technology and an associated solar systems manufacturing plant for the year 2000 has been projected, defined, and qualitatively characterized. The technology has been defined for process heat applications requiring temperatures of 300/sup 0/C or lower, with emphasis on the 150/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C range. The selected solar collector technology is a parabolic trough collector of the line-focusing class. The design, structure, and material components are based upon existing and anticipated future technological developments in the solar industry. The solar system to be manufactured and assembled within a dedicated manufacturing plant is projected to consist of the collector and the major collector components, including reflector, absorber, parabolic trough structure, support stand, tracking drive mechanism, sun-sensing device and control system, couplings, etc. Major manufacturing processes to be introduced into the year 2000 plant operations are glassmaking, silvering, electroplating and plastic-forming. These operations will generate significant environmental residuals not encountered in present-day solar manufacturing plants. Important residuals include chemical vapors, acids, toxic elements (e.g. arsenic), metallic and chemical sludges, fumes from plastics, etc. The location, design, and operations of these sophisticated solar manufacturing plants will have to provide for the management of the environmental residuals.

  11. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo safety profile of the Indian traditional medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia.

    PubMed

    Dicson, Sheeja Malar; Samuthirapandi, Muniasamy; Govindaraju, Archunan; Kasi, Pandima Devi

    2015-10-01

    Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl., is a subtropical tree used in Ayurvedic formulations and also by tribal communities in India for treatment of wounds, urinary infection and skin diseases. Despite of its medicinal use, the plant has not been previously tested for its safety. This study evaluated the toxicological profile of the methanolic extract of G. tiliaefolia leaves (MEGT) through in vitro (cytotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic) and in vivo (acute and sub-acute) studies. In vitro assays conclude that there is no significant (p<0.05) level of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at the tested concentrations (250-2000 μg/ml) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ames assay in the tested Salmonella typhimurium strains revealed no significant (p<0.05) increase in the mutagenic index both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Alternatively, no change in mortality, physiological, behavioural, haematological and biochemical parameters were observed under in vivo acute (250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg b.w) and sub-acute (100, 200, 1000 mg/kg b.w) toxicity studies in Wistar rats. Histopathological examinations of the animals did not reveal any treatment related changes and showed normal architecture, even at the highest concentration (1000 mg/kg b.w) following 28 days treatment. Overall, the results show that MEGT is non-toxic at the tested concentrations and is safe to be used as herbal medicine. PMID:26188119

  12. Alternate analysis criteria for the seismic qualification of the supplementary safety system in Reactor Building 105-L, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Quan, C.N.; Wong, P.W.

    1982-09-01

    This system consists of a series of stainless-steel, safety-related pipelines, 1/2 to 2 in. in diameter, which run from the control room to the reactor tank. The alternate analysis criteria were developed for the seismic qualification of the piping system, according to the requirements of the 1967 Housner criteria. The application of alternate analysis criteria is a widely employed and accepted procedure for the seismic qualification of large lengths of nuclear power plant small-diameter piping (generally 2 in. in diameter and smaller). Objective of this procedure is to eliminate the need for extensive and costly individual mathematical modeling and dynamic analysis of a great number of small-bore piping systems. The procedure used to develop the alternate analysis criteria consisted of applying equivalent static seismic loading to the various pipe sizes to determine maximum support spacings for each pipe size based on the allowable stress or deflection limits. Guidelines were also developed to provide for sufficient thermal growth capacity, which is typically in direct conflict with seismic requirements.

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391): Supplement No. 19

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Supplement No. 19 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation with (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 18 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 18 was issued.

  14. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    Supplement No. 12 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County, Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation of (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 11 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 11 was issued.

  15. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  16. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  17. Plant Stem and Leaf Movements in Microgravity. Preliminary Results from a Study Using the EMCS Hardware on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsson, Anders; Bokn Solheim, Bjarte Gees; Henning Iversen, Tor

    2008-06-01

    In the 72 days long MULTIGEN-1 experiment movements of Arabidopsis thaliana were recorded using the European Modular Cultivation System, EMCS. One main goal in the experiment was to study possible oscillatory movements of plant parts in weightlessness and under acceleration pulses on centrifuge rotors. Recording was made by video sampling of the plants in cultivation chambers every 5 min. The camera + mirror set-up in the EMCS was developed by alternating the mirror positions to get 'stereoscopic' 2D pictures so that 3D-movements could be constructed. Studies of rhythmic, helical movements of shoots as well as of rhythmic movements of leaves are discussed. It is concluded that gravity amplifies self-sustained circumnutations. Also gravitropical reactions of leaves were successfully documented. The results are of importance, for example in the discussion since Charles Darwin's days on the influence of gravity on circumnutations.

  18. A preliminary study of environmental parameters associated with the feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of a polygeneration plant at Kennedy Space Center was studied. Liquid hydrogen and gaseous nitrogen are the two principal products in consideration. Environmental parameters (air quality, water quality, biological diversity and hazardous waste disposal) necessary for the feasibility study were investigated. A National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) project flow sheet was to be formulated for the environmental impact statement. Water quality criteria for Florida waters were to be established.

  19. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  20. A preliminary investigation of the environmental Control and Life Support Subsystems (EC/LSS) for animal and plant experiment payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary study of the environmental control and life support subsystems (EC/LSS) necessary for an earth orbital spacecraft to conduct biological experiments is presented. The primary spacecraft models available for conducting these biological experiments are the space shuttle and modular space station. The experiments would be housed in a separate module that would be contained in either the shuttle payload bay or attached to the modular space station. This module would be manned only for experiment-related tasks, and would contain a separate EC/LSS for the crew and animals. Metabolic data were tabulated on various animals that are considered useful for a typical experiment program. The minimum payload for the 30-day space shuttle module was found to require about the equivalent of a one-man EC/LSS; however, the selected two-man shuttle assemblies will give a growth and contingency factor of about 50 percent. The maximum payloads for the space station mission will require at least a seven-man EC/LSS for the laboratory colony and a nine-man EC/LSS for the centrifuge colony. There is practically no room for growth or contingencies in these areas.

  1. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  2. Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world's woody plant species.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Sean M; Westoby, Mark; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Hacke, Uwe G; Pratt, Robert B; Bhaskar, Radika; Brodribb, Tim J; Bucci, Sandra J; Cao, Kun-Fang; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fan, Ze-Xin; Feild, Taylor S; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Lens, Frederic; Maherali, Hafiz; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mayr, Stefan; McCulloh, Katherine A; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Morris, Hugh; Nardini, Andrea; Pittermann, Jarmila; Plavcová, Lenka; Schreiber, Stefan G; Sperry, John S; Wright, Ian J; Zanne, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of xylem (its ability to resist embolism formation and spread) should trade off against xylem efficiency (its capacity to transport water). We tested this safety-efficiency hypothesis in branch xylem across 335 angiosperm and 89 gymnosperm species. Safety was considered at three levels: the xylem water potentials where 12%, 50% and 88% of maximal conductivity are lost. Although correlations between safety and efficiency were weak (r(2)  < 0.086), no species had high efficiency and high safety, supporting the idea for a safety-efficiency tradeoff. However, many species had low efficiency and low safety. Species with low efficiency and low safety were weakly associated (r(2)  < 0.02 in most cases) with higher wood density, lower leaf- to sapwood-area and shorter stature. There appears to be no persuasive explanation for the considerable number of species with both low efficiency and low safety. These species represent a real challenge for understanding the evolution of xylem. PMID:26378984

  3. Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world's woody plant species.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Sean M; Westoby, Mark; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Hacke, Uwe G; Pratt, Robert B; Bhaskar, Radika; Brodribb, Tim J; Bucci, Sandra J; Cao, Kun-Fang; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fan, Ze-Xin; Feild, Taylor S; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Lens, Frederic; Maherali, Hafiz; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mayr, Stefan; McCulloh, Katherine A; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Morris, Hugh; Nardini, Andrea; Pittermann, Jarmila; Plavcová, Lenka; Schreiber, Stefan G; Sperry, John S; Wright, Ian J; Zanne, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of xylem (its ability to resist embolism formation and spread) should trade off against xylem efficiency (its capacity to transport water). We tested this safety-efficiency hypothesis in branch xylem across 335 angiosperm and 89 gymnosperm species. Safety was considered at three levels: the xylem water potentials where 12%, 50% and 88% of maximal conductivity are lost. Although correlations between safety and efficiency were weak (r(2)  < 0.086), no species had high efficiency and high safety, supporting the idea for a safety-efficiency tradeoff. However, many species had low efficiency and low safety. Species with low efficiency and low safety were weakly associated (r(2)  < 0.02 in most cases) with higher wood density, lower leaf- to sapwood-area and shorter stature. There appears to be no persuasive explanation for the considerable number of species with both low efficiency and low safety. These species represent a real challenge for understanding the evolution of xylem.

  4. Preliminary antimycobacterial study on selected Turkish plants (Lamiaceae) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and search for some phenolic constituents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The global resurgence of tuberculosis is a significant threat. Lamiaceae members have been used in folk remedies for centuries. This study was designed to assess the in-vitro antimycobacterial activity of eighteen crude extracts from six plants (Lamiaceae) and to characterize their phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Methods Six Turkish medicinal plants of the family Lamiaceae (Stachys tmolea Boiss., Stachys thirkei C. Koch, Ballota acetabulosa (L.) Benth., Thymus sipthorpii Benth., Satureja aintabensis P.H. Davis, and Micromeria juliana (L.) Benth. ex Reich.) were collected in 2009 – 2010. Dried and crushed plant samples were subjected to sequential extraction with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and methanol in order of increasing polarity. A broth microdilution method was employed to screen extracts against four mycobacterial strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Phenolic and flavonoid compounds were characterized by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results S. aintabensis, T. sibthorpii, and M. juliana were found to develop considerable activity against the four strains of M. tuberculosis with the minimal inhibitory concentrations value of 12.5-100 μg/ml. S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii extracts killed M. tuberculosis with the minimum bactericidal concentration value of 50–800 μg/ml. On the basis of these prominent antimycobacterial activity, we suggest that they could be a source of natural anti-tuberculosis agents. Conclusion S. aintabensis and T. sibthorpii showed activity by killing Mycobacteria strains. The major phenolic compound was rosmarinic for T. sibthorpii and S. aintabensis. Flavonoids might be “a modal” for the drug design. PMID:24359458

  5. Preliminary comparison of the uptake of chromium-51 and zinc-65 by three species of aquatic plants from Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Sklar, F.H.

    1980-12-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides was much greater for duckweed (Spirodela punctata) than for larger aquatic plants of slower growth (Bacopa caroliniana and Elodea canadensis). Higher specific activity (dpm/gm) was recorded in leaves than in stems. Chromium-51 accumulation factors ranged from a low of 66 for stems of E. canadensis to a high of 436 for S. punctata fronds. Zinc-65 accumulation factors were much higher: 142 for stems of B. caroliniana and 18,118 for fronds of S. punctata. Significant reductions in zinc-65 activity in the water surrounding growing S. punctata was detected within 10 minutes.

  6. Preliminary analysis of projected construction employment effects of building the defense waste processing facility at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Garey, R.B.; Blair, L.M.; Craig, R.L.; Stevenson, W.

    1981-09-01

    This study estimates the probable effects of constructing the DWPF on the surrounding labor markets. Analyses are based on data from the local and regional labor markets, information from experts on local construction activities, information on the labor requirements of the Vogtle Power Plant (two nuclear reactors) being built by Georgia Power Company in Burke County, Georgia, and an econometric model of the construction labor market, based on several surveys of workers building three Tennessee Valley Authority nuclear power plants. The results of this study are reported in three parts. In Part I, completed in May 1980, we describe the 1979 (base year) employment levels within the local and regional labor markets surrounding SRP, from which most DWPF construction workers are likely to be drawn. In Part II, completed in June 1980, we define the four local sources of construction employment that will compete for craftsmen when DWPF is built. Also in Part II, most of the projected impacts of the DWPF reference immobilization alternative (one of several alternatives that may be chosen) are reported. Several construction schedules and labor demand scenarios for the reference alternative are considered. In Part III, completed in January 1981, most of the estimated impacts of the DWPF alternative referred to as the staged process alternative are reported. Several construction schedules and labor demand scenarios for this alternative are considered.

  7. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 2; Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the preliminary design for a military fixed-base power system of 3 MWe nominal capacity using Westinghouse's tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell [SOFC] and Haldor Topsoe's logistic fuels processor [LFP]. The LFP provides to the fuel cell a methane rich sulfur free fuel stream derived from either DF-2 diesel fuel, or JP-8 turbine fuel. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate heat engine or dynamo. The SOFC is distinguished from other fuel cell types by its solid state ceramic structure and its high operating temperature, nominally 1000'C. The SOFC pioneered by Westinghouse has a tubular geometry closed at one end. A power generation stack is formed by aggregating many cells in an ordered array. The Westinghouse stack design is distinguished from other fuel cell stacks by the complete absence of high integrity seals between cell elements, cells, and between stack and manifolds. Further, the reformer for natural gas [predominantly methane] and the stack are thermally and hydraulically integrated with no requirement for process water. The technical viability of combining the tubular SOFC and a logistic fuels processor was demonstrated at 27 kWe scale in a test program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency [ARPA) and carried out at the Southern California Edison's [SCE] Highgrove generating station near San Bernardino, California in 1994/95. The LFP was a breadboard design supplied by Haldor Topsoe, Inc. under subcontract to Westinghouse. The test program was completely successful. The LFP fueled the SOFC for 766 hours on JP-8 and 1555 hours of DF-2. In addition, the fuel cell operated for 3261 hours on pipeline natural gas. Over the 5582 hours of operation, the SOFC generated 118 MVVH of electricity with no perceptible degradation in performance. The LFP processed military

  8. Report on Preliminary Engineering Study for Installation of an Air Cooled Steam Condenser at Brawley Geothermal Plant, Unit No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    The Brawley Geothermal Project comprises a single 10 MW nominal geothermal steam turbine-generator unit which has been constructed and operated by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). Geothermal steam for the unit is supplied through contract by Union Oil Company which requires the return of all condensate. Irrigation District (IID) purchases the electric power generated and provides irrigation water for cooling tower make-up to the plant for the first-five years of operation, commencing mid-1980. Because of the unavailability of irrigation water from IID in the future, SCE is investigating the application and installation of air cooled heat exchangers in conjunction with the existing wet (evaporative) cooling tower with make-up based on use of 180 gpm (nominal) of the geothermal condensate which may be made available by the steam supplier.

  9. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  10. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  11. Information tools for environmental risk assessment of low level presence - an introduction to the reviews of the environmental safety of proteins used in genetically engineered plants.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Since the first regulatory approval of a genetically engineered (GE) plant was issued in 1992, hundreds of additional GE plants, thousands of regulatory decisions and millions of tons of GE grain and seed have been produced. In an increasingly global economy, the grain and seeds move relatively freely across national jurisdictions, but the regulatory decisions and associated data and analyses do not. Combined with the realities of agricultural production, this has led to a legal and regulatory challenge due to the low level presence (LLP) of GE grain or seeds that do not have regulatory approvals in the country of destination. In order to assist regulators in conducting environmental risk assessments related to LLP, reviews of environmental safety data, including associated regulatory analyses and decisions, for proteins commonly introduced in GE plants have been produced.

  12. Safety of plant-made pharmaceuticals: product development and regulatory considerations based on case studies of two autologous human cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tusé, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Guidelines issued by regulatory agencies for the development of plant-made pharmaceutical (PMP) products provide criteria for product manufacturing and characterization, safety determination, containment and mitigation of environmental risks. Features of plant-made products do not always enable an easy fit within the criteria subscribed to by regulators. The unconventional nature of plant-based manufacturing processes and peculiarities of plant biology relative to that of traditional biological production systems have led to special considerations in the regulatory scrutiny of PMP. Presented in this review are case studies of two plant-made autologous (patient-specific) cancer vaccines, the nature of which introduced challenges to conventional and standardized development and preclinical evaluation routes. The rationale presented to FDA by the sponsors of each vaccine to build consensus and obtain variances to existing guidelines is discussed. While development of many plant-made biologics can be accomplished within the existing regulatory framework, the development of specialized products can be defended with rational arguments based on strong science.

  13. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze].

    PubMed

    Phukon, Munmi; Namdev, Richa; Deka, Diganta; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2012-09-10

    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage across the world. The understanding of the genetic organization and molecular biology of tea plant, which is very poorly understood at present, is required for quantum increase in productivity and efficient use of germplasm for either cultivation or breeding program. Single-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones is the most widely accepted technique for gene identification and cloning. In the present study, a good quality cDNA library was constructed and preliminary analysis of ESTs was carried out. The titers of unamplified and amplified libraries were 1.4 × 10(6)pfu/ml and 5.27 × 10(8)pfu/ml respectively. A total of 210 cDNA clones from the constructed cDNA library were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 84 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were generated, among which 71 ESTs had significant homology with sequences in NCBI non-redundant protein database by BLAST X analysis. About 80% ESTs had poly (A) tail at 3' end indicating that the cDNAs were full length. The database-matched ESTs were classified into putative cellular roles, viz. energy-related category (corresponding to 20% of total BLAST X matched ESTs), Transcription (14.2%), protein synthesis (14.2%) cell growth and division (8.6%), cell structure (5.7%), signal transduction (5.7%), transporters (2.9%), disease and defenses (2.9%), secondary metabolism (2.9%) and gene regulation (2.9%). This study provides an overview of the mRNA expression profile and first hand information of gene sequence expressed in tender leaves and apical buds of tea plant.

  14. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  15. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction: Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I extruded Kerr McGee mineral ash residue-water slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1984-05-01

    A Type II preliminary pilot plant evaluation of SRC-I Kerr McGee mineral ash residue as a water slurry feed to the Texaco Coal Gasification Process was conducted at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). The residue was obtained in the extrudate form directly from the Critical Solvent Deashing process at Wilsonville, Alabama. Approximately 16 tons of residue were gasified during three test runs which were carried out at 950 psig in MRL's High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit I. The runs lasted from 4.8 hours to 7.2 hours, and a total of 19.1 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 10 under DOE contract EX-76-C-01-2247 and amendment DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing effort to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes.

  16. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R. ); Swift, P.N. ); Baker, B.L. ); Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. ); Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Sch

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements ({section} 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements ({section} 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, pediculosis in Sharkia Governorate and treatment of lice with natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Basheir, Zeinab M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H

    2002-12-01

    Twelve different representative areas in Sharkia Governorate were surveyed for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis. The pre-valence was investigated among 120 houses containing 2,448 individual, with different age, sex and socioeconomic status. Examination was done by naked eye aided with hand-lens. A total of 137 individuals were infested. Infestation rates were higher in the rural areas with low socioeconomic levels, concrete houses with over-crowded family members. Children had significantly higher infestation rates than adults. Males had lower infestation rates than females. However, the hair length and permanent hair washing were the factors accounted for both age and sex difference in prevalence of pediculosis. Head lice infestations were found all over the year, but increased in summer and spring. One hundred infested patients (90 females and 10 males) with different aged and hair length were treated with tour mixed cream from plants Lawsonia alba L. (Henna). Trigonella faemum-gracanum (Fenugreek), Hibiscus cannabinus (Hibiscus) and Artemisia cina (Wormseed). The head lice completely disappeared within a week among those patients treated by henna mixed with aqueous extract of sheah (100%) or mixed with helba (75%) or with karkada (50%).

  18. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. Volume 6, Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and transportation package acceptable concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept. This volume contains introduction section containing a brief SDS background and lists the general assumptions and considerations used during the development of the system concepts. The introduction section is followed by sections describing two system concepts that produce a waste form in compliance with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) and transportation package (TRAMPAC) requirements. This system concept category is referred to as Waste Form 4, ``WIPP and TRAMPAC Acceptable.`` The following two system concepts are under this category: Sort, Treat, and Repackage System (4-BE-2); Volume Reduction and Packaging System (4-BE-4).

  19. Preliminary investigation of groundwater flow and trichloroethene transport in the Surficial Aquifer System, Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.; Davis, J. Hal

    2016-05-16

    The August 20, 2001, groundwater flow model simulator and the 2001 trichloroethene transport simulator were applied to a groundwater extraction and treatment system that existed in 2011. Furnished trichloroethene source areas and concentrations in the 2001 simulator were replaced with different, furnished, hypothetical source areas and concentrations. Forcing in 2001 was replaced with forcing in 2011. No trichloroethene concentrations greater than 3 µg/L were simulated as discharging to the Mississippi River during applications of the 2001 simulator to the 2011 groundwater extraction and treatment system. These applications were not intended to represent historical conditions. Differences between furnished and actual trichloroethene sources may explain differences between measurements and simulation results for the 2001 trichloroethene transport simulator. Causes of differences between furnished and actual trichloroethene sources may cause differences between hypothetical application results and the performance of the actual U.S. Department of the Navy groundwater extraction and treatment system at the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant. Other limitations may also cause differences between application results and performance.

  20. A preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of ondansetron in the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Elkashef, Ahmed M; Smith, Edwina V; Kahn, Roberta; Vocci, Francis; Li, Shou-Hua; Bloch, Daniel A

    2008-02-01

    Methamphetamine dependence is an increasing public health problem in the United States. No efficacious medication for methamphetamine dependence has been developed. As ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and modulator of cortico-mesolimbic dopamine function, has been shown to reduce some of the rewarding effects of d-amphetamine in animal and human laboratory studies, we decided to test whether it would be superior to placebo at reducing methamphetamine use. In a preliminary, multi-site, randomized, double-blind, 8-wk controlled trial, 150 methamphetamine-dependent men and women received ondansetron (0.25 mg, 1 mg, or 4 mg b.i.d.) or placebo. Participants were assessed on several measures of methamphetamine use including urine methamphetamine level up to three times per week. As a psychosocial adjunct to the medication condition, cognitive behavioural therapy also was administered three times per week. Ondansetron was well tolerated and was less likely than placebo to be associated with serious adverse events. Nevertheless, none of the ondansetron doses was superior to placebo at decreasing any of the measures of methamphetamine use, withdrawal, craving, or clinical severity of methamphetamine dependence. Our preliminary results do not support the utility of ondansetron, at the doses tested, as a treatment for methamphetamine dependence. These findings should be viewed in light of the possibility that a less intensive cognitive behavioural therapy regimen might have yielded more positive results in this initial phase II trial exploring for the efficacy of ondansetron.

  1. Preliminary data on immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children with inborn errors of metabolism at risk of decompensation.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Salvini, Filippo; Menni, Francesca; Scala, Alessia; Salvatici, Elisabetta; Manzoni, Francesca; Riva, Enrica; Giovannini, Marcello; Principi, Nicola

    2013-10-25

    In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of influenza vaccination in children with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), we enrolled 20 patients with IEMs at risk of decompensation (14 males; mean age±SD, 8.5±3.9years) and 20 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Four weeks after vaccination, seroconversion rates were 75-85% and seroprotection rates 85-95%, with high geometric mean titers (GMTs) of all three influenza antigen strains in both groups. Three months after vaccination, most of the subjects remained seroconverted with high seroprotection rates and high GMTs for all the three influenza strains. Safety and tolerability were also very good, with no differences between the groups.

  2. The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

  3. The influence of individual and team cognitive ability on operators' task and safety performance: a multilevel field study in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators' performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators' GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a "big-fish-little-pond" effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers' extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed.

  4. Efficacy and safety of escitalopram versus desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depression: A preliminary 1-year prospective randomized open label comparative trial

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Brij Mohan; Zargar, Samir H.; Arora, Manu; Tandon, Vishal R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To compare efficacy and safety of escitalopram with desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depression. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients of depression were randomized into two groups after meeting inclusion criterion. In the first 3 weeks, escitalopram 10 mg/day was given and then 20 mg/day for the next 3 weeks in group 1 (n = 30). Desvenlafaxine in the first 3 weeks was given 50 mg/day and 100 mg/day for the next 3 weeks in group 2 (n = 30). The parameters evaluated during the study were efficacy assessments byHamilton Scale of Rating Depression (HAM-D), Hamilton Rating Scale of Anxiety (HAM-A), and Clinical Global Impression (CGI). Safety assessments were done by UKU-scale. Results: Escitalopram and desvenlafaxine significantly (P < 0.001), reduced HAM-D, HAM-A, and CGI scores from their respective base lines. However, on comparison failed show any statistical difference at 3 and 6 weeks of treatment. Escitalopram and desvenlafaxine were both found to be safe and well-tolerated and there was not much difference between the two groups as evident from UKU Scale and their effect on various biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated similar efficacy and safety in reducing depression and anxiety with both escitalopram and desvenlafaxine, but clinical superiority of one drug over the other cannot be concluded due to limitations of the small sample size. PMID:26955576

  5. Preliminary Hazards Assessment: Iron disulfide purification system

    SciTech Connect

    1991-07-30

    A process for the purification (washing) of iron disulfide (FeS{sub 2}) powder is conducted in the Northeast corner (Area 353) of the main plant building (Building 100). This location is about 130 feet from the fenced boundary of the Partnership School/Child Development Center. In the first steps of the process, raw iron disulfide powder is ground and separated by particle size. The ground and sized powder is then purified in a three-step acid washing process using both hydrochloric acid (HCI) and hydrofluoric (HF) acid. The iron disulfide process is an intermittent batch process conducted four to eight times a year. This study is a Preliminary Hazards Assessment (PHA) to assess the hazards associated with the iron disulfide process. This is a preliminary study and will be used to determine if additional safety analysis is necessary. The scope of the PHA includes assessment of the process steps of grinding, size classification, and purification. The purpose is to identify major hazards and determine if the current and newly added safeguards are adequate for operation. The PHA also lists recommendations for additional safety features that should be added to reduce the risks of operation.

  6. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F.

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 18

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    In June 1982, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC staff or staff) issued a Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847, regarding the application by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant) for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Each of the following sections and appendices of this supplement is numbered the same as the section or appendix of the SER that is being updated, and the discussions are supplementary to, and not in lieu of, the discussion in the SER, unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, Appendix A continues the chronology of the safety review. Appendix E lists principal contributors to this supplement. Appendix FF is added in this supplement. The other appendices are not changed by this supplement.

  8. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  9. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  10. Site plan safety submission for sampling, monitoring, decontamination of GB agent - north plant Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The scope of this site plan safety submission (SPSS), includes: sampling plan to determine if GB is a contaminant in equipment and piping used in the production and demil processes; monitoring plan for personnel involved in the sampling effort; decon plan for personnel, equipment, and piping should contamination be identified. Additional sections and appendices include: historical use of bldg 1501, 1503, 1504, 1506, 1601, 1602, 1603, 1606; chemical information on GB; safety requirements; medical requirements and first aid procedures; piping drawings; rma sop's for sampling, monitoring, and decon.

  11. Site plan safety submission for sampling, monitoring and decontamination of mustard agent, South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The scope of this site plan safety submission (SPSS) includes: (1) Sampling plan to determine if H is a contaminant in Equipment and piping used in the 1970's for the H DEMIL program; (2) Monitoring plan for personnel involved in the sampling effort; and (3) Decon plan for personnel, equipment, and piping should contamination be identified. Additional sections and appendices include: (1) Historical use of Bld 637 and Bld 538; (2) Chemical information on H, HD, and HT; (3) Safety requirements; (4) Medical requirements and first aid procedures; (5) Piping drawings; and (6) RMA SOP's for sampling, monitoring, and decon.

  12. Review guidelines for software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems: Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, M.; Decker, D.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Dinsmore, G.; Koch, S.

    1997-10-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada83 and Ada95; C and C++; International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Ladder Logic, Sequential Function Charts, Structured Text, and Function Block Diagrams; Pascal; and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.

  13. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  14. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  15. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces.

  16. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2% ± 5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  17. Evaluation of primary and secondary treated and disinfected wastewater irrigation of tomato and cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions, regarding growth and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Papagrigoriou, I; Daskalakis, G; Sabathianakis, I; Terzakis, S; Maniadakis, K; Markakis, G

    2006-08-01

    Tomato and cucumber seedlings were distributed into 10 groups (five for each plant) of 15 plants each. The plants were irrigated for 10 weeks with primary treated wastewater (group A), secondary treated wastewater (group B), chlorinated secondary treated wastewater (group C), a fertilizer dilution (group F), and tap water (group M). All precautions were taken to secure that there was no direct contact between the wastewater and the edible portions of the crops. During this period and on a weekly basis, the height and number of leaves was monitored, while, at the end, the dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots for each plant of each group was measured. Based on these growth parameters, both types of plant in groups A and F recorded the most significant development compared to the other three groups. The plants irrigated with tap water recorded the smallest development, in every case. Plants in groups B and C were similar, with a slight (but not significant) superiority for the plants irrigated with secondary treated wastewater, probably as a result of some phytotoxic effects of residual chloride in the chlorinated wastewater. The presence of nutrients and specifically nitrogen in the various solutions explains the differences satisfactorily. The vegetables grown on the plants of each group were harvested, and their surface tissue analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). Tomatoes grown on the plants of groups A and B recorded the highest values for TC, with 505 and 490 cfu/g, respectively, whereas, for cucumbers, those values were 342 and 450 cfu/g, respectively. Enterococci were detected on the surface of harvested vegetables from groups A and B, but the small number of cases and their random character cannot support any strong relations between the used wastewater and their presence. The TC values in group C were very low, far lower than those if group F. No EC were found in either group C or group F. These primary results suggested that irrigation

  18. Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world’s woody plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of...

  19. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  20. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    PubMed

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  1. Intervention technologies for food safety on minimally processed produce:Perspectives on food-borne and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Produce contamination associated with enteric pathogens such Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and others are significant challenges to food safety. This is due to the illnesses and economic impacts resulting from the outbreaks. Innovative technologies for i...

  2. Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Rouquié, David; Freyssinet, Martine; Currier, Thomas; Martone, Aris; Zhou, Junguo; Bates, Elizabeth E M; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Hendrickx, Koen; Rouan, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide's ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate tolerance is based upon the expression of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) protein. The 2mEPSPS protein, with a lower binding affinity for glyphosate, is highly resistant to the inhibition by glyphosate and thus allows sufficient enzyme activity for the plants to grow in the presence of herbicides that contain glyphosate. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the potential safety concerns related to the transgenic 2mEPSPS protein were assessed. The safety evaluation supports that the expressed protein is innocuous. The 2mEPSPS enzyme does not possess any of the properties associated with known toxins or allergens, including a lack of amino acid sequence similarity to known toxins and allergens, a rapid degradation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and no adverse effects in mice after intravenous or oral administration (at 10 or 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the 2mEPSPS protein in human food or in animal feed.

  3. Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Rouquié, David; Freyssinet, Martine; Currier, Thomas; Martone, Aris; Zhou, Junguo; Bates, Elizabeth E M; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Hendrickx, Koen; Rouan, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide's ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate tolerance is based upon the expression of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) protein. The 2mEPSPS protein, with a lower binding affinity for glyphosate, is highly resistant to the inhibition by glyphosate and thus allows sufficient enzyme activity for the plants to grow in the presence of herbicides that contain glyphosate. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the potential safety concerns related to the transgenic 2mEPSPS protein were assessed. The safety evaluation supports that the expressed protein is innocuous. The 2mEPSPS enzyme does not possess any of the properties associated with known toxins or allergens, including a lack of amino acid sequence similarity to known toxins and allergens, a rapid degradation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and no adverse effects in mice after intravenous or oral administration (at 10 or 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the 2mEPSPS protein in human food or in animal feed. PMID:19303906

  4. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  5. Evaluation of purity of certain pediatric preparations of plant origin and its significance for the safety of pharmacotherapy microbiological contamination of pediatric preparations of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Figura, Barbara; Pluta, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms inhabiting medicinal plants belong to either saprophytic or pathogenic flora. Even those microorganisms which are characterized by low pathogenicity, under favorable conditions may infect people who have had contact with them. Compound tea bags contain increased levels of bacteria in view of pharmacopoeic norms. Single plant tea bags contain less bacteria and granulated teas have the lowest content. On the other hand, the latter reveal higher level of fungal contamination. Processing of herbs, including brewing decreases the amount of microorganisms in herbal products. PMID:17438867

  6. A phase I dose‐escalation study to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the dual mTORC1/mTORC2 kinase inhibitor CC‐223 in patients with advanced solid tumors or multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Bendell, Johanna C.; Kelley, Robin K.; Shih, Kent C.; Grabowsky, Jennifer A.; Bergsland, Emily; Jones, Suzanne; Martin, Thomas; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Mischel, Paul S.; Matsutani, Tomoo; Xu, Shuichan; Wong, Lilly; Liu, Yong; Wu, Xiaoling; Mortensen, Deborah S.; Chopra, Rajesh; Hege, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is essential for tumor development, yet mTOR inhibitors have yielded modest results. This phase 1 study investigated the mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibitor CC‐223 in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS Patients with advanced solid tumors or multiple myeloma received an initial dose of 7.5‐60 mg of CC‐223, followed by oral daily dosing in 28‐day cycles until disease progression. The primary objective was to determine the safety, tolerability, nontolerated dosage, maximum tolerated dosage (MTD), and preliminary pharmacokinetic profile. Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacodynamic effects and to describe preliminary efficacy. RESULTS Twenty‐eight patients were enrolled and received ≥1 dose of CC‐223. The most common treatment‐related grade 3 adverse events were hyperglycemia, fatigue, and rash. Four patients had dose‐limiting toxicities, including hyperglycemia, rash, fatigue, and mucositis. Therefore, 45 mg/d was determined to be the MTD. The pharmacokinetics of CC‐223 demonstrated a mean terminal half‐life ranging from 4.86 to 5.64 hours and maximum observed plasma concentration ranging from 269 to 480 ng/mL in patients who received CC‐223 ≥45 mg/d. Phosphorylation of mTORC1/mTORC2 pathway biomarkers in blood cells was inhibited by CC‐223 ≥30 mg/d with an exposure‐response relationship. Best responses included 1 partial response (breast cancer; response duration 220 days; 30‐mg/d cohort), stable disease (8 patients across ≥15 mg/d cohorts; response duration range, 36‐168 days), and progressive disease (12 patients). The disease control rate was 32%. CONCLUSIONS CC‐223 was tolerable, with manageable toxicities. Preliminary antitumor activity, including tumor regression, and evidence of mTORC1/mTORC2 pathway inhibition were observed. Cancer 2015;121:3435–43. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26177599

  7. Pre-clinical and preliminary dose-finding and safety studies to identify candidate antivenoms for treatment of envenoming by saw-scaled or carpet vipers (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abubakar, S B; Abubakar, I S; Habib, A G; Nasidi, A; Durfa, N; Yusuf, P O; Larnyang, S; Garnvwa, J; Sokomba, E; Salako, L; Laing, G D; Theakston, R D G; Juszczak, E; Alder, N; Warrell, D A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify candidate antivenoms with specific activity against the venom of the saw-scaled or carpet viper (Echis ocellatus) in northern Nigeria, where bites by this species cause great morbidity and mortality but where effective antivenoms have become scarce and unaffordable. Selected antivenoms were destined to be compared by randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs). Standard pre-clinical neutralisation assays were carried out in rodents. We included two licensed antivenoms of established clinical efficacy and 6 candidate antivenoms. Although 6 of the tested antivenoms showed promising efficacy, all but 3 were excluded from further study because of inadequate pre-clinical efficacy or because they were unavailable or unaffordable for the anticipated RCTs. Median effective doses (ED(50)) of the remaining three candidate antivenoms suggested that the following doses might neutralise the maximum observed venom yield of 24.8 mg (dry weight) of venom milked from captive E. ocellatus: 10 ml of MicroPharm "EchiTAb G" (ET-G) antivenom; 30 ml of Instituto Clodomiro Picado "EchiTAb-Plus-ICP" (ET-Plus) antivenom; 50 ml of VacSera, Cairo "EgyVac" antivenom. A preliminary clinical dose-finding and safety study of these three antivenoms was carried out in 24 patients with incoagulable blood after E. ocellatus bites who were not severely envenomed. A 3+3 dose escalation design was employed. Initial doses of 10 ml ET-G and 30 ml ET-Plus restored blood coagulability in groups of 6 patients with early mild reactions (pruritus only) in not more than one third of them. EgyVac antivenom did not fulfil efficacy or safety criteria in 12 patients. On the basis of these results, ET-G and ET-Plus were selected for comparison in a RCT. PMID:19874841

  8. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:15806954

  9. Probiotic screening and safety evaluation of Lactobacillus strains from plants, artisanal goat cheese, human stools, and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Gotteland, Martin; Cires, Maria Jose; Carvallo, Claudia; Vega, Natalia; Ramirez, Maria Antonieta; Morales, Pamela; Rivas, Patricia; Astudillo, Fernanda; Navarrete, Paola; Dubos, Céline; Figueroa, Alvaro; Troncoso, Miriam; Ulloa, Carolina; Mizgier, Maria Luisa; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernan; Brunser, Oscar; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to select autochthonous strains of Lactobacillus from stools of healthy infants and adults, human milk, artisanal goat cheese, and fruits and vegetables according to their probiotic properties and safety. From 421 strains of Lactobacillus isolated, 102 (24.2%) were shown to be tolerant to gastric pH and bile salts; they were used to determine their anti-Helicobacter pylori (agar diffusion assay), antioxidant (oxygen radical absorption capacity), and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of interleukin-8 release by tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated HT-29 cells) activities as well as their ability to adhere to intestinal (Caco-2) and gastric (AGS) epithelial cells. Results obtained were compared with three commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and L. johnsonii NCC533. The five strains most efficient according to these activities were subsequently identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene, their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined, and their safety evaluated in mice. One strain of L. plantarum was discarded due to the higher prevalence of liver bacterial translocation observed in the animals fed this strain. In conclusion, four autochthonous strains of L. rhamnosus were finally selected with probiotic properties and safety allowing their eventual use in human studies. These results contribute to increase the diversity of probiotic strains available for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  10. The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants.

    PubMed

    van den Eede, G; Aarts, H; Buhk, H-J; Corthier, G; Flint, H J; Hammes, W; Jacobsen, B; Midtvedt, T; van der Vossen, J; von Wright, A; Wackernagel, W; Wilcks, A

    2004-07-01

    In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established. This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops are described. Next, HGT mechanisms and its possible evolutionary role are described. The use of marker genes is presented in detail as a special case for genes that may pose a risk. Furthermore, the exposure to GMOs and in particular to genetically modified (GM) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is discussed as part of the total risk assessment. The review finishes off with a number of conclusions related to GM food and feed safety. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview to assist risk assessors as well as regulators and the general public in understanding the safety issues related to these mechanisms.

  11. The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants.

    PubMed

    van den Eede, G; Aarts, H; Buhk, H-J; Corthier, G; Flint, H J; Hammes, W; Jacobsen, B; Midtvedt, T; van der Vossen, J; von Wright, A; Wackernagel, W; Wilcks, A

    2004-07-01

    In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established. This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops are described. Next, HGT mechanisms and its possible evolutionary role are described. The use of marker genes is presented in detail as a special case for genes that may pose a risk. Furthermore, the exposure to GMOs and in particular to genetically modified (GM) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is discussed as part of the total risk assessment. The review finishes off with a number of conclusions related to GM food and feed safety. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview to assist risk assessors as well as regulators and the general public in understanding the safety issues related to these mechanisms. PMID:15123384

  12. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market.

  13. Safety and Efficacy Studies of Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and Mesh-Container-Plasty for the Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Li, Donghua; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Tong; Liu, Xunwei; Zhong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), and percutaneous mesh-container-plasty (PMCP) for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a retrospective study of 90 patients with VCFs who had been treated by PVP (n = 30), PKP (n = 30), and PMCP (n = 30) was conducted. The clinical efficacies of these three treatments were evaluated by comparing their PMMA cement leakages, cement patterns, height restoration percentages, wedge angles, visual analogue scales (VAS), and oswestry disability index (ODI) at the pre- and post-operative time points. 6.67%, 3.33%, and 0% of patients had PMMA leakage in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. Three (solid, trabecular, and mixed patterns), two (solid and mixed patterns), and one (mixed patterns) types of cement patterns were observed in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. PKP and PMCP treatments had better height restoration ability than PVP treatment. PVP, PKP, and PMCP treatments had significant and similar ability in pain relief and functional recovery ability for the treatment of VCFs. These results indicate minimally invasive techniques were effective methods for the treatment of VCFs. Moreover, these initial outcomes suggest PMCP treatment may be better than both PVP treatment and PKP treatment.

  14. Safety and Efficacy Studies of Vertebroplasty, Kyphoplasty, and Mesh-Container-Plasty for the Treatment of Vertebral Compression Fractures: Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Li, Donghua; Wang, Zhiguo; Li, Tong; Liu, Xunwei; Zhong, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical safety and efficacies of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP), percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP), and percutaneous mesh-container-plasty (PMCP) for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs), a retrospective study of 90 patients with VCFs who had been treated by PVP (n = 30), PKP (n = 30), and PMCP (n = 30) was conducted. The clinical efficacies of these three treatments were evaluated by comparing their PMMA cement leakages, cement patterns, height restoration percentages, wedge angles, visual analogue scales (VAS), and oswestry disability index (ODI) at the pre- and post-operative time points. 6.67%, 3.33%, and 0% of patients had PMMA leakage in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. Three (solid, trabecular, and mixed patterns), two (solid and mixed patterns), and one (mixed patterns) types of cement patterns were observed in PVP, PKP, and PMCP groups, respectively. PKP and PMCP treatments had better height restoration ability than PVP treatment. PVP, PKP, and PMCP treatments had significant and similar ability in pain relief and functional recovery ability for the treatment of VCFs. These results indicate minimally invasive techniques were effective methods for the treatment of VCFs. Moreover, these initial outcomes suggest PMCP treatment may be better than both PVP treatment and PKP treatment. PMID:26963808

  15. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  16. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  17. A Prospective, Multicenter, Phase I Matched-Comparison Group Trial of Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Preliminary Efficacy of Riluzole in Patients with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fehlings, Michael G.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Burau, Keith D.; Chow, Diana S.L.; Tator, Charles; Teng, Angela; Toups, Elizabeth G.; Harrop, James S.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Shaffrey, Christopher I.; Johnson, Michele M.; Harkema, Susan J.; Boakye, Maxwell; Guest, James D.; Wilson, Jefferson R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A prospective, multicenter phase I trial was undertaken by the North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of, as well as obtain pilot data on, the effects of riluzole on neurological outcome in acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-six patients, with ASIA impairment grades A–C (28 cervical and 8 thoracic) were enrolled at 6 NACTN sites between April 2010 and June 2011. Patients received 50 mg of riluzole PO/NG twice-daily, within 12 h of SCI, for 14 days. Peak and trough plasma concentrations were quantified on days 3 and 14. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure to riluzole varied significantly between patients. On the same dose basis, Cmax did not reach levels comparable to those in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Riluzole plasma levels were significantly higher on day 3 than on day 14, resulting from a lower clearance and a smaller volume of distribution on day 3. Rates of medical complications, adverse events, and progression of neurological status were evaluated by comparison with matched patients in the NACTN SCI Registry. Medical complications in riluzole-treated patients occurred with incidences similar to those in patients in the comparison group. Mild-to-moderate increase in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels were found in 14–70% of patients for different enzymes. Three patients had borderline severe elevations of enzymes. No patient had elevated bilirubin on day 14 of administration of riluzole. There were no serious adverse events related to riluzole and no deaths. The mean motor score of 24 cervical injury riluzole-treated patients gained 31.2 points from admission to 90 days, compared to 15.7 points for 26 registry patients, a 15.5-point difference (p=0.021). Patients with cervical injuries treated with riluzole had more-robust conversions of impairment grades to higher grades than the comparison group. PMID:23859435

  18. A prospective, multicenter, phase I matched-comparison group trial of safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of riluzole in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Robert G; Fehlings, Michael G; Frankowski, Ralph F; Burau, Keith D; Chow, Diana S L; Tator, Charles; Teng, Angela; Toups, Elizabeth G; Harrop, James S; Aarabi, Bizhan; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Johnson, Michele M; Harkema, Susan J; Boakye, Maxwell; Guest, James D; Wilson, Jefferson R

    2014-02-01

    A prospective, multicenter phase I trial was undertaken by the North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) to investigate the pharmacokinetics and safety of, as well as obtain pilot data on, the effects of riluzole on neurological outcome in acute spinal cord injury (SCI). Thirty-six patients, with ASIA impairment grades A-C (28 cervical and 8 thoracic) were enrolled at 6 NACTN sites between April 2010 and June 2011. Patients received 50 mg of riluzole PO/NG twice-daily, within 12 h of SCI, for 14 days. Peak and trough plasma concentrations were quantified on days 3 and 14. Peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and systemic exposure to riluzole varied significantly between patients. On the same dose basis, Cmax did not reach levels comparable to those in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Riluzole plasma levels were significantly higher on day 3 than on day 14, resulting from a lower clearance and a smaller volume of distribution on day 3. Rates of medical complications, adverse events, and progression of neurological status were evaluated by comparison with matched patients in the NACTN SCI Registry. Medical complications in riluzole-treated patients occurred with incidences similar to those in patients in the comparison group. Mild-to-moderate increase in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels were found in 14-70% of patients for different enzymes. Three patients had borderline severe elevations of enzymes. No patient had elevated bilirubin on day 14 of administration of riluzole. There were no serious adverse events related to riluzole and no deaths. The mean motor score of 24 cervical injury riluzole-treated patients gained 31.2 points from admission to 90 days, compared to 15.7 points for 26 registry patients, a 15.5-point difference (p=0.021). Patients with cervical injuries treated with riluzole had more-robust conversions of impairment grades to higher grades than the comparison group.

  19. Preliminary efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and quality of life study of pegylated recombinant human arginase 1 in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yau, Thomas; Cheng, Paul N; Chan, Pierre; Chen, Li; Yuen, Jimmy; Pang, Roberta; Fan, Sheung Tat; Wheatley, Denys N; Poon, Ronnie T

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety profile, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and quality of life of pegylated recombinant human arginase 1 (Peg-rhAgr1) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients were given weekly doses of Peg-rhAgr1 (1600 U/kg). Tumour response was assessed every 8 weeks using RECIST 1.1 and modified RECIST criteria. A total of 20 patients were recruited, of whom 15 were deemed evaluable for treatment efficacy. Eighteen patients (90%) were hepatitis B carriers. Median age was 61.5 (range 30-75). Overall disease control rate was 13%, with 2 of the 15 patients achieving stable disease for >8 weeks. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.67-1.73) months, with median overall survival (OS) of all 20 enrolled patients being 5.2 (95% CI: 3.3-12.0) months. PFS was significantly prolonged in patients with adequate arginine depletion (ADD) >2 months versus those who had ≤2 months of ADD (6.4 versus 1.7 months; p = 0.01). The majority of adverse events (AEs) were grade 1/2 non-hematological toxicities. Transient liver dysfunctions (25%) were the most commonly reported serious AEs and likely due to disease progression. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data showed that Peg-rhAgr1 induced rapid and sustained arginine depletion. The overall quality of life of the enrolled patients was well preserved. Peg-rhAgr1 is well tolerated with a good toxicity profile in patients with advanced HCC. A weekly dose of 1600 U/kg is sufficient to induce ADD. Significantly longer PFS times were recorded for patients who had ADD for >2 months.

  20. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  1. PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND ULTRASONICS WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, Saravanan; Kuczynska, Agnieszka; Hume, Scott; Mulgundmath, Vinay; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Remias, Joe; Ambedkar, Balraj; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan

    2012-11-01

    The results of the preliminary techno-economic assessment for integrating a process utilizing low-energy solvents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture enabled by a combination of enzymes and ultrasonics with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant are presented. Four cases utilizing the enzyme-activated solvent are compared using different methodologies of regeneration against the DOE/NETL reference MEA case. The results are shown comparing the energy demand for post-combustion CO2 capture and the net higher heating value (HHV) efficiency of the power plant integrated with the post-combustion capture (PCC) plant. A levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) assessment was performed showing the costs of the options presented in the study. The key factors contributing to the reduction of LCOE were identified as enzyme make-up rate and the capability of the ultrasonic regeneration process. The net efficiency of the integrated PC power plant with CO2 capture changes from 24.9% with the reference Case 10 plant to between 24.34% and 29.97% for the vacuum regeneration options considered, and to between 26.63% and 31.41% for the ultrasonic regeneration options. The evaluation also shows the effect of the critical parameters on the LCOE, with the main variable being the initial estimation of enzyme dosing rate. The LCOE ($/MWh) values range from 112.92 to 125.23 for the vacuum regeneration options and from 108.9 to 117.50 for the ultrasonic regeneration cases considered in comparison to 119.6 for the reference Case 10. A sensitivity analysis of the effect of critical parameters on the LCOE was also performed. The results from the preliminary techno-economic assessment show that the proposed technology can be investigated further with a view to being a viable alternative to conventional CO2 scrubbing technologies.

  2. Hepatic safety of RPV/FTC/TDF single tablet regimen in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Preliminary results of the hEPAtic Study

    PubMed Central

    Neukam, Karin; Espinosa, Nuria; Merino, Dolores; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Carrero, Ana; José Ríos, María; Ruiz-Morales, Josefa; Gómez-Berrocal, Ana; Téllez, Francisco; Díaz-Menéndez, Marta; Collado, Antonio; Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Delgado-Fernández, Marcial; Vera-Méndez, Francisco; Pineda, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although hepatotoxicity related to antiretroviral treatment (ART) has become less frequent, hepatotoxic events, such as transaminase elevations (TE), are still a matter of concern. RPV/FTC/TDF (EPA) is a new single tablet regimen which is widely used in real life practice. Clinical trials showed an adequate profile of liver safety in the sub-population of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving rilpivirine. However, the number of individuals included in these analyses is low [1]. The aim of this ongoing study is to evaluate the incidence of TE and total bilirubin elevations (TBE) during the first 48 weeks of EPA-based therapy in a large population of HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects outside of clinical trials. Patients and Methods This is a retrospective analysis of HIV/HCV-coinfected subjects who started EPA at the infectious diseases units of 14 centres throughout Spain, included as cases. Subjects who started an ART different to EPA during the study period at the same hospitals were selected as controls. The primary outcome variables were grade 3 or 4 TE and grade 4 TBE. Results Of the 191 patients included, 31 (16.2%) subjects were naïve to ART. Eighty-seven individuals started EPA and the remaining ones were controls. The most common NRTI backbone among the controls was TDF/FTC [59 (56.7%) patients] followed by NRTI-sparing regimens [24 (23.1%) individuals] and ABC/3TC [17 (16.3%) subjects]. Among controls, 67 (64.4%) started a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, mainly DRV/r [41 (39.4%) patients] followed by ATV/r [16 (15.4%) subjects]. EFV, ETV and RAL were started in 16 (15.4%), 12 (11.5%) and 13 (12.5%) subjects, respectively. The median (Q1–Q3) follow-up was 5.79 (3.65–8.61) months for the cases and 11.44 (5.8–12.88) months for the controls. TE was observed in two (2.3%) cases versus five (4.8%) controls (p=0.358), accounting for a density of incidence of 4.32/100 person-years versus 5.51/100 person-years [incidence rate difference (95

  3. Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry

    2006-09-01

    The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 ºC and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

  4. Experimental investigations of thermal-hydraulic processes arising during operation of the passive safety systems used in new projects of nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Kalyakin, D. S.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained from experimental investigations into thermal-hydraulic processes that take place during operation of the passive safety systems used in new-generation reactor plants constructed on the basis of VVER technology are presented. The experiments were carried out on the model rigs available at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The processes through which interaction occurs between the opposite flows of saturated steam and cold water moving in the vertical steam line of the additional system for passively flooding the core from the second-stage hydro accumulators are studied. The specific features pertinent to undeveloped boiling of liquid on a single horizontal tube heated by steam and steam-gas mixture that is typical for of the condensing operating mode of a VVER reactor steam generator are investigated.

  5. The (safety-related) heat exchangers aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants, and developments since 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Clauss, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US nuclear power plant utilities, is preparing a series of aging management guidelines (AMGs) for commodity types of components (e.g., heat exchangers, electrical cable and terminations, pumps). Commodities are included in this series based on their importance to continued nuclear plant operation and license renewal. The AMGs contain a detailed summary of operating history, stressors, aging mechanisms, and various types of maintenance and surveillance practices that can be combined to create an effective aging management program. Each AMG is intended for use by the systems engineers and plant maintenance staff (i.e., an AMG is intended to be a hands-on technical document rather than a licensing document). The heat exchangers AMG, published in June 1994, includes the following information of interest to nondestructive examination (NDE) personnel: aging mechanisms determined to be non-significant for all applications; aging mechanisms determined to be significant for some applications; effective conventional programs for managing aging; and effective unconventional programs for managing aging. Since the AMG on heat exchangers was published four years ago, a brief review has been conducted to identify emerging regulatory issues, if any. The results of this review and lessons learned from the collective set of AMGs are presented.

  6. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  7. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees` requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees` post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant`s requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997.

  8. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  9. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  10. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  11. 15 CFR 270.101 - Preliminary reconnaissance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Establishment and Deployment of Teams § 270.101 Preliminary reconnaissance. (a) To... the site of a building failure. The Director may establish and deploy a Team to conduct...

  12. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 3. Battelle Columbus Laboratories pilot plant preliminary design and Phase 2 definition study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary design for an engineering field test project of a solar controlled environment agriculture system with 0.37 hectare of growing area is presented. Specifications and requirements of system components are outlined as are the instrumentation and control systems. System support facilities are briefly discussed. The program management plan and an economic analysis are included. (BCS)

  13. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477

  14. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26th and 28th, 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477

  15. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions.

  16. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  17. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  18. Criticality safety research at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, H.L.

    1997-06-01

    A list of seven research projects in nuclear criticality safety being conducted at the University of Tennessee is given. One of the projects is very briefly described. The study of space-dependent kinetics analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving an array of bottles containing UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} is being conducted for the US DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25 plant. Preliminary results for power versus time are presented, which indicate that space-time effects are significant after approximately 70 seconds. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Preliminary decommissioning study reports

    SciTech Connect

    Peretz, F.J.

    1984-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is one of approximately 76 facilities currently managed by the ORNL Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). This program, as part of the DOE national SFMP, is responsible for the maintenance and surveillance and the final decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated surplus ORNL facilities. A long range planning effort is being conducted that will outline the scope and objectives of the ORNL program and establish decommissioning priorities based on health and safety concerns, budget constraints, and other programmatic constraints. In support of this SFMP planning activity, preliminary engineering assessments are being conducted for each of the ORNL surplus facilities currently managed under the program. These efforts, in general, are designed to: (1) provide an initial assessment of the potential decommissioning alternatives; (2) choose a preferred alternative and provide a justification for that choice, and (3) provide a preliminary description of the decommissioning plan, including cost and schedule estimates. Because of several issues which cannot be evaluated quantitatively at this time, this report on the MSRE does not select a most probable decommissioning mode'' but rather discusses the issues and representative alternatives for disposal of the MSRE fuel salts and decommissioning of the facility. A budget and schedule representative of the types of activities likely to be required is also suggested for preliminary use in the SFMP Long Range Plan.

  20. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Song, Chen

    2013-03-05

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated spray releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from a range of prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to very large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the aerosol generation rate increases with increasing the orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size.