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Sample records for plant safety 2007-2010

  1. Sources and Amounts of Animal, Dairy, and Plant Protein Intake of US Adults in 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Lieberman, Harris R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-21

    Dietary guidelines suggest consuming a mixed-protein diet, consisting of high-quality animal, dairy, and plant-based foods. However, current data on the distribution and the food sources of protein intake in a free-living, representative sample of US adults are not available. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, were used in these analyses (n = 10,977, age ≥ 19 years). Several US Department of Agriculture (USDA) databases were used to partition the composition of foods consumed into animal, dairy, or plant components. Mean ± SE animal, dairy, and plant protein intakes were determined and deciles of usual intakes were estimated. The percentages of total protein intake derived from animal, dairy, and plant protein were 46%, 16%, and 30%, respectively; 8% of intake could not be classified. Chicken and beef were the primary food sources of animal protein intake. Cheese, reduced-fat milk, and ice cream/dairy desserts were primary sources of dairy protein intake. Yeast breads, rolls/buns, and nuts/seeds were primary sources of plant protein intake. This study provides baseline data for assessing the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to alter the composition of protein foods consumed by the American public.

  2. Increasing Plant Based Foods or Dairy Foods Differentially Affects Nutrient Intakes: Dietary Scenarios Using NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Christopher J; Houchins, Jenny A; Demmer, Elieke; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2016-07-11

    Diets rich in plant foods and lower in animal-based products have garnered increased attention among researchers, dietitians and health professionals in recent years for their potential to, not only improve health, but also to lessen the environmental impact. However, the potential effects of increasing plant-based foods at the expense of animal-based foods on macro- and micronutrient nutrient adequacy in the U.S. diet is unknown. In addition, dairy foods are consistently under consumed, thus the impact of increased dairy on nutrient adequacy is important to measure. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to use national survey data to model three different dietary scenarios to assess the effects of increasing plant-based foods or dairy foods on macronutrient intake and nutrient adequacy. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 for persons two years and older (n = 17,387) were used in all the analyses. Comparisons were made of usual intake of macronutrients and shortfall nutrients of three dietary scenarios that increased intakes by 100%: (i) plant-based foods; (ii) protein-rich plant-based foods (i.e., legumes, nuts, seeds, soy); and (iii) milk, cheese and yogurt. Scenarios (i) and (ii) had commensurate reductions in animal product intake. In both children (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years), the percent not meeting the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) decreased for vitamin C, magnesium, vitamin E, folate and iron when plant-based foods were increased. However the percent not meeting the EAR increased for calcium, protein, vitamin A, and vitamin D in this scenario. Doubling protein-rich plant-based foods had no effect on nutrient intake because they were consumed in very low quantities in the baseline diet. The dairy model reduced the percent not meeting the EAR for calcium, vitamin A, vitamin D, magnesium, and protein, while sodium and saturated fat levels increased. Our modeling shows that increasing plant

  3. The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency megavoltage photon thermoluminescence dosimetry postal audit service 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Oliver, C P; Butler, D J; Webb, D V

    2012-03-01

    The Australian radiation protection and nuclear safety agency (ARPANSA) has continuously provided a level 1 mailed thermoluminescence dosimetry audit service for megavoltage photons since 2007. The purpose of the audit is to provide an independent verification of the reference dose output of a radiotherapy linear accelerator in a clinical environment. Photon beam quality measurements can also be made as part of the audit in addition to the output measurements. The results of all audits performed between 2007 and 2010 are presented. The average of all reference beam output measurements calculated as a clinically stated dose divided by an ARPANSA measured dose is 0.9993. The results of all beam quality measurements calculated as a clinically stated quality divided by an ARPANSA measured quality is 1.0087. Since 2011 the provision of all auditing services has been transferred from the Ionizing Radiation Standards section to the Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service (ACDS) which is currently housed within ARPANSA.

  4. Evapotranspiration over spatially extensive plant communities in the Big Cypress National Preserve, southern Florida, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shoemaker, W. Barclay; Lopez, Christian D.; Duever, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Net radiation and available energy explained most of the variability in ET observed at all five sites. Mean annual and monthly net radiation varied among the sites in response to cloud cover and the albedo of the land surface and plant community. Net radiation was greatest at the Cypress Swamp site, averaging about 130 W/m2 (watts per square meter) during the 3-year study. Net radiation was generally less at the Dwarf Cypress site, averaging about 115 W/m2 over 3 years. The Dwarf Cypress site apparently has the largest albedo, which likely is due to the sparse canopy and a highly reflective, calcareous, periphyton-covered land surface. Furthermore, mean annual net radiation was least in the first year of the study, which likely was due to greater cloud cover during a relatively wet year. In contrast, net radiation was greatest in the second year of the study, which likely was due to less cloud cover during a relatively dry year.

  5. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  6. Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Bourne, Donald; Plinke, Wesley; Hooker, Elizabeth R; Nielson, Carrie M

    2017-12-01

    Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine. Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug in the USA, and its recreational use has recently been approved in several US states. Cannabinoids play a role in bone homeostasis. We aimed to determine the association between cannabis use and BMD in US adults. In the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, 4743 participants between 20 and 59 years old, history of cannabis use was categorized into never, former (previous use, but not in last 30 days), light (1-4 days of use in last 30 days), and heavy (≥5 days of use in last 30 days). Multivariable linear regression was used to test the association between cannabis use and DXA BMD of the proximal femur and lumbar spine with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity among other BMD determinants. Sixty percent of the population reported ever using cannabis; 47% were former users, 5% were light users, and 7% were heavy users. Heavy cannabis users were more likely to be male, have a lower BMI, increased daily alcohol intake, increased tobacco pack-years, and were more likely to have used other illegal drugs (cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamines). No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use (p ≥ 0.28). A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.

  7. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-06

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  8. Kansas City Plant Celebrates Safety Milestone

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A gang of motorcycle riders arrived at the NNSA's Kansas City Plant on July 1 to help celebrate a significant safety achievement - working nearly five million hours, covering a one-year period without a lost-time injury. The bikers -- some of whom are plant employees -- represent Bikers Against Child Abuse, the local nonprofit selected to receive a $5,000 donation as part of the plant's safety achievement celebration. The organization was selected because it aligns with the plant's community outreach focus on Family Safety & Security and partnership with the plant's union members.

  9. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  10. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  11. National Art Education Association Strategic Plan: Advancing Art Education, 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Art Education Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The 2007-2010 strategic plan for the National Art Education Association places a priority on creating a learning organization that will help to advance the mission of the organization and effectively meet the challenges of the 21st century. The plan is guided by four major strategic goals: (1) Learning: Focus on exemplary professional development…

  12. Flavonoid values for USDA survey foods and beverages 2007-2010

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Comprehensive databases of the flavonoid content of foods are needed to more accurately estimate dietary intakes of these compounds. The Flavonoid Values for Survey Foods and Beverages 2007-2010 allows estimation of flavonoid intakes based on all foods and beverages reported in the national survey,...

  13. Occurrence and Distribution of Carbamate Pesticides and Metalaxyl in Southern Ontario Surface Waters 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Struger, John; Grabuski, Josey; Cagampan, Steve; Sverko, Ed; Marvin, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Surface water sampling in 2007-2010 measured the occurrence of carbamates and metalaxyl during base flow conditions and wet weather events in southern Ontario surface waters. Carbaryl, metalaxyl and pirimicarb were the most frequently detected compounds. In 2008 these three compounds were detected in over 50 % of the samples. Overall mean concentrations of carbaryl and metalaxyl over the course of the study (2007-2010) were 15 and 18 ng/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of carbaryl (~100 to ~950 ng/L) appeared associated with wet weather (high flow) events, while highest concentrations of metalaxyl (~20-1330 ng/L) were correlated with base flow conditions. We attributed these observations as the result of runoff of carbaryl from the watershed during rain events, while metalaxyl contamination may have resulted primarily from spray drift.

  14. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  15. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  16. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  17. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The following provides a summary of the specific issues addressed in this FY-95 Annual Update as they relate to the CH TRU safety bases: Executive Summary; Site Characteristics; Principal Design and Safety Criteria; Facility Design and Operation; Hazards and Accident Analysis; Derivation of Technical Safety Requirements; Radiological and Hazardous Material Protection; Institutional Programs; Quality Assurance; and Decontamination and Decommissioning. The System Design Descriptions`` (SDDS) for the WIPP were reviewed and incorporated into Chapter 3, Principal Design and Safety Criteria and Chapter 4, Facility Design and Operation. This provides the most currently available final engineering design information on waste emplacement operations throughout the disposal phase up to the point of permanent closure. Also, the criteria which define the TRU waste to be accepted for disposal at the WIPP facility were summarized in Chapter 3 based on the WAC for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.`` This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents the safety analyses that develop and evaluate the adequacy of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact-Handled Transuranic Wastes (WIPP CH TRU) safety bases necessary to ensure the safety of workers, the public and the environment from the hazards posed by WIPP waste handling and emplacement operations during the disposal phase and hazards associated with the decommissioning and decontamination phase. The analyses of the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) disposal of TRU and TRU mixed waste, and demonstration of compliance with the requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B and 40 CFR 268.6 will be addressed in detail in the WIPP Final Certification Application scheduled for submittal in October 1996 (40 CFR 191) and the No-Migration Variance Petition (40 CFR 268.6) scheduled for submittal in June 1996. Section 5.4, Long-Term Waste Isolation Assessment summarizes the current status of the assessment.

  19. A PIP chart for nuclear plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Yamaoka, Taiji )

    1992-01-01

    While it is known that social and political aspects of nuclear safety issues are important, little study has been done on identifying the breadth of stakeholders whose policies have important influences over nuclear plant safety in a comprehensive way. The objectives of this study are to develop a chart that visually identifies important stakeholders and their policies and illustrates these influences in a hierarchical representation so that the relationship between stakeholders and nuclear safety will be better understood. This study is based on a series of extensive interviews with major stakeholders, such as nuclear plant managers, corporate planning vice presidents, state regulators, news media, and public interest groups, and focuses on one US nuclear power plant. Based on the interview results, the authors developed a conceptual policy influence paths (PIP) chart. The PIP chart illustrates the hierarchy of influence among stakeholders. The PIP chart is also useful in identifying possible stakeholders who can be easily overlooked without the PIP chart. In addition, it shows that influence flow is circular rather than linear in one direction.

  20. [Proportion and site distribution of extrarespiratory tuberculosis in 2007-2010 in Romania].

    PubMed

    Didilescu, Cristian; Tănăsescu, Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    In the actual context of an increased TB endemia (notification rate of 90.5 per thousand, meaning 21457 cases in 2010, but with a constant decreasing trend in the last 8 years), we wanted to see what is the share and structure of extra-respiratory tuberculosis in the period 2007-2010. In the interval 2007-2010 have been registered annually between 1252-1267 extra-respiratory TB cases. Extra-respiratory TB have been between 30% and 42,1% from all TB cases registered annually with the extra-pulmonary TB. In the descending order of cases recorded with TB extra respiratory in 2010, the first was extra-thoracic ganglionary TB (244 cases), followed by osteo-articulary (233) and those of meningo-encephalitis and CNS TB (133). Location of TB on the spine remains the most common form of skeletal TB, representing 62.2% (145 cases) of all osteo-articulary locations. The number of registered cases of pericardial effusions TB annually remains steady at 40-50 cases. The number still high of meningo encephalitis TB (severe prognosis, epidemiological severity) involves enhanced accountability measures in TB control of the territory. The collaboration between the pulmonologist and the body specialist constitutes compulsory condition of quality assistance in case of TB extra respiratory sites.

  1. Lidar surveys reveal eruptive volumes and rates at Etna, 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behncke, Boris; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Neri, Marco; Favalli, Massimiliano; Ganci, Gaetana; Mazzarini, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    The quantification of eruptive activity represents one major challenge in volcanology. Digital comparison of lidar-based elevation models of Etna (Italy) was made to quantify the volumes of volcanics emitted in 2007-2010. During this period, Etna produced several summit paroxysms followed by a flank eruption. We integrated the total volume difference resulting from the subtraction of the 2007 and 2010 digital elevation models with volumes of eruptive products based on field and aerial surveys to attribute volumes with hitherto unrealized precision to poorly constrained eruptions. The total erupted volume of 2007-2010 is >86 × 106 m3, most (~74 × 106 m3) of which is made up by the lava flows of the 2008-2009 flank eruption. The survey also reveals the high lava volume (5.73 × 106 m3) and average eruption rate (~400 m3 s-1) of the 10 May 2008 paroxysm, whose flow front stopped 6.2 km from the vent, not far from the town of Zafferana Etnea.

  2. Seafood consumption and blood mercury concentrations in adults aged ≥20 y, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Kit, Brian K; Aoki, Yutaka; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2014-05-01

    Seafood is part of a healthy diet, but seafood can also contain methyl mercury-a neurotoxin. The objective was to describe seafood consumption in US adults and to explore the relation between seafood consumption and blood mercury. Seafood consumption, obtained from a food-frequency questionnaire, and blood mercury data were available for 10,673 adults who participated in the 2007-2010 NHANES-a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of the US population. Seafood consumption was categorized by type (fish or shellfish) and by frequency of consumption (0, 1-2, 3-4, or ≥5 times/mo). Linear trends in geometric mean blood mercury concentrations by frequency of seafood consumption were tested. Logistic regression analyses examined the odds of blood mercury concentrations ≥5.8 μg/L (as identified by the National Research Council) based on frequency of the specific type of seafood consumed (included in the model as continuous variables) adjusted for sex, age, and race/Hispanic origin. In 2007-2010, 83.0% ± 0.7% (±SE) of adults consumed seafood in the preceding month. In adults consuming seafood, the blood mercury concentration increased as the frequency of seafood consumption increased (P < 0.001). In 2007-2010, 4.6% ± 0.39% of adults had blood mercury concentrations ≥5.8 μg/L. Results of the logistic regression on blood mercury concentrations ≥5.8 μg/L showed no association with shrimp (P = 0.21) or crab (P = 0.48) consumption and a highly significant positive association with consumption of high-mercury fish (adjusted OR per unit monthly consumption: 4.58; 95% CI: 2.44, 8.62; P < 0.001), tuna (adjusted OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17; P < 0.001), salmon (adjusted OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.20; P < 0.001), and other seafood (adjusted OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15; P < 0.001). Most US adults consume seafood, and the blood mercury concentration is associated with the consumption of tuna, salmon, high-mercury fish, and other seafood.

  3. Russian investigations in the field of atmospheric radiation in 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, Yu. M.; Shul'gina, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    A short survey prepared by the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation contains the most significant results of works in the field of atmospheric-radiation studies performed in 2007-2010. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences prepared for the International Association on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). During this period, the Russian Commission on Atmospheric Radiation, jointly with concerned departments and organizations, ran the conference "Physics and Education," dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Department of Physics at St. Petersburg State University (2007); the International Symposium of CIS Countries "Atmospheric Radiation and Dynamics" (2009); and the 5th International Conference "Atmospheric Physics, Climate, and Environment" (2010). At the conferences, central problems in modern atmosphere physics were discussed: radiative transfer and atmospheric optics; greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols; remote methods of measurements; and new measurement data. This survey presents five directions covering the whole spectrum of investigations performed in the field of atmospheric radiation.

  4. [Sexually transmitted infections: profile of care in border areas of Central America (2007-2010)].

    PubMed

    Serván-Mori, Edson; Leyva-Flores, René; Heredia-Pi, Ileana; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the profile of care for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in health centers in border areas of Central America during 2007-2010. Cross-sectional study in a sample of 3 357 patients. Doctors were trained and medicines, condoms and HIV testing (basic package of care [BPC]) were supplied. Sample was characterized according to sociodemographic variables. Factors associated with the probability of receiving the BPC were identified. Sixty six percent were 25-59 years old, and 93.2% were women. The most frequently diagnosed syndrome was vaginal discharge associated with candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and gonorrhea. Sixty six percent of prescriptions were adhered to the international recommendations. Only 10% received the complete BPC.The likelihood of receiving it was lower in women. It is not enough to increase service delivery capacity to change care practices. These are deeply rooted in the sociocultural context. Highlights gendered medical practices that adversely affect the profile of care.

  5. [Publication of research projects for certification as medical specialists at a Peruvian university, 2007-2010].

    PubMed

    Ticse, Ray; Ygreda, Patricia; Samalvides, Frine

    2014-04-01

    In order to determine the frequency of publication in a scientific journal of the research projects done for medical specialty certification, a search was conducted in Google Scholar, Pubmed, biomedical databases and Peruvian medical society journals. These publications were research projects carried out by medical residents graduated from the Faculty of Medicine at the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, to obtain the certification of medical specialist. Of 351 medical residents graduated between the years 2007-2010, 199 (65.5%) completed their research project and 47 (23.6%) published it in a scientific journal. The "medicine" (non-surgical) specialty area had the highest frequency of publications. All publications were in Spanish journals, the majority in indexed journals in regional databases. We conclude that 23.6% of the research projects for certification as medical specialists are published, most often in low visibility journals.

  6. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  7. 78 FR 47010 - Proposed Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Proposed Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Technical Specifications Task Force Traveler... requesting public comment on the proposed model safety evaluation (SE) for plant- specific adoption of... ADAMS Accession Number ML13053A075. The proposed model SE for plant-specific adoption of TSTF-523...

  8. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error.

  9. Plant control impact on IFR power plant passive safety response

    SciTech Connect

    Vilim, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for optimizing the closed-loop plant control strategy with respect to safety margins sustained in the unprotected upset response of a liquid metal reactor. The optimization is performed subject to the normal requirements for reactor startup, load change and compensation for reactivity changes over the cycle. The method provides a formal approach to the process of exploiting the innate self-regulating property of a metal fueled reactor to make it less dependent on operator action and less vulnerable to automatic control system fault and/or operator error.

  10. Anthropometric reference data for children and adults: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Fryar, Cheryl D; Gu, Qiuping; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2012-10-01

    Objective-This report presents national anthropometric reference data for all ages of the U.S. population in 2007-2010, adding to results published previously from the years 1960-2006. Methods-Data are from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a complex, stratified, and multistage probability sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population. Anthropometry measurements were obtained from 20,015 survey participants. The anthropometric measures included weight, height, recumbent length, circumferences, limb lengths, and skinfold thickness measurements. Results-The tables in this report include weighted population means, standard errors of the means, and selected percentiles of body measurement values. Because measurements varied by sex and age (as well as race and ethnicity in adults), results are reported by these subgroups. Conclusions-These latest NHANES data add to the knowledge about trends in child growth and development and trends in the distribution of body measurements, such as weight and height, in the U.S. population. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  11. Socio-economic differences in healthcare access from a welfare system perspective, Italy: 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Braggion, M; Campostrini, S; Bertin, G

    2015-09-01

    Inequalities between poorer and wealthier people in accessing healthcare services have been widely studied, but the mechanisms generating them are still to be fully understood. Among these, there is still a lack of evidence of relationships between health prevention/health promotion policies, welfare systems and social differences. We analysed 68 201 females from the PASSI Italian surveillance system for the years 2007-2010. The prevalence of women undergoing Pap testing was used as an example of access to preventive services. An odds ratio gradient was found with regard to different welfare system clusters: the probability of undergoing a screening test is higher for more advanced welfare systems. A strong association was found between having received a letter from the local health unit and having undergone the screening test. Significant differences still exist between high- and low-income women and their access to Italian preventive public services. As we expected, social determinants play an important role in health disparities, as these are also strongly influenced by typologies of welfare systems and by health policies. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Economic and public health impact of 2007-2010 tobacco tax increases in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Stoklosa, Michal; Krasovsky, Konstantin

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of the dynamic 2007-2010 tobacco tax policy in Ukraine on cigarette prices, cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenue and the tobacco industry's price strategy. Using data on cigarette sales, cigarette prices, income and tobacco control policies, price elasticities of cigarette demand in Ukraine were estimated using two methods. Annual data were used to generate point price elasticity estimates, while monthly data were used in a two-step Engle-Granger procedure. The point price elasticity estimate is data sensitive and ranges from -0.11 to -0.62, centring around -0.32. The regression model estimates a long-run price elasticity of -0.28. Cigarette consumption fell by 13% in 2009 and 15% in 2010 while the tax revenue increased by US$700 million and by US$500 million in 2009 and 2010, respectively, compared to the previous year. Tax increases have changed the tobacco industry's price strategy from one of shielding consumers from the impact of smaller tax hikes in 2007-2008, to one of increasing industry net-of-tax prices, after recent, larger tax increases. The higher real tobacco excise taxes of 2009 and 2010 have significantly reduced tobacco consumption in Ukraine, resulting in encouraging public health and fiscal gains. It will be important for cigarette prices/taxes to keep pace with inflation and income growth for this impact to be sustained.

  13. Volumes, rates and related hazards of Etna's 2007-2010 eruptions (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Marco; Behncke, Boris; Fornaciai, Alessandro; Favalli, Massimiliano; Ganci, Gaetana; Mazzarini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Digital comparison of two LiDAR-based digital elevation models of the summit area and eastern flank of Mount Etna (Italy), acquired in June 2007 and September 2010, were used to quantify with high accuracy the volumes of eruptive products (lava and pyroclastics) emitted in this time interval. During this period, Etna's activity was characterized by a classical sequence of summit paroxysms followed by a voluminous effusive eruption on the upper east flank (May 2008-July 2009). We integrated the total volume difference resulting from the subtraction of the 2007 DEM from the 2010 DEM with individual, well-constrained volumes of eruptive products based on data from field and aerial surveys to attribute more precise volumes to events that have until now remained poorly constrained. The total volume of 2007-2010 eruptive products is ~86 million cubic meter, by far the largest proportion (~73.6 million cubic meter) of which is represented by the lava flows of the 2008-2009 flank eruption. In spite of being one of the longest-standing flank eruptions of Etna of the past ~350 years, its mean effusion rate of 2 cubic meter per second was rather low. The survey also reveals the unusually high lava volume (~5.8 million cubic meter) of the paroxysmal episode of 10 May 2008, which preceded the flank outbreak by three days, and which was emplaced within four hours at an average rate of ~400 cubic meter per second, the flow front stopping at a distance of 6.2 km from the source vent. With a slightly longer duration of this eruptive episode, that lava flow might have come rather close to the outskirts of the nearby town of Zafferana Etnea.

  14. Aerosol variability and atmospheric transport in the Himalayan region from CALIOP 2007-2010 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, S.; Cagnazzo, C.; Cairo, F.; Di Liberto, L.; Fierli, F.

    2013-06-01

    Himalayan Plateau is surrounded by regions with high natural and anthropogenic aerosol emissions that have a strong impact on regional climate. This is particularly critical for the Himalayan glaciers whose equilibrium is also largely influenced by radiative direct and indirect effects induced by aerosol burden. This work focuses on the spatial and vertical distribution of different aerosol types, their seasonal variability and sources. The analysis of the 2007-2010 yr of CALIPSO vertically resolved satellite data allows the identification of spatial patterns of desert dust and carbonaceous particles in different atmospheric layers. Clusters of Lagrangian back-trajectories highlight the transport pathways from source regions during the dusty spring season. The analysis shows a prevalence of dust; at low heights they are distributed mainly north (with a main contribution from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts) and west of the Tibetan Plateau (originating from the deserts of South-West Asia and advected by the westerlies). Above the Himalayas the dust amount is minor but still not negligible (detectable in around 20% of the measurements), and transport from more distant deserts (Sahara and Arabian Peninsula) is important. Smoke aerosol, produced mainly in North India and East China, is subject to shorter range transport and is indeed observed closer to the sources while there is a limited amount reaching the top of the plateau. Data analysis reveals a clear seasonal variability in the frequencies of occurrence for the main aerosol types; dust is regulated principally by the monsoon dynamics, with maxima of occurrence in spring. The study also highlights relevant interannual differences, showing a larger presence of aerosol in the region during 2007 and 2008 yr.

  15. Post-discharge follow-up visits and hospital utilization by Medicare patients, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    DeLia, Derek; Tong, Jian; Gaboda, Dorothy; Casalino, Lawrence P

    2014-01-01

    Document trends in time to post-discharge follow-up visit for Medicare patients with an index admission for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Determine factors predicting whether the first post-discharge utilization event is a follow-up visit, treat-and-release emergency department (ED) visit, or readmission. Using Medicare claims data from 2007-2010, we plotted annual cumulative incidence functions for the time frame post-discharge to follow-up visit, accounting for competing risks with censoring at 30 days. We used multinomial probit regression to determine factors predicting the probability of first-occurring post-discharge utilization events within 30 days. For each cohort, the cumulative incidence of follow-up visits increased during the study period. For example, in 2010, 54.6% of HF patients had a follow-up visit within 10 days of discharge compared to 47.9% in 2007. Within each cohort, the largest increase in follow-up visits took place between 2008 and 2009. Follow-up visits were less likely for patients who were Black, Hispanic, and enrolled in Medicaid or Medicare Advantage, and they were more likely for patients with greater comorbidities and prior procedures as well as those with private or supplemental Medicare coverage. There were no changes in 30-day readmission rates. Although increases in follow-up visits may have been influenced by the introduction of publicly reported readmission rates in 2009, these increases did not continue in 2010 and were not associated with a change in readmissions. Patients who were Black, Hispanic, and/or enrolled in Medicaid or Medicare Advantage were less likely to have follow-up visits.

  16. Sodium density and obesity; the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Y S; Oh, S W

    2013-02-01

    It is unclear whether the amount of sodium consumed and the degree of saltiness of food is associated with obesity. We examined the association between sodium intake and obesity using the concept of sodium density. This study included 5025 children (7-18 years) and 20586 adults (≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES), 2007-2010. We defined sodium density(mg/g) as the ratio of daily dietary sodium intake (mg/day) and daily food weight consumed (g/day). We examined the association between sodium density and obesity, and abdominal obesity in children and adults. The overall prevalences of obesity and abdominal obesity were 31.4 and 24.5%, respectively, in adults and 4.5 and 6.5%, respectively, in children. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for obesity in adults with the highest quintile of sodium density compared with the lowest quintile was 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.35), and a significant dose-response association (P for trend=0.002) was observed. The OR for abdominal obesity in adults with the highest quintile of sodium density was not statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors, but showed a significant dose-response association (P for trend=0.043). In children, OR values for obesity and abdominal obesity in the highest quintile of sodium density were 1.78 (95% CI, 1.13-2.80) and 2.13 (95% CI, 1.16-3.91), respectively, and both showed significant dose-response associations (P for trend <0.001). Our results indicate that high sodium intake may be a potential risk factor for weight gain independent of calorie intake.

  17. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; ...

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  18. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  19. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  20. Key asset - inherent safety of LMFBR Pool Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Lancet, R.T.; Mills, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    The safety approach used in the design of the Large Pool Plant emphasizes use of the intrinsic characteristics of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors to incorporate a high degree of safety in the design and reduce cost by providing simpler (more reliable) dedicated safety systems. Correspondingly, a goal was not to require the action of active systems to prevent significant core damage and/or provide large grace periods for all anticipated transients. The key safety features of the plant are presented and the analysis of representative flow and power transients are presented to show that the design goal has been satisfied.

  1. Teen driver risk in relation to age and number of passengers, United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Tefft, Brian C; Williams, Allan F; Grabowski, Jurek G

    2013-01-01

    To provide updated estimates of the relationship between the number and ages of passengers present in a vehicle and the crash risk per mile driven of 16- and 17-year-old drivers. Data on crashes that occurred in years 2007-2010 and data on the number of miles driven in years 2008-2009 were examined. Rates of crash involvement and driver death per mile driven were estimated for 16- and 17-year-old drivers with no passengers; with 1, 2, and 3 or more passengers younger than age 21 (and no older passengers); and with at least 1 passenger aged 35 or older. For 16- and 17-year-old drivers, having 1 passenger younger than age 21 (and no older passengers) was associated with 44 percent greater risk per mile driven of being killed in a crash, compared to having no passengers (relative risk [RR]: 1.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.04). Having 2 passengers younger than age 21 was associated with double the risk of being killed in a crash, compared to having no passengers (RR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.36-2.99). Having 3 or more passengers younger than age 21 was associated with roughly quadruple the risk of being killed in a crash, compared to having no passengers (RR: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.45-13.31). The relative risk of being involved in any police-reported crash in the presence of young passengers followed a similar pattern; however, the differences in risks of being involved in any police-reported crash were smaller and were not statistically significant. Having at least 1 passenger aged 35 or older in the vehicle was associated with a 62 percent lower risk per mile driven of being killed in a crash (RR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.60) and a 46 percent lower risk of being involved in any police-reported crash (RR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.31-0.93) for 16- and 17-year-old drivers, compared to having no passengers. These results show that although the overall number of teen driver fatalities has decreased substantially over the past several years, carrying young passengers is still a significant

  2. Vital signs: Repeat births among teens - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-04-05

    Teen childbearing has potential negative health, economic, and social consequences for mother and child. Repeat teen childbearing further constrains the mother's education and employment possibilities. Rates of preterm and low birth weight are higher in teens with a repeat birth, compared with first births. To assess patterns of repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens, CDC analyzed natality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2007-2010. Based on 2010 NVSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia, of more than 367,000 births to teens aged 15-19 years, 18.3% were repeat births. The percentage of teen births that represented repeat births decreased by 6.2% between 2007 and 2010. Disparities in repeat teen births exist by race/ethnicity, with the highest percentages found among American Indian/Alaska Natives (21.6%), Hispanics (20.9%), and non-Hispanic blacks (20.4%) and lowest among non-Hispanic whites (14.8%). Wide geographic disparities in the percentage of teen births that were repeat births also exist, ranging from 22% in Texas to 10% in New Hampshire. PRAMS data from 16 reporting areas (15 states and New York City) indicate that 91.2% of teen mothers used a contraceptive method 2-6 months after giving birth, but only 22.4% of teen mothers used the most effective methods. Teens with a previous live birth were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods postpartum compared with those with no prior live birth (29.6% versus 20.9%, respectively). Non-Hispanic white and Hispanic teens were significantly more likely to use the most effective methods than non-Hispanic black teens (24.6% and 27.9% versus 14.3%, respectively). The percentage of teens reporting postpartum use of the most effective methods varied greatly geographically across the PRAMS reporting areas, ranging from 50.3% in Colorado to 7.2% in New York State. Although the

  3. Interplanetary shocks and foreshocks observed by STEREO during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cano, X.; Kajdič, P.; Aguilar-Rodríguez, E.; Russell, C. T.; Jian, L. K.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    Interplanetary shocks in the heliosphere modify the solar wind through which they pass. In particular, shocks play an important role in particle acceleration. During the extended solar minimum (2007-2010) STEREO observed 65 forward shocks driven by stream interactions (SI), with magnetosonic Mach numbers Mms ≈ 1.1-4.0 and shock normal angles θBN ~ 20-87°. We analyze the waves associated with these shocks and find that the region upstream can be permeated by whistler waves (f ~ 1 Hz) and/or ultra low frequency (ULF) waves (f ~ 10-2-10-1 Hz). While whistlers appear to be generated at the shock, the origin of ULF waves is most probably associated with local kinetic ion instabilities. We find that when the Mach number (Mms) is low and the shock is quasi-perpendicular (θBN > 45°) whistler waves remain close to the shock. As Mms increases, the shock profile changes and can develop a foot and overshoot associated with ion reflection and gyration. Whistler precursors can be superposed on the foot region, so that some quasi-perpendicular shocks have characteristics of both subcritical and supercritical shocks. When the shock is quasi-parallel (θBN < 45°) a large foreshock with suprathermal ions and waves can form. Upstream, there are whistler trains at higher frequencies whose characteristics can be slightly modified probably by reflected and/or leaked ions and by almost circularly polarized waves at lower frequencies that may be locally generated by ion instabilities. In contrast with planetary bow shocks, most of the upstream waves studied here are mainly transverse and no steepening occurs. Some quasi-perpendicular shocks (45° < θBN < 60°) are preceded by ULF waves and ion foreshocks. Fluctuations downstream of quasi-parallel shocks tend to have larger amplitudes than waves in the sheath of quasi-perpendicular shocks. We compare SI-driven shock properties with those of shocks generated by interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). During the same years

  4. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  5. Woody plants and woody plant management: ecology, safety, environmental impact

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Wise and effective woody plant management is an increasing necessity for many land uses and conservation practices, especially on forests and rangelands where native or exotic plants are affecting productivity, access, or critical habitat. Tools and approaches for managing woody plants have been under concerted development for the past 50 years, integrating mechanical...

  6. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  7. Victimization among female and male sexual minority status groups: evidence from the British Crime Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Bere; Davies, Michelle; Scurlock-Evans, Laura

    2014-01-01

    International surveys of victims show crime rates in England and Wales, including hate crimes, are among the highest in Europe. Nevertheless, sexual minority status is a less considered risk factor in general victimization research. This study used sexual minority status and sex to predict victimization across British Crime Surveys from 2007-2010. Logistic regression analyses showed sexual minority status groups were more likely than heterosexuals to be victimized from any and some specific crimes. However, bisexuals rather than lesbians or gay men were more consistently victimized, notably by sexual attacks and within the household. Implications for understanding victimization among these groups are discussed.

  8. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  9. Work practices, fatigue, and nuclear power plant safety performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, K; Olson, J; Morisseau, D

    1994-06-01

    This paper focuses on work practices that may contribute to fatigue-induced performance decrements in the commercial nuclear power industry. Specifically, the amount of overtime worked by operations, technical, and maintenance personnel and the 12-h operator shift schedule are studied. Although overtime for all three job categories was fairly high at a number of plants, the analyses detected a clear statistical relationship only between operations overtime and plant safety performance. The results for the 12-h operator shift schedule were ambiguous. Although the 12-h operator shift schedule was correlated with operator error, it was not significantly related to the other five safety indicators. This research suggests that at least one of the existing work practices--the amount of operator overtime worked at some plants--represents a safety concern in this industry; however, further research is required before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Environmental protection facilities safety study: Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this Safety Study is to examine the existing facilities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant that are dedicated to environmental protection. Seven separate, numbered facilities and five unnumbered continuous air sampling stations are identified as the fixed facilities to protect the environment. Each is examined from the standpoint of hazardous materials, monitoring and protection systems, confinement systems, ventilation systems, criticality control systems, fire protection systems, waste disposal systems, and safety systems.

  11. Safety aspects of gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Uranium enrichment by gas centrifuge is a commercially proven, viable technology. Gas centrifuge enrichment plant operations pose hazards that are also found in other industries as well as unique hazards as a result of processing and handling uranium hexafluoride and the handling of enriched uranium. Hazards also found in other industries included those posed by the use of high-speed rotating equipment and equipment handling by use of heavy-duty cranes. Hazards from high-speed rotating equipment are associated with the operation of the gas centrifuges themselves and with the operation of the uranium hexafluoride compressors in the tail withdrawal system. These and related hazards are discussed. It is included that commercial gas centrifuge enrichment plants have been designed to operate safely.

  12. Safety Evaluation Report of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report (SER) documents the Department of Energy’s (DOE's) review of Revision 9 of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Contact Handled (CH) Waste Documented Safety Analysis, DOE/WIPP-95-2065 (WIPP CH DSA), and provides the DOE Approval Authority with the basis for approving the document. It concludes that the safety basis documented in the WIPP CH DSA is comprehensive, correct, and commensurate with hazards associated with CH waste disposal operations. The WIPP CH DSA and associated technical safety requirements (TSRs) were developed in accordance with 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management, and DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  13. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  14. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  15. HFE safety reviews of advanced nuclear power plant control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John

    1994-01-01

    Advanced control rooms (ACR's) will utilize human-system interface (HSI) technologies that may have significant implications for plant safety in that they will affect the operator's overall role and means of interacting with the system. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of HSI's to ensure that they are designed to good HFE principles and support performance and reliability in order to protect public health and safety. However, the only available NRC guidance was developed more than ten years ago, and does not adequately address the human performance issues and technology changes associated with ACR's. Accordingly, a new approach to ACR safety reviews was developed based upon the concept of 'convergent validity'. This approach to ACR safety reviews is described.

  16. Characteristics of neonatal GBS disease during a multicentre study (2007-2010) and in the year 2012.

    PubMed

    Creti, Roberta; Berardi, Alberto; Baldassarri, Lucilla; Imperi, Monica; Pataracchia, Marco; Alfarone, Giovanna; Recchia, Simona

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of Group B Streptococcal (GBS) early onset (EOD) and late onset (LOD) neonatal infections in Italy were analyzed. Two periods were considered, a first 3-years period (2007-2010), when notification of GBS infections was enforced under the auspices of the Italian Ministry of Health, and a second 1 year period (2012) when reporting on neonatal GBS disease continued on voluntary basis. A standardized form was used to collect data on cases of neonatal GBS disease. They included both maternal and neonatal data. The two surveys underlined that preterm deliveries, precipitous labor and negatively GBS screened mothers are common causes of EOD occurrence, possibly explained by inadequate, or lack of, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Nevertheless, measures for reducing prevention failures and EOD incidence by an higher adherence to prevention strategies, as the Centre for Disease Control recommendations, are still possible and should be encouraged.

  17. Biopsychosocial Contributors to Metabolic Syndrome: A Secondary Analysis of 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Jennifer; Friedmann, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a medical disorder that encompasses obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 data to evaluate the association of biopsychosocial factors with MetS among U.S. adults. Complex samples logistic regression models were used to estimate a parsimonious model, including contributions of biomedical, biosocial, and psychosocial factors to MetS. According to the study's representative sample, more than 47 million Americans had MetS. Using the biopsychosocial model, the effects of biosocial and psychosocial variables, including education, smoking, low exercise, and depression, were independent predictors of MetS after controlling for the contributions of age, gender, and race. There is a need for large-scale, longitudinal, and interventional studies to evaluate and alter these potential risk factors, thus reducing MetS.

  18. On-road bicycle facilities and bicycle crashes in Iowa, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Cara; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-07-01

    An average of 611 deaths and over 47,000 bicyclists are injured in traffic-related crashes in the United States each year. Efforts to increase bicycle safety are needed to reduce and prevent injuries and fatalities, especially as trends indicate that ridership is increasing rapidly. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bicycle-specific roadway facilities (e.g., signage and bicycle lanes) in reducing bicycle crashes. We conducted a case site-control site study of 147 bicycle crash-sites identified from the Iowa Department of Transportation crash database from 2007 to 2010 and 147 matched non-crash sites. Control sites were randomly selected from intersections matched to case sites on neighborhood (census block group) and road classification (arterial, feeder, collector, etc.). We examined crash risk by any on-road bicycle facility present and by facility type (pavement markings--bicycle lanes and shared lane arrows, bicycle-specific signage, and the combination of markings and signage), controlling for bicycle volume, motor vehicle volume, street width, sidewalks, and traffic controls. A total of 11.6% of case sites and 15.0% of controls had an on-road bicycle facility. Case intersections had higher bicycle volume (3.52 vs. 3.34 per 30 min) and motor vehicle volume (248.77 vs. 205.76 per 30 min) than controls. Our results are suggestive that the presence of an on-road bicycle facility decreases crash risk by as much as 60% with a bicycle lane or shared lane arrow (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.09-1.82) and 38% with bicycle-specific signage (OR=0.62, 95% CI=0.15-2.58). Investments in bicycle-specific pavement markings and signage have been shown to be beneficial to traffic flow, and our results suggest that they may also reduce the number of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes and subsequent injuries and fatalities. As a relatively low-cost traffic feature, community considerations for further implementation of these facilities are justified. Copyright © 2012

  19. [Score method evaluation of the sanitary condition of the University Hospital in Bydgoszcz and personnel education in 2007 - 2010].

    PubMed

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Korzycka-Wilińska, Wanda; Popow, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The Quality Management System ISO 9001:2008 introduced by the Management Board of the hospital in the year 2007 resulted in change of the methods used by the Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic condition. The inspection protocol used by HICT was modified as part of the Quality Management System. It was supplemented by the score sheet which made the inspection results more objective. The purpose of the study was to assess the results of the supervision over the sanitary and epidemiologic condition of the hospital as well as personnel training carried out in the years 2007-2010 by the Hospital Infection Control Team (HICT) of Szpital Uniwersytecki nr 2 im. dr. J.Biziela (J.Biziel University Hospital no. 2). 407 inspection protocols issued in the years 2007-2010 were analysed. The sanitary/hygienic condition indicators and personnel education indicators were calculated based on the analysed data. The sanitary/hygienic condition indicator for the entire hospital in the years 2008-2010 amounted to over 91.50% and only in the year 2007 it was 89.33%. While the personnel education indicator for the entire hospital increased from 90.35% in 2007 to 93.75% in 2010. the assessment of hospital units performed on the basis of the new protocol of the sanitary/hygienic condition has been proven in practice, i.e. insufficient personnel education as regards hospital hygiene is efficiently detected by HICT at individual workstations and the Management Board of the hospital is notified on the ongoing basis on the results of supervision provided by HICT.

  20. Interactions between Diet and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke on the Prevalence of Childhood Obesity: Results from NHANES, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brianna F; Clark, Maggie L; Bachand, Annette; Reynolds, Stephen J; Nelson, Tracy L; Peel, Jennifer L

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) may increase risk for obesity, but few studies have investigated the joint effects of exposure to SHS and diet. We examined the interaction of exposure to SHS and diet on the prevalence of obesity among 6- to 19-year-olds who participated in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We characterized exposure using a novel biomarker [4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL)], an established biomarker (cotinine), and self-report. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the association of SHS exposure on the prevalence of overweight and obesity as separate outcomes (compared with normal/underweight). Interaction by diet was assessed by introducing interaction terms (with SHS) of the individual nutrients [dietary fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin C, and vitamin E] into separate models. Approximately half of the children had NNAL and cotinine levels above the limit of detection, indicating exposure to SHS. Interaction results suggest that the prevalence of obesity among children with both high exposure to SHS and low levels of certain nutrients (dietary fiber, DHA, or EPA) is greater than would be expected due to the effects of the individual exposures alone. Little or no evidence suggesting more or less than additive or multiplicative interaction was observed for vitamin C or vitamin E. The association between SHS and obesity did not appear to be modified by dietary vitamin C or vitamin E. Childhood obesity prevention strategies aimed at reducing SHS exposures and improving diets may exceed the expected benefits based on targeting either risk factor alone. Moore BF, Clark ML, Bachand A, Reynolds SJ, Nelson TL, Peel JL. 2016. Interactions between diet and exposure to secondhand smoke on the prevalence of childhood obesity: results from NHANES, 2007-2010. Environ Health Perspect 124:1316-1322; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510138.

  1. Qualification of Safety-Related Software in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G L

    2000-06-13

    Digital instrumentation and control systems have the potential of offering significant benefits over traditional analog systems in Nuclear Power Plant safety systems, but there are also significant difficulties in qualifying digital systems to the satisfaction of regulators. Digital systems differ in fundamental ways from analog systems. New methods for safety qualification, which take these differences into account, would ease the regulatory cost and promote use of digital systems. This paper offers a possible method for assisting in the analysis of digital system software, as one step in an improved qualification process.

  2. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  3. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  4. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  5. 77 FR 27814 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force... Consolidated Line Item Improvement Process AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of... safety evaluation (SE) for plant-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TSs) Task Force...

  6. Technical Safety Appraisal of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Blake P.

    1989-01-01

    This report provides the results of a Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) conducted November 14 to 18 and November 28 to December 9, 1988. This appraisal covered the effectiveness and improvements in the RFP safety program across the site, evaluating progress to date against standards of accepted practice. The appraisal included coverage of the timeliness and effectiveness of actions taken in response to the recommendations/concerns in three previous Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) of RFP Bldg. 707 conducted in July 1986, Bldgs. 771/774 conducted in October/November 1986, and Bldgs. 776/777 conducted in January/February 1988. Results of this appraisal are given in Section IV for each of 14 technical safety areas at RFP. These results include a discussion, conclusions and any new safety concerns for each technical safety area. Appendix A contains a description of the system for categorizing concerns, and the concerns are tabulated in Appendix B. Appendix C reports on the evaluation of the contractor's actions and the current status of each of the 230 recommendations and concerns contained in the three previous TSA reports.

  7. [Storage of plant protection products in farms: minimum safety requirements].

    PubMed

    Dutto, Moreno; Alfonzo, Santo; Rubbiani, Maristella

    2012-01-01

    Failure to comply with requirements for proper storage and use of pesticides in farms can be extremely hazardous and the risk of accidents involving farm workers, other persons and even animals is high. There are still wide differences in the interpretation of the concept of "securing or making safe", by workers in this sector. One of the critical points detected, particularly in the fruit sector, is the establishment of an adequate storage site for plant protection products. The definition of "safe storage of pesticides" is still unclear despite the recent enactment of Legislative Decree 81/2008 regulating health and work safety in Italy. In addition, there are no national guidelines setting clear minimum criteria for storage of plant protection products in farms. The authors, on the basis of their professional experience and through analysis of recent legislation, establish certain minimum safety standards for storage of pesticides in farms.

  8. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    SciTech Connect

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  9. Plants and parts of plants used in food supplements: an approach to their safety assessments.

    PubMed

    Carratù, Brunella; Federici, Elena; Gallo, Francesca R; Geraci, Andrea; Guidotti, Marco; Multari, Giuseppina; Palazzino, Giovanna; Sanzini, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    In Italy most herbal products are sold as food supplements and are subject only to food law. A list of about 1200 plants authorised for use in food supplements has been compiled by the Italian Ministry of Health. In order to review and possibly improve the Ministry's list an ad hoc working group of Istituto Superiore di Sanità was requested to provide a technical and scientific opinion on plant safety. The listed plants were evaluated on the basis of their use in food, therapeutic activity, human toxicity and in no-alimentary fields. Toxicity was also assessed and plant limitations to use in food supplements were defined.

  10. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  11. 71 FR 55515 - Safety Evaluation Report for the Proposed American Centrifuge Plant in Piketon, OH, NUREG-1851...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-22

    ..., nuclear criticality safety, chemical process safety, fire safety, emergency management, environmental... COMMISSION Safety Evaluation Report for the Proposed American CentrifugePlant in Piketon, OH, NUREG-1851... Availability of Safety Evaluation Report. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Nuclear...

  12. Association of lunch meat consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality and health risk factors in U.S. children and adults: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Berg, Eric P

    2015-12-30

    Consumption of lean meat is recommended as part of healthy diet by Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Lunch meats are precooked or cured meats typically used in sandwiches and are also called as cold cuts or deli meat. The purpose of the study was to examine the association of lunch meat consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in children (age 2-18 years; n = 5,099) and adults (age 19 years and older; n = 10,216) using a large, nationally representative database. Lunch meat consumers were defined as those consuming any amount of lunch meat during a 24-h recall and association with nutrient intake, diet quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 score) and physiological measures were evaluated using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010. The lunch meat consumers (both children and adults) had higher intakes of calories, protein, calcium, potassium, sodium and saturated fat (for adults only) compared to non-consumers. Lunch meat intake was also associated with higher intake of meat/poultry/fish food group in both children and adult consumers than non-consumers. There was no difference in total HEI-2010 scores comparing lunch meat consumers and non-consumers in children or adults. However, HEI components scores for total fruit, whole fruit (children only), whole grains, dairy and total protein foods were significantly higher, and for greens & beans (adults only), seafood and plant protein, fatty acid ratio and sodium were significantly lower in children and adult lunch meat consumers compared to non-consumers. There were no significant differences in physiological measures or in the odds ratios of health related conditions between lunch meat consumers and non-consumers in children or adults. The results of this study may provide insight into how to better utilize lunch meats in the diets of U.S. children and adults.

  13. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the dietary guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. Objective To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Methods Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the Dietary Guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. Results There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Conclusions Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. PMID:25625693

  15. Health Effects of Unemployment in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 2007-2010: Differing Economic Conditions, Differing Results?

    PubMed

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2016-07-01

    This article investigates short-term health effects of unemployment for individuals in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden during an economic downturn (2007-2010) that hit the Scandinavian countries with diverging strength. The longitudinal part of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data material is analyzed, and results from generalized least squares estimation indicate that Denmark is the only Scandinavian country in which health status deteriorated among the unemployed. The individual-level (and calendar year) fixed-effect results confirm the negative relationship between unemployment and health status in Denmark. This result is robust across different subsamples, model specifications, and changes in both the dependent and independent variable. Health status deteriorated especially among women and people in prime working age (30-59 years). There is, however, only scant evidence of short-term health effects among the recently unemployed in Norway and Sweden. The empirical findings are discussed in light of: (1) the adequacy of the unemployment insurance system, (2) the likelihood of re-employment for the displaced worker, and (3) selection patterns into and out of employment in the years preceding and during the economic downturn. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Interactions Between Diet and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke on Metabolic Syndrome Among Children: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brianna F; Clark, Maggie L; Bachand, Annette; Reynolds, Stephen J; Nelson, Tracy L; Peel, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is likely influenced by a complex interaction between exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) and diet, but no studies have evaluated this relationship. This study aimed to investigate the interaction between diet and exposure to SHS on metabolic syndrome among 12-19 year olds. We used weighted logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders, to examine interaction of these risk factors on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among 12-19 year olds participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010). Interaction was assessed by introducing product terms between SHS (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol, cotinine, and self-report) and the individual nutrients (dietary fiber, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E) and nutrient patterns in separate models; the relative excess risk due to interaction was used to evaluate interaction on the additive scale. The joint effect between high exposure to SHS and low levels of certain nutrients (vitamin E and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) on metabolic syndrome risk was greater than would be expected from the effects of the individual exposures alone (for example, relative excess risk due to interaction for SHS and vitamin E = 7.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-17.8). Prevention strategies for metabolic syndrome aimed at reducing SHS exposures and improving diet quality may exceed the expected benefits based on targeting these risk factors separately.

  17. Fuzzy-logic-based safety verification framework for nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achint; Gabbar, Hossam A

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a practical implementation of a safety verification framework for nuclear power plants (NPPs) based on fuzzy logic where hazard scenarios are identified in view of safety and control limits in different plant process values. Risk is estimated quantitatively and compared with safety limits in real time so that safety verification can be achieved. Fuzzy logic is used to define safety rules that map hazard condition with required safety protection in view of risk estimate. Case studies are analyzed from NPP to realize the proposed real-time safety verification framework. An automated system is developed to demonstrate the safety limit for different hazard scenarios. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Relationship of fire protection research to plant safety. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    For several years, Sandia National Laboratories has been responsible for numerous tests of fire protection systems and concepts. Tests of fire retardant cables, cable coatings, cable tray covers, penetration seals, fire barriers, and spatial separation have been reported and summarized. Other tests involving the effectiveness of suppression systems and the vulnerability of electrical cabinets have been completed with reports in preparation. The following questions constitute the central theme of current fire research by Sandia and the NRC: under what conditions is spatial separation of redundant safety systems adequate; what are the temperature, smoke, humidity, or corrosive vapor damage thresholds of cable and safety equipment exposed to fire or suppression activities; what is the safety significance of fires involving control room cabinets or remote shutdown panels; and what is the relative importance of fire to nuclear power plant safety, as compared to other types of anticipated or postulated accidents. Evidence of why these questions seem important and a description of work being undertaken to address each question are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

  19. Plant natural variability may affect safety assessment data.

    PubMed

    Batista, Rita; Oliveira, Margarida

    2010-12-01

    Before market introduction, genetic engineered (GE) food products, like any other novel food product, are subjected to extensive assessment of their potential effects on human health. In recent years, a number of profiling technologies have been explored aiming to increase the probability of detecting any unpredictable unintended effect and, consequently improving the efficiency of GE food safety assessment. These techniques still present limitations associated with the interpretation of the observed differences with respect to their biological relevance and toxicological significance. In order to address this issue, in this study, we have performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of five different ears of five different MON810 maize plants and of other five of the non-transgenic near-isogenic line. We have also performed 2D-gel electrophoresis of the pool of the five protein extractions of MON810 and control lines. We have notice that, in this example, the exclusive use of data from 2D-electrophoresed pooled samples, to compare these two lines, would be insufficient for an adequate safety evaluation. We conclude that, when using "omics" technologies, it is extremely important to eliminate all potential differences due to factors not related to the ones under study, and to understand the role of natural plant-to-plant variability in the encountered differences. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety system augmentation at Russian Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerbo, J. A.; Satpute, S. N.; Donkin, J. Y.; Reister, R. A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class 1E DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyanie Zprie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER 440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNASZOR (GAN), the Russian Version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union.

  1. Total, Free, and Added Sugar Consumption and Adherence to Guidelines: The Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Sluik, Diewertje; van Lee, Linde; Engelen, Anouk I; Feskens, Edith J M

    2016-01-28

    A high sugar intake is a subject of scientific debate due to the suggested health implications and recent free sugar recommendations by the WHO. The objective was to complete a food composition table for added and free sugars, to estimate the intake of total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars, adherence to sugar guidelines and overall diet quality in Dutch children and adults. In all, 3817 men and women (7-69 years) from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. Added and free sugar content of products was assigned by food composition tables and using labelling and product information. Diet was assessed with two 24-h recalls. Diet quality was studied in adults with the Dutch Healthy Diet-index. Total sugar intake was 22% Total Energy (%TE), free sugars intake 14 %TE, and added sugar intake 12 %TE. Sugar consumption was higher in children than adults. Main food sources of sugars were sweets and candy, non-alcoholic beverages, dairy, and cake and cookies. Prevalence free sugar intake <10 %TE was 5% in boys and girls (7-18 years), 29% in women, and 33% in men. Overall diet quality was similar comparing adults adherent and non-adherent to the sugar guidelines, although adherent adults had a higher intake of dietary fiber and vegetables. Adherence to the WHO free sugar guidelines of <5 %TE and <10 %TE was generally low in the Netherlands, particularly in children. Adherence to the added and free sugar guidelines was not strongly associated with higher diet quality in adults.

  2. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle.

  3. Factors associated with low water intake among South Korean adolescents - Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Park, Sohyun

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life and plain water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages is one approach for decreasing energy intake. Due to limited data on characteristics associated with water intake among Korean adolescents, this study examined associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with plain water intake by using nationally representative sample of South Korean adolescents. The data (2007-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) for 1,288 high school-aged adolescents (15-18 years) were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for factors associated with low water intake (< 4 cups/day) and very low water intake (< 2.5 cups/day). Nationwide, 38.4% and 19.0% of adolescents reported drinking water < 4.0 cups/day and < 2.5 cups/day, respectively. The mean plain water intake was 5.7 cups/day for males and 4.1 cups/day for females. Females had significantly higher odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 2.2) than males, whereas adolescents with low milk consumption had significantly lower odds for drinking water < 2.5 cups/day (OR = 0.7). Factors significantly associated with a greater odds for drinking water < 4 cups/daywere being female (OR = 2.8) and not meeting physical activity recommendations (≥ 20 min/day on < 3 days/week) (OR = 1.6). Being underweight, overweight, and obese were significantly associated with reduced odds for drinking water < 4 cups/day (OR = 0.7, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively). However, intake of soda, coffee drinks, fruits, vegetables, and sodium and eating out were not significantly associated with low or very low water intake. These findings may be used to target intervention efforts to increase plain water intake as part of a healty lifestyle. PMID:24611109

  4. Age and sex differences in childhood and adulthood obesity association with phthalates: analyses of NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Buser, Melanie C; Murray, H Edward; Scinicariello, Franco

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may play a role in the development of obesity. Evidence suggests phthalate exposure may be associated with obesity in children and adults. To examine the association of ten urinary phthalate metabolites mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate (MECPP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(carboxylnonyl) phthalate (MCNP), and mono-(carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP) grouped by molecular weight of their parent compounds with body weight outcomes in children, adolescent and adult participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. We performed multinomial logistic regression to analyze the association between obesity and urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in children and adolescents and adults. Low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate metabolites (MnBP, MEP and MiBP) are significantly (p<0.05) associated with higher odds for obesity in male children and adolescents. High molecular weight (HMW) phthalate metabolites (MECPP, MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP, MBzP, MCNP, and MCOP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (MEHHP, MEOHP, MEHP and MECPP) are significantly (p<0.05) associated with higher OR for obesity in all adults. Additionally, DEHP metabolites are significantly associated with obesity in all female adults; whereas DEHP and HMW metabolites are significantly associated with OR for obesity in males 60 years and older. We found age and sex differences in the association between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and body weight outcomes. Reverse causation cannot be excluded since overweight and obese people will have more fat mass, they may store more phthalates, thus leading to higher excretion concentrations. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Family Consumer Behaviors, Adolescent Prediabetes and Diabetes in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2010).

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sairaman; Khokhar, Aditi; Holmes, Danielle Sweetnam; Chandwani, Sheenu

    2017-01-01

    Prediabetes or diabetes (characterized by hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels ≥ 5.7 gm%) has been associated with numerous long-term complications. Family consumer behaviors are important risk factors that lead to impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes. However, few studies have studied the association between the family consumer environment and prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between family consumer behaviors (healthy food availability and supermarket spending) and adolescent prediabetes and diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT03136289.) Methods: Data from a nationwide survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] 2007-2010 data) were used for these analyses. Adolescents aged 12-19 years were selected for this study. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression models assessed the relationship between family consumer behaviors and the prevalence of adolescent prediabetes and diabetes. Multivariable models adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, physical activity, education, income, and household size. A total of 2520 adolescents were eligible for this study. Adolescents with healthier household food availability had negative odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55-1.00), as did higher log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). Interaction models demonstrated that adolescent females had more negative odds of prediabetes/diabetes for both healthier food availability (OR = 0.79, 95% CI, 0.39-1.29) and for greater log supermarket spending (OR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.57-0.85). This study shows that both healthy food availability and an increase in supermarket spending were associated with a decreased adjusted prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes in adolescents, with a greater effect in females. These results suggest the need for policy and dietary interventions targeting the consumer

  6. Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Sluik, D; van Lee, L; Geelen, A; Feskens, E J

    2014-03-01

    The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands. A total of 2100 men and women from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 were studied. A general questionnaire assessed alcoholic beverage preference and two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls assessed overall diet. Mean nutrient and food group intakes, and adherence to the 2006 Dutch dietary guidelines across categories of alcoholic beverage preference were compared and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, physical activity, energy intake and frequency and absolute alcohol consumption. Largest differences in dietary habits were detected between persons who preferred wine and those who preferred beer. Persons with a beer preference had a higher absolute intake of meat, soft drinks, margarine and snacks. In contrast, persons with a wine preference had a higher absolute consumption of healthy foods. However, after multiple adjustments, wine consumers still consumed less energy and more vegetables and fruit juices compared with beer consumers. Adherence to the Dutch dietary guidelines did not differ between preference categories after multiple adjustments. In this cross-sectional analysis in a representative sample of the Dutch population, a beer preference was associated with less healthy dietary behaviour, especially compared with wine preference. However, these differences were largely explained by other socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference may not be independently related to diet.

  7. A four year (2007-2010) analysis of long-lasting deep convective systems in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melani, S.; Pasi, F.; Gozzini, B.; Ortolani, A.

    2013-04-01

    Long-lasting, deep convective systems (DCS) occurring in the Mediterranean basin have been investigated for the 2007-2010 years using geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite data, supported by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses and severe weather reports recorded by the European Severe Weather Database (ESWD). The spatial and seasonal variability of DCS occurrence have been investigated, as well as the most favourable synoptic precursors for their initiation. The analysis has shown the existence of some preferential areas of DCS genesis, mainly located in the western (i.e., around Balearic Islands) and central (i.e., Ionic and Tyrrhenian seas) Mediterranean, where these systems develop and grow preferentially in fall (i.e., September and October). The analysis of a selected set of Synoptic Precursors (SPs) has shown how the totality of the identified cases has occurred downstream a mid-tropospheric (500 hPa) disturbance (trough or cut-off) within a southerly flow, with high values of θe (at 850 hPa) and precipitable water. Moreover, the approaching of an upper level tropopause dynamical anomaly coupled with a local maximum of upper and low level horizontal wind speed, seems to play a very important role in triggering convection. Finally, a careful crosscheck of the detected cases with the ESWD reports has allowed to investigate the severity of these systems, as they often affect population and produce significant damages. This study has to be considered a necessary step towards the development of a larger climatologic database of long-lasting, deep convective events occurring in the Mediterranean sea, as well as the definition of a specific conceptual model based on synoptic precursors, having the long-term issue of setting up an objective procedure to support regional meteorological services in early decisions and accurate nowcasting.

  8. Acculturation and the prevalence of diabetes in US Latino Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matthew J; Alos, Victor A; Davey, Adam; Bueno, Angeli; Whitaker, Robert C

    2014-10-09

    US Latinos are growing at the fastest rate of any racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the highest lifetime risk of diabetes. Acculturation may increase the risk of diabetes among all Latinos, but this hypothesis has not been studied in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that acculturation was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in such a sample. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis including 3,165 Latino participants in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants with doctor-diagnosed diabetes and participants without diagnosed diabetes who had glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) values of 6.5% or higher were classified as having diabetes. An acculturation score, ranging from 0 (lowest) to 3 (highest), was calculated by giving 1 point for each of 3 characteristics: being born in the United States, speaking predominantly English, and living in the United States for 20 years or more. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between acculturation and diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes among Latinos in our sample was 12.4%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the likelihood of diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI]) increased with level of acculturation- 1.71 (95% CI, 1.31-2.23), 1.63 (95% CI, 1.11-2.39), and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.27-3.29) for scores of 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This association persisted after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), total dietary calories, and physical inactivity. Acculturation was associated with a higher risk of diabetes among US Latinos, and this risk was only partly explained by BMI and weight-related behaviors. Future research should examine the bio-behavioral mechanisms that underlie the relationship between acculturation and diabetes in Latinos.

  9. 78 FR 4477 - Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Introduction AGENCY: Nuclear... subsection to NUREG-0800, ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power..., Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants:...

  10. An integrated and pragmatic approach: Global plant safety management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew

    1989-05-01

    The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening global business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting global safety management, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the global chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.

  11. Transportable nuclear power plant TEC-M with two reactor plants of improved safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, B.G.; Sazonov, A.G.; Svishchev, A.M.; Gromov, B.F.; Zelensky, V.N.; Komkova, O.I.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tolstopyatov, V.P.; Toshinsky, G.I.

    1993-12-31

    Liquid metals are the best to meet the requirements of inherently safety nuclear power plants among the coolants used. A great experience has been gained in lead coolant power plant development and operation as applied to transportable power set-ups. Low chemical activity of this coolant with respect to air-water interaction is a determining factor for this coolant. The transportable nuclear power plant is described. It is intended to generate electric power for populated areas placed a long distance from the main electric power supply sources where it is difficult or not economical to deliver the conventional types of fuel. There are several remote areas in Siberia, Kamchatka in need of this type of power plant.

  12. Epidemiology of respiratory viral infections in two long-term refugee camps in Kenya, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Refugees are at risk for poor outcomes from acute respiratory infections (ARI) because of overcrowding, suboptimal living conditions, and malnutrition. We implemented surveillance for respiratory viruses in Dadaab and Kakuma refugee camps in Kenya to characterize their role in the epidemiology of ARI among refugees. Methods From 1 September 2007 through 31 August 2010, we obtained nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) specimens from patients with influenza-like illness (ILI) or severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) and tested them by RT-PCR for adenovirus (AdV), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), parainfluenza viruses (PIV), and influenza A and B viruses. Definitions for ILI and SARI were adapted from those of the World Health Organization. Proportions of cases associated with viral aetiology were calculated by camp and by clinical case definition. In addition, for children < 5 years only, crude estimates of rates due to SARI per 1000 were obtained. Results We tested specimens from 1815 ILI and 4449 SARI patients (median age = 1 year). Proportion positive for virus were AdV, 21.7%; RSV, 12.5%; hMPV, 5.7%; PIV, 9.4%; influenza A, 9.7%; and influenza B, 2.6%; 49.8% were positive for at least one virus. The annual rate of SARI hospitalisation for 2007-2010 was 57 per 1000 children per year. Virus-positive hospitalisation rates were 14 for AdV; 9 for RSV; 6 for PIV; 4 for hMPV; 5 for influenza A; and 1 for influenza B. The rate of SARI hospitalisation was highest in children < 1 year old (156 per 1000 child-years). The ratio of rates for children < 1 year and 1 to < 5 years old was 3.7:1 for AdV, 5.5:1 for RSV, 4.4:1 for PIV, 5.1:1 for hMPV, 3.2:1 for influenza A, and 2.2:1 for influenza B. While SARI hospitalisation rates peaked from November to February in Dadaab, no distinct seasonality was observed in Kakuma. Conclusions Respiratory viral infections, particularly RSV and AdV, were associated with high rates of

  13. (Safety and reliability of nuclear power plant technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, T.L.

    1990-10-22

    The traveler attended the 16th MPA Seminar on the Safety and Reliability of Plant Technology with Special Emphasis on Nuclear Technology. The objective of the trip was to gather information and data that could prove useful to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsored Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation (HSSI) and Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Programs and to present a paper entitled, Effects of Irradiation on Initiation and Crack-Arrest Toughness of Two High-Copper Welds and on Stainless Steel Cladding. This paper summarizes results from the 5th, 6th, and 7th Irradiation Series of experiments performed within the HSSI Program by the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  14. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  15. Use of animal and plant phenology for flight safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hild, J.

    1980-09-01

    The relationship between the appearance of small soil animals, number of birds and the season makes it possible to judge flight safety risks. The phenological phase of special plant species also controls the appearance of birds, for particular birds prefer particular states of vegetation, e.g. in pastured areas. This may suggest the possibilities for flight safety in the airfields and their vicinity. During low and high level flights of aircraft it has been necessary to forecast the beginning and course of migration. Beginning of migration is a function of fat deposit in the bird's body which in turn is a function of food uptake. Weather situations and single meteorological parameters influence the course of migration. By observing bird migration by radar and by combining radar data with weather data it has been possible to publish not only medium and long-scale forecasts but also actual warnings. Modern radar technique rendered the observation more difficult but this problem can be solved by introducing new methods.

  16. Prevalence of Airflow Obstruction in U.S. Adults Aged 40-79 Years: NHANES Data 1988-1994 and 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Doney, Brent; Hnizdo, Eva; Dillon, Charles F; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Tilert, Timothy; Wolz, Michael; Beeckman-Wagner, Lu-Ann

    2015-08-01

    The study evaluated the change in the prevalence of airflow obstruction in the U.S. population 40-79 years of age from years 1988-1994 to 2007-2010. Spirometry data from two representative samples of the U.S. population, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 1988-1994 and 2007-2010, were used. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) criteria were used to define airflow obstruction. Based on ATS/ERS criteria, the overall age-adjusted prevalence of airflow obstruction among adults aged 40-79 years decreased from 16.6% to 14.5% (p < 0.05). Significant decreases were observed for the older age category 60-69 years (20.2% vs. 15.4%; p < 0.01), for males (19.0% vs. 15.4%; p < 0.01), and for Mexican American adults (12.7% vs. 8.4%; p < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate and more severe airflow obstruction decreased also (6.4% vs. 4.4%; p < 0.01). Based on ATS/ERS criteria, during 2007-2010, an estimated 18.3 million U.S. adults 40-79 years had airflow obstruction, 5.6 million had moderate or severe airflow obstruction and 1.4 million had severe airflow obstruction. The overall age-adjusted prevalence of airflow obstruction among U.S. adults aged 40-79 years decreased from 1988-1994 to 2007-2010, especially among older adults, Mexican Americans, and males.

  17. Improved nuclear power plant operations and safety through performance-based safety regulation.

    PubMed

    Golay, M W

    2000-01-07

    This paper illustrates some of the promise and needed future work for risk-informed, performance-based regulation (RIPBR). RIPBR is an evolving alternative to the current prescriptive method of nuclear safety regulation. Prescriptive regulation effectively constitutes a long, fragmented checklist of requirements that safety-related systems in a plant must satisfy. RIPBR, instead, concentrates upon satisfying negotiated performance goals and incentives for judging and rewarding licensee behavior to improve safety and reduce costs. In a project reported here, a case study was conducted concerning a pressurized water reactor (PWR) emergency diesel generator (EDG). Overall, this work has shown that the methods of RIPBR are feasible to use, and capable of justifying simultaneous safety and economic nuclear power improvements. However, it also reveals several areas where the framework of RIPBR should be strengthened. First, researchers need better data and understanding regarding individual component-failure modes that may cause components to fail. Not only are more data needed on failure rates, but more data and understanding are needed to enable analysts to evaluate whether these failures become more likely as the interval between tests is increased. This is because the current state of failure data is not sufficiently finely detailed to define the failure rates of individual component failure modes; such knowledge is needed when changing component-specific regulatory requirements. Second, the role of component testing, given that a component has failed, needs to be strengthened within the context of RIPBR. This includes formulating requirements for updating the prior probability distribution of a component failure rate and conducting additional or more frequent testing. Finally, as a means of compensating for unavoidable uncertainty as an obstacle to regulatory decision-making, limits to knowledge must be treated explicitly and formally. This treatment includes the

  18. Steam generator tube degradation at the Doel 4 plant influence on plant operation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Scheveneels, G.

    1997-02-01

    The steam generator tubes of Doel 4 are affected by a multitude of corrosion phenomena. Some of them have been very difficult to manage because of their extremely fast evolution, non linear evolution behavior or difficult detectability and/or measurability. The exceptional corrosion behavior of the steam generator tubes has had its drawbacks on plant operation and safety. Extensive inspection and repair campaigns have been necessary and have largely increased outage times and radiation exposure to personnel. Although considerable effort was invested by the utility to control corrosion problems, non anticipated phenomena and/or evolution have jeopardized plant safety. The extensive plugging and repairs performed on the steam generators have necessitated continual review of the design basis safety studies and the adaptation of the protection system setpoints. The large asymmetric plugging has further complicated these reviews. During the years many preventive and recently also defence measures have been implemented by the utility to manage corrosion and to decrease the probability and consequences of single or multiple tube rupture. The present state of the Doel 4 steam generators remains troublesome and further examinations are performed to evaluate if continued operation until June `96, when the steam generators will be replaced, is justified.

  19. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  20. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  1. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  2. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  3. 33 CFR 165.115 - Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth, Massachusetts. 165.115 Section 165.115 Navigation and Navigable... Coast Guard District § 165.115 Safety and Security Zones; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant, Plymouth...

  4. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  5. Linking empowering leadership to safety participation in nuclear power plants: a structural equation model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Schöbel, Markus; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2012-07-01

    Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-09-20

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested.

  7. A cross-cultural study of organizational factors on safety: Japanese vs. Taiwanese oil refinery plants.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang Hwa; Lee, Chun-Chia; Wu, Muh-Cherng; Takano, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study attempts to identify idiosyncrasies of organizational factors on safety and their influence mechanisms in Taiwan and Japan. Data were collected from employees of Taiwanese and Japanese oil refinery plants. Results show that organizational factors on safety differ in the two countries. Organizational characteristics in Taiwanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of management commitment to safety, harmonious interpersonal relationship, more emphasis on safety activities, higher devotion to supervision, and higher safety self-efficacy, as well as high quality of safety performance. Organizational characteristics in Japanese plants are highlighted as: higher level of employee empowerment and attitude towards continuous improvement, more emphasis on systematic safety management approach, efficient reporting system and teamwork, and high quality of safety performance. The casual relationships between organizational factors and workers' safety performance were investigated using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results indicate that the influence mechanisms of organizational factors in Taiwan and Japan are different. These findings provide insights into areas of safety improvement in emerging countries and developed countries respectively.

  8. Using game technologies to improve the safety of construction plant operations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongling; Li, Heng; Chan, Greg; Skitmore, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Many accidents occur world-wide in the use of construction plant and equipment, and safety training is considered by many to be one of the best approaches to their prevention. However, current safety training methods/tools are unable to provide trainees with the hands-on practice needed. Game technology-based safety training platforms have the potential to overcome this problem in a virtual environment. One such platform is described in this paper - its characteristics are analysed and its possible contribution to safety training identified. This is developed and tested by means of a case study involving three major pieces of construction plant, which successfully demonstrates that the platform can improve the process and performance of the safety training involved in their operation. This research not only presents a new and useful solution to the safety training of construction operations, but illustrates the potential use of advanced technologies in solving construction industry problems in general.

  9. Addendum to preliminary safety analysis report, Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility, Building K-1220

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This report supplements the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report: Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility, Building K-1220, K/D-3924 (Draft), by (1) replying to detailed comments from Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) incorporating additional information, (3) reproducing a revised version of an earlier memo that addresses several important safety issues, and (4) including a revised list of general and specific safety criteria, safety definitions, and safety systems. The last item, and this supplement as a whole, reflects a revised view of which elements of a facility should be emphasized in a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR). The original PSAR for the Centrifuge Plant Demonstration Facility (CPDF) was written to include capital equipment loss as a safety concern; this supplement views capital equipment loss as a safety concern only when such loss could affect the health and safety of the public or employees. Several of the detailed comments are answered by a reference to K/O-4036. The more important safety information, besides that given in the memo in Appendix A, is to be found in the replies to comments. It should be emphasized that this supplement, like the original CPDF PSAR, is a preliminary report prepared before the design was complete. In the judgment of the CPDF operating contractor, the conclusion stated in the summary chapter of the PSAR is still valid - the facility can be operated with no significant impact on the health and safety of the public and employees.

  10. The impact of safety analyses on the design of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenaal, T.J.; Yee, A.K.; Reisdorf, J.B.; Hall, B.W.

    1993-04-01

    Accident analyses are being performed to evaluate and document the safety of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). The safety of the HWVP is assessed by evaluating worst-case accident scenarios and determining the dose to offsite and onsite receptors. Air dispersion modeling is done with the GENII computer code. Three accidents are summarized in this paper, and their effects on the safety and the design of the HWVP are demonstrated.

  11. Uncertainty Quantification for Safety Verification Applications in Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boafo, Emmanuel

    There is an increasing interest in computational reactor safety analysis to systematically replace the conservative calculations by best estimate calculations augmented by quantitative uncertainty analysis methods. This has been necessitated by recent regulatory requirements that have permitted the use of such methods in reactor safety analysis. Stochastic uncertainty quantification methods have shown great promise, as they are better suited to capture the complexities in real engineering problems. This study proposes a framework for performing uncertainty quantification based on the stochastic approach, which can be applied to enhance safety analysis. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. A Chemical Plant Safety and Hazard Analysis Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course for teaching chemical engineering students about safety and hazards. Summarizes the course content including topics for term papers and disciplines related to this course. Lists 18 references. (YP)

  13. Evaluating software for safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.; Preckshot, G.G.; Gallagher, J.

    1994-01-11

    In 1991, LLNL was asked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in various aspects of computer technology that apply to computer-based reactor protection systems. This has involved the review of safety aspects of new reactor designs and the provision of technical advice on the use of computer technology in systems important to reactor safety. The latter includes determining and documenting state-of-the-art subjects that require regulatory involvement by the NRC because of their importance in the development and implementation of digital computer safety systems. These subjects include data communications, formal methods, testing, software hazards analysis, verification and validation, computer security, performance, software complexity and others. One topic software reliability and safety is the subject of this paper.

  14. Trends in validity of central line-associated bloodstream infection surveillance data, New York State, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Hazamy, Peggy Ann; Van Antwerpen, Carole; Tserenpuntsag, Boldt; Haley, Valerie B; Tsivitis, Marie; Doughty, Diana; Gase, Kathleen A; Tucci, Victor; Stricof, Rachel L

    2013-12-01

    In 2007, New York State (NYS) hospitals began mandatory public reporting of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) data associated with intensive care units (ICUs) into the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Facilities were required to use the NHSN device-associated CLABSI criteria to identify laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections. Onsite audits were conducted in ICUs by NYS hospital-acquired infection program staff using a standardized database. Hospitals provided ICU patient medical records with a positive blood culture during a selected time frame. Between 2007 and 2010, an average of 79% of all reporting hospitals were audited annually. Of the 5,697 patients audited, 3,104 (54%) had a central line in place, and 650 of the patients with a central line (21%) were identified as having a CLABSI by the hospital-acquired infection program reviewer. Between 2007 and 2010, the specificity increased from 90% to 99%, whereas the sensitivity remained stable at approximately 71%. As a result of the audit process, the NYS 2010 CLABSI rate increased by 5.6%. A standardized audit process has helped improve the accuracy of CLABSI reporting. Data validation provides consistent data for measuring the progress of infection prevention strategies and allows for relevant comparison of ICU data. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  15. Safety and Nonsafety Communications and Interactions in International Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Mullens, James Allen; Wilson, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas; Korsah, Kofi; Qualls, A L; Muhlheim, Michael David; Holcomb, David Eugene; Loebl, Andy

    2007-08-01

    Current industry and NRC guidance documents such as IEEE 7-4.3.2, Reg. Guide 1.152, and IEEE 603 do not sufficiently define a level of detail for evaluating interdivisional communications independence. The NRC seeks to establish criteria for safety systems communications that can be uniformly applied in evaluation of a variety of safety system designs. This report focuses strictly on communication issues related to data sent between safety systems and between safety and nonsafety systems. Further, the report does not provide design guidance for communication systems nor present detailed failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) results for existing designs. This letter report describes communications between safety and nonsafety systems in nuclear power plants outside the United States. A limited study of international nuclear power plants was conducted to ascertain important communication implementations that might have bearing on systems proposed for licensing in the United States. This report provides that following information: 1.communications types and structures used in a representative set of international nuclear power reactors, and 2.communications issues derived from standards and other source documents relevant to safety and nonsafety communications. Topics that are discussed include the following: communication among redundant safety divisions, communications between safety divisions and nonsafety systems, control of safety equipment from a nonsafety workstation, and connection of nonsafety programming, maintenance, and test equipment to redundant safety divisions during operation. Information for this report was obtained through publicly available sources such as published papers and presentations. No proprietary information is represented.

  16. 77 FR 15399 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...-specific adoption of Technical Specifications (TS) Task Force (TSTF) Traveler TSTF-505, Revision 1... ADAMS under Accession No. ML12032A065. The model SE for plant-specific adoption of TSTF-505, Revision 1...

  17. Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant Program. Task III, Demonstration plant safety, industrial hygiene, and major disaster plan (Deliverable No. 35)

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    This Health and Safety Plan has been adopted by the IFG Demonstration Plant managed by Memphis Light, Gas and Water at Memphis, Tennessee. The plan encompasses the following areas of concern: Safety Plan Administration, Industrial Health, Industrial Safety, First Aid, Fire Protection (including fire prevention and control), and Control of Safety Related Losses. The primary objective of this plan is to achieve adequate control of all potentially hazardous activities to assure the health and safety of all employees and eliminate lost work time to both the employees and the company. The second objective is to achieve compliance with all Federal, state and local laws, regulations and codes. Some thirty specific safe practice instruction items are included.

  18. Relationship between blood cadmium, lead, and serum thyroid measures in US adults - the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Experimental studies have shown that both cadmium (Cd) and lead have potent endocrine disrupting activity. However, studies on whether these heavy metals disrupt thyroid system in humans, especially in general populations with low levels of exposure, are sparse. The study analyzed 6,231 participants aged 20 and older with measurements from 2007-2010 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to investigate whether whole blood Cd and lead level are associated with serum thyroid hormones measures. Our study suggests that thyroid function may be disrupted by both Cd and lead exposures in the general population and the specific roles of Cd and lead exposure on thyroid axis may differ by sex. However, the mechanisms by which these heavy metals may disrupt thyroid system function in general population needs to be further investigated.

  19. Chemical plant innovative safety investments decision-support methodology.

    PubMed

    Reniers, G L L; Audenaert, A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which investing in safety during the creation of a new chemical installation proves profitable. The authors propose a management supporting cost-benefit model that identifies and evaluates investments in safety within a chemical company. This innovative model differentiates between serious accidents and less serious accidents, thus providing an authentic image of prevention-related costs and benefits. In classic cost-benefit analyses, which do not make such differentiations, only a rudimentary image of potential profitability resulting from investments in safety is obtained. The resulting management conclusions that can be drawn from such classical analyses are of a very limited nature. The proposed model, however, is applied to a real case study and the proposed investments in safety at an appointed chemical installation are weighed against the estimated hypothetical benefits resulting from the preventive measures to be installed at the installation. In the case-study carried out in question, it would appear that the proposed prevention investments are justified. Such an economic exercise may be very important to chemical corporations trying to (further) improve their safety investments.

  20. Prevalence and timing of oral sex with opposite-sex partners among females and males aged 15-24 years: United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Copen, Casey E; Chandra, Anjani; Martinez, Gladys

    2012-08-16

    This report presents data on the prevalence of oral sex with opposite-sex partners and the timing of first oral sex relative to first vaginal intercourse among females and males aged 15-24 based on the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) data from 2007-2010. The question on timing, added to the NSFG in 2007, asked females and males whether first oral sex occurred before, after, or on the same occasion as their first vaginal intercourse. Descriptive tables of numbers and percentages are presented and discussed. The current report is based on a nationally representative subsample of 6,346 interviews conducted from July 2007 to June 2010-3,242 with women and 3,104 with men aged 15-24 years. The measures presented in this report were collected using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing, in which the respondent enters his or her own answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2006-2010 NSFG was 77%, 78% for women aged 15-44 years, and 75% for men aged 15-44 years. About two-thirds of females (66%) and males (65%) aged 15-24 years in 2007-2010 had ever had oral sex. Among females aged 15-24 years. 26% had first oral sex before first vaginal intercourse; 27% had oral sex after intercourse; 7.4% had oral sex on the same occasion as first intercourse; and 5.1% had oral sex, but no vaginal intercourse. Among males aged 15-24 years, 24% had first oral sex before first intercourse; 24% had oral sex after first intercourse; 12% had oral sex on the same occasion as first intercourse; and 6.5% had oral sex, but no vaginal intercourse.

  1. 78 FR 25488 - Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1235, ``Qualification Tests for Safety-Related Actuators in Nuclear Power Plants.'' DG-1235 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.73, dated January 1974. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for qualifying safety-related actuators, and actuator components, in Nuclear Power Generating Stations in order to demonstrate their ability to perform their intended safety functions under all required conditions as described in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 382-2006, ``Standard for Qualification of Safety-Related Actuators for Nuclear Power Generating Stations.''

  2. The role of PRA in the safety assessment of VVER Nuclear Power Plants in Ukraine.

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.

    1999-05-10

    Ukraine operates thirteen (13) Soviet-designed pressurized water reactors, VVERS. All Ukrainian plants are currently operating with annually renewable permits until they update their safety analysis reports (SARs), in accordance with new SAR content requirements issued in September 1995, by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Government Nuclear Power Coordinating Committee of Ukraine. The requirements are in three major areas: design basis accident (DBA) analysis, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), and beyond design-basis accident (BDBA) analysis. The last two requirements, on PRA and BDBA, are new, and the DBA requirements are an expanded version of the older SAR requirements. The US Department of Energy (USDOE), as part of its Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety activities, is providing assistance and technology transfer to Ukraine to support their nuclear power plants (NPPs) in developing a Western-type technical basis for the new SARs. USDOE sponsored In-Depth Safety Assessments (ISAs) are in progress at three pilot nuclear reactor units in Ukraine, South Ukraine Unit 1, Zaporizhzhya Unit 5, and Rivne Unit 1, and a follow-on study has been initiated at Khmenytskyy Unit 1. The ISA projects encompass most areas of plant safety evaluation, but the initial emphasis is on performing a detailed, plant-specific Level 1 Internal Events PRA. This allows the early definition of the plant risk profile, the identification of risk significant accident sequences and plant vulnerabilities and provides guidance for the remainder of the safety assessments.

  3. Recent advances and safety issues of transgenic plant-derived vaccines.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zheng-jun; Guo, Bin; Huo, Yan-lin; Guan, Zheng-ping; Dai, Jia-kun; Wei, Ya-hui

    2013-04-01

    Transgenic plant-derived vaccines comprise a new type of bioreactor that combines plant genetic engineering technology with an organism's immunological response. This combination can be considered as a bioreactor that is produced by introducing foreign genes into plants that elicit special immunogenicity when introduced into animals or human beings. In comparison with traditional vaccines, plant vaccines have some significant advantages, such as low cost, greater safety, and greater effectiveness. In a number of recent studies, antigen-specific proteins have been successfully expressed in various plant tissues and have even been tested in animals and human beings. Therefore, edible vaccines of transgenic plants have a bright future. This review begins with a discussion of the immune mechanism and expression systems for transgenic plant vaccines. Then, current advances in different transgenic plant vaccines will be analyzed, including vaccines against pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotic parasites. In view of the low expression levels for antigens in plants, high-level expression strategies of foreign protein in transgenic plants are recommended. Finally, the existing safety problems in transgenic plant vaccines were put forward will be discussed along with a number of appropriate solutions that will hopefully lead to future clinical application of edible plant vaccines.

  4. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed.

  5. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  6. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Allen, P.M.; Gouge, A.P.

    1991-07-01

    The nev HB-Line, located on the fifth and sixth levels of Building 221-H, is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The nev HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, the Neptunium Oxide Facility, and the Plutonium Oxide Facility. There are three separate safety analyses for the nev HB-Line, one for each of the three facilities. These are issued as supplements to the 200-Area Safety Analysis (DPSTSA-200-10). These supplements are numbered as Sup 2A, Scrap Recovery Facility, Sup 2B, Neptunium Oxide Facility, Sup 2C, Plutonium Oxide Facility. The subject of this safety analysis, the, Plutonium Oxide Facility, will convert nitrate solutions of {sup 238}Pu to plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) powder. All these new facilities incorporate improvements in: (1) engineered barriers to contain contamination, (2) barriers to minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  7. Safety of foods derived from genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John A

    2003-03-01

    Biopharmaceuticals have been available for clinical use for nearly three decades, but foods derived from agribiotechnology have been available for just under a decade. Controversy surrounding foods from genetically modified (GM) plants has focused primarily upon their allergenicity, with lesser concerns about antibiotic resistance genes. Concerns are related to possible environmental impacts on non-human species, including effects on non-target species (e.g., butterflies) and on the development of so-called "super weeds." Food allergies are no more prevalent in foods from GM plants than in conventional foods. Further, the use of antibiotics in the development of GM plants does not pose a significant risk to the human population. Foods from the current GM plant products have been shown not to pose any detrimental effects to humans, and, in fact, nutritionally enhanced products are being developed. GM foods are subjected globally to intense regulatory scrutiny, and extensive data have been provided consistently to regulatory agencies in the United States on a voluntary basis, with mandatory reporting of data soon to be in force. Existing environmental concerns appear to be unjustified on the basis of existing data and experience.

  8. [Orbital tumors in material of Department of Head and Neck Surgery and Oncological Laryngology of Greater Poland Cancer Center 2007-2010].

    PubMed

    Pieńkowski, Piotr; Wieloch, Michał; Golusiński, Wojciech; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Luczewski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the orbit are diagnosed sporadically. Based on the tumor registry of the American Cancer Society the incidence of tumors of the orbit is assessed at fewer than 1 per 100 000 persons. Tumors of the orbit can be divided into three groups: primary tumors, tumors penetrating the orbit from neighboring structures, and tumors that are metastases of malignant cancers from distant organs. To present the results of treatment of patients with tumors of the orbit treated in the Head and Neck Surgery and Laryngological Oncology Ward of the Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznań during 2007-2010. The study group consisted of 26 patients surgically treated during 2007-2010 in the Head and Neck Surgery and Laryngological Oncology Ward of the Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznań. In the postoperative histopathological examination 18 patients (69%) were diagnosed with malignant tumors, 7 patients (27%) with non-malignant tumor and 1 patient (4%) with inflammatory lesion. Among malignant tumors the most frequent was basal cell carcinoma, diagnosed in 7 patients (27%). When removing the tumors of the orbit 4 types of operation were performed: lateral orbitotomy, superior orbitotomy, eye enucleation, and exenteration of the orbit. In 3 patients (12%) cancer recurrences occurred. All patients with recurrences underwent reoperation. In a patient with an extensive recurrence of squamous cell carcinoma the surgery was not radical and the patient died during palliative chemotherapy. Patients with tumors of the orbit should be treated operatively in appropriately prepared centers. In our material the confirmation of this thesis is the group of patients with recurrences of basal cell carcinoma, operated on many times in the past, who due to the extent of the cancerous process had to have the seeing eye removed. In the case of malignant cancers of the orbit an interdisciplinary approach to the problem and the assurance of psychological care for patients who have lost an orbit

  9. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented.

  10. Integrated safety assessment of an oxygen reduction project at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power's Haddam Neck plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCo) has implemented an Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP) for the integrated evaluation and prioritization of plant-specific licensing issues, regulatory policy issues, and plant improvement projects. As part of the ISAP process, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is utilized to evaluate the net safety impact of plant modification projects. On a few occasions, implementation of this approach has resulted in the identification of projects with negative safety impacts that could not be quantified via the normal design review and 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation process. An example is a plant modification that was proposed to reduce the oxygen in the Haddam Neck plant's demineralized water storage tank (DWST). The project involved the design and installation of a nitrogen blanketing system on the DWST. The purpose of the project was to reduce the oxygen content on the secondary side, consistent with recommendations from the Electric Power Research Institute Steam Generator Owners Group. Oxygen is one of the contributors to the corrosion process in systems in contact with the feedwater and can cause damage to associated components if not controlled.

  11. Biosafety Test for Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Proposed Environmental and Human Safety Index (EHSI) Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Juan I.; Navas, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Arcos, Susana C.; Manzanera, Maximino

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) colonize plants and enhance their growth by different mechanisms. Some of these microorganisms may represent a potential threat to human, animal or plant health; however, their use might be approved in parts of Europe if they have been recommended as plant growth enhancers. The current regulatory framework has resulted in a fragmented, contradictory system, and there is an urgent need to establish harmonized protocols for the predictability, efficiency, consistency and especially the safety of PGPB for human and animal health and for the environment. In response to current efforts to update biosafety policies and provide alternative methods to replace the use of vertebrate animals, we propose a panel of tests and an evaluation system to reliably determine the biosafety of bacterial strains used as PGPB. Based on the results of different tests, we propose a scoring system to evaluate the safety of candidates for PGPB within the limitations of the assays used. PMID:26779168

  12. Biosafety Test for Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Proposed Environmental and Human Safety Index (EHSI) Protocol.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Juan I; Navas, Alfonso; González-López, Jesús; Arcos, Susana C; Manzanera, Maximino

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) colonize plants and enhance their growth by different mechanisms. Some of these microorganisms may represent a potential threat to human, animal or plant health; however, their use might be approved in parts of Europe if they have been recommended as plant growth enhancers. The current regulatory framework has resulted in a fragmented, contradictory system, and there is an urgent need to establish harmonized protocols for the predictability, efficiency, consistency and especially the safety of PGPB for human and animal health and for the environment. In response to current efforts to update biosafety policies and provide alternative methods to replace the use of vertebrate animals, we propose a panel of tests and an evaluation system to reliably determine the biosafety of bacterial strains used as PGPB. Based on the results of different tests, we propose a scoring system to evaluate the safety of candidates for PGPB within the limitations of the assays used.

  13. [Health & safety in a steel plant: technical and managerial action].

    PubMed

    Fusato, M

    2012-01-01

    The report presents the experience in a steel company to improve the management of issues relating to health and safety of workers. The first part of the work focuses on the description of the interventions made by the company in recent years, which can be divided into technical interventions on production facilities, training and information, organizational activities and specific projects in collaboration with the health service. The second part presents the certification project according to OHSAS 18001, with particular focus on the efforts for a lean management of the documentation required by the management systems and for the automation of internal processes. The last part finally describes in detail the manner in which it was decided to address some issues that significantly affect the factory doctor: the recording and analysis of accidents and medications, management of hazardous substances and personal protective equipment.

  14. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    PubMed

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  16. Do ethnobotanical and laboratory data predict clinical safety and efficacy of anti-malarial plants?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over 1200 plant species are reported in ethnobotanical studies for the treatment of malaria and fevers, so it is important to prioritize plants for further development of anti-malarials. Methods The “RITAM score” was designed to combine information from systematic literature searches of published ethnobotanical studies and laboratory pharmacological studies of efficacy and safety, in order to prioritize plants for further research. It was evaluated by correlating it with the results of clinical trials. Results and discussion The laboratory efficacy score correlated with clinical parasite clearance (rs=0.7). The ethnobotanical component correlated weakly with clinical symptom clearance but not with parasite clearance. The safety component was difficult to validate as all plants entering clinical trials were generally considered safe, so there was no clinical data on toxic plants. Conclusion The RITAM score (especially the efficacy and safety components) can be used as part of the selection process for prioritising plants for further research as anti-malarial drug candidates. The validation in this study was limited by the very small number of available clinical studies, and the heterogeneity of patients included. PMID:21411018

  17. Analysis of transmitted drug resistance in Spain in the years 2007-2010 documents a decline in mutations to the non-nucleoside drug class.

    PubMed

    Monge, S; Guillot, V; Alvarez, M; Peña, A; Viciana, P; García-Bujalance, S; Pérez Elias, M J; Iribarren, J A; Gutiérrez, F; Itziar Casado, M; Garcia, F

    2012-11-01

    We have studied transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in 1.864 antiretroviral-naïve patients entering CoRIS (Spain) during 2007-2010. An overall 8.58% TDR was observed (3.92%, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs); 3.86%, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); 2.31%, protease inhibitors), with a significant decreasing trend over time for NNRTIs (5.53%, 2007; 2.45%, 2010; p for trend = 0.044). Non-B subtype prevalence was 15.93%, with a significant increase (11.95%, 2007; 18.14%, 2010; p for trend = 0.018), mainly related to immigration. Having no formal education increased the risk of TDR to NNRTIs (OR, 7.26), and carrying a non-B subtype reduced the risk of TDR to NRTIs (OR, 0.27). These findings may have important implications for treatment guidelines and laboratory testing recommendations. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  18. The Contribution of Fortified Ready-to-Eat Cereal to Vitamin and Mineral Intake in the U.S. Population, NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Buckley, Rita B

    2015-05-25

    Micronutrients play a pivotal role in achieving and maintaining optimum health across all life stages. Much of the U.S. population fails to meet Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) for key nutrients. This analysis aims to assess the contribution of fortified ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) to micronutrient intake for U.S. residents aged 2-18, 19-99, and 2-99 years of age according to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data. We used the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method to assess usual intake of 21 micronutrients and the percentage of the population under EARs and above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). Without fortification of RTECs, the percentage of those aged 2-18 years that were below EARs increased by 155, 163, 113, and 35% for niacin, iron, thiamin, and vitamin A, respectively. For vitamins B6 and zinc, the respective numbers were 118% and 60%. Adults aged 19-99 and 2-99 had lower percentages but similar outcomes. RTECs are associated with improved nutrient adequacy and do not widely affect prevalence above the UL. The data indicate that large proportions of the population fail to achieve micronutrient sufficiency without fortification, and that its use can help Americans reach national nutrient intake goals.

  19. Exploratory analysis of the potential relationship between urinary molybdenum and bone mineral density among adult men and women from NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Johns, Lauren E; Meeker, John D

    2016-12-01

    Human exposure to molybdenum (Mo) may play a role in reducing bone mineral density (BMD) by interfering with steroid sex hormone levels. To begin to address gaps in the literature on this topic, the potential relationship between urinary Mo (U-Mo) and BMD at the femoral neck (FN-BMD) and lumbar spine (LS-BMD) was explored in a sample of 1496 adults participating in the 2007-2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Associations were assessed using multiple linear regression models stratified on sex and age. In adjusted models for 50-80+ year-old women, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between natural log-U-Mo and LS-BMD (p-value: 0.002), and a statistically significant dose-dependent decrease in LS-BMD with increasing U-Mo quartiles (trend p-value: 0.002). A suggestive (trend p-value: 0.08), dose-dependent decrease in FN-BMD with increasing U-Mo quartiles was noted in this group of women as well. All other adjusted models revealed no statistically significant or suggestive relationships between U-Mo and FN-BMD or LS-BMD. Bone health is important for overall human health and well-being and, given the exploratory nature of this work, additional studies are needed to confirm the results in other populations, and clarify the potential underlying mechanisms of Mo on BMD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of safety issues at licensed power plants: TMI Action Plan requirements; unresolved safety issues; generic safety issues; other multiplant action issues. Supplement 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    As part of ongoing US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) efforts to ensure the quality and accountability of safety issue information, the NRC established a program for publishing an annual report on the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of safety issues in major NRC requirements areas. This information was initially compiled and reported in three NUREG-series volumes. Volume 1, published in March 1991, addressed the status of Three Mile Island (TMI) Action Plan Requirements. Volume 2, published in May 1991, addressed the status of unresolved safety issues (USIs). Volume 3, published in June 1991, addressed the implementation and verification status of generic safety issues (GSIs). The first annual supplement, which combined these volumes into a single report and presented updated information as of September 30, 1991, was published in December 1991. The second annual supplement, which provided updated information as of September 30, 1992, was published in December 1992. Supplement 2 also provided the status of licensee implementation and NRC verification of other multiplant action (MPA) issues not related to TMI Action Plan requirements, USIs, or GSIs. This third annual NUREG report, Supplement 3, presents updated information as of September 30, 1993. This report gives a comprehensive description of the implementation and verification status of TMI Action Plan requirements, safety issues designated as USIs, GSIs, and other MPAs that have been resolved and involve implementation of an action or actions by licensees. This report makes the information available to other interested parties, including the public. Additionally, this report serves as a follow-on to NUREG-0933, ``A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues,`` which tracks safety issues until requirements are approved for imposition at licensed plants or until the NRC issues a request for action by licensees.

  1. Pinellas Plant: Child Care/Partnership School safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    The Albuquerque Operations Office through the Pinellas Plant Area Office is involved in a joint venture to establish a Partnership School and a Day Care Facility at the Plant. The venture is unique in that it is based on a partnership with the local county school system. The county school system will provide the teachers, supplies and classroom furnishings for the operation of the school for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first and second grade during regular school hours. The Government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. A Day Care Facility will also be available for children from infancy through the second grade for outside school hours. The day care will be operated as a non-profit corporation. Fees paid by parents with children in the day care center will cove the cost of staff, food, supplies and liability insurance. Again, the government will provide the facility and its normal operating and maintenance costs. Between 75 and 90 children are expected in the first year of operation. The Partnership School will consist of one class each for pre-kindergarten, kindergarten and first grade. Second grade will be added in 1990. The total estimated number of children for both the Child Care and Partnership School should not exceed 200 children. Expected benefits include reduced absenteeism, tardiness and turnover and thus increased productivity. The program will be an asset in recruiting and retaining the best workforce. Other benefits include improved education for the children.

  2. An Investigation of Health and Safety Measures in a Hydroelectric Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Acakpovi, Amevi; Dzamikumah, Lucky

    2016-12-01

    Occupational risk management is known as a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in Ghana implemented health and safety measures adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. However, there exist great threats to employees' safety in these companies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of compliance of Occupational Health and Safety management systems and standards set by international and local legislation in power producing companies in Ghana. The methodology is conducted by administering questionnaires and in-depth interviews as measuring instruments. A random sampling technique was applied to 60 respondents; only 50 respondents returned their responses. The questionnaire was developed from a literature review and contained questions and items relevant to the initial research problem. A factor analysis was also carried out to investigate the influence of some variables on safety in general. Results showed that the significant factors that influence the safety of employees at the hydroelectric power plant stations are: lack of training and supervision, non-observance of safe work procedures, lack of management commitment, and lack of periodical check on machine operations. The study pointed out the safety loopholes and therefore helped improve the health and safety measures of employees in the selected company by providing effective recommendations. The implementation of the proposed recommendations in this paper, would lead to the prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses of employees as well as property damage and incidents in hydroelectric power plants. The recommendations may equally be considered as benchmark for the Safety and Health Management System with international standards.

  3. Safety culture assessment in petrochemical industry: a comparative study of two algerian plants.

    PubMed

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-06-01

    To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance.

  4. Safety Culture Assessment in Petrochemical Industry: A Comparative Study of Two Algerian Plants

    PubMed Central

    Boughaba, Assia; Hassane, Chabane; Roukia, Ouddai

    2014-01-01

    Background To elucidate the relationship between safety culture maturity and safety performance of a particular company. Methods To identify the factors that contribute to a safety culture, a survey questionnaire was created based mainly on the studies of Fernández-Muñiz et al. The survey was randomly distributed to 1000 employees of two oil companies and realized a rate of valid answer of 51%. Minitab 16 software was used and diverse tests, including the descriptive statistical analysis, factor analysis, reliability analysis, mean analysis, and correlation, were used for the analysis of data. Ten factors were extracted using the analysis of factor to represent safety culture and safety performance. Results The results of this study showed that the managers' commitment, training, incentives, communication, and employee involvement are the priority domains on which it is necessary to stress the effort of improvement, where they had all the descriptive average values lower than 3.0 at the level of Company B. Furthermore, the results also showed that the safety culture influences the safety performance of the company. Therefore, Company A with a good safety culture (the descriptive average values more than 4.0), is more successful than Company B in terms of accident rates. Conclusion The comparison between the two petrochemical plants of the group Sonatrach confirms these results in which Company A, the managers of which are English and Norwegian, distinguishes itself by the maturity of their safety culture has significantly higher evaluations than the company B, who is constituted of Algerian staff, in terms of safety management practices and safety performance. PMID:25180135

  5. Technical safety appraisal: Buildings 776/777 Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Field, H C

    1988-03-01

    Buildings 776/777 at the Rocky Flats Plant are major components of the production complex at the plant site. They have been in operation since 1957. The operations taking place in the buildings are nuclear weapons production support, processing of weapons assemblies returned from Pantex, waste processing, research and development in support of production, special projects, and those generated by support groups, such as maintenance. The appraisal team identified nine deficiencies that it believed required prompt attention. DOE management for EH, the program office (Defense Programs), and the field office analyzed the information provided by the appraisal team and instituted compensatory measures for closer monitoring of contractor activities by knowledgeable DOE staff and staff from other sites. Concurrently, the contractor was requested to address both short-term and long-term remedial measures to correct the identified issues as well as the underlying problems. The contractor has provided his action plan, which is included. This plan was under evaluation by EH and the DOE program office at the time this report was prepared. In addressing the major areas of concern identified above, a well as the specific deficiencies identified by the appraisal team, the contractor and the field office are cautioned to search for the root causes for the problems and to direct corrective actions to those root causes rather than solely to the symptoms to assure the sustainability of the improvements being made. The results of prior TSAs led DOE to conclude that previous corrective actions were not sufficient in that a large number of the individual findings are recurrent. Pending completion of remedial actions over the next few months, enhanced DOE oversight of the contractor is warranted.

  6. Clean Air Act Settlement Reduces Air Emissions and Improves Chemical Safety at Rhode Island Biodiesel Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA & U.S. Department of Justice have settled an environmental enforcement case with Newport Biodiesel, Inc., resulting in reduced air emissions and improved safety controls at the company’s biodiesel manufacturing plant in Newport, Rhode Island.

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Structures, Systems, and Components Safety Classification White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Jordan

    2010-09-01

    This white paper outlines the relevant regulatory policy and guidance for a risk-informed approach for establishing the safety classification of Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant and sets forth certain facts for review and discussion in order facilitate an effective submittal leading to an NGNP Combined Operating License application under 10 CFR 52.

  8. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  9. Chemical Safety Management Program for Lockheed Martin Energy Systems operations at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    C.W. McMahon

    2000-03-24

    Operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems), the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is a manufacturing facility that plays an integral role in the DOE nuclear weapons complex. Fulfilling the national security mission at the Y-12 Plant, continuing to be the cornerstone of uranium and lithium technologies for DOE, and providing customers with solutions for challenging manufacturing needs requires usage of a variety of chemicals and chemical processes. Performing this work safely while protecting workers, the public, and the environment is their commitment. The purpose of this document is to provide a description of the essential components of chemical safety, the integration of these components into the Y-12 Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), and the functional integration of chemical safety issues across Y-12 organizations and programs managed by Energy Systems.

  10. Discussion on software aging management of nuclear power plant safety digital control system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Huihui; Gu, Pengfei; Tang, Jianzhong; Chen, Weihua; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Managing the aging of digital control systems ensures that nuclear power plant systems are in adequate safety margins during their life cycles. Software is a core component in the execution of control logic and differs between digital and analog control systems. The hardware aging management for the digital control system is similar to that for the analog system, which has matured over decades of study. However, software aging management is still in the exploratory stage. Software aging evaluation is critical given the higher reliability and safety requirements of nuclear power plants. To ensure effective inputs for reliability assessment, this paper provides the required software aging information during the life cycle. Moreover, the software aging management scheme for safety digital control system is proposed on the basis of collected aging information.

  11. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool

  12. Vulnerability, safety and response of nuclear power plants to the hydroclimatic hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János Katona, Tamás; Vilimi, András

    2016-04-01

    The Great Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami, and the severe accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant 2011 alerted the nuclear industry to danger of extreme rare natural hazards. The subsequent "stress tests" performed by the nuclear industry in Europe and all over the world identifies the nuclear power plant (NPP) vulnerabilities and define the measures for increasing the plant safety. According to the international practice of nuclear safety regulations, the cumulative core damage frequency for NPPs has to be 10-5/a, and the cumulative frequency of early large release has to be 10-6/a. In case of operating plants these annual probabilities can be little higher, but the licensees are obliged to implement all reasonable practicable measures for increasing the plant safety. For achieving the required level of safety, design basis of NPPs for natural hazards has to be defined at the 10-4/a ⎯10-5/a levels of annual exceedance probability. Tornado hazard is some kind of exception, e.g., the design basis annual probability for tornado in the US is equal to 10-7/a. Design of the NPPs shall provide for an adequate margin to protect items ultimately necessary to prevent large or early radioactive releases in the event of levels of natural hazards exceeding those to be considered for design. The plant safety has to be reviewed for accounting the changes of the environmental conditions and natural hazards in case of necessity, but as minimum every ten years in the frame of periodic safety reviews. Long-term forecast of environmental conditions and hazards has to be accounted for in the design basis of the new plants. Changes in hydroclimatic variables, e.g., storms, tornadoes, river floods, flash floods, extreme temperatures, droughts affect the operability and efficiency as well as the safety the NPPs. Low flow rates and high water temperature in the rivers may force to operate at reduced power level or shutdown the plant (Cernavoda NPP, Romania, August 2009). The

  13. Trends in the prevalence of obstructive and restrictive lung function among adults in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys from 1988-1994 to 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S; Mannino, David M; Wheaton, Anne G; Giles, Wayne H; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B

    2013-05-01

    National spirometric surveillance data in the United States were last collected during 1988-1994. The objective of this study was to provide current estimates for obstructive and restrictive impairment of lung function and to examine changes since 1988-1994. We used data from 14,360 participants aged 20 to 79 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and 9,024 participants from NHANES 2007-2010. Spirometry was conducted using the same spirometers and generally similar protocols. During 2007-2010, 13.5% (SE, 0.6) of participants had evidence of airway obstruction (FEV1/FVC < 0.70): 79.9% of adults had normal lung function, 6.5% had a restrictive impairment, 7.5% had mild obstruction, 5.4% had moderate obstruction, and 0.7% had severe obstruction. Although the overall age-adjusted prevalence of any obstruction did not change significantly from 1988-1994 (14.6%) to 2007-2010 (13.5%) (P = .178), significant decreases were noted for participants aged 60 to 79 years and for Mexican Americans. The prevalence of current smoking remained high among participants with moderate (48.4%) and severe (37.9%) obstructive impairments. A significant decline in current smoking occurred only among those with normal lung function (P < .05). Spirometry revealed little change in the prevalence of any obstructive and restrictive impairment in lung function during 2007-2010, compared with 1988-1994.

  14. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... entitled ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power... systems of nuclear power plants. In particular, the methods are consistent with part 50 of Title 10 of the...

  15. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... software elements if those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing computer...

  16. Safety evaluation of some wild plants in the New Nordic Diet.

    PubMed

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2012-12-01

    One of the dietary components in the New Nordic Diet, is plants from the wild countryside. However, these may have a high content of bioactive components, some of which could be toxic in larger quantities. The objective of this paper is to outline a strategy for safety evaluation of wild plants not covered in current food compositional databases and to apply the method for selected plants used in the New Nordic Diet recipes. Four examples of typical wild edible plants were evaluated (stinging nettle, sorrel, chickweed and common lambsquarters), and based on substantial equivalence with known food plants the majority of the bioactive components reported were within the range experienced when eating or drinking typical food stuffs. For most compounds the hazards could be evaluated as minor. The only precaution found was for common lambsquarters because of its presumed high level of oxalic acid. It is concluded that a substance-by-substance evaluation of intake by equivalence to common foods is a useful and efficient strategy to evaluate the safety of newly introduced wild edible plants. Further evaluation and better compositional analyses are warranted before a daily consumption of significant amounts of wild edible plants can be generally regarded as safe.

  17. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: an organizational overview. Volume 1. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. A model is introduced for the purposes of organizing the literature review and showing key relationships among identified organizational factors and nuclear power plant safety. Volume I of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety.

  18. Safety design in the Noretyl I/S ethylene plant, Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Boeckmann, T.; Ingebrigtsen, G.H.; Haekstad, T.; Noretyl, I.

    1980-01-01

    The plant, with capacity for 300,000 tons/yr of ethylene and 70,000 tons/yr of propylene was started up in 1977. It was designed and constructed by Linde A.G. for Noretyle (which is owned 51% by Norsk Hydro A/S, 33% by Norske Stats Oljeselskap A/S, and 16% by Sega Petrokjemi A/S and Co.) according to the requirements of a new national code of safety for oil refineries and petrochemical plants in Norway, jointly developed by Linde, Norsk Hydro, and the Norwegian authorities. Detailed discussions are presented for the safety aspects of plant layout; the location of important buildings: noise limitation and explosion prevention in the compression buildings; remote isolation and venting for pipework or vessels leaking hydrocarbons; blowdown and flare system connected to equipment safety valves; gas detectors; the shutdown system for the acetylene hydrogenation reactor; pneumatic instrumentation for the plant; a high signal-level electronic system for shutdown and alarms; the fire protection system in the tankage area; the shutdown system for the underground propane-storage cavern; and procedures for coping with the human aspects of plant hazards.

  19. Plant extracts for the control of bacterial growth: efficacy, stability and safety issues for food application.

    PubMed

    Negi, Pradeep Singh

    2012-05-01

    The microbial safety of foods continues to be a major concern to consumers, regulatory agencies and food industries throughout the world. Many food preservation strategies have been used traditionally for the control of microbial spoilage in foods but the contamination of food and spoilage by microorganisms is a problem yet to be controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobials are approved in many countries, the recent trend has been for use of natural preservatives, which necessitates the exploration of alternative sources of safe, effective and acceptable natural preservatives. Plants contain innumerable constituents and are valuable sources of new and biologically active molecules possessing antimicrobial properties. Plants extracts either as standardized extracts or as a source of pure compounds provide unlimited opportunities for control of microbial growth owing to their chemical diversity. Many plant extracts possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, yeast and molds, but the variations in quality and quantity of their bioactive constituents is the major detriments in their food use. Further, phytochemicals added to foods may be lost by various processing techniques. Several plant extracts or purified compounds intended for food use have been consumed by humans for thousands of years, but typical toxicological information is not available for them. Although international guidelines exist for the safety evaluation of food additives, owing to problems in standardization of plant extracts, typical toxicological values have not been assigned to them. Development of cost effective isolation procedures that yield standardized extracts as well as safety and toxicology evaluation of these antimicrobials requires a deeper investigation.

  20. An assessment of criticality safety at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado, July--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Roger J.

    1989-09-01

    This is a report on the 1989 independent Criticality Safety Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant, primarily in response to public concerns that nuclear criticality accidents involving plutonium may have occurred at this nuclear weapon component fabrication and processing plant. The report evaluates environmental issues, fissile material storage practices, ventilation system problem areas, and criticality safety practices. While no evidence of a criticality accident was found, several recommendations are made for criticality safety improvements. 9 tabs.

  1. Differences in spirometry values between U.S. children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years with current asthma, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Simon, Alan E; Tilert, Timothy; Okelo, Sande; Akinbami, Lara J

    2016-03-01

    National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines recommend that periodic spirometry be performed in youth with asthma. NAEPP uses different spirometry criteria to define uncontrolled asthma for children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12+ years). To describe differences in spirometry between U.S. children and adolescents with current asthma. We examined cross-sectional spirometry data from 453 U.S. youth with current asthma age 6-19 years from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The main outcomes were percentage predicted forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (FEV1%) ≤80 and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ≤0.80. We also examined the prevalence of youth with spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma, using NAEPP age-specific criteria, defined for children aged 6-11 years as FEV1% ≤80 or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80, and for adolescents aged 12-19 years as FEV1% ≤80. Children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years did not differ in prevalence of FEV1% ≤80 (10.1% vs. 9.0%) or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80 (30.6% vs. 29.8%). However, based on the NAEPP age-specific criteria, 33.0% of children 6-11 years and 9.0% of adolescents 12-19 years had spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma (P < 0.001). Children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years with current asthma did not differ in the percentage with FEV1% ≤80 or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80. However, the percent of children and adolescents with spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma did differ. The difference appears to stem mainly from the different spirometry criteria for the two age groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Newman, Sarah L; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3), 32.4% (31.0-33.9), and 49.6% (47.8-51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  3. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J; Forrest, David W; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Beck, Dano W; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. We evaluated DBS collected in 2007-2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates.

  4. Association with meteo-climatological factors and daily emergency visits for renal colic and urinary calculi in Cuneo, Italy. A retrospective observational study, 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condemi, Vincenzo; Gestro, Massimo; Dozio, Elena; Tartaglino, Bruno; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Meco, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Incidence and prevalence of kidney stones are affected by genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the link between various meteorological factors (independent variables) and the daily number of visits to the Emergency Department (ED of the S. Croce and Carle Hospital of Cuneo for renal colic (RC) and urinary stones (UC) as the dependent variable over the years 2007-2010. The Poisson generalized regression models (PGAMs) have been used in different progressive ways. The results of PGAMs (stage 1) adjusted for seasonal and calendar factors confirmed a significant correlation ( p < 0.03) with the thermal parameter. Evaluation of the dose-response effect [PGAMs combined with distributed lags nonlinear models (DLNMs)—stage 2], expressed in terms of relative risk (RR) and cumulative relative risk (RRC), indicated a relative significant effect up to 15 lag days of lag (RR > 1), with a first peak after 5 days (lag ranges 0-1, 0-3, and 0-5) and a second weak peak observed along the 5-15 lag range days. The estimated RR for females was significant, mainly in the second and fourth age group considered (19-44 and >65 years): RR for total ED visits 1.27, confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.46 (lag 0-5 days); RR 1.42, CI 1.01-2.01 (lag 0-10 days); and RR 1.35, CI 1.09-1.68 (lag 0-15 days). The research also indicated a moderate involvement of the thermal factor in the onset of RC caused by UC, exclusively in the female sex. Further studies will be necessary to confirm these results.

  5. The influence of obesity on blood mercury levels for U.S. non-pregnant adults and children: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Korrick, Susan A; Fayad, Raja

    2015-04-01

    In animal studies obesity is associated with higher blood and tissue mercury concentrations; however human studies are lacking. Although the mechanism underlying this association is uncertain, obesity may alter the metabolism and distribution of methylmercury. We determined whether obesity influenced blood mercury levels, the majority of which was methylmercury, for U.S. non-pregnant adults (≥20 years) and children (2-19 years) after controlling for methylmercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption, and other confounders. We completed secondary data analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) (2007-2010) for participants who consumed fish/shellfish within 24h of blood collection for mercury analysis. Weighted least squares regression models related blood mercury levels (the dependent variable) to methylmercury exposure (μg) from fish consumed in the previous 24h, body mass index (BMI) (for adults), BMI z-scores (for children), and other confounders. In adjusted models, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI for adults [β, 95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.54 (-0.90, -0.18)]. For children, blood mercury levels were inversely correlated with BMI z-scores but the trend was not significant [β (95% CI)=-0.016 (-0.066, 0.035)]. When obese adults or children were compared with those who were overweight/normal weight, blood mercury averaged 22% lower for obese adults (95% CI: -33%, -8.2%), while blood mercury did not differ significantly for obese children [β (95% CI)=-1.7% (-31%, +39%)]. After adjusting for the main, if not exclusive, exogenous source of methylmercury exposure (through fish/shellfish intake) and other confounders, our results support potential changes in the metabolism, distribution or excretion of methylmercury with increasing BMI (for adults). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol.

    PubMed

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2009-03-15

    The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria.

  7. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    Reports were presented covering a selection of topics on the safety of fusion power plants. These included a review on licensing studies developed for ITER site preparation surveying common and non-common issues (i.e. site dependent) as lessons to a broader approach for fusion power plant safety. Several fusion power plant models, spanning from accessible technology to more advanced-materials based concepts, were discussed. On the topic related to fusion-specific technology, safety studies were reported on different concepts of breeding blanket modules, tritium handling and auxiliary systems under normal and accident scenarios' operation. The testing of power plant relevant technology in ITER was also assessed in terms of normal operation and accident scenarios, and occupational doses and radioactive releases under these testings have been determined. Other specific safety issues for fusion have also been discussed such as availability and reliability of fusion power plants, dust and tritium inventories and component failure databases. This study reveals that the environmental impact of fusion power plants can be minimized through a proper selection of low activation materials and using recycling technology helping to reduce waste volume and potentially open the route for its reutilization for the nuclear sector or even its clearance into the commercial circuit. Computational codes for fusion safety have been presented in support of the many studies reported. The on-going work on establishing validation approaches aiming at improving the prediction capability of fusion codes has been supported by experimental results and new directions for development have been identified. Fusion standards are not available and fission experience is mostly used as the framework basis for licensing and target design for safe operation and occupational and environmental constraints. It has been argued that fusion can benefit if a specific fusion approach is implemented, in particular

  8. Use of artificial intelligence to enhance the safety of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the operation of a nuclear power plant, the sheer magnitude of the number of process parameters and systems interactions poses difficulties for the operators, particularly during abnormal or emergency situations. Recovery from an upset situation depends upon the facility with which the available raw data can be converted into and assimilated as meaningful knowledge. Plant personnel are sometimes affected by stress and emotion, which may have varying degrees of influence on their performance. Expert systems can take some of the uncertainty and guesswork out of their decisions by providing expert advice and rapid access to a large information base. Application of artificial intelligence technologies, particularly expert systems, to control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and improve power plant safety and reliability. 12 refs.

  9. Protection of Operators and Environment - the Safety Concept of the Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant VEK

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, J.; Kuttruf, H.; Lumpp, W.; Pfeifer, W.; Roth, G.; Weisenburger, S.

    2002-02-26

    The Karlsruhe Vitrification Plant (VEK) plant is a milestone in decommissioning and complete dismantling of the former Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant WAK, which is in an advanced stage of disassembly. The VEK is scheduled to vitrify approx. 70 m3 of the highly radioactive liquid waste (HLW) resulting from reprocessing. Site preparation, civil work and component manufacturing began in 1999. The building will be finalized by mid of 2002, hot vitrification operation is currently scheduled for 2004/2005. Provisions against damages arising from construction and operation of the VEK had to be made in accordance with the state of the art as laid down in the German Atomic Law and the Radiation Protection Regulations. For this purpose, the appropriate analysis of accidents and their external and internal impacts were investigated. During the detailed design phase, a failure effects analysis was carried out, in which single events were studied with respect to the objectives of protection and ensuring activity containment, limiting radioactive discharges to the environment and protecting of the staff. Parallel to the planning phase of the VEK plant a cold prototype test facility (PVA) covering the main process steps was constructed and operated at the Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE) of FZK. This pilot operation served to demonstrate the process technique and its operation with a simulated waste solution, and to test the main items of equipment, but was conducted also to use the experimental data and experience to back the safety concept of the radioactive VEK plant. This paper describes the basis of the safety concept of the VEK plant and results of the failure effect analysis. The experimental simulation of the failure scenarios, their effect on the process behavior, and the controllability of these events as well as the effect of the results on the safety concept of VEK are discussed. Additionally, an overview of the actual status of civil work and manufacturing of

  10. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of...

  11. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  12. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  13. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  14. 10 CFR 50.49 - Environmental qualification of electric equipment important to safety for nuclear power plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... important to safety for nuclear power plants. 50.49 Section 50.49 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... nuclear power plants. (a) Each holder of or an applicant for an operating license issued under this part... nuclear power plant for which the certifications required under § 50.82(a)(1) or § 52.110(a)(1) of this...

  15. Probabilistic Safety Study Applications Program for inspection of the Indian Point Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Fullwood, R.; Fresco, A.

    1986-03-01

    By prioritizing the various areas of interest for inspection and by better defining inspection needs, the NRC expects to make more effective use of finite inspection resources by concentrating on those potential areas most significant to safety. Through review and application of the Indian Point Unit 3 Probabilistic Safety Study's numerical data and event tree modeling, and by utilizing related documents, a technical basis for prioritizing areas for NRC inspection has been developed. This was then tested at the plant site for the NRC Operating Reactor Inspection Program, I and E Manual Chapter 2515. Inspection activities addressed include normal operations, system and component testing, maintenance and surveillance. A computer program entitled NSPKTR, which was developed specifically for this program, modeled the internal plant states to the system level and performed the risk and importance calculations. 17 refs., 21 tabs.

  16. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

  17. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  18. Organizational analysis and safety for utilities with nuclear power plants: perspectives for organizational assessment. Volume 2. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, R.N.; Olson, J.; Sommers, P.E.; McLaughlin, S.D.; Jackson, M.S.; Nadel, M.V.; Scott, W.G.; Connor, P.E.; Kerwin, N.; Kennedy, J.K. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    This two-volume report presents the results of initial research on the feasibility of applying organizational factors in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety assessment. Volume 1 of this report contains an overview of the literature, a discussion of available safety indicators, and a series of recommendations for more systematically incorporating organizational analysis into investigations of nuclear power plant safety. The six chapters of this volume discuss the major elements in our general approach to safety in the nuclear industry. The chapters include information on organizational design and safety; organizational governance; utility environment and safety related outcomes; assessments by selected federal agencies; review of data sources in the nuclear power industry; and existing safety indicators.

  19. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Introduction to the nuclear criticality safety evaluation of facility X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-08-16

    This report is the first in a series of documents that will evaluate nuclear criticality safety in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. It provides an overview of the facility, categorizes its functions for future analysis, reviews existing NCS documentation, and explains the follow-on effort planned for X-705. A detailed breakdown of systems, subsystems, and operational areas is presented and cross-referenced to existing NCS documentation.

  1. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  2. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  3. Nationwide survey of the development of drug resistance in the pediatric field in 2007, 2010, and 2012: drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b strain in Japan.

    PubMed

    Baba, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    Based on the results of surveillance in the pediatric field conducted in 2007, 2010, and 2012, we examined the frequency of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) strains, the susceptibility for Hib strains to various types of antimicrobial agent, and the relations to patients' background factors. Among all of Haemophilus influenzae, the frequency of Hib strains was 3.6% (14/386 strains) in 2007, 4.8% (23/484 strains) in 2010, 1.2% (5/411 strains) in 2012, and decreasing in 2012. Hib strains were isolated in patients with the following infections: nine patients with respiratory tract infections (upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, and pneumonia), three patients with sepsis, one patient with meningitis, and one patient with purulent inflammation of a tendon sheath in 2007; 11 patients with respiratory tract infections (upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis, and pneumonia), four patients with sepsis, and eight patients with meningitis in 2010, demonstrating a relatively high frequency in patients with invasive infections. However, in 2012, Hib strains were isolated in only four patients with respiratory tract infections (upper respiratory tract infection) and one patient with bronchial asthma. Evaluation of background factors with pediatric patients in whom Hib strains were isolated showed that approximately 70% were male; majority was children under three years of age; and higher detection rates were also related to the background of patients who were attendant to daycare center, had siblings, had received no antimicrobial agents within the previous one month before collecting specimens. Throughout the surveillance between 2007 and 2012, antimicrobial agents with all phases' MICs ≤ 1 μg/mL were cefditoren, cefcapene, and cefteram in the oral β-lactams; tazobactam/piperacillin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, and meropenem in the injectable β-lactams; azithromycin in the macrolide; and levofloxacin in the quinolone. After 2010, MIC ranges were

  4. Pulmonary function, chronic respiratory symptoms, and health-related quality of life among adults in the United States--National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Anne G; Ford, Earl S; Thompson, William W; Greenlund, Kurt J; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Croft, Janet B

    2013-09-17

    We examined the association of impaired lung function and respiratory symptoms with measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among US adults. The sample included 5139 participants aged 40-79 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 who underwent spirometric testing and responded to questions about respiratory symptoms, health status, and number of physically unhealthy, mentally unhealthy, or activity limitation days in the prior 30 days. Among these adults, 7.2% had restrictive impairment (FEV1/FVC ≥ 70%; FVC < 80% of predicted), 10.9% had mild obstruction (FEV1/FVC < 70%; FEV1 ≥ 80% predicted), and 9.0% had moderate-severe obstruction (FEV1/FVC < 70%; FEV1 < 80% predicted). Individuals with restrictive impairment or moderate-severe obstruction were more likely to report fair/poor health compared to those with normal lung function (prevalence ratio (PR) =1.5 [95% CI: 1.2-1.9] and 1.5 [1.3-1.8]), after controlling for sociodemographics, non-respiratory chronic diseases, body mass index, smoking, and respiratory symptoms. Frequent mental distress (FMD; ≥14 mentally unhealthy days), frequent physical distress (FPD; ≥14 physically unhealthy days), and frequent activity limitation (FAL; ≥14 activity limitation days) did not differ by lung function status. Adults who reported any respiratory symptoms (frequent cough, frequent phlegm, or past year wheeze) were more likely to report fair/poor health (PR = 1.5 [1.3-1.7]), FPD (PR = 1.6 [1.4-1.9]), FMD (PR = 1.8 [1.4-2.2]), and FAL (PR = 1.4 [1.1-1.9]) than those with no symptoms. These results suggest the importance of chronic respiratory symptoms as potential risk factors for poor HRQOL and suggest improved symptom treatment and prevention efforts would likely improve HRQOL.

  5. Impact of mechanical- and maintenance-induced failures of main reactor coolant pump seals on plant safety

    SciTech Connect

    Azarm, M A; Boccio, J L; Mitra, S

    1985-12-01

    This document presents an investigation of the safety impact resulting from mechanical- and maintenance-induced reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal failures in nuclear power plants. A data survey of the pump seal failures for existing nuclear power plants in the US from several available sources was performed. The annual frequency of pump seal failures in a nuclear power plant was estimated based on the concept of hazard rate and dependency evaluation. The conditional probability of various sizes of leak rates given seal failures was then evaluated. The safety impact of RCP seal failures, in terms of contribution to plant core-melt frequency, was also evaluated for three nuclear power plants. For leak rates below the normal makeup capacity and the impact of plant safety were discussed qualitatively, whereas for leak rates beyond the normal make up capacity, formal PRA methodologies were applied. 22 refs., 17 figs., 19 tabs.

  6. Aging of turbine drives for safety-related pumps in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.

    1995-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the relationship between time-dependent degradation and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of steam turbine drives for safety-related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized-water reactor plants and in the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling and High-Pressure Coolant Injection systems for boiling-water reactor plants. This research has been conducted by examination of failure data in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, review of Licensee Event Reports, discussion of problems with operating plant personnel, and personal observation. The reported failure data were reviewed to determine the cause of the event and the method of discovery. Based on the research results, attempts have been made to determine the predictability of failures and possible preventive measures that may be implemented. Findings in a recent study of AFW systems indicate that the turbine drive is the single largest contributor to AFW system degradation. However, examination of the data shows that the turbine itself is a reliable piece of equipment with a good service record. Most of the problems documented are the result of problems with the turbine controls and the mechanical overspeed trip mechanism; these apparently stem from three major causes which are discussed in the text. Recent improvements in maintenance practices and procedures, combined with a stabilization of the design, have led to improved performance resulting in a reliable safety-related component. However, these improvements have not been universally implemented.

  7. Safety assessment of GM plants: An updated review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L

    2016-09-01

    In a wide revision of the literature conducted in 2000, I noted that the information in scientific journals on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods in general, and GM plants in particular, was scarce. Of course, it was not sufficient to guarantee that the consumption of these products should not mean risks for the health of the consumers. Because of the scientific interest in GM organisms (GMOs), as well as the great concern that the consumption of GM foods/plants has raised in a number of countries, I conducted two subsequent revisions (2007 and 2011) on the adverse/toxic effects of GM plants. In the present review, I have updated the information on the potential adverse health effects of GM plants consumed as food and/or feed. With only a few exceptions, the reported studies in the last six years show rather similar conclusions; that is to say, the assessed GM soybeans, rice, corn/maize and wheat would be as safe as the parental species of these plants. However, in spite of the notable increase in the available information, studies on the long-term health effects of GM plants, including tests of mutagenicity, teratogenicity and carcinogenicity seem to be still clearly necessary.

  8. A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Giné Bordonaba, Jordi

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a notable concern on the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods/plants, an important and complex area of research, which demands rigorous standards. Diverse groups including consumers and environmental Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) have suggested that all GM foods/plants should be subjected to long-term animal feeding studies before approval for human consumption. In 2000 and 2006, we reviewed the information published in international scientific journals, noting that the number of references concerning human and animal toxicological/health risks studies on GM foods/plants was very limited. The main goal of the present review was to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding the potential adverse effects/safety assessment of GM plants for human consumption. The number of citations found in databases (PubMed and Scopus) has dramatically increased since 2006. However, new information on products such as potatoes, cucumber, peas or tomatoes, among others was not available. Corn/maize, rice, and soybeans were included in the present review. An equilibrium in the number research groups suggesting, on the basis of their studies, that a number of varieties of GM products (mainly maize and soybeans) are as safe and nutritious as the respective conventional non-GM plant, and those raising still serious concerns, was currently observed. Nevertheless, it should be noted that most of these studies have been conducted by biotechnology companies responsible of commercializing these GM plants. These findings suggest a notable advance in comparison with the lack of studies published in recent years in scientific journals by those companies. All this recent information is herein critically reviewed.

  9. Characterisation of Liquefaction Effects for Beyond-Design Basis Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bán, Zoltán; Győri, Erzsébet; János Katona, Tamás; Tóth, László

    2015-04-01

    -tree procedure. Earlier studies have shown that the potentially liquefiable layer at Paks Nuclear Power Plant is situated in relatively large depth. Therefore the applicability and adequacy of the methods at high overburden pressure is important. In case of existing facilities, the geotechnical data gained before construction aren't sufficient for the comprehensive liquefaction analysis. Performance of new geotechnical survey is limited. Consequently, the availability of the data has to be accounted while selection the analysis methods. Considerations have to be made for dealing with aleatory uncertainty related to the knowledge of the soil conditions. It is shown in the paper, a careful comparison and analysis of the results obtained by different methodologies provides the basis of the selection of practicable methods for the safety analysis of nuclear power plant for beyond design basis liquefaction hazard.

  10. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  11. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  12. The effect of leader communication style on safety-conscious work environments at domestic nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Edward Michael

    Public risk from unsafe nuclear power plant operations increases when plant workers are reluctant to raise issues and concerns. The effect of leader communication style on the safety-conscious work environment (SCWE) at domestic nuclear power plants was evaluated using a descriptive quantitative research study. A sample of 379 plant employees was surveyed to determine leader communication style elements that foster SCWE. The results reveal that leader communication style significantly affects a safety-conscious work environment. Specific attributes such as wit, articulation, self-disclosure, and social composure, confirmation, and experience, were proven to directly affect worker's likelihood to raise issues and concerns. The direct effect of leader, communication style on safe plant operations and the communication actions leaders can take to improve the safety of those operations is discussed.

  13. Plant sterols: factors affecting their efficacy and safety as functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Alvin; Jones, Peter JH; Abumweis, Suhad S

    2004-01-01

    Plant sterols are naturally occurring molecules that humanity has evolved with. Herein, we have critically evaluated recent literature pertaining to the myriad of factors affecting efficacy and safety of plant sterols in free and esterified forms. We conclude that properly solubilized 4-desmetyl plant sterols, in ester or free form, in reasonable doses (0.8–1.0 g of equivalents per day) and in various vehicles including natural sources, and as part of a healthy diet and lifestyle, are important dietary components for lowering low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and maintaining good heart health. In addition to their cholesterol lowering properties, plant sterols possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenicity, and anti-oxidation activities, and should thus be of clinical importance, even for those individuals without elevated LDL cholesterol. The carotenoid lowering effect of plant sterols should be corrected by increasing intake of food that is rich in carotenoids. In pregnant and lactating women and children, further study is needed to verify the dose required to decrease blood cholesterol without affecting fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoid status. PMID:15070410

  14. The safety assessment of food ingredients derived from plant cell, tissue and organ cultures: a review.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Georgiev, Milen I; Park, So-Young; Dandin, Vijayalaxmi S; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures (PCTOC) have become an increasingly attractive alternative for the production of various high molecular weight molecules which are used as flavourings, fragrances, colouring agents and food additives. Although PCTOC products are cultivated in vitro in a contamination free environment, the raw material produced from PCTOC may contain many components apart from the target compound. In some cases, PCTOC raw materials may also carry toxins, which may be naturally occurring or accumulated during the culture process. Assessment of the safety of PCTOC products is, therefore, a priority of the biotech industries involved in their production. The safety assessment involves the evaluation of starting material, production process and the end product. Before commercialisation, PCTOC products should be evaluated for their chemical and biological properties, as well as for their toxicity. In this review, measures and general criteria for biosafety evaluation of PCTOC products are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  15. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  16. Preventive techniques of pollution control, the reliability and safety in core sectors including thermal power plant installations and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, J.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reports on a study of pollution control techniques, thermal power plant reliability and safety, and economics. Included are some illustrative examples dealing with pollution control. Topics include environmental planning, prevention strategy, pesticide use, food pollution, soil pollution, water pollution, thermal power plant emissions, and pollution control equipment.

  17. Time-related degradation, a key issue in nuclear plant safety evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bonzon, L.L.; Bustard, L.D.; Clough, R.L.; Gillen, K.T.

    1982-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is conducting a number of programs under NRC sponsorship which deal with safety-related equipment qualification issues, including the important aspect of aging. Among these is the Qualification Testing Evaluation (QTE) program which was probably the first to devote significant effort towards aging research and was one of the primary motivators leading to the Workshop. The thrust of the QTE aging efforts has been on elastomeric materials, typically used in electrical cables, seals, gaskets, and the like; currently, efforts are being pursued on plant ambient environments measurements, aging of electronics, and aging of motors. A brief status report is presented in this paper.

  18. Increasing efficiency safety of cooling systems in a floating nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yenivatov, V.; Fedorovsky, K.; Zhelezniak, A.; Bordyug, A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase the reliability and safety of a floating nuclear power plant, the research proposes to apply closed-loop cooling systems for floating nuclear power plants’ cooling. A ship hull is proposed to be used as a surface of the heat exchanger, known as a ship hull heat exchanger. This paper presents detailed study on the effect of the ship hull angle on the heat transfer coefficient and measures to improve the heat transfer coefficient. It is concluded that application of gas-liquid flows to the seaside surfaces of the ship hull is one of the most effective ways of improving the heat transfer coefficient.

  19. Audit of construction of an environmental, safety, and health analytical laboratory at the Pantex Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This document is a report from the Office of the Inspector General, US DOE. The report evaluates the need for the construction of an Environmental, Safety, and Health Laboratory at the Pantex Plant and if this project is the most cost effective manner in which to meet mission needs. It was found that: (1) mission needs were being met with existing facilities, (2) required evaluations of alternatives were not performed, (3) decisions were made based on out-dated justifications, and (4) the expenditure of $8.4M was unnecessary. As a result, it was recommended that funded be suspended until the need is clearly established.

  20. Optical fiber sensors to improve the safety of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdinand, P.; Magne, S.; Laffont, G.

    2013-09-01

    Safety must always prevail in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), as shown at Fukushima-Daiichi. So, innovations are clearly needed to strengthen instrumentations, which went inoperative during this nuclear accident as a consequence of power supply losses. Possible improvements concern materials and structures, which may be remotely monitored thanks to Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS). We detail topics involving OFS helpful for monitoring, in nominal conditions as well as during a severe accident. They include distributed sensing (Rayleigh, Raman, Brillouin) for both temperature sensing and structure monitoring as well as H2 concentration and ionizing radiation monitoring. For future plants, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors are considered up to high temperature for sodium-cooled fast reactor monitoring. These applications can benefit from fiber advantages: sensor multiplexing, multi-km range, no risk-to-people, no common failure mode with other technologies, remote sensing, and the ability to operate in case of power supply lost in the NPP.

  1. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  2. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  3. [Genetically modified plants and food safety. State of the art and discussion in the European Union].

    PubMed

    Schauzu, M

    2004-09-01

    Placing genetically modified (GM) plants and derived products on the European Union's (EU) market has been regulated by a Community Directive since 1990. This directive was complemented by a regulation specific for genetically modified and other novel foods in 1997. Specific labelling requirements have been applicable for GM foods since 1998. The law requires a pre-market safety assessment for which criteria have been elaborated and continuously adapted in accordance with the state of the art by national and international bodies and organisations. Consequently, only genetically modified products that have been demonstrated to be as safe as their conventional counterparts can be commercialized. However, the poor acceptance of genetically modified foods has led to a de facto moratorium since 1998. It is based on the lack of a qualified majority of EU member states necessary for authorization to place genetically modified plants and derived foods on the market. New Community Regulations are intended to end this moratorium by providing a harmonized and transparent safety assessment, a centralised authorization procedure, extended labelling provisions and a traceability system for genetically modified organisms (GMO) and derived food and feed.

  4. Updating Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Conducting Safety Reviews of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    O, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Stephen Fleger - NRC

    2011-09-19

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool. To this end, the NRC is updating its guidance to stay current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology being employed in plant and control room design. This paper describes the role of HFE guidelines in the safety review process and the content of the key HFE guidelines used. Then we will present the methodology used to develop HFE guidance and update these documents, and describe the current status of the update program.

  5. Technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Tanaka, T.J.; Antonescu, C.E.

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the results of research sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. This research was conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). ORNL investigated potential failure modes and vulnerabilities of microprocessor-based technologies to environmental stressors, including electromagnetic/radio-frequency interference, temperature, humidity, and smoke exposure. An experimental digital safety channel (EDSC) was constructed for the tests. SNL performed smoke exposure tests on digital components and circuit boards to determine failure mechanisms and the effect of different packaging techniques on smoke susceptibility. These studies are expected to provide recommendations for environmental qualification of digital safety systems by addressing the following: (1) adequacy of the present preferred test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging in qualification testing for equipment that is to be located in mild environments; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach to address smoke in a qualification program.

  6. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of External Flooding Protection for Nuclear Power Plants in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Heinz Peter; Goertz, Rudolf; Froehmel, Thomas; Winter, Christian

    Methods to systematically analyse existing nuclear power plants (NPP) regarding the adequacy of their existing protection equipment against external hazards, e.g. flooding, can be of deterministic as well as probabilistic nature. In the past the adequacy of the protection measures has been assessed only on a deterministic basis. The German regulatory body has issued probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) guidelines, which had been elaborated for a comprehensive integrated safety review of all NPP in operation. Amongst others the guidelines imply, that probabilistic considerations regarding external flooding are required. This paper presents a newly developed graded approach for the probabilistic assessment of external flooding. Main aspects are explained such as the underlying probabilistic considerations and the mathematical procedures for the calculation of exceedance frequencies, which have recently been developed and issued as part of the German Nuclear Safety Standard. Exemplarily it has been investigated if extreme events such as tsunami waves could be a hazard for NPP at coastal sites in Germany. Here it could be shown that due to limited source mechanisms and the specific morphological conditions in the North Sea no dedicated measures for protection against tsunamis in the German Bight are necessary.

  7. Concentration of Actinides in Plant Mounds at Safety Test Nuclear Sites in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Shafer; Jenna Gommes

    2008-09-15

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around large shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. Believed to be an important factor in their formation, the shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, {sup 241}Am, and U in plant mounds at safety test sites. The NAEG studies found concentrations of these contaminants to be greater in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. For example, at Project 57 on the NTTR, it was estimated that 15 percent of the radionuclide inventory of the site was associated with shrub mounds, which accounted for 17 percent of the surface area of the site, a ratio of inventory to area of 0.85. At Clean Slate III at the TTR, 29 percent of the inventory was associated with approximately 32 percent of the site covered by shrub mounds, a ratio of 0.91. While the total inventory of radionuclides in intershrub areas was greater, the ratio of radionuclide inventory to area was 0.40 and 0.38, respectively, at the two sites. The comparison between the shrub mounds and adjacent desert pavement areas was made for only the top 5 cm since radionuclides at safety test sites are concentrated in the top 5 cm of intershrub areas. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with the shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. As part of its Environmental Restoration Soils Subproject, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear

  8. Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests.

    PubMed

    Betz, F S; Hammond, B G; Fuchs, R L

    2000-10-01

    Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in 1999. The extremely rapid adoption of these Bt-protected crops demonstrates the outstanding grower satisfaction of the performance and value of these products. These crops provide highly effective control of major insect pests such as the European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, and Colorado potato beetle and reduce reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. They have provided notably higher yields in cotton and corn. The estimated total net savings to the grower using Bt-protected cotton in the United States was approximately $92 million in 1998. Other benefits of these crops include reduced levels of the fungal toxin fumonisin in corn and the opportunity for supplemental pest control by beneficial insects due to the reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Insect resistance management plans are being implemented to ensure the prolonged effectiveness of these products. Extensive testing of Bt-protected crops has been conducted which establishes the safety of these products to humans, animals, and the environment. Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicology studies conducted over the past 40 years establish the safety of the microbial Bt products, including their expressed insecticidal (Cry) proteins, which are fully approved for marketing. Mammalian toxicology and digestive fate studies, which have been conducted with the proteins produced in the currently approved Bt-protected plant products, have confirmed that these Cry proteins are nontoxic to humans and pose no significant concern for allergenicity. Food and feed derived

  9. Safety assessment considerations for food and feed derived from plants with genetic modifications that modulate endogenous gene expression and pathways.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D; Petrick, Jay S

    2008-08-01

    The current globally recognized comparative food and feed safety assessment paradigm for biotechnology-derived crops is a robust and comprehensive approach for evaluating the safety of both the inserted gene product and the resulting crop. Incorporating many basic concepts from food safety, toxicology, nutrition, molecular biology, and plant breeding, this approach has been used effectively by scientists and regulatory agencies for 10-15 years. Current and future challenges in agriculture include the need for improved yields, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improved nutrition. The next generation of biotechnology-derived crops may utilize regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors that modulate gene expression and/or endogenous plant pathways. In this review, we discuss the applicability of the current safety assessment paradigm to biotechnology-derived crops developed using modifications involving regulatory proteins. The growing literature describing the molecular biology underlying plant domestication and conventional breeding demonstrates the naturally occurring genetic variation found in plants, including significant variation in the classes, expression, and activity of regulatory proteins. Specific examples of plant modifications involving insertion or altered expression of regulatory proteins are discussed as illustrative case studies supporting the conclusion that the current comparative safety assessment process is appropriate for these types of biotechnology-developed crops.

  10. Change in prevalence of restrictive lung impairment in the U.S. population and associated risk factors: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 and 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Laura; Hnizdo, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Data for the U.S adult population from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to evaluate risk factors for a restrictive pattern on spirometry and estimate the change in its prevalence from the 1988-1994 to 2007-2010 sampling periods. Several previous epidemiologic studies used the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease fixed forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) > 0.70 criteria for classifying restrictive pattern rather than the age-defined American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) lower limit of normal (LLN) criteria, which may lead to misclassification. Spirometry measurements from NHANES data for the 1988-1994 and 2007-2010 periods were analyzed to estimate the age-standardized prevalence of a restrictive pattern on spirometry and the change in prevalence over time for adults aged 20-79. A restrictive pattern was defined based on ATS/ERS LLN criteria as FEV1/FVC > LLN and FVC < LLN, and a moderate to more severe restrictive pattern was further evaluated using FEV1 < 70% predicted. The associations between demographic and other individual risk factors for restrictive lung impairment were examined using multivariable logistic regression models for the two consecutive time periods. The overall age-standardized prevalence of restrictive pattern decreased significantly from 7.2% (1988-1994) to 5.4% (2007-2010) (p = 0.0013). The prevalence of moderate to more severe restrictive pattern also decreased significantly from 2.0% to 1.4% (p = 0.023). Factors positively associated with restrictive pattern on spirometry included age, female sex, white race, lower education, former and current smoking, and comorbidities including doctor-diagnosed cardiovascular disease, doctor-diagnosed diabetes, and abdominal obesity. The overall prevalence of restrictive pattern and moderate to more severe restrictive pattern decreased between the 1988

  11. Continuous Improvement and the Safety Case for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geologic Repository - 13467

    SciTech Connect

    Van Luik, Abraham; Patterson, Russell; Nelson, Roger; Leigh, Christi

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a geologic repository 2150 feet (650 m) below the surface of the Chihuahuan desert near Carlsbad, New Mexico. WIPP permanently disposes of transuranic waste from national defense programs. Every five years, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) submits an application to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to request regulatory-compliance re-certification of the facility for another five years. Every ten years, DOE submits an application to the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) for the renewal of its hazardous waste disposal permit. The content of the applications made by DOE to the EPA for re-certification, and to the NMED for permit-renewal, reflect any optimization changes made to the facility, with regulatory concurrence if warranted by the nature of the change. DOE points to such changes as evidence for its having taken seriously its 'continuous improvement' operations and management philosophy. Another opportunity for continuous improvement is to look at any delta that may exist between the re-certification and re-permitting cases for system safety and the consensus advice on the nature and content of a safety case as being developed and published by the Nuclear Energy Agency's Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) expert group. DOE at WIPP, with the aid of its Science Advisor and teammate, Sandia National Laboratories, is in the process of discerning what can be done, in a reasonably paced and cost-conscious manner, to continually improve the case for repository safety that is being made to the two primary regulators on a recurring basis. This paper will discuss some aspects of that delta and potential paths forward to addressing them. (authors)

  12. The relevance of xylem network structure for plant hydraulic efficiency and safety.

    PubMed

    Loepfe, Lasse; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Piñol, Josep; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2007-08-21

    The xylem is one of the two long distance transport tissues in plants, providing a low resistance pathway for water movement from roots to leaves. Its properties determine how much water can be transported and transpired and, at the same time, the plant's vulnerability to transport dysfunctions (the formation and propagation of emboli) associated to important stress factors, such as droughts and frost. Both maximum transport efficiency and safety against embolism have classically been attributed to the properties of individual conduits or of the pit membrane connecting them. But this approach overlooks the fact that the conduits of the xylem constitute a network. The topology of this network is likely to affect its overall transport properties, as well as the propagation of embolism through the xylem, since, according to the air-seeding hypothesis, drought-induced embolism propagates as a contact process (i.e., between neighbouring conduits). Here we present a model of the xylem that takes into account its system-level properties, including the connectivity of the xylem network. With the tools of graph theory and assuming steady state and Darcy's flow we calculated the hydraulic conductivity of idealized wood segments at different water potentials. A Monte Carlo approach was adopted, varying the anatomical and topological properties of the segments within biologically reasonable ranges, based on data available from the literature. Our results showed that maximum hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to embolism increase with the connectivity of the xylem network. This can be explained by the fact that connectivity determines the fraction of all the potential paths or conduits actually available for water transport and spread of embolism. It is concluded that the xylem can no longer be interpreted as the mere sum of its conduits, because the spatial arrangement of those conduits in the xylem network influences the main functional properties of this tissue. This

  13. Plant safety margin against frost damages has declined in Switzerland over the last four decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitasse, Yann; Schneider, Léonard; Klein, Geoffrey; Rixen, Christian; Rebetez, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Winters and early springs have become warmer over the last decades which has in turn promoted earlier plant development in temperate regions. While temperatures will on average continue to increase in the coming decades due to the rise of greenhouse gases concentration in the atmosphere, there is no consensus about how the occurrence of late spring frosts will change. If the frequency and the severity of late spring frosts remain unchanged in the future or advance less than vegetation onset, vulnerable plant organs (young leaves, flowers or dehardened buds) may be more exposed to frost damage. Here we analyzed long-term series of temperature data during the period 1975-2016 at 50 locations in Switzerland. We used different thresholds of growing degree days (GDD) as a proxy for spring phenology of fruit trees based on long-term series of phenological observations. Finally, we tested whether the time lag between the date when the GDD is reached and the latest occurrence of frost has changed over the study period. Overall we found that the safety margin against potential frost damage to plants has slightly decreased during the study period, irrespective of elevation (from 203 to 2283 m). Our results suggest that the cost for preventing frost damages on fruit trees could increase in the coming decades and the introduction of new varieties of fruit trees adapted to warmer climate should be carefully considered as they generally exhibit earlier spring phenology.

  14. Safety of virus-resistant transgenic plants two decades after their introduction: lessons from realistic field risk assessment studies.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Marc; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Potential safety issues have been raised with the development and release of virus-resistant transgenic plants. This review focuses on safety assessment with a special emphasis on crops that have been commercialized or extensively tested in the field such as squash, papaya, plum, grape, and sugar beet. We discuss topics commonly perceived to be of concern to the environment and to human health--heteroencapsidation, recombination, synergism, gene flow, impact on nontarget organisms, and food safety in terms of allergenicity. The wealth of field observations and experimental data is critically evaluated to draw inferences on the most relevant issues. We also express inside views on the safety and benefits of virus-resistant transgenic plants, and recommend realistic risk assessment approaches to assist their timely deregulation and release.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  16. On the Seismic Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Sites in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Park, S.; Yang, J.; Shim, T.; Im, C. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula is located at the far eastern part of Eurasian Plate, and within the intra-plate region several hundred km away from the nearest plate boundary. The earthquakes around the Korean Peninsula show the typical characteristics of intra-plate earthquakes. So to speak, those are low seismicity, relatively smaller magnitude than that of inter-plate earthquakes, and spatially irregular epicenters. There are 24 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, 4 NPPs in completion of construction, and 4 NPPs in preparation of construction in South Korea. Even though the seismicity of the Korean Peninsula is known as relatively low, but because there are more than 30 NPPs within not so large territory, thorough the preparedness of NPPs' safety against earthquakes is required. The earthquake preparedness of NPPs in South Korea is composed of 4 stages: site election, design, construction and operation. Since regulatory codes and standards are strictly applied in each stage, the NPPs in South Korea are believed to be safe enough against the maximum potential earthquake ground motion. Through data analysis on geological and seismological characteristics of the region within a radius of 320 km from the site and the detailed geological survey of the area within a radius of 8 km from the site, the design earthquake ground motion of NPPs in South Korea is determined to be 0.2g (in case of newly constructed NPPs is 0.3g) considering the maximum potential earthquake ground motion and some safety margin. The ground motions and surface deformation caused by capable faults are also considered in the seismic design of NPPs. In addition, the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety as a regulatory technical expert organization, has been operating independent real time earthquake monitoring network as a part of securing the seismic safety of NPP sites in South Korea since late 1990's. If earthquakes with more than magnitude 3.0 are occurred in the Korean Peninsula or the peak ground

  17. Pantex Plant final safety analysis report, Zone 4 magazines. Staging or interim storage for nuclear weapons and components: Issue D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains a detailed description and evaluation of the significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) issues associated with the operations of the Pantex Plant modified-Richmond and steel arch construction (SAC) magazines in Zone 4. It provides (1) an overall description of the magazines, the Pantex Plant, and its surroundings; (2) a systematic evaluations of the hazards that could occur as a result of the operations performed in these magazines; (3) descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards; and (4) analyses of potential accidents and their associated risks.

  18. 78 FR 47805 - Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing a revised regulatory guide (RG), Revision 1 of RG 1.170, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This RG endorses the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard 829-2008, ``IEEE Standard for Software and System Test Documentation'' with the clarifications and exceptions stated in Section C, ``Staff Regulatory Guidance'' of the RG. IEEE Std. 829-2008 describes methods that the NRC considers acceptable for use in complying with NRC regulations for developing test documentation and design quality in the software used in safety systems of nuclear power plants.

  19. Hazards and hazard combinations relevant for the safety of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Brinkman, Hans; Raimond, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The potential of the contemporaneous impact of different, yet causally related, hazardous events and event cascades on nuclear power plants is a major contributor to the overall risk of nuclear installations. In the aftermath of the Fukushima accident, which was caused by a combination of severe ground shaking by an earthquake, an earthquake-triggered tsunami and the disruption of the plants from the electrical grid by a seismically induced landslide, hazard combinations and hazard cascades moved into the focus of nuclear safety research. We therefore developed an exhaustive list of external hazards and hazard combinations which pose potential threats to nuclear installations in the framework of the European project ASAMPSAE (Advanced Safety Assessment: Extended PSA). The project gathers 31 partners from Europe, North Amerika and Japan. The list comprises of exhaustive lists of natural hazards, external man-made hazards, and a cross-correlation matrix of these hazards. The hazard list is regarded comprehensive by including all types of hazards that were previously cited in documents by IAEA, the Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA), and others. 73 natural hazards and 24 man-made external hazards are included. Natural hazards are grouped into seismotectonic hazards, flooding and hydrological hazards, extreme values of meteorological phenomena, rare meteorological phenomena, biological hazards / infestation, geological hazards, and forest fire / wild fire. The list of external man-made hazards includes industry accidents, military accidents, transportation accidents, pipeline accidents and other man-made external events. The large number of different hazards results in the extremely large number of 5.151 theoretically possible hazard combinations (not considering hazard cascades). In principle all of these combinations are possible to occur by random coincidence except for 82 hazard combinations that - depending on the time scale - are mutually

  20. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  1. Assessment of Occupational Health and Safety for a Gas Meter Manufacturing Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkmaz, Ece; Iskender, Gulen; Germirli Babuna, Fatos

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the occupational health and safety for a gas meter manufacturing plant. The risk assessment and management study is applied to plastic injection and mounting departments of the factory through quantitative Fine Kinney method and the effect of adopting 5S workplace organization procedure on risk assessment is examined. The risk assessment reveals that there are 17 risks involved; 14 grouped in high risk class (immediate improvement as required action); 2 in significant (measures to be taken as required action) and one in possible risk class (monitoring as required action). Among 14 high risks, 4 can be reduced by 83 % to be grouped under possible class when 5S is applied. One significant risk is observed to be lowered by 78 % and considered as possible risk due to the application of 5S. As a result of either 67 or 50 % reductions in 7 high risks, these risks are converted to be members of significant risk group after 5S implications.

  2. Efficacy and Safety of Medicinal Plants or Related Natural Products for Fibromyalgia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Nascimento, Simone; DeSantana, Josimari Melo; Ribeiro, Êurica Adélia Nogueira; da Silva, Daniel Lira; Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; da Silva Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effects of medicinal plants (MPs) or related natural products (RNPs) on fibromyalgia (FM) patients, we evaluate the possible benefits and advantages of MP or RNP for the treatment of FM based on eight randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) involving 475 patients. The methodological quality of all studies included was determined according to JADAD and “Risk of Bias” with the criteria in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.1.0. Evidence suggests significant benefits of MP or RNP in sleep disruption, pain, depression, joint stiffness, anxiety, physical function, and quality of life. Our results demonstrated that MP or RNP had significant effects on improving the symptoms of FM compared to conventional drug or placebo; longer tests are required to determine the duration of the treatment and characterize the long-term safety of using MP, thus suggesting effective alternative therapies in the treatment of pain with minimized side effects. PMID:23861696

  3. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.L.; Coles, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation.

  4. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  5. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue 29: Bolting degradation or failure in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.Y.

    1991-09-01

    Generic Safety Issue (GSI)-29 deals with staff concerns about public risk due to degradation or failure of safety-related bolting in nuclear power plants. The issue was initiated in November 1982. Value-impact studies of a mandatory program on safety-related bolting for operating plants were inconclusive: therefore, additional regulatory requirements for operating plants could not be justified in accordance with provisions of 10 CFR 50.109. In addition, based on operating experience with bolting in both nuclear and conventional power plants, the actions already taken through bulletins, generic letters, and information notices, and the industry-proposed actions, the staff concluded that a sufficient technical basis exists for the resolution of GSI-29. The staff further concluded that leakage of bolted pressure joints is possible but catastrophic failure of a reactor coolant pressure boundary joint that will lead to significant accident sequences is highly unlikely. For future plants, it was concluded that a new Standard Review Plant section should be developed to codify existing bolting requirements and industry-developed initiatives. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules.

  7. PRB coal safety design considerations for new greenfield plants: an EPCC's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.H.

    2007-11-15

    The article reviews the design and safety aspects to consider in a new greenfield Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired power plant such as the 200 MW TS Power Plant (TSPP) in Nevada that Fluor is working on as an engineering, procurement and construction contractor (EPCC). PRB coals can become fragmented and form coal dust that is highly volatile and easily self-ignited. Coal handling systems incorporate features to minimise dust, such as totally enclosed chute works, 'spoon drops' to reduce impact turbulence, and overflow hoods. Conveyors have extended skirtboards and tight clearances between the wear plates and the belts. Storage piles are designed to have high compaction to deprive oxygen and dust suppression monitor hydrants to minimise dust and assist in compaction. The coal silo filling bay is designed to minimise dust once the coal is crushed, and attention is paid to cleaning and lighting. The silos are designed to ensure mass flow to the feeder and incorporate a carbon monoxide monitor and an F-500 fire suppressant. 3 photos.

  8. Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant.

    PubMed

    Whiteley, James R

    2006-03-17

    Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology.

  9. Hazardous organic compounds in biogas plant end products--soil burden and risk to food safety.

    PubMed

    Suominen, K; Verta, M; Marttinen, S

    2014-09-01

    The end products (digestate, solid fraction of the digestate, liquid fraction of the digestate) of ten biogas production lines in Finland were analyzed for ten hazardous organic compounds or compound groups: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB(7)), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH(16)), bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), perfluorinated alkyl compounds (PFCs), linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LASs), nonylphenols and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP+NPEOs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Biogas plant feedstocks were divided into six groups: municipal sewage sludge, municipal biowaste, fat, food industry by-products, animal manure and others (consisting of milling by-products (husk) and raw former foodstuffs of animal origin from the retail trade). There was no clear connection between the origin of the feedstocks of a plant and the concentrations of hazardous organic compounds in the digestate. For PCDD/Fs and for DEHP, the median soil burden of the compound after a single addition of digestate was similar to the annual atmospheric deposition of the compound or compound group in Finland or other Nordic countries. For PFCs, the median soil burden was somewhat lower than the atmospheric deposition in Finland or Sweden. For NP+NPEOs, the soil burden was somewhat higher than the atmospheric deposition in Denmark. The median soil burden of PBDEs was 400 to 1000 times higher than the PBDE air deposition in Finland or in Sweden. With PBDEs, PFCs and HBCD, the impact of the use of end products should be a focus of further research. Highly persistent compounds, such as PBDE- and PFC-compounds may accumulate in agricultural soil after repeated use of organic fertilizers containing these compounds. For other compounds included in this study, agricultural use of biogas plant end products is unlikely to cause risk to food safety in Finland. Copyright © 2014

  10. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the Integrating Contractor for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, and as such is responsible for preparation of the HWVP Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR). The HWVP PSAR was prepared pursuant to the requirements for safety analyses contained in US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 4700.1, Project Management System (DOE 1987); 5480.5, Safety of Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1986a); 5481.lB, Safety Analysis and Review System (DOE 1986b) which was superseded by DOE order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports, for nuclear facilities effective April 30, 1992 (DOE 1992); and 6430.lA, General Design Criteria (DOE 1989). The WHC procedures that, in large part, implement these DOE requirements are contained in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. This manual describes the overall WHC safety analysis process in terms of requirements for safety analyses, responsibilities of the various contributing organizations, and required reviews and approvals.

  11. Implementation of Recommendations from the One System Comparative Evaluation of the Hanford Tank Farms and Waste Treatment Plant Safety Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Richard L.; Niemi, Belinda J.; Paik, Ingle K.; Buczek, Jeffrey A.; Lietzow, J.; McCoy, F.; Beranek, F.; Gupta, M.

    2013-11-07

    A Comparative Evaluation was conducted for One System Integrated Project Team to compare the safety bases for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Project (WTP) and Tank Operations Contract (TOC) (i.e., Tank Farms) by an Expert Review Team. The evaluation had an overarching purpose to facilitate effective integration between WTP and TOC safety bases. It was to provide One System management with an objective evaluation of identified differences in safety basis process requirements, guidance, direction, procedures, and products (including safety controls, key safety basis inputs and assumptions, and consequence calculation methodologies) between WTP and TOC. The evaluation identified 25 recommendations (Opportunities for Integration). The resolution of these recommendations resulted in 16 implementation plans. The completion of these implementation plans will help ensure consistent safety bases for WTP and TOC along with consistent safety basis processes. procedures, and analyses. and should increase the likelihood of a successful startup of the WTP. This early integration will result in long-term cost savings and significant operational improvements. In addition, the implementation plans lead to the development of eight new safety analysis methodologies that can be used at other U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE) complex sites where URS Corporation is involved.

  12. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  13. 76 FR 73737 - Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the Proposed Model Safety Evaluation for Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... . From this page, the public can gain entry into ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's... COMMISSION Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on the Proposed Model Safety Evaluation for Plant...: Notice of opportunity for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  14. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the plutonium finishing plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-05-20

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  15. Organization and management of the plant safety evaluation of the VVER-440/230 units at Novovoronezh.

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, C. M.; Pizzica, P.; Puglia, W. J.; Rozin, V.

    1999-05-13

    As part of the Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety (SDRS) element of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), the US Department of Energy (US DOE) is funding a plant safety evaluation (PSE) project for the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant (NvNPP). The Novovoronezh PSE Project is a multi-faceted project with participants from sixteen different international organizations from five different countries scattered across eleven time zones. The purpose of this project is to provide a thorough Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) and Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) for Units 3 and 4 of the NvNPP. In addition, this project provides assistance to the operation organizations in meeting their international commitments in support of safety upgrades, and their regulatory requirements for the conduct of safety analyses. Managing this project is a complex process requiring numerous management tools, constant monitoring, and effective communication skills. Employing management tools to resolve unanticipated problems one of the keys to project success. The overall scope, programmatic context, objectives, project interactions, communications, practical hindrances, and lessons learned from the challenging performance of the PSE project are summarized in this paper.

  16. Effect of the Wavelet Scale Thresholding on the Geonet P-Phase Picker Performance for the borehole and surface stations URZ and EDRZ using the Matata Swarms of 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastin, S. J.; Unsworth, C. P.; Gledhill, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    Geonet is responsible for providing information on the geological hazard events including about 15,000 earthquakes recorded by the New Zealand seismograph network per year. Such large numbers of earthquakes confirm the importance of having an accurate P-phase picker in order to find automatic solutions for hypocenters and reduce analyst's time needed to produce the reviewed catalogs. Geonet uses an Autoregressive-Akaike Information Criterion P-phase picker to estimate the P-phase onsets from the Butterworth filtered waveforms. We studied efficiency of the P-phase picker using waveforms of 3312 shallow earthquakes of the Matata swarms in 2007-2010. For stations EDRZ and URZ with large contributions to the Geonet locator, 48.80% and 32.88% of waveforms were reviewed by analysts. Such high rates of reviewed onsets indicated the need to improve the automatic phase picking's performance. To do so, we replaced the Butterworth filtering with the Wavelet Scale Thresholding (WST) and divided the re-estimated onsets into the "unchanged", "revised", "retrieved" and "adversely affected" classes. We studied effect of the Mexican hat and Haar WST on the P-phase picker's performance using quality control parameters including total and net improvements, onset corrections, picking errors and picking quality enhancement. Applying the Mexican hat WST mainly on scales 1 and 2 to the EDRZ recordings of chosen events resulted in large percentages for average total improvement (64.79%) and onset retrieval (31.95%) in 2007-2010. Efficiency of the Mexican hat WST at the URZ station was represented by small average retrieval of 2.76%, total and net improvement rates of 35.17% and 17.58% respectively. The small retrieval rate should be due the deep-borehole installation that filters the ambient noise and hence improves the quality of recordings. In spite of the reduced noise, path and site effects at the URZ station, the contribution of the Mexican hat WST to the quality enhancement of the

  17. 77 FR 58421 - Model Safety Evaluation for Plant-Specific Adoption of Technical Specifications Task Force...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Plants,'' NUREG-1432 `` Combustion Engineering Plants,'' NUREG-1433 `` General Electric BWR/4 Plants,'' NUREG-1434, `` General Electric BWR/6 Plants.'' ADDRESSES: Please refer to Docket ID NRC-2012-0071 when...

  18. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements.

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  20. Conceptual Software Reliability Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, H.

    2000-04-03

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to predict the potential reliability of software to be used in a digital system instrumentation and control system. The reliability prediction is to make use of existing measures of software reliability such as those described in IEEE Std 982 and 982.2. This prediction must be of sufficient accuracy to provide a value for uncertainty that could be used in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the purposes of the project, reliability was defined to be the probability that the digital system will successfully perform its intended safety function (for the distribution of conditions under which it is expected to respond) upon demand with no unintended functions that might affect system safety. The ultimate objective is to use the identified measures to develop a method for predicting the potential quantitative reliability of a digital system. The reliability prediction models proposed in this report are conceptual in nature. That is, possible prediction techniques are proposed and trial models are built, but in order to become a useful tool for predicting reliability, the models must be tested, modified according to the results, and validated. Using methods outlined by this project, models could be constructed to develop reliability estimates for elements of software systems. This would require careful review and refinement of the models, development of model parameters from actual experience data or expert elicitation, and careful validation. By combining these reliability estimates (generated from the validated models for the constituent parts) in structural software models, the reliability of the software system could then be predicted. Modeling digital system reliability will also require that methods be developed for combining reliability estimates for hardware and software. System structural models must also be developed in order to predict system reliability based upon the reliability

  1. PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL ACCIDENTS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Rucker, D.F.

    2000-09-01

    This report presents a probabilistic safety assessment of radioactive doses as consequences from accident scenarios to complement the deterministic assessment presented in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The International Council of Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommends both assessments be conducted to ensure that ''an adequate level of safety has been achieved and that no major contributors to risk are overlooked'' (ICRP 1993). To that end, the probabilistic assessment for the WIPP accident scenarios addresses the wide range of assumptions, e.g. the range of values representing the radioactive source of an accident, that could possibly have been overlooked by the SAR. Routine releases of radionuclides from the WIPP repository to the environment during the waste emplacement operations are expected to be essentially zero. In contrast, potential accidental releases from postulated accident scenarios during waste handling and emplacement could be substantial, which necessitates the need for radiological air monitoring and confinement barriers (DOE 1999). The WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) calculated doses from accidental releases to the on-site (at 100 m from the source) and off-site (at the Exclusive Use Boundary and Site Boundary) public by a deterministic approach. This approach, as demonstrated in the SAR, uses single-point values of key parameters to assess the 50-year, whole-body committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The basic assumptions used in the SAR to formulate the CEDE are retained for this report's probabilistic assessment. However, for the probabilistic assessment, single-point parameter values were replaced with probability density functions (PDF) and were sampled over an expected range. Monte Carlo simulations were run, in which 10,000 iterations were performed by randomly selecting one value for each parameter and calculating the dose. Statistical information was then derived from the 10,000 iteration

  2. Mathematical aspects of assessing extreme events for the safety of nuclear plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potempski, Slawomir; Borysiewicz, Mieczyslaw

    2015-04-01

    In the paper the review of mathematical methodologies applied for assessing low frequencies of rare natural events like earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes or tornadoes, floods (in particular flash floods and surge storms), lightning, solar flares, etc., will be given in the perspective of the safety assessment of nuclear plants. The statistical methods are usually based on the extreme value theory, which deals with the analysis of extreme deviation from the median (or the mean). In this respect application of various mathematical tools can be useful, like: the extreme value theorem of Fisher-Tippett-Gnedenko leading to possible choices of general extreme value distributions, or the Pickands-Balkema-de Haan theorem for tail fitting, or the methods related to large deviation theory. In the paper the most important stochastic distributions relevant for performing rare events statistical analysis will be presented. This concerns, for example, the analysis of the data with the annual extreme values (maxima - "Annual Maxima Series" or minima), or the peak values, exceeding given thresholds at some periods of interest ("Peak Over Threshold"), or the estimation of the size of exceedance. Despite of the fact that there is a lack of sufficient statistical data directly containing rare events, in some cases it is still possible to extract useful information from existing larger data sets. As an example one can consider some data sets available from the web sites for floods, earthquakes or generally natural hazards. Some aspects of such data sets will be also presented taking into account their usefulness for the practical assessment of risk for nuclear power plants coming from extreme weather conditions.

  3. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-04-01

    Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics.

  4. Assessment of enriched uranium storage safety issues at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document is an assessment of the technical safety issues pertaining to the storage of EU at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The purpose of the assessment is to serve as the basis for defining the technical standards for storage of EU at Y-12. A formal assessment of the Y-12 materials acceptance criteria for EU is currently being conducted by a task force cochaired by B. G. Eddy of DOE Oak Ridge Operations and S. 0. Cox of Y-12 Defense Programs. The mission of this technical assessment for storage is obviously dependent on results of the acceptance assessment. Clearly, the two efforts require coordination to avoid inconsistencies. In addition, both these Assessments must be consistent with the Environmental Assessment for EU storage at Y-12.1 Both the Storage Assessment and the Criteria for Acceptance must take cognizance of the fact that a portion of the EU to be submitted for storage in the future is expected to be derived from foreign sources and to include previously irradiated uranium containing significant levels of transuranics, radioactive daughter products, and unstable uranium isotopes that do not occur in the EU stream of the DOE weapons complex. National security considerations may dictate that these materials be accepted despite the fact that they fail to conform to the Acceptance Criteria. This document will attempt to address the complexities inherent in this situation.

  5. Structural Safety Analysis Based on Seismic Service Conditions for Butterfly Valves in a Nuclear Power Plant

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements. PMID:24955416

  6. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG&G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization`s pursuit of continuous ES&H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site`s ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES&H excellence.

  7. Criticality safety analysis for remote handled TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed to store transuranic (TRU) waste underground in a mined salt bed. All fissile nuclides except U/sup 235/ are considered TRU nuclides. This report presents the results of the nuclear criticality analysis for Remote-Handled (RH) TRU waste stored at the WIPP site. The RH waste material will be contained in steel canisters that are five feet or ten feet long. Each ten foot canister is capable of holding three 55 gallon drums of waste material. The five foot canisters are to be welded together to form one ten foot long canister. In general the fissile waste material is mainly surface contamination on clothing, wipes, wrappings, tools, etc., or mixed in a borosilicate glass matrix or concrete. Other fissile material may be contained in absorbent mixtures. As a result, the fissile material will typically be spread over a large fraction of the volume in most of the waste storage canisters. Typical isotopic content of the fissile/other radioactive material is shown in Table 1-1. This analysis will analyze the RH waste storage and handling configurations at the WIPP site to show that up to 600 grams of fissile material per ten foot canister can be received and stored at the site without criticality safety concerns. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Aseismic safety analysis of a prestressed concrete containment vessel for CPR1000 nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ping; Wang, Qingkang; Kong, Xianjing

    2017-01-01

    The containment vessel of a nuclear power plant is the last barrier to prevent nuclear reactor radiation. Aseismic safety analysis is the key to appropriate containment vessel design. A prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) model with a semi-infinite elastic foundation and practical arrangement of tendons has been established to analyze the aseismic ability of the CPR1000 PCCV structure under seismic loads and internal pressure. A method to model the prestressing tendon and its interaction with concrete was proposed and the axial force of the prestressing tendons showed that the simulation was reasonable and accurate. The numerical results show that for the concrete structure, the location of the cylinder wall bottom around the equipment hatch and near the ring beam are critical locations with large principal stress. The concrete cracks occurred at the bottom of the PCCV cylinder wall under the peak earthquake motion of 0.50 g, however the PCCV was still basically in an elastic state. Furthermore, the concrete cracks occurred around the equipment hatch under the design internal pressure of 0.4MPa, but the steel liner was still in the elastic stage and its leak-proof function soundness was verified. The results provide the basis for analysis and design of containment vessels.

  9. Structural safety analysis based on seismic service conditions for butterfly valves in a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Uk; Ahn, Dae-Gyun; Lee, Myeong-Gon; Lee, Kwon-Hee; Han, Seung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The structural integrity of valves that are used to control cooling waters in the primary coolant loop that prevents boiling within the reactor in a nuclear power plant must be capable of withstanding earthquakes or other dangerous situations. In this study, numerical analyses using a finite element method, that is, static and dynamic analyses according to the rigid or flexible characteristics of the dynamic properties of a 200A butterfly valve, were performed according to the KEPIC MFA. An experimental vibration test was also carried out in order to verify the results from the modal analysis, in which a validated finite element model was obtained via a model-updating method that considers changes in the in situ experimental data. By using a validated finite element model, the equivalent static load under SSE conditions stipulated by the KEPIC MFA gave a stress of 135 MPa that occurred at the connections of the stem and body. A larger stress of 183 MPa was induced when we used a CQC method with a design response spectrum that uses 2% damping ratio. These values were lower than the allowable strength of the materials used for manufacturing the butterfly valve, and, therefore, its structural safety met the KEPIC MFA requirements.

  10. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  11. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, S.P.

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  12. Technical basis for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of studies sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. The studies were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The studies address the following: (1) adequacy of the present test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred (i.e., Regulatory Guide-endorsed) standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging for equipment to be located in a benign environment; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach for addressing the impact of smoke in digital equipment qualification programs. Significant findings from the studies form the technical basis for a recommended approach to the environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants.

  13. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  14. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests in security and safety products plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Balbay, Ege Gulec; Toru, Umran; Arbak, Peri; Balbay, Oner; Suner, Kezban Ozmen; Annakkaya, Ali Nihat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Lock and key factory workers are under the risk of metal pneumoconiosis and occupational asthma. In this cross-sectional study, it’s aimed to evaluate the relationship between metal dust exposure and respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests of workers in different section of lock and key factory. Methods: 54 male workers (mean age, 32.8 ± 5.4) in a security and safety products plant were evaluated for respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function tests and smoking habits. Results have been interpreted by comparison of the painting (28/54) and grinding group workers (26/54). Results: There was no significant difference between painting (32.1 ± 4.8) and grinding (33.6 ± 6.1) groups regarding mean age (P > 0.05). Smokers were in significantly higher in grinding group (18/26). Cough and sputum were reported 14.3% (4/28) in painting and 3.8% (1/26) in grinding workers (P > 0.05). Chest tightness was seen in 7.1% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). But no chest tightness was reported in both groups when they were away work. Breathlessness was seen in 10.7% and 7.7% of painting and grinding workers, respectively (P > 0.05). Breathlessness was similar in both groups (7.1% vs. 3.8%) when they were away work. When comparing painting and grinding workers respiratory functions no significant difference observed. Chest radiography in painting and grinding workers showed hyperlucency (3.6% vs.11.4%), respectively. Conclusion: Painting groups in lock and key factory workers had more but statistically insignificantrespiratory complaints. Interestingly, chest tightness was only observed when both groups were at work. It was thought that ventilation and using personal protective equipment in factory could provide significant benefits. PMID:25126195

  15. Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 171 -- Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) failure from a loop subsequent to LOCA: Assessment of plant vulnerability and CDF contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Samanta, P.; Chu, L.; Yang, J.

    1998-03-01

    Generic Safety Issue 171 (GSI-171), Engineered Safety Feature (ESF) from a Loss Of Offsite Power (LOOP) subsequent to a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), deals with an accident sequence in which a LOCA is followed by a LOOP. This issue was later broadened to include a LOOP followed by a LOCA. Plants are designed to handle a simultaneous LOCA and LOOP. In this paper, the authors address the unique issues that are involved i LOCA with delayed LOOP (LOCA/LOOP) and LOOP with delayed LOCA (LOOP/LOCA) accident sequences. LOCA/LOOP accidents are analyzed further by developing event-tree/fault-tree models to quantify their contributions to core-damage frequency (CDF) in a pressurized water reactor and a boiling water reactor (PWR and a BWR). Engineering evaluation and judgments are used during quantification to estimate the unique conditions that arise in a LOCA/LOOP accident. The results show that the CDF contribution of such an accident can be a dominant contributor to plant risk, although BWRs are less vulnerable than PWRs.

  16. Recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes for safety-related I and C systems in nuclear power plants: Draft report for comment

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Wood, R.T.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents recommendations for electromagnetic operating envelopes to augment test criteria and test methods addressing electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), and power surges that are applicable to safety-related instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research to assist in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMI/RFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research has provided recommendations on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) design and installation practices, endorsement of EMI/RFI immunity and SWC test criteria and test methods, and determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants. The present research involves development of recommended electromagnetic envelopes that are applicable to nuclear power plant locations where safety-related I and C systems either are or may be installed. These recommended envelopes establish both emissions criteria and the levels of radiated and conducted interference that I and C systems should be able to withstand without upset or malfunction. The EMI/RFI operating envelopes are derived from conditions in comparable military environments and are confirmed by comparison with the nuclear power plant electromagnetic environment based on measured plant emissions profiles. Detailed information on specific power surge conditions in nuclear power plants is not available, so industrial guidance on representative surge characteristics for susceptibility testing is adopted. An engineering assessment of the power surge environment in nuclear power plants leads to the recommendation of operating envelopes based on location categories and exposure levels defined in IEEE Std C62.41-1991, IEEE Recommended Practice on Surge Voltages in Low-Voltage AC Power Circuits.

  17. Progress in understanding autism: 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Rutter, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    Scientific progress is discussed in relation to clinical issues; genetic issues; environmental issues; and the state of play on psychological treatments. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. We should be hopeful of ever greater gains in the years ahead, but both prevention and cure remain elusive.

  18. Progress in Understanding Autism: 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific progress is discussed in relation to clinical issues; genetic issues; environmental issues; and the state of play on psychological treatments. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. We should be hopeful of…

  19. Progress in Understanding Autism: 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific progress is discussed in relation to clinical issues; genetic issues; environmental issues; and the state of play on psychological treatments. It is concluded that substantial gains in knowledge have been achieved during the last 3 years, and there have been some unexpected findings, but major puzzles remain. We should be hopeful of…

  20. Documentation of Hanford Site independent review of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Preliminary Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.

    1991-10-01

    The requirements for Westinghouse Hanford independent review of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) are contained in Section 1.0, Subsection 4.3 of WCH-CM-4-46. Specifically, this manual requires the following: (1) Formal functional reviews of the HWVP PSAR by the future operating organization (HWVP Operations), and the independent review organizations (HWVP and Environmental Safety Assurance, Environmental Assurance, and Quality Assurance); and (2) Review and approval of the HWVP PSAR by the Tank Waste Disposal (TWD) Subcouncil of the Safety and Environmental Advisory Council (SEAC), which provides independent advice to the Westinghouse Hanford President and executives on matters of safety and environmental protection. 7 refs.

  1. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Tilert, Timothy; Dillon, Charles; Paulose-Ram, Ryne; Hnizdo, Eva; Doney, Brent

    2013-10-09

    During 2007-2010, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted a spirometry component which obtained pre-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data on a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 6-79 years and post-bronchodilator pulmonary lung function data for the subset of adults with airflow limitation. The goals of this study were to 1) compute prevalence estimates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator spirometry measurements and fixed ratio and lower limit of normal (LLN) diagnostic criteria and 2) examine the potential impact of nonresponse on the estimates. This analysis was limited to those aged 40-79 years who were eligible for NHANES pre-bronchodilator spirometry (n=7,104). Examinees with likely airflow limitation were further eligible for post-bronchodilator testing (n=1,110). Persons were classified as having COPD based on FEV1/FVC < 70% (fixed ratio) or FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal (LLN) based on person's age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity. Those without spirometry but self-reporting both daytime supplemental oxygen therapy plus emphysema and/or current chronic bronchitis were also classified as having COPD. The final analytic samples for pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator analyses were 77.1% (n=5,477) and 50.8% (n=564) of those eligible, respectively. To account for non-response, NHANES examination weights were adjusted to the eligible pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator subpopulations. In 2007-2010, using the fixed ratio criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, COPD prevalence was 20.9% (SE 1.1) among US adults aged 40-79 years. Applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 14.0% (SE 1.0). Using the LLN criterion and pre-bronchodilator test results, the COPD prevalence was 15.4% (SE 0.8), while applying the same criterion to post-bronchodilator test results, prevalence was 10.2% (SE 0.8). The

  2. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants: Application to SPIN N4

    SciTech Connect

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1995-04-01

    1300 MWe pressurised water reactors (PWRs), like the 1400 MWe reactors, operate with microprocessor-based safety systems. This is particularly the case for the Digital Integrated Protection System (SPIN), which trips the reactor in an emergency and sets in action the safeguard functions. The softwares used in these systems must therefore be highly dependable in the execution of their functions. In the case of SPIN, three players are working at different levels to achieve this goal: the protection system manufacturer, Merlin Gerin; the designer of the nuclear steam supply system, Framatome; the operator of the nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF), which is also responsible for the safety of its installations. Regulatory licenses are issued by the French safety authority, the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (French abbreviation DSIN), subsequent to a successful examination of the technical provisions adopted by the operator. This examination is carried out by the IPSN and the standing group on nuclear reactors. This communication sets out: the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs (N4 series); the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate the safety software of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors.

  3. Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2010-11-01

    Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

  4. A decade of plant proteomics and mass spectrometry: translation of technical advancements to food security and safety issues.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Pedreschi, Romina; Carpentier, Sebastien; Wang, Tai; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Kohli, Ajay; Ndimba, Bongani Kaiser; Bykova, Natalia V; Rampitsch, Christof; Zolla, Lello; Rafudeen, Mohamed Suhail; Cramer, Rainer; Bindschedler, Laurence Veronique; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Ndimba, Roya Janeen; Farrant, Jill M; Renaut, Jenny; Job, Dominique; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep

    2013-01-01

    Tremendous progress in plant proteomics driven by mass spectrometry (MS) techniques has been made since 2000 when few proteomics reports were published and plant proteomics was in its infancy. These achievements include the refinement of existing techniques and the search for new techniques to address food security, safety, and health issues. It is projected that in 2050, the world's population will reach 9-12 billion people demanding a food production increase of 34-70% (FAO, 2009) from today's food production. Provision of food in a sustainable and environmentally committed manner for such a demand without threatening natural resources, requires that agricultural production increases significantly and that postharvest handling and food manufacturing systems become more efficient requiring lower energy expenditure, a decrease in postharvest losses, less waste generation and food with longer shelf life. There is also a need to look for alternative protein sources to animal based (i.e., plant based) to be able to fulfill the increase in protein demands by 2050. Thus, plant biology has a critical role to play as a science capable of addressing such challenges. In this review, we discuss proteomics especially MS, as a platform, being utilized in plant biology research for the past 10 years having the potential to expedite the process of understanding plant biology for human benefits. The increasing application of proteomics technologies in food security, analysis, and safety is emphasized in this review. But, we are aware that no unique approach/technology is capable to address the global food issues. Proteomics-generated information/resources must be integrated and correlated with other omics-based approaches, information, and conventional programs to ensure sufficient food and resources for human development now and in the future.

  5. Extraction and use of historical extreme climate databases for nuclear power plants safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Bertin, Xavier; Bardet, Lise; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Rebour, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs) related to natural hazards are a matter of major interest to the nuclear community in France and many European countries. Over the past fewer decades, France has experienced many of these events such as heat waves (2003 and 2006), heavy snowstorms (1958, 1990 and 1992), storms which have given rise to heavy rain and severe floods (1992, 1999, 2010), strong straight-line wind and extreme marine surges (1987, 1999 and 2010) much larger than the other local observations (outliers). These outliers had clearly illustrated the potential to underestimate the extreme surges calculated with the current statistical methods. The estimation of extreme surges then requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a more solid theoretical framework and using more reliable databases for the assessment of hazards to design NPPs to low or extremely low probabilities of failure. These databases can be produced by collecting historical information (HI) about severe climatic events occurred over short and long timescales. As a matter of fact, natural hazards such as heat waves, droughts, floods, severe storms and snowstorms have affected France and many European countries since the dawn of time. These events would have been such horrific experiences that if they really occurred, there would be unmistakable traces of them. They must have left clues. These catastrophic events have been unforgettably engraved in people's minds and many of them have been traced in archives and history textbooks. The oldest events have certainly left clues and traces somewhere in the geological layers of the earth or elsewhere. The construction of the historical databases and developing probabilistic approaches capable of integrating them correctly is highly challenging for the scientific community (Translating these geological clues to historical data to build historical databases that can be used by the statistical models is a different

  6. Comparison of Inadequate Nutrient Intakes in non-Hispanic Blacks vs. non-Hispanic Whites: An Analysis of NHANES 2007-2010 in U.S. Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Yanni; Brooks, James; Reider, Carroll; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2015-08-01

    Using total nutrient intake from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010, we determined usual nutrient intakes in non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White children and adults. Mean usual intakes for calcium; phosphorus; magnesium; and vitamins A, C, and D for non-Hispanic Black children and adults were significantly lower across ages compared with their non-Hispanic White counterparts. A greater percentage of non-Hispanic Blacks were below the Estimated Average Requirement for calcium, phosphorus and magnesium relative to non-Hispanic Whites across all ages. Similarly, a greater percentage of non-Hispanic Black children and adults had a greater percentage below the EAR for vitamins A and D compared with non-Hispanic Whites. These data demonstrate that U.S. children and adults are falling short of reaching nutrient recommendations, with non-Hispanic Blacks being particularly vulnerable. As dietary and nutrient recommendations evolve, specific strategies to increase consumption of vitamins and minerals in the U.S. non-Hispanic Black population should be considered.

  7. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  8. Deep sequencing of plant and animal DNA contained within traditional Chinese medicines reveals legality issues and health safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Coghlan, Megan L; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C; White, Nicole E; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  9. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants.

  10. The blind men and the elephant: the impact of context and scale in evaluating conflicts between plant hydraulic safety and efficiency

    Treesearch

    Frederick C. Meinzer; Katherine A. McCulloh; Barbara Lachenbruch; David R. Woodruff; Daniel M. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of xylem safety and efficiency for plant survival and fitness, it is not surprising that these are among the most commonly studied features of hydraulic architecture. However, much remains to be learned about the nature and universality of conflicts between hydraulic safety and efficiency. Although selection for suites of hydraulic...

  11. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 2

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Konzek, G.J.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Fecht, B.A.; Allen, C.H.; Allen, R.D.; Bickford, W.E., Carbaugh, E.H.; Lewis, J.R.

    1983-12-01

    This is the third in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 31 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of summer 1983, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.

  13. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 4

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, A.S.; Fecht, B.A.; Powers, T.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Bian, S.H.; Daling, P.M.; Eschbach, E.J.; Allen, C.H.

    1986-07-01

    This is the fifth in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 23 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of winter 1986, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.''

  14. Identification of the impacts of maintenance and testing upon the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Husseiny, A. A.; Sabri, Z. A.; Turnage, J. J.

    1980-04-01

    The present study was designed to identify the impact of maintenance and testing (M and T) upon the safety of LWR power plants. The study involved data extraction from various sources reporting safety-related and operation-related nuclear power plant experience. Primary sources reviewed, including Licensee Event Reports (LER's) submitted to the NRC, revealed that only ten percent of events reported could be identified as M and T problems. The collected data were collated in a manner that would allow identification of principal types of problems which are associated with the performance of M and T tasks in LWR power plants. Frequencies of occurrence of events and their general endemic nature were analyzed using data clustering and pattern recognition techniques, as well as chi-square analyses for sparse contingency tables. The results of these analyses identified seven major categories of M and T error modes which were related to individual facilities and reactor type. Data review indicated that few M and T problems were directly related to procedural inadequacies, with the majority of events being attributable to human error.

  15. Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant Longterm Groundwater Monitoring Health and Safety Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    monitoring well borings will be drilled using auger or rotary drilling techniques . As part of the logging of monitoring well borings, downhole geophysical...protective equipment worn may limit manual dexterity, hearing, visibility, and may increase the difficulty of performing some tasks. Personnel should...Safety Manual e Approve or disapprove Health and Safety * Manage the W-C employee medical Plans surveillance program 0 Suspend work on any project

  16. An investigation and analysis of safety issues in Polish small construction plants.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is a booming sector of the Polish economy; however, it is stigmatised by a lower classification due to high occupational risks and an unsatisfactory state of occupational safety. Safety on construction sites is compromised by small construction firms which dominate the market and have high accident rates. This article presents the results of studies (using a checklist) conducted in small Polish construction companies in terms of selected aspects of safety, such as co-operation with the general contractor, occupational health and safety documents, occupational risk assessment, organization of work, protective gear and general work equipment. The mentioned studies and analyses provided the grounds to establish the main directions of preventive measures decreasing occupational risk in small construction companies, e.g., an increase in engagement of investors and general contractors, improvement of occupational health and safety (OSH) documents, an increase in efficiency of construction site managers, better stability of employment and removal of opposing objectives between economic strategy and work safety.

  17. An investigation and analysis of safety issues in Polish small construction plants

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is a booming sector of the Polish economy; however, it is stigmatised by a lower classification due to high occupational risks and an unsatisfactory state of occupational safety. Safety on construction sites is compromised by small construction firms which dominate the market and have high accident rates. This article presents the results of studies (using a checklist) conducted in small Polish construction companies in terms of selected aspects of safety, such as co-operation with the general contractor, occupational health and safety documents, occupational risk assessment, organization of work, protective gear and general work equipment. The mentioned studies and analyses provided the grounds to establish the main directions of preventive measures decreasing occupational risk in small construction companies, e.g., an increase in engagement of investors and general contractors, improvement of occupational health and safety (OSH) documents, an increase in efficiency of construction site managers, better stability of employment and removal of opposing objectives between economic strategy and work safety. PMID:26694002

  18. Pinellas Plant site environmental report for calendar year 1989: Environmental Health and Safety Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R.D.

    1990-06-01

    The Pinellas Plant is a government-owned facility operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the GE Neutron Devices (GEND). The plant's work force is approximately 1700 employees is engaged in the design, development and manufacture of special electronic and mechanical nuclear weapon components. The environmental monitoring programs maintained by the Pinellas Plant are designed to: determine the efficiencies of treatment and control mechanisms for environmental releases, provide measurements of discharge concentrations for comparison with applicable standards, assess the concentrations of these discharges in the on-site and off-site environment, and provide a data base for computer programs to calculate the potential dose to the public resulting from the operation of the Pinellas Plant. The environmental effects of radiological and nonradiological effluents from the operation of the Pinellas Plant have been demonstrated to be significant. This paper discussing the environmental monitoring programs at the Pinellas Plant. 29 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Cognitive decision errors and organization vulnerabilities in nuclear power plant safety management: Modeling using the TOGA meta-theory framework

    SciTech Connect

    Cappelli, M.; Gadomski, A. M.; Sepiellis, M.; Wronikowska, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety modeling, the perception of the role of socio-cognitive engineering (SCE) is continuously increasing. Today, the focus is especially on the identification of human and organization decisional errors caused by operators and managers under high-risk conditions, as evident by analyzing reports on nuclear incidents occurred in the past. At present, the engineering and social safety requirements need to enlarge their domain of interest in such a way to include all possible losses generating events that could be the consequences of an abnormal state of a NPP. Socio-cognitive modeling of Integrated Nuclear Safety Management (INSM) using the TOGA meta-theory has been discussed during the ICCAP 2011 Conference. In this paper, more detailed aspects of the cognitive decision-making and its possible human errors and organizational vulnerability are presented. The formal TOGA-based network model for cognitive decision-making enables to indicate and analyze nodes and arcs in which plant operators and managers errors may appear. The TOGA's multi-level IPK (Information, Preferences, Knowledge) model of abstract intelligent agents (AIAs) is applied. In the NPP context, super-safety approach is also discussed, by taking under consideration unexpected events and managing them from a systemic perspective. As the nature of human errors depends on the specific properties of the decision-maker and the decisional context of operation, a classification of decision-making using IPK is suggested. Several types of initial situations of decision-making useful for the diagnosis of NPP operators and managers errors are considered. The developed models can be used as a basis for applications to NPP educational or engineering simulators to be used for training the NPP executive staff. (authors)

  20. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  1. 77 FR 50720 - Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1207, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The DG-1207 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.170, dated September 1997. This revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for test documentation for software and computer systems as described in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standard 829-2008, ``IEEE Standard for Software and System Test Documentation.''

  2. Development of large-capacity main steam isolation valves and safety relief valves for next-generation BWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsugu Nishimura; Shin-ichi Furukawa; Gen Itoh; Kikuo Takeshima

    2002-07-01

    A study was made of high capacity main steam isolation valves (MSIV) and safety relief valves (SRV) for the main steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). The next-generation BWR plants, which are planned to have higher thermal power, have raised concerns relating to the main steam line of an increase in maintenance work to SRVs and erosion of the MSIV valve seat due to the increased main steam flow velocity. In this research project, the capacity of the MSIV and SRV was increased and the valve configuration was changed in an attempt to solve these problems. (authors)

  3. Management of the aging of critical safety-related concrete structures in light-water reactor plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. ); Arndt, E.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant safety-related structures for continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued-service determinations. Objectives, accomplishments, and planned activities under each of these tasks are presented. Major program accomplishments include development of a materials property data base for structural materials as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, a review and assessment of inservice inspection techniques for concrete materials and structures has been complete, and work on development of a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future condition assessment of concrete structures is well under way. 43 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Pilot program to identify valve failures which impact the safety and operation of light water nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tsacoyeanes, J. C.; Raju, P. P.

    1980-04-01

    The pilot program described has been initiated under the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Safety Research and Development Program and has the following specific objectives: to identify the principal types and causes of failures in valves, valve operators and their controls and associated hardware, which lead to, or could lead to plant trip; and to suggest possible remedies for the prevention of these failures and recommend future research and development programs which could lead to minimizing these valve failures or mitigating their effect on plant operation. The data surveyed cover incidents reported over the six-year period, beginning 1973 through the end of 1978. Three sources of information on valve failures have been consulted: failure data centers, participating organizations in the nuclear power industry, and technical documents.

  5. Precise plant breeding using new genome editing techniques: opportunities, safety and regulation in the EU.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Frank; Schiemann, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Several new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs) have been developed during the last decade, and make it possible to precisely perform genome modifications in plants. The major problem, other than technical aspects, is the vagueness of regulation concerning these new techniques. Since the definition of eight NPBTs by a European expert group in 2007, there has been an ongoing debate on whether the resulting plants and their products are covered by GMO legislation. Obviously, cover by GMO legislation would severely hamper the use of NPBT, because genetically modified plants must pass a costly and time-consuming GMO approval procedure in the EU. In this review, we compare some of the NPBTs defined by the EU expert group with classical breeding techniques and conventional transgenic plants. The list of NPBTs may be shortened (or extended) during the international discussion process initiated by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. From the scientific point of view, it may be argued that plants developed by NPBTs are often indistinguishable from classically bred plants and are not expected to possess higher risks for health and the environment. In light of the debate on the future regulation of NPBTs and the accumulated evidence on the biosafety of genetically modified plants that have been commercialized and risk-assessed worldwide, it may be suggested that plants modified by crop genetic improvement technologies, including genetic modification, NPBTs or other future techniques, should be evaluated according to the new trait and the resulting end product rather than the technique used to create the new plant variety.

  6. Importance of taste, nutrition, cost and convenience in relation to diet quality: Evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Anju; Rehm, Colin D; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Concerns with taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience are said to be key influences on food choices. This study examined the importance of food-related attitudes in relation to diet quality using US national level data. Interactions by socioeconomic status (SES), gender and race/ethnicity were tested. Analyses of 8957 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2010) were conducted in 2014-15. Perceived importance of taste, nutrition, cost, and convenience in dietary choices were assessed using 4-point Likert scales. Education and family income-to-poverty ratio (FIPR) were SES indicators. Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010), a measure of adherence to 2010 dietary guidelines, was the diet quality measure. Survey-weighted regressions examined associations between attitudes and HEI, and tested for interactions. Taste was rated as "very important" by 77.0% of the US adults, followed by nutrition (59.9%), cost (39.9%), and convenience (29.8%). However, it was the perceived importance of nutrition that most strongly predicted HEI (β: +8.0 HEI scores among "very important" vs. "not at all important"). By contrast, greater importance for taste and convenience had a weak inverse relation with HEI (β: -5.1 and -1.5 respectively), adjusting for SES. Significant interactions were observed by race/ethnicity, but not SES and gender. Those who prioritized nutrition during food shopping had higher-quality diets regardless of gender, education and income in the US. Certain racial/ethnic groups managed to eat healthy despite attaching importance to cost and convenience. This is the first evidence of nutrition resilience among US adults using national data, which has huge implications for nutrition interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The ecosystem of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at the sub-polar front and Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone; ECO-MAR project strategy and description of the sampling programme 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, Imants G.; Billett, David S. M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Inall, Mark; Miller, Peter I.; Cousins, Nicola J.; Shields, Mark A.; Fujii, Toyonobu

    2013-12-01

    The ECOMAR project investigated photosynthetically-supported life on the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between the Azores and Iceland focussing on the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone area in the vicinity of the sub-polar front where the North Atlantic Current crosses the MAR. Repeat visits were made to four stations at 2500 m depth on the flanks of the MAR in the years 2007-2010; a pair of northern stations at 54°N in cold water north of the sub-polar front and southern stations at 49°N in warmer water influenced by eddies from the North Atlantic Current. At each station an instrumented mooring was deployed with current meters and sediment traps (100 and 1000 m above the sea floor) to sample downward flux of particulate matter. The patterns of water flow, fronts, primary production and export flux in the region were studied by a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements. Sonar, tow nets and profilers sampled pelagic fauna over the MAR. Swath bathymetry surveys across the ridge revealed sediment-covered flat terraces parallel to the axis of the MAR with intervening steep rocky slopes. Otter trawls, megacores, baited traps and a suite of tools carried by the R.O.V. Isis including push cores, grabs and a suction device collected benthic fauna. Video and photo surveys were also conducted using the SHRIMP towed vehicle and the R.O.V. Isis. Additional surveying and sampling by landers and R.O.V. focussed on the summit of a seamount (48°44‧N, 28°10‧W) on the western crest of the MAR between the two southern stations.

  8. [Clinical and demographic characteristics of the cases of dementia diagnosed in the Health District of Girona throughout the period 2007-2010: data from the Girona Dementia Registry (ReDeGi)].

    PubMed

    Calvo-Perxas, L; Osuna, M T; Gich, J; Eligio-Hernandez, E; Linares, M; Vinas, M; Casas, I; Turro-Garriga, O; Lopez-Pousa, S; Garre-Olmo, J

    2012-04-01

    The Girona Dementia Registry (ReDeGi, from Spanish: Registro de Demencias de Girona) is a population-based epidemiological surveillance mechanism that registers the cases of dementia diagnosed by the reference centres in the Girona Health District. To report on the frequency of the diagnoses and their clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, as well as to compare differences depending on the different subtypes of dementia. The method used consisted in a consecutive standardised register of the diagnoses involving dementia in specialised procedures in the Girona Health District between 2007 and 2010. A total of 2814 cases were registered, which represents a clinical incidence of 6.6 cases per 1000 persons/year. Of this total number, 69.2% were primary degenerative dementias, 18.9% were dementias secondary to a vascular pathology, 5.4% were other secondary dementias and 6.5% were non-specific dementias. The mean age was 79.2 ± 7.6 years (range: 33-99 years) and 59.3% were females. The mean time elapsed since the onset of symptoms and clinical diagnosis was 2.5 ± 1.7 years. The mean score on the Blessed dementia scale was 7.7 ± 4.5 points and in the minimental test it was 17.6 ± 5.4 points. A family history of dementia was present in 26.6% of cases and 69.6% presented one or more cardiovascular risk factors. In 60.6% of cases they were cases of mild dementia, 28.5% were moderate and 10.9% were severe cases. The epidemiological surveillance activity carried out by the ReDeGi throughout the period 2007-2010 has made it possible to record information that is extremely valuable for the planning and management of health care resources.

  9. Review guidelines on software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Koch, S.; Tai, A.; Wendelboe, D.

    1996-06-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada, C/C++, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Logic, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Sequential Function Charts, Pascal, and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.s

  10. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 5

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Lavender, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    This is the sixth in a series of reports to document the development and use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose, and cost impacts of implementing potential resolutions to reactor safety issues (see NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews, et al., 1983). This report contains the results of issue-specific analyses for 34 generic issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information at the time the issues were examined and approximately 2 staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced as one consideration in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues (Emrit, et al., 1983).

  11. Survey among agricultural workers about interpretation of plant protection product labels and safety data sheets.

    PubMed

    Rubbiani, Maristella

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the effectiveness of risk communication in agriculture through examination and interpretation of safety data sheets and product labels for agriculture products classified as hazardous. Labels and safety data sheets were shown to the users inviting them to report their own interpretation of hazard, risk and the need of preventive measures. One area sample was identified in a cluster of wine companies, chosen in a range of medium to large sizes throughout the country, where 100 subjects were interviewed by telephone or direct interview. Participants were surveyed through questions relating to demographic information, education and perception of risk.

  12. Guidelines for nuclear-power-plant safety-issue-prioritization information development

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Bickford, W.E.; Konzek, G.J.; Strenge, D.L.; Smith, R.I.; Weakley, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a methodology, with examples, to calculate - to an approximation serviceable for prioritization purposes - the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. This report is an applications guide to issue-specific calculations. A description of the approach, mathematical models, worksheets and step-by-step examples are provided. Analysis using this method is intended to provide comparable results for many issues at a cost of two staff-weeks per issue. Results will be used by the NRC to support decisions related to issue priorities in allocation of resources to complete safety issue resolutions.

  13. Nutraceutical value and safety of tomato fruits produced by mycorrhizal plants.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, M; Avio, L; Barale, R; Ceccarelli, N; Cristofani, R; Iezzi, A; Mignolli, F; Picciarelli, P; Pinto, B; Reali, D; Sbrana, C; Scarpato, R

    2012-01-01

    Tomato fruit has assumed the status of 'functional food' due to the association between its consumption and a reduced likelihood of certain types of cancers and CVD. The nutraceutical value of tomatoes can be affected by the cultivation conditions, e.g. the phytochemical content of the fruits may increase with the establishment of beneficial mycorrhizal symbioses in the plants. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to gain knowledge on the antioxidant, oestrogenic/anti-oestrogenic and genotoxic activity of tomato fruits produced by mycorrhizal plants. The present results showed that the symbiosis positively affected the growth and mineral nutrient content of tomato plants and enhanced the nutritional and nutraceutical value of tomato fruits through modifications of plant secondary metabolism, which led to increased levels of lycopene in fruits obtained from mycorrhizal plants, compared with controls. Moreover, such changes did not result in the production of mutagenic compounds, since tomato extracts induced no in vitro genotoxic effects. Fruit extracts, both hydrophilic and the lipophilic fractions, originating from mycorrhizal plants strongly inhibited 17-β-oestradiol-human oestrogen receptor binding, showing significantly higher anti-oestrogenic power compared with controls. The present study shows that beneficial plant symbionts, such as mycorrhizal fungi, can lead to the production of safe and high-quality food, which is an important societal issue strongly demanded by both consumers and producers.

  14. Enteric Pathogen-Plant Interactions: Molecular Connections Leading to Colonization and Growth and Implications for Food Safety

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Vaz, Betsy M.; Fink, Ryan C.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Leafy green vegetables have been identified as a source of foodborne illnesses worldwide over the past decade. Human enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, have been implicated in numerous food poisoning outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the establishment of pathogenic bacteria in or on vegetable plants is critical for understanding and ameliorating this problem as well as ensuring the safety of our food supply. While previous studies have described the growth and survival of enteric pathogens in the environment and also the risk factors associated with the contamination of vegetables, the molecular events involved in the colonization of fresh produce by enteric pathogens are just beginning to be elucidated. This review summarizes recent findings on the interactions of several bacterial pathogens with leafy green vegetables. Changes in gene expression linked to the bacterial attachment and colonization of plant structures are discussed in light of their relevance to plant-microbe interactions. We propose a mechanism for the establishment and association of enteric pathogens with plants and discuss potential strategies to address the problem of foodborne illness linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables. PMID:24859308

  15. Clinical Safety and Immunogenicity of Tumor-Targeted, Plant-Made Id-KLH Conjugate Vaccines for Follicular Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tusé, Daniel; Ku, Nora; Bendandi, Maurizio; Becerra, Carlos; Collins, Robert; Langford, Nyla; Sancho, Susana Inogés; López-Díaz de Cerio, Ascensión; Pastor, Fernando; Kandzia, Romy; Thieme, Frank; Jarczowski, Franziska; Krause, Dieter; Ma, Julian K-C; Pandya, Shan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri; Butler-Ransohoff, John E

    2015-01-01

    We report the first evaluation of plant-made conjugate vaccines for targeted treatment of B-cell follicular lymphoma (FL) in a Phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical study. Each recombinant personalized immunogen consisted of a tumor-derived, plant-produced idiotypic antibody (Ab) hybrid comprising the hypervariable regions of the tumor-associated light and heavy Ab chains, genetically grafted onto a common human IgG1 scaffold. Each immunogen was produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants using twin magnICON vectors expressing the light and heavy chains of the idiotypic Ab. Each purified Ab was chemically linked to the carrier protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) to form a conjugate vaccine. The vaccines were administered to FL patients over a series of ≥6 subcutaneous injections in conjunction with the adjuvant Leukine (GM-CSF). The 27 patients enrolled in the study had previously received non-anti-CD20 cytoreductive therapy followed by ≥4 months of immune recovery prior to first vaccination. Of 11 patients who became evaluable at study conclusion, 82% (9/11) displayed a vaccine-induced, idiotype-specific cellular and/or humoral immune response. No patients showed serious adverse events (SAE) related to vaccination. The fully scalable plant-based manufacturing process yields safe and immunogenic personalized FL vaccines that can be produced within weeks of obtaining patient biopsies.

  16. The EOP Visualization Module Integrated into the Plasma On-Line Nuclear Power Plant Safety Monitoring and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Hornaes, Arne; Hulsund, John Einar; Vegh, Janos; Major, Csaba; Horvath, Csaba; Lipcsei, Sandor; Kapocs, Gyoergy

    2001-08-15

    An ambitious project to replace the unit information systems (UISs) at the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant was started in 1998-99. The basic aim of the reconstruction project is to install a modern, distributed UIS architecture on all four Paks VVER-440 units. The new UIS includes an on-line plant safety monitoring and assessment system (PLASMA), which contains a critical safety functions monitoring module and provides extensive operator support during the execution of the new, symptom-oriented emergency operating procedures (EOPs). PLASMA includes a comprehensive EOP visualization module, based on the COPMA-III procedure-handling software developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Halden Reactor Project. Intranet technology is applied for the presentation of the EOPs with the use of a standard hypertext markup language (HTML) browser as a visualization tool. The basic design characteristics of the system, with a detailed description of its user interface and functions of the new EOP display module, are presented.

  17. Nuclear criticality safety controls for uranium deposits during D and D at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Jollay, L.J. III; Dahl, T.L.

    1997-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management has issued a challenge to complete DOE environmental cleanup within a decade. The response for Oak Ridge facilities is in accordance with the DOE ten-year plan which calls for completion of > 95% of environmental management work by the year 2006. This will result in a 99% risk reduction and in a significant savings in base line costs in waste management (legacy waste); remedial action (groundwater, soil, etc.); and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). It is assumed that there will be long-term institutional control of cascade equipment, i.e., there will be no walk away from sites, and that there will be firm radioactivity release limits by 1999 for recycle metals. An integral part of these plants is the removal of uranium deposits which pose nuclear criticality safety concerns in the shut down of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant. DOE has initiated the Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program to improve nuclear criticality safety by removing the larger uranium deposits from unfavorable geometry equipment. Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements have identified the location of these deposits. The objective of the K-25 Site Nuclear Criticality Stabilization Program is to remove and place uranium deposits into safe geometry storage containers to meet the double contingency principle. Each step of the removal process results in safer conditions where multiple controls are present. Upon completion of the Program, nuclear criticality risks will be greatly reduced.

  18. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features.

  19. Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 3

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, W.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Counts, C.A.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Powers, T.B.; Weakley, S.A.

    1985-09-01

    This supplemental report is the fourth in a series that document and use methods developed to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. The initial report in this series was published by Andrews et al. in 1983 as NUREG/CR-2800. This supplement consists of two parts describing separate research efforts: (1) an alternative human factors methodology approach, and (2) a prioritization of the NRC's Human Factors Program Plan. The alternative human factors methodology approach may be used in specific future cases in which the methods identified in the initial report (NUREG/CR-2800) may not adequately assess the proper impact for resolution of new safety issues. The alternative methodology included in this supplement is entitled ''Methodology for Estimating the Public Risk Reduction Affected by Human Factors Improvement.'' The prioritization section of this report is entitled ''Prioritization of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan.''

  20. Lessons Learned for Space Safety from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogami, Manami; Miki, Masami; Mitsui, Masami; Kawada, Ysuhiro; Takeuchi, Nobuo

    2013-09-01

    On March 11 2011, Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake hit Japan and caused the devastating damage. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station (NPS) was also severely damaged.The Japanese NPSs are designed based on the detailed safety requirements and have multiple-folds of hazard controls to the catastrophic hazards as in space system. However, according to the initial information from the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) and the Japanese government, the larger-than-expected tsunami and subsequent events lost the all hazard controls to the release of radioactive materials.At the 5th IAASS, Lessons Learned from this disaster was reported [1] mainly based on the "Report of the Japanese Government to the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Safety" [2] published by Nuclear Emergency Response Headquarters in June 2011, three months after the earthquake.Up to 2012 summer, the major investigation boards, including the Japanese Diet, the Japanese Cabinet and TEPCO, published their final reports, in which detailed causes of this accident and several recommendations are assessed from each perspective.In this paper, the authors examine to introduce the lessons learned to be applied to the space safety as findings from these reports.

  1. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: (1) Degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; (2) Assessment and remediation: i.e., component selection, in- service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions; and (3) Estimation of performance at present or some future point in time: i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk. Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  2. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A.

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  3. Changes in body fat distribution through menopause increase blood pressure independently of total body fat in middle-aged women: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Kyu; Lim, Young-Hyo; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Soon Gil; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Lim, Heon Gil; Shin, Jinho

    2013-05-01

    Blood pressure in women increases sharply in middle age, especially after menopause. As the menopausal transition is known to induce changes in body fat distribution, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body fat distribution as compared with the effect of total body fat on blood pressure through the menopausal transition. We analyzed 1422 subjects aged 45-55 years using the database from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010. The waist circumference (WC) of post-menopausal women was larger than that of pre-menopausal women (80.44 cm, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.36-81.52 vs. 78.94 cm, 95% CI 78.27-79.61, P=0.013), but there was no statistically significant difference in body mass index (BMI). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in pre-menopausal women: SBP was 118.33 mm Hg, 95% CI 116.52-120.15 vs. 115.22 mm Hg, 95% CI 114.17-116.28 (P=0.003) and DBP was 76.94 mm Hg, 95% CI 75.88-77.99 vs. 75.25 mm Hg, 95% CI 74.57-75.93 (P=0.009). BMI and WC were positively correlated with BP. After adjustment for BMI, the correlation of WC with SBP remained significant (β=0.250, 95% CI 0.024-0.476, P=0.030). In a stratified analysis, WC correlated with SBP in women with BMI<25 kg m(-2) (β=0.358, 95% CI 0.138-0.579, P=0.001), but not in women with BMI25 kg m(-2). We conclude that the changes in body fat distribution through the menopausal transition are associated with SBP, independent of total body fat. This finding indicates that alterations in the localization of body fat are another cause of menopause-related changes in BP.

  4. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products would reduce the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intakes in the United States: diet modeling study based on NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Quann, Erin E; Fulgoni, Victor L; Auestad, Nancy

    2015-09-04

    A large portion of Americans are not meeting the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for several essential vitamins and minerals due to poor dietary choices. Dairy products are a key source of many of the nutrients that are under consumed, but children and adults do not consume the recommended amounts from this food group. This study modeled the impact of meeting daily recommended amounts of dairy products on population-based nutrient intakes. Two-day 24-h dietary recalls collected from participants ≥ 2 years (n = 8944) from the 2007-2010 What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Databases available from the WWEIA/NHANES and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) were used to determine nutrient, food group, and dietary supplement intakes. Modeling was performed by adding the necessary number of dairy servings, using the dairy composite designed by USDA, to each participant's diet to meet the dairy recommendations outlined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. All analyses included sample weights to account for the NHANES survey design. The majority of children 4 years and older (67.4-88.8%) and nearly all adults (99.0-99.6%) fall below the recommended 2.5-3 daily servings of dairy products. Increasing dairy consumption to recommended amounts would result in a significant reduction in the percent of adults with calcium, magnesium, and vitamin A intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) when considering food intake alone (0-2.0 vs. 9.9-91.1%; 17.3-75.0 vs. 44.7-88.5%; 0.1-15.1 vs. 15.3-48.0%, respectively), as well as food and dietary supplement intake. Minimal, but significant, improvements were observed for the percent of people below the EAR for vitamin D (91.7-99.9 vs. 91.8-99.9%), and little change was achieved for the large percentage of people below the Adequate Intake for potassium. Increasing dairy food consumption to recommended amounts is one practical dietary change that

  5. Safety analysis report for packaging, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, model DC-1 package with HEU oxide contents. Change pages for Rev.1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the Model DC-1 package with highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide contents has been prepared in accordance with governing regulations form the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Transportation and orders from the Department of energy. The fundamental safety requirements addressed by these regulations and orders pertain to the containment of radioactive material, radiation shielding, and nuclear subcriticality. This report demonstrates how these requirements are met.

  6. Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.

    PubMed

    Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Håkansson, Sebastian; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-08-01

    During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential.

  7. Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed.

  8. Salmonella and produce: survival in the plant environment and implications in food safety.

    PubMed

    Fatica, Marianne K; Schneider, Keith R

    2011-01-01

    There has been a continuous rise in the number of produce-based foodborne outbreaks in the recent decades despite the perception that foodborne diseases were primarily linked to animal-based products. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 95% of Salmonella-based infections originate from foodborne sources, with multiple produce-based salmonellosis outbreaks occurring since 1990. The contamination of produce in both the pre-harvest and post-harvest produce environments is challenging to eliminate since produce is consumed as a raw, fresh commodity. Salmonella spp. contamination is possible through contact with the produce in the field as well as in the processing facility. The field contamination of produce infers the ability of Salmonella spp. to survive on the plant surface. The fitness of Salmonella spp. in the plant habitat is limited as opposed to naturally plant-associated bacteria, but survival is possible. The use of intensive farming practices, globalization of food products, high demand for convenience food products, and increased foodborne disease surveillance also have unknown ramifications in the ascending trends of produce-based outbreaks. A better understanding of the ecology of Salmonella spp. in the plant environment as well as the processing, food handling, and surveillance factors affecting the incidence of foodborne outbreaks will provide a comprehensive view of the etiology and epidemiology of produce-associated foodborne outbreaks. An understanding of the outbreaks and the factors facilitating produce contamination will allow for the development of intervention procedures and strategies to reduce the risk of produce contamination by Salmonella spp.

  9. Safety assessment of selected medicinal food plants used in Ayurveda through CYP450 enzyme inhibition study.

    PubMed

    Kar, Amit; Pandit, Subrata; Mukherjee, Kakali; Bahadur, Shiv; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata, Bacopa monnieri and Centella asiatica are mentioned in Ayurveda for the management of neurodegenerative disorders. These plants and their phytomolecules, such as andrographolide, bacoside A and asiaticoside, were studied for their inhibition potential on pooled CYP450 as well as human CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP1A2 by CYP-CO complex assay and fluorogenic assay respectively followed by IC50 determination. Quantification of bioactive compounds present in the extracts was done by RP-HPLC. Heavy metal content in the selected medicinal plants was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. CYP-CO complex assay indicated significantly less inhibition potential than standard inhibitor (P < 0.05 and above). A. paniculata showed highest inhibitory activity against CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 (IC50 = 63.06 ± 1.35 µg mL(-1) ; 88.80 ± 3.32 µg mL(-1) ), whereas C. asiatica and B. monnieri showed least inhibitory activity against CYP1A2 (IC50 = 288.83 ± 1.61 µg mL(-1) ) and CYP2C9 (184.68 ± 3.79 µg mL(-1) ), respectively. In all cases the extract showed higher inhibition than the single bioactive compounds. The heavy metals content in the plant extracts were within the permissible limits. The findings suggested that selected food plants and bioactive compounds contributed negligible interaction potential with CYP isozymes and may not possess any harmful effect with regard to their therapeutic application. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures.

  11. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Spencer, S.G.; Shaber, C.R.

    1980-05-30

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  12. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Shaber, C.R.; Thurow, T.L.

    1981-11-17

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  13. [PAHs concentrations in aquatic products and food safety evaluation in the coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guan-Qiu; Li, Yao-Chu; Huang, Jin-Mu; Nan, Yan; Lin, Mao-Hong

    2012-06-01

    In order to know about the PAHs concentration in aquatic products from mangrove planting-aquaculture ecological system and to make sure of food quality and food safety, HPLC was used to determine concentrations of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tilapia mossambica, Mugil cephalu and Concha ostreae from coupled mangrove planting-aquaculture ponds, food safety in aquatic products was also evaluated. The 13 PAHs were Fluorene (Flu), Phenanthrene (Phe), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Fla), Pyrene (Pyr), Benz[a] anthraces (BaA), Chrysene (Chr), Benzo[b] fluoranthene (BbF), Benzo[k] fluoranthene (BkF), Benzo[a] Pyrene (BaP), Dibenzo [a, h] anthercene (DahA), Benzo [g, h, i] perylene (BghiP) and Indeno [1,2,3-c, d] pyrene (InP). Concentrations of PAHs were the highest in Concha ostreae which were in the range of 89.79-98.49 microg x kg(-1) dry weight, while those were in the range of 25.97-34.64 microg x kg(-1) in Mugil cephalu and 12.31-14.41 microg x kg(-1) in Tilapia mossambica. The content of fat affected the levels of PAHs content in different aquatic products. The individual composition of PAHs was characterized by 3 rings in samples with the range of 41.58% - 83.35%. Comparing with other areas, PAHs pollution of aquatic products in the studied area was in the mild level. Values of the total BaP(eq) concentration ranged from 0.0689 microg x kg(-1) to 1.0373 microg x kg(-1), which were lower than the maximum level set by European Union.

  14. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    SciTech Connect

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered.

  15. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems: factors that may intensify the safety consequences of biofouling. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Sr.; Daling, P.M.; Johnson, K.I.

    1985-04-01

    This report describes the safety and economic consequences of bivalve fouling in raw-water systems at nuclear power plants. The report lists events that could cause a normal fouling situation to become more critical and describes scenarios in which bivalve fouling could cause unsafe or unwanted conditions such as transients and shutdowns. Several fouling events that have occurred at various nuclear plants are briefly reviewed, and recommendations are made to aid in the detection and control of bivalve fouling.

  16. The interactions of human neutrophils with shiga toxins and related plant toxins: danger or safety?

    PubMed

    Brigotti, Maurizio

    2012-03-01

    Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

  17. The Interactions of Human Neutrophils with Shiga Toxins and Related Plant Toxins: Danger or Safety?

    PubMed Central

    Brigotti, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Shiga toxins and ricin are well characterized similar toxins belonging to quite different biological kingdoms. Plant and bacteria have evolved the ability to produce these powerful toxins in parallel, while humans have evolved a defense system that recognizes molecular patterns common to foreign molecules through specific receptors expressed on the surface of the main actors of innate immunity, namely monocytes and neutrophils. The interactions between these toxins and neutrophils have been widely described and have stimulated intense debate. This paper is aimed at reviewing the topic, focusing particularly on implications for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22741061

  18. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  19. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    SciTech Connect

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  20. Final Safety Analysis Addenda to Hazards Summary Report, Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II): upgrading of plant protection system. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, N. L.; Keeton, J. M.; Sackett, J. I.

    1980-06-01

    This report is the second in a series of compilations of the formal Final Safety Analysis Addenda (FSAA`s) to the EBR-II Hazard Summary Report and Addendum. Sections 2 and 3 are edited versions of the original FSAA`s prepared in support of certain modifications to the reactor-shutdown-system portion of the EBR-II plant-protection system. Section 4 is an edited version of the original FSAA prepared in support of certain modifications to a system classified as an engineered safety feature. These sections describe the pre- and postmodification system, the rationale for the modification, and required supporting safety analysis. Section 5 provides an updated description and analysis of the EBR-II emergency power system. Section 6 summarizes all significant modifications to the EBR-II plant-protection system to date.

  1. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    AZARM,M.A.; TRAVIS,R.J.

    1999-11-14

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions.

  2. Evaluation of Safety of Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae), a Plant with Healing Properties.

    PubMed

    Gemelli, Tiago Farret; Prado, Lismare da Silva; Santos, Franciele Souza; de Souza, Ana Paula; Guecheva, Temenouga Nikolova; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Dihl, Rafael Rodrigues; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Arrabidaea chica Verlot (Bignoniaceae) has been used as a medicinal herb to treat anemia, hemorrhage, inflammation, intestinal colic, hepatitis, and skin infections in the Brazilian Amazon region. Studies have demonstrated the healing properties of extracts obtained from A. chica leaves, which contain anthocyanins and flavonoids. However, few investigations have assessed the safe use of this plant species. In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic effects of a crude aqueous extract, a butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves were evaluated using the Salmonella/microsome assay in TA98, TA97a, TA100, TA102, and TA1535 strains and the alkaline comet assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell culture with and without metabolic activation. The crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste were not mutagenic in any of the Salmonella typhimurium strains tested, and showed negative responses for genotoxicity in CHO cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids such as rutin and luteolin. The lack of mutagenic/genotoxic effects might be due to phytochemical composition with high concentrations of known anti-inflammatory compounds. Thus, the crude aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and aqueous waste from A. chica leaves do not appear to pose short-term genotoxic risks.

  3. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  4. Lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident: efficient education items of radiation safety for general public.

    PubMed

    Ohno, K; Endo, K

    2015-07-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNP-1) accident, while as tragic as the tsunami, was a man-made disaster created by the ignorance of the effects of radiation and radioactive materials. Therefore, it is important that all specialists in radiation protection in medicine sympathize with the anxiety of the general public regarding the harmful effects of radiation and advise people accordingly. All questions and answers were collected related to inquiries from the general public that were posted to reliable websites, including those of the government and radiation-related organizations, from March 2011 to November 2012. The questions were summarized and classified by similarity of content. (1) The total number of questions is 372. The content was broadly classified into three categories: inquiries for radiation-related knowledge and about health effects and foods. The questions asked to obtain radiation-related knowledge were the most common, accounting for 38 %. Thirty-six percentage of the questions were related to health effects, and 26 % involved foods, whereas 18 % of the questions were related to children and pregnancy. (2) The change over time was investigated in 290 questions for which the time of inquiry was known. Directly after the earthquake, the questions were primarily from people seeking radiation-related knowledge. Later, questions related to health effects increased. The anxiety experienced by residents following the nuclear accident was caused primarily by insufficient knowledge related to radiation, concerns about health effects and uncertainties about food and water safety. The development of educational materials focusing on such content will be important for risk communication with the general public in countries with nuclear power plants. Physicians and medical physicist should possess the ability to respond to questions such as these and should continue with medical examinations and treatments in a safe and appropriate manner.

  5. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo safety profile of the Indian traditional medicinal plant Grewia tiliaefolia.

    PubMed

    Dicson, Sheeja Malar; Samuthirapandi, Muniasamy; Govindaraju, Archunan; Kasi, Pandima Devi

    2015-10-01

    Grewia tiliaefolia Vahl., is a subtropical tree used in Ayurvedic formulations and also by tribal communities in India for treatment of wounds, urinary infection and skin diseases. Despite of its medicinal use, the plant has not been previously tested for its safety. This study evaluated the toxicological profile of the methanolic extract of G. tiliaefolia leaves (MEGT) through in vitro (cytotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic) and in vivo (acute and sub-acute) studies. In vitro assays conclude that there is no significant (p<0.05) level of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at the tested concentrations (250-2000 μg/ml) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ames assay in the tested Salmonella typhimurium strains revealed no significant (p<0.05) increase in the mutagenic index both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Alternatively, no change in mortality, physiological, behavioural, haematological and biochemical parameters were observed under in vivo acute (250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg b.w) and sub-acute (100, 200, 1000 mg/kg b.w) toxicity studies in Wistar rats. Histopathological examinations of the animals did not reveal any treatment related changes and showed normal architecture, even at the highest concentration (1000 mg/kg b.w) following 28 days treatment. Overall, the results show that MEGT is non-toxic at the tested concentrations and is safe to be used as herbal medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 12

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    Supplement No. 12 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County, Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation of (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 11 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 11 was issued.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391): Supplement No. 19

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Supplement No. 19 to the Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for license to operate Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, located in Rhea County Tennessee, has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this supplement is to update the Safety Evaluation with (1) additional information submitted by the applicant since Supplement No. 18 was issued, and (2) matters that the staff had under review when Supplement No. 18 was issued.

  8. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smidts, Carol; Huang, Funqun; Li, Boyuan; Li, Xiang

    2016-03-25

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  9. Plant-produced idiotype vaccines for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: safety and immunogenicity in a phase I clinical study.

    PubMed

    McCormick, A A; Reddy, S; Reinl, S J; Cameron, T I; Czerwinkski, D K; Vojdani, F; Hanley, K M; Garger, S J; White, E L; Novak, J; Barrett, J; Holtz, R B; Tusé, D; Levy, R

    2008-07-22

    Plant-made vaccines have been the subject of intense interest because they can be produced economically in large scale without the use of animal-derived components. Plant-made therapeutic vaccines against challenging chronic diseases, such as cancer, have received little research attention, and no previous human clinical trials have been conducted in this vaccine category. We document the feasibility of using a plant viral expression system to produce personalized (patient-specific) recombinant idiotype vaccines against follicular B cell lymphoma and the results of administering these vaccines to lymphoma patients in a phase I safety and immunogenicity clinical trial. The system allowed rapid production and recovery of idiotypic single-chain antibodies (scFv) derived from each patient's tumor and immunization of patients with their own individual therapeutic antigen. Both low and high doses of vaccines, administered alone or co-administered with the adjuvant GM-CSF, were well tolerated with no serious adverse events. A majority (>70%) of the patients developed cellular or humoral immune responses, and 47% of the patients developed antigen-specific responses. Because 15 of 16 vaccines were glycosylated in plants, this study also shows that variation in patterns of antigen glycosylation do not impair the immunogenicity or affect the safety of the vaccines. Collectively, these findings support the conclusion that plant-produced idiotype vaccines are feasible to produce, safe to administer, and a viable option for idiotype-specific immune therapy in follicular lymphoma patients.

  10. Phytotherapy in the management of psoriasis: a review of the efficacy and safety of oral interventions and the pharmacological actions of the main plants.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shiqiang; May, Brian H; Zhang, Anthony L; Lu, Chuanjian; Xue, Charlie C L

    2014-04-01

    This review provides assessments of the efficacy and safety of oral forms of phytotherapy in psoriasis management and discusses the pharmacological actions of the plants that have been frequently used in clinical trials. It employed the methods described in the Cochrane Handbook. Ten randomized controlled trials that compared a plant-based intervention with placebo or a pharmacotherapy in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris and used Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) as an outcome measure were included. Superiority to placebo was found in two out of three studies. In six out of seven studies, the effect of the phytotherapy was reported as comparable to the pharmacotherapy in the short term when assessed as PASI 50. The safety of the phytotherapies was discussed. The most commonly used plants were Oldenlandia diffusa, Rehmannia glutinosa and Salvia miltiorrhiza. Experimental studies on extracts and compounds derived from these plants have reported anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and other actions of relevance to psoriasis management. These properties may account for the apparent actions of some of the phytotherapies used in these clinical studies. These plants and their active constituents appear to warrant further research attention in the search for future medications for psoriasis.

  11. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  12. Missouri Elementary Science Safety Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemons, Judith L.

    The purpose of this safety manual is to provide a resource to help manage and minimize potential risks in science classrooms where students spend up to 60% of instructional time engaged in hands-on activities. Information on general laboratory safety, science equipment safety, safety with plants, safety with animals, safety with chemicals, field…

  13. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Powerplant systems and procedures that ensure the day-to-day health and safety of people in and around the plant is referred to as operational safety. This safety is the result of careful planning, good engineering and design, strict licensing and regulation, and environmental monitoring. Procedures that assure operational safety at nuclear…

  14. Site Plan Safety Submission for Sampling, Monitoring and Decontamination of Mustard Agent, South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Life or Health JSA Job Safety Analysis MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act PC&E Protective Clothing and Equipment PEL...Chronic exposures (10-20 years) to mustard agent are considered to be a health hazard; therefore, certain health minimums must be met if workers are...exposed. Monitoring of work areas and medical surveillance must be carefully controlled and adequate records maintained. To protect the health and welfare

  15. Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world's woody plant species.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Sean M; Westoby, Mark; Jansen, Steven; Choat, Brendan; Hacke, Uwe G; Pratt, Robert B; Bhaskar, Radika; Brodribb, Tim J; Bucci, Sandra J; Cao, Kun-Fang; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Fan, Ze-Xin; Feild, Taylor S; Jacobsen, Anna L; Johnson, Daniel M; Lens, Frederic; Maherali, Hafiz; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Mayr, Stefan; McCulloh, Katherine A; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Mitchell, Patrick J; Morris, Hugh; Nardini, Andrea; Pittermann, Jarmila; Plavcová, Lenka; Schreiber, Stefan G; Sperry, John S; Wright, Ian J; Zanne, Amy E

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of xylem (its ability to resist embolism formation and spread) should trade off against xylem efficiency (its capacity to transport water). We tested this safety-efficiency hypothesis in branch xylem across 335 angiosperm and 89 gymnosperm species. Safety was considered at three levels: the xylem water potentials where 12%, 50% and 88% of maximal conductivity are lost. Although correlations between safety and efficiency were weak (r(2)  < 0.086), no species had high efficiency and high safety, supporting the idea for a safety-efficiency tradeoff. However, many species had low efficiency and low safety. Species with low efficiency and low safety were weakly associated (r(2)  < 0.02 in most cases) with higher wood density, lower leaf- to sapwood-area and shorter stature. There appears to be no persuasive explanation for the considerable number of species with both low efficiency and low safety. These species represent a real challenge for understanding the evolution of xylem. No claim to US government works. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Safety of plant-made pharmaceuticals: product development and regulatory considerations based on case studies of two autologous human cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tusé, Daniel

    2011-03-01

    Guidelines issued by regulatory agencies for the development of plant-made pharmaceutical (PMP) products provide criteria for product manufacturing and characterization, safety determination, containment and mitigation of environmental risks. Features of plant-made products do not always enable an easy fit within the criteria subscribed to by regulators. The unconventional nature of plant-based manufacturing processes and peculiarities of plant biology relative to that of traditional biological production systems have led to special considerations in the regulatory scrutiny of PMP. Presented in this review are case studies of two plant-made autologous (patient-specific) cancer vaccines, the nature of which introduced challenges to conventional and standardized development and preclinical evaluation routes. The rationale presented to FDA by the sponsors of each vaccine to build consensus and obtain variances to existing guidelines is discussed. While development of many plant-made biologics can be accomplished within the existing regulatory framework, the development of specialized products can be defended with rational arguments based on strong science.

  17. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  18. The Influence of Individual and Team Cognitive Ability on Operators’ Task and Safety Performance: A Multilevel Field Study in Nuclear Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators’ performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators’ GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a “big-fish-little-pond” effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers’ extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed. PMID:24391964

  19. The influence of individual and team cognitive ability on operators' task and safety performance: a multilevel field study in nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Li, Yongjuan; Wu, Changxu

    2013-01-01

    While much research has investigated the predictors of operators' performance such as personality, attitudes and motivation in high-risk industries, its cognitive antecedents and boundary conditions have not been fully investigated. Based on a multilevel investigation of 312 nuclear power plant main control room operators from 50 shift teams, the present study investigated how general mental ability (GMA) at both individual and team level can influence task and safety performance. At the individual level, operators' GMA was predictive of their task and safety performance and this trend became more significant as they accumulated more experience. At the team level, we found team GMA had positive influences on all three performance criteria. However, we also found a "big-fish-little-pond" effect insofar as team GMA had a relatively smaller effect and inhibited the contribution of individual GMA to workers' extra-role behaviors (safety participation) compared to its clear beneficial influence on in-role behaviors (task performance and safety compliance). The possible mechanisms related to learning and social comparison processes are discussed.

  20. Aging and service wear of electric motor-operated valves used in engineered safety-feature systems of nuclear power plants: Aging assessments and monitoring method evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1989-08-01

    Motor-operated valves (MOVs) are located in almost all plant fluid systems. Their failures have resulted in significant plant maintenance efforts. More important, the operational readiness if nuclear plant safety-related systems has often been affected by MOV degradation and failure. Thus, in recent years MOVs have received considerable attention by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear power industry and were identified as a component for study by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. In support of the NPAR Program, a comprehensive Phase II aging assessment on MOVs was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the results of this study are presented in this report. An evaluation of commercially available MOV monitoring methods was carried out, as well as an assessment of other potentially useful techniques. These assessments led to the identification of an effective, nonintrusive, and remote technique, namely, motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The capabilities of monitoring methods (especially MCSA) for detecting changes in operating conditions and MOV degradation were investigated in controlled laboratory tests at ORNL, in situ MOV tests at a neighboring nuclear power plant, and the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown test in Huntsville, Alabama. 17 refs., 121 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Plant stanol ester spreads as components of a balanced diet for pregnant and breast-feeding women: evaluation of clinical safety.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, K; Isolauri, E; Kaipiainen, L; Gylling, H; Miettinen, T A

    2009-06-01

    Clinical safety of consuming plant stanol ester spreads during pregnancy and lactation, the impact on maternal and infant serum and breast-milk cholesterol and the ratios (micromol/mmol of cholesterol) of synthesis and absorption markers were evaluated. Pregnant women (n 21) were randomised to control and dietary intervention groups, the intervention including advice to follow a balanced diet and to consume spreads enriched with plant stanol esters. Participants were followed during and after pregnancy and their infants up to 1 year of age. A mean 1.1 (sd 0.4) g consumption of plant stanols during pregnancy and 1.4 (sd 0.9) g 1 month post-partum increased sitostanol and the markers for cholesterol synthesis, lathosterol, lathosterol/campesterol and lathosterol/sitosterol, and reduced a marker for cholesterol absorption, campesterol, in maternal serum. In breast milk, desmosterol was lower in the intervention group, while no differences were detected between the groups in infants' serum. Plant stanol ester spread consumption had no impact on the length of gestation, infants' growth or serum beta-carotene concentration at 1 and 6 months of age, but the cholesterol-adjusted serum beta-carotene concentration was lowered at 1 month in the intervention group. Plant stanol ester spread consumption appeared safe in the clinical setting, except for potential lowering of infants' serum beta-carotene concentration, and was reflected in the markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption in mothers' serum, encouraging further studies in larger settings.

  2. Operational safety enhancement of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors via development of nuclear power plant simulators and transfer of related technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kohut, P.; Epel, L.G.; Tutu, N.K.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), under the US government`s International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), is implementing a program of developing and providing simulators for many of the Russian and Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) manage and provide technical oversight of the various INSP simulator projects for DOE. The program also includes a simulator technology transfer process to simulator design organizations in Russia and Ukraine. Training programs, installation of new simulators, and enhancements in existing simulators are viewed as providing a relatively fast and cost-effective technology transfer that will result in measurable improvement in the safety culture and operation of NPPs. A review of this program, its present status, and its accomplishments are provided in this paper.

  3. Aging and service wear of spring-loaded pressure relief valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.; Cox, D.F.

    1995-03-01

    Spring-loaded pressure relief valves (PRVS) are used in some safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. In general, they are used in systems where, during accidents, pressures may rise to levels where pressure safety relief is required for protection of personnel, system piping, and components. This report documents a study of PRV aging and considers the severity and causes of service wear and how it is discovered and corrected in various systems, valve sizes, etc. Provided in this report are results of the examination of the recorded failures and identification of trends and relationships/correlations in the failures when all failure-related parameters are considered. Components that comprise a typical PRV, how those components fail, when they fail, and the current testing frequencies and methods are also presented in detail.

  4. Definition and Means of Maintaining the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System Portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Envelope

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    2000-04-04

    The purpose of this document is to provide the definition and means of maintaining the safety envelope (SE) for the Emergency Notification and Evacuation System (ENES). Together with the appendices, it provides: (1) The system requirements for determining system operability (Section 3.0); (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4.0); (3) List of system drawings that are annotated to show the SE boundaries (Appendix A); (4) Identification of the SE equipment by reference to systems and drawings (Appendix B); (5) Requirements for the individual SE equipment (Section 4.0); and (6) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the SE (Sections 5.0 and 6.0). The Private Automatic Exchange (PAX) phones and PAX switchers are outside the safety envelope defined in WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010, Section 5.4.10, ''Safety Communication and Alarm Systems,'' Section 5.4.1 0.1, ''Major Components and Operating Characteristics,'' and Section 5.4.10.1.12, ''PAX System.'' The PAX override microphone system maintains the safety envelope, and functions as a backup to the evacuation sirens during an emergency.

  5. Evaluation of primary and secondary treated and disinfected wastewater irrigation of tomato and cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions, regarding growth and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Papagrigoriou, I; Daskalakis, G; Sabathianakis, I; Terzakis, S; Maniadakis, K; Markakis, G

    2006-08-01

    Tomato and cucumber seedlings were distributed into 10 groups (five for each plant) of 15 plants each. The plants were irrigated for 10 weeks with primary treated wastewater (group A), secondary treated wastewater (group B), chlorinated secondary treated wastewater (group C), a fertilizer dilution (group F), and tap water (group M). All precautions were taken to secure that there was no direct contact between the wastewater and the edible portions of the crops. During this period and on a weekly basis, the height and number of leaves was monitored, while, at the end, the dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots for each plant of each group was measured. Based on these growth parameters, both types of plant in groups A and F recorded the most significant development compared to the other three groups. The plants irrigated with tap water recorded the smallest development, in every case. Plants in groups B and C were similar, with a slight (but not significant) superiority for the plants irrigated with secondary treated wastewater, probably as a result of some phytotoxic effects of residual chloride in the chlorinated wastewater. The presence of nutrients and specifically nitrogen in the various solutions explains the differences satisfactorily. The vegetables grown on the plants of each group were harvested, and their surface tissue analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). Tomatoes grown on the plants of groups A and B recorded the highest values for TC, with 505 and 490 cfu/g, respectively, whereas, for cucumbers, those values were 342 and 450 cfu/g, respectively. Enterococci were detected on the surface of harvested vegetables from groups A and B, but the small number of cases and their random character cannot support any strong relations between the used wastewater and their presence. The TC values in group C were very low, far lower than those if group F. No EC were found in either group C or group F. These primary results suggested that irrigation

  6. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2% ± 5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  7. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Benefits to rare plants and highway safety from annual population reductions of a "native invader," white-tailed deer, in a Chicago-area woodland.

    PubMed

    Engeman, Richard M; Guerrant, Travis; Dunn, Glen; Beckerman, Scott F; Anchor, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer are one of the most serious threats to woodland plant communities in the Chicago area. Moreover, the abundant deer in a highly populated area causes economic harm and poses hazards to human safety through collisions with vehicles. The artificial conditions causing the overabundance and resulting consequences qualify the white-tailed deer in the Chicago area to be considered as "native invaders". We examined the benefits of culling deer at a Chicago-area woodland preserve by comparing browse rates on four endangered plant species from years before culling began with years with culling. We also examined deer-vehicle collision and traffic flow rates on area roads from years before culling began and years with culling to assess whether population reductions may have benefited road safety in the area. All four endangered plant species (three orchid species and sweet fern) had lower browse rates in years with culls, although the decreased browsing rates were statistically distinguishable for only two of the species (grass pink orchid and sweet fern). After first verifying that traffic flow rates did not decrease from pre-cull years to years with culls, we analyzed the Illinois Department of Transportation data from area roads based on deer-vehicle collisions causing >US$500 in damage and showed a one-third reduction in deer-vehicle collisions. An economic analysis showed a cost savings during the cull years of US$0.6 million for reducing browsing to just these four monitored plant species and the reduction in deer-vehicle collisions.

  9. Site plan safety submission for sampling, monitoring and decontamination of mustard agent, South Plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The scope of this site plan safety submission (SPSS) includes: (1) Sampling plan to determine if H is a contaminant in Equipment and piping used in the 1970's for the H DEMIL program; (2) Monitoring plan for personnel involved in the sampling effort; and (3) Decon plan for personnel, equipment, and piping should contamination be identified. Additional sections and appendices include: (1) Historical use of Bld 637 and Bld 538; (2) Chemical information on H, HD, and HT; (3) Safety requirements; (4) Medical requirements and first aid procedures; (5) Piping drawings; and (6) RMA SOP's for sampling, monitoring, and decon.

  10. Review guidelines for software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems: Final report. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, M.; Decker, D.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Dinsmore, G.; Koch, S.

    1997-10-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada83 and Ada95; C and C++; International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Ladder Logic, Sequential Function Charts, Structured Text, and Function Block Diagrams; Pascal; and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.

  11. Site plan safety submission for sampling, monitoring, decontamination of GB agent - north plant Rocky Mountain Arsenal. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The scope of this site plan safety submission (SPSS), includes: sampling plan to determine if GB is a contaminant in equipment and piping used in the production and demil processes; monitoring plan for personnel involved in the sampling effort; decon plan for personnel, equipment, and piping should contamination be identified. Additional sections and appendices include: historical use of bldg 1501, 1503, 1504, 1506, 1601, 1602, 1603, 1606; chemical information on GB; safety requirements; medical requirements and first aid procedures; piping drawings; rma sop's for sampling, monitoring, and decon.

  12. Persistence of native and exotic plants ten years after prairie reconstruction data set

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Bright, J. B.; Drobney, Pauline; Larson, Jennifer L.; Vacek, Sara

    2016-01-01

    These data sets consist of data collected during 2005-2007, 2010, and 2015 at Neal Smith NWR (IA) and Fergus Falls, Litchfield, and Morris Wetland Management Districts (MN) that were used in the analysis in support of the article titled "Integrity of tallgrass prairie reconstructions ten years after planting: native plant persistence and exotic weed resistance," which has been submitted to the journal Restoration Ecology. The primary goal of this study was to understand what influence early reconstruction practices have on long-term outcomes. Twelve replicates of three planting methods (dormant-season broadcast, growing-season broadcast, and growing-season drill) and three seed mix richness levels (10, 20 or 34 species), fully crossed in a completely randomized design were planted in 2005 on nine former agricultural fields. Cover by species was estimated in 2005-2007, 2010 and 2015, and richness data for treatment plots was determined in 2007, 2010, and 2015. Data from Minnesota and Iowa sites were analyzed separately, and are housed in separate files.

  13. Definition and means of maintaining the emergency notification and evacuation system portion of the Plutonium Finishing Plant safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.

    1997-04-21

    The Emergency Evacuation and Notification System provides information to the PFP Building Emergency Director to assist in determining appropriate emergency response, notifies personnel of the required response, and assists in their response. The report identifies the equipment in the Safety Envelope (SE) for this System and the Administrative, Maintenance, and Surveillance Procedures used to maintain the SE Equipment.

  14. Weak tradeoff between xylem safety and xylem-specific hydraulic efficiency across the world’s woody plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    • The evolution of lignified xylem allowed for the efficient transport of water under tension, but also exposed the vascular network to the risk of gas emboli and the spread of gas between xylem conduits, thus impeding sap transport to the leaves. A well-known hypothesis proposes that the safety of...

  15. Intervention technologies for food safety on minimally processed produce:Perspectives on food-borne and plant pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Produce contamination associated with enteric pathogens such Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and others are significant challenges to food safety. This is due to the illnesses and economic impacts resulting from the outbreaks. Innovative technologies for i...

  16. Safety evaluation of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) from maize that confers tolerance to glyphosate herbicide in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Rouquié, David; Freyssinet, Martine; Currier, Thomas; Martone, Aris; Zhou, Junguo; Bates, Elizabeth E M; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Hendrickx, Koen; Rouan, Dominique

    2009-07-01

    Glyphosate tolerance can be conferred by decreasing the herbicide's ability to inhibit the enzyme 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in all plants, fungi, and bacteria. Glyphosate tolerance is based upon the expression of the double mutant 5-enol pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS) protein. The 2mEPSPS protein, with a lower binding affinity for glyphosate, is highly resistant to the inhibition by glyphosate and thus allows sufficient enzyme activity for the plants to grow in the presence of herbicides that contain glyphosate. Based on both a review of published literature and experimental studies, the potential safety concerns related to the transgenic 2mEPSPS protein were assessed. The safety evaluation supports that the expressed protein is innocuous. The 2mEPSPS enzyme does not possess any of the properties associated with known toxins or allergens, including a lack of amino acid sequence similarity to known toxins and allergens, a rapid degradation in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, and no adverse effects in mice after intravenous or oral administration (at 10 or 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the 2mEPSPS protein in human food or in animal feed.

  17. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  18. Controls in new construction reactors-factory testing of the non-safety portion of the Lungmen nuclear power plant distributed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y. S.; Dick, J. W.; Tetirick, C. W.

    2006-07-01

    The construction permit for Taipower's Lungmen Nuclear Units 1 and 2, two ABWR plants, was issued on March 17, 1999[1], The construction of these units is progressing actively at site. The digital I and C system supplied by GE, which is designated as the Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in this project, is being implemented primarily at one vendor facility. In order to ensure the reliability, safety and availability of the DCIS, it is required to comprehensively test the whole DCIS in factory. This article describes the test requirements and acceptance criteria for functional testing of the Non-Safety Distributed Control and Information system (DCIS) for Taiwan Power's Lungmen Units 1 and 2 GE selected Invensys as the equipment supplier for this Non-Safety portion of DCIS. The DCIS system of the Lungmen Units is a physically distributed control system. Field transmitters are connected to hard I/O terminal inputs on the Invensys I/A system. Once the signal is digitized on FBMs (Field Bus Modules) in Remote Multiplexing Units (RMUs), the signal is passed into an integrated control software environment. Control is based on the concept of compounds and blocks where each compound is a logical collection of blocks that performs a control function. Each point identified by control compound and block can be individually used throughout the DCIS system by referencing its unique name. In the Lungmen Project control logic and HSI (Human System Interface) requirements are divided into individual process systems called MPLs (Master Parts List). Higher-level Plant Computer System (PCS) algorithms access control compounds and blocks in these MPLs to develop functions. The test requirements and acceptance criteria for the DCIS system of the Lungmen Project are divided into three general categories (see 1,2,3 below) of verification, which in turn are divided into several specific tests: 1. DCIS System Physical Checks a) RMU Test - To confirm that the hard I

  19. Aging and service wear of check valves used in engineered safety-feature systems of nuclear power plants: Aging assessments and monitoring method evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Check valves are used extensively in nuclear power plant safety systems and balance-of-plant systems. The failures of these valves have resulted in significant maintenance efforts and, on occasion, have resulted in water hammer, overpressurization of low-pressure systems, and damage to flow system components. These failures have largely been attributed to severe degradation of internal parts (e.g., hinge pins, hinge arms, discs, and disc nut pins) resulting from instability (flutter) of check valve discs under normal plant operating conditions. Present surveillance requirements for nuclear power plant check valves have been inadequate for timely detection and trending of such degradation because neither the flutter nor the resulting wear can be detected prior to failure. Consequently, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has had a continuing strong interest in resolving check valve problems. In support of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has carried out an evaluation of several developmental and/or commercially available check valve diagnostic monitoring methods, in particular, those based on measurements of acoustic emission, ultrasonics, and magnetic flux. In each case, the evaluations have been focused on the capability of each method to provide diagnostic information useful in determining check valve aging and service wear effects (degradation), check valve failures, and undesirable operating modes. A description of each monitoring method is provided in this report, including examples of test data acquired under controlled laboratory conditions. In some cases, field test data acquired in situ are also presented. The methods are compared, and suggested areas in need of further development are identified. 6 refs., 36 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Probiotic screening and safety evaluation of Lactobacillus strains from plants, artisanal goat cheese, human stools, and breast milk.

    PubMed

    Gotteland, Martin; Cires, Maria Jose; Carvallo, Claudia; Vega, Natalia; Ramirez, Maria Antonieta; Morales, Pamela; Rivas, Patricia; Astudillo, Fernanda; Navarrete, Paola; Dubos, Céline; Figueroa, Alvaro; Troncoso, Miriam; Ulloa, Carolina; Mizgier, Maria Luisa; Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Speisky, Hernan; Brunser, Oscar; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to select autochthonous strains of Lactobacillus from stools of healthy infants and adults, human milk, artisanal goat cheese, and fruits and vegetables according to their probiotic properties and safety. From 421 strains of Lactobacillus isolated, 102 (24.2%) were shown to be tolerant to gastric pH and bile salts; they were used to determine their anti-Helicobacter pylori (agar diffusion assay), antioxidant (oxygen radical absorption capacity), and anti-inflammatory (inhibition of interleukin-8 release by tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated HT-29 cells) activities as well as their ability to adhere to intestinal (Caco-2) and gastric (AGS) epithelial cells. Results obtained were compared with three commercial probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and L. johnsonii NCC533. The five strains most efficient according to these activities were subsequently identified by sequencing their 16S rRNA gene, their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined, and their safety evaluated in mice. One strain of L. plantarum was discarded due to the higher prevalence of liver bacterial translocation observed in the animals fed this strain. In conclusion, four autochthonous strains of L. rhamnosus were finally selected with probiotic properties and safety allowing their eventual use in human studies. These results contribute to increase the diversity of probiotic strains available for the development of nutraceuticals and functional foods.

  1. The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants.

    PubMed

    van den Eede, G; Aarts, H; Buhk, H-J; Corthier, G; Flint, H J; Hammes, W; Jacobsen, B; Midtvedt, T; van der Vossen, J; von Wright, A; Wackernagel, W; Wilcks, A

    2004-07-01

    In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established. This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops are described. Next, HGT mechanisms and its possible evolutionary role are described. The use of marker genes is presented in detail as a special case for genes that may pose a risk. Furthermore, the exposure to GMOs and in particular to genetically modified (GM) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is discussed as part of the total risk assessment. The review finishes off with a number of conclusions related to GM food and feed safety. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview to assist risk assessors as well as regulators and the general public in understanding the safety issues related to these mechanisms.

  2. Safety demonstration tests of hypothetical explosive burning in the cell and air ventilation system in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nisio, G.; Suzuki, M.; Mukaide, S. )

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant equipped with an air ventilation system consisting of cells, ducts, dampers, high-efficiency particulate air filters, and blowers. This ventilation system is required to have multiple safeguards in order to confine airborne radioactive materials within the plant in the event of fire, explosion, and criticality. To evaluate these safeguards, three kinds of explosive burning tests are performed using a large-scale facility simulating the ventilation system of a reprocessing plant. In the boilover test, an organic solvent is burned on a layer of water in a burning pan to determine the magnitude of the burning caused by the sudden boiling of the water under the solvent. The optimum conditions for boilover burning are determined by the relationship between the pan size and the ventilation rate.

  3. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  4. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  5. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  6. Americans' access to prescription drugs stabilizes, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Boukus, Ellyn R; Carrier, Emily R

    2011-12-01

    Despite the weak economy and more people lacking health insurance, the proportion of Americans reporting problems affording prescription drugs remained level between 2007 and 2010, with more than one in eight going without a prescribed drug in 2010, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). While remaining stable overall, access to prescription drugs improved for working-age, uninsured people, likely reflecting a decline in visits to health care providers, as well as changes in the composition of the uninsured population. Likewise, elderly people eligible for both Medicare and Medicaid saw a sharp drop in prescription drug access problems. The most vulnerable people--the uninsured, those with low incomes, people in fair or poor health, and those with multiple chronic conditions--continued to face the most unmet prescription needs. For example, 48 percent of uninsured people in fair or poor health went without a prescription drug because of cost concerns in 2010, almost double the rate of insured people with the same reported health status.

  7. Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans, Cambodia, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Khim, Nimol; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kim, Saorin; Mueller, Tara; Fleischmann, Erna; Singh, Balbir; Divis, Paul Cliff Simon; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Duval, Linda; Bouchier, Christiane; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Menard, Didier

    2011-10-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans were identified in Cambodia by 3 molecular detection assays and sequencing. This finding confirms the widespread distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Further wide-scale studies are required to assess the public health relevance of this zoonotic malaria parasite.

  8. Forest Phytophthora diseases in the Americas: 2007 - 2010

    Treesearch

    S. J. Frankel; E. M. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings, policy, regulation, and management relating to tree disease caused by Phytophthora species in wildlands and nurseries of North and South America are reviewed. These include the isolation of Phytophthora alni uniformis Brasier & S.A.Kirk in Alaska, and detection of population shifts in NA1, NA2 and EU1...

  9. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  10. Plant-based ointments versus usual care in the management of chronic skin diseases: a comparative analysis on outcome and safety.

    PubMed

    Jong, Miek C; Ermuth, Ulrike; Augustin, Matthias

    2013-10-01

    To assess the outcome and safety of plant-based ointments versus usual care in the management of chronic skin diseases. Prospective mono-centric comparative analysis. Patients were recruited at an outpatient dermatology clinic and treated with plant-based ointments or care as usual. Main outcome criterion was the response rate, defined as the proportion of patients experiencing 'complete recovery' or 'major improvement' at 6, 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcome criteria were quality of life (SF-12 and EQ-5D), patient satisfaction and safety of treatment. A total of 112 patients with chronic skin diseases were evaluated of which 44 were treated with plant-based ointments (PO) and 68 received usual care (UC). The majority of patients suffered from psoriasis (PO: 50%; UC: 56%) or eczema (PO: 41%; UC: 32%) and were treated with homoeopathic topical ointments containing mahonia or cardiospermum or usual care creams containing calcipotriene and corticosteroids. The only significant difference in baseline status between the two groups was in disease severity score (PO: 1.8±0.7 versus UC: 2.4±0.8, p=0.0004). After two years, the main outcome of responders to treatment was 52.3% (95%-CI: 36.1-64.9) in the ointment and 41.2% (95%-CI: 20.4-42.2) in the UC group. Change in SF-12 (2 years compared to baseline), adjusted for baseline disease severity, was not significantly different between both groups; PO: 5.4 (95%-CI: 3.4-7.3) versus UC: 3.2 (95%-CI: 1.5-4.9). The adjusted EQ-5D was found to be significantly different between the two groups after two years, in favour of the ointment group; PO: 0.113 (95%-CI: 0.052-0.174) and UC: -0.008 (95%-CI: -0.055-0.038). Other secondary outcome parameters such as patient satisfaction and number of adverse drug reactions were comparable. The outcome of this study suggests at least therapeutic equivalence between plant-based ointments and usual care management of chronic skin diseases. As this non-randomised study was open to selection

  11. Initial Assessment of Sulfur-Iodine Process Safety Issues and How They May Affect Pilot Plant Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Cherry

    2006-09-01

    The sulfur-iodine process to make hydrogen by the thermochemical splitting of water is under active development as part of a U.S. Department of Energy program. An integrated lab scale system is currently being designed and built. The next planned stage of development is a pilot plant with a thermal input of about 500 kW, equivalent to about 30,000 standard liters per hour of hydrogen production. The sulfur-iodine process contains a variety of hazards, including temperatures up to 850 ºC and hazardous chemical species including SO2, H2SO4, HI, I2, and of course H2. The siting and design of a pilot plant must consider these and other hazards. This report presents an initial analysis of the hazards that might affect pilot plant design and should be considered in the initial planning. The general hazards that have been identified include reactivity, flammability, toxicity, pressure, electrical hazards, and industrial hazards such as lifting and rotating equipment. Personnel exposure to these hazards could occur during normal operations, which includes not only running the process at the design conditions but also initial inventory loading, heatup, startup, shutdown, and system flushing before equipment maintenance. Because of the complexity and severity of the process, these ancillary operations are expected to be performed frequently. In addition, personnel could be exposed to the hazards during various abnormal situations which could include unplanned phase changes of liquids or solids, leaks of process fluids or cooling water into other process streams, unintentional introducion of foreign species into the process, and unexpected side reactions. Design of a pilot plant will also be affected by various codes and regulations such as the International Building Code, the International Fire Code, various National Fire Protection Association Codes, and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

  12. Risk-informed regulation and safety management of nuclear power plants--on the prevention of severe accidents.

    PubMed

    Himanen, Risto; Julin, Ari; Jänkälä, Kalle; Holmberg, Jan-Erik; Virolainen, Reino

    2012-11-01

    There are four operating nuclear power plant (NPP) units in Finland. The Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) power company has two 840 MWe BWR units supplied by Asea-Atom at the Olkiluoto site. The Fortum corporation (formerly IVO) has two 500 MWe VVER 440/213 units at the Loviisa site. In addition, a 1600 MWe European Pressurized Water Reactor supplied by AREVA NP (formerly the Framatome ANP--Siemens AG Consortium) is under construction at the Olkiluoto site. Recently, the Finnish Parliament ratified the government Decision in Principle that the utilities' applications to build two new NPP units are in line with the total good of the society. The Finnish utilities, Fenno power company, and TVO company are in progress of qualifying the type of the new nuclear builds. In Finland, risk-informed applications are formally integrated in the regulatory process of NPPs that are already in the early design phase and these are to run through the construction and operation phases all through the entire plant service time. A plant-specific full-scope probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is required for each NPP. PRAs shall cover internal events, area events (fires, floods), and external events such as harsh weather conditions and seismic events in all operating modes. Special attention is devoted to the use of various risk-informed PRA applications in the licensing of Olkiluoto 3 NPP.

  13. Summary of the contractor information exchange meeting for improving the safety of Soviet-Designed Nuclear Power Plants, February 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held on February 19, 1997, in Washington, D.C. The meeting was held primarily to exchange information among the contractors involved in the U.S. Department of Energy`s efforts to improve the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Previous meetings have been held on December 5-6, 1995, and May 22, 1996. The meetings are sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and coordinated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The U.S. Department of Energy works with countries to increase the level of safety at 63 Soviet-designed nuclear reactors operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. The work is implemented largely by commercial companies and individuals who provide technologies and services to the countries with Soviet-designed nuclear power plants. Attending the meeting were 71 representatives of commercial contractors, the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of State, national laboratories, and other federal agencies. The presentations and discussions that occurred during the exchange are summarized in this report. While this report captures the general presentation and discussion points covered at the meeting, it is not a verbatim, inclusive record. To make the report useful, information presented at the meeting has been expanded to clarify issues, respond to attendees` requests, or place discussion points in a broader programmatic context. Appendixes A through F contain the meeting agenda, list of attendees, copies of presentation visuals and handouts, the Strategy Document discussed at the meeting, and a summary of attendees` post-meeting evaluation comments. As with past information exchanges, the participants found this meeting valuable and useful. In response to the participant`s requests, a fourth information exchange will be held later in 1997.

  14. The efficacy and safety of nine South African medicinal plants in controlling Bacillus anthracis Sterne vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Elisha, Ishaku Leo; Dzoyem, Jean-Paul; Botha, Francien S; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2016-01-08

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium. The presence of the bacteria and the toxins in the blood of infected hosts trigger a cascade of pathological events leading to death. Nine medicinal plants with good activities against other bacteria were selected to determine their in vitro antibacterial activity against Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain. The cytotoxicity of the extracts on Vero kidney cells was also determined. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the extracts against Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain ranged from 0.02 to 0.31 mg/ml. Excellent MIC values were observed for the following plant species: Maesa lanceolata (0.02 mg/ml), Bolusanthus speciosus, Hypericum roeperianum, Morus mesozygia (0.04 mg/ml) and Pittosporum viridiflorum (0.08 mg/ml). The total antibacterial activity of the extracts ranged from 92 to 5562 ml/g. Total activity presents the volume to which the extract from 1 g of plant material can be diluted and still inhibit microbial growth. Maesa lanceolata and Hypericum roeperianum had the highest total activity with values of 5562 and 2999 ml/g respectively. The extracts of Calpurnia aurea had the lowest total activity (92 ml/g). The cytotoxicity determined on Vero cells indicated that most of the extracts were relatively non-toxic compared to doxorubicin (LC50 8.3 ± 1.76 μg/ml), except for the extracts of Maesa lanceolata, Elaeodendron croceum and Calpurnia aurea with LC50 values at 2.38 ± 0.25, 5.20 ± 0.24 and 13 ± 2.26 μg/ml respectively. The selectivity index (SI) ranged from 0.02 to 1.66. Hypericum roeperianum had the best selectivity index, (SI = 1.66) and Elaeodendron croceum had lowest value (SI = 0.02). The crude acetone extracts of the selected plant species had promising antibacterial activity against Bacillus anthracis. Maesa lanceolata extracts could be useful as a disinfectant and Hypericum roeperianum could be

  15. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  16. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  17. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26th and 28th, 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions. PMID:25706477

  18. Recommendations from the workshop on Comparative Approaches to Safety Assessment of GM Plant Materials: A road toward harmonized criteria?

    PubMed

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Batista, Juan Carlos; Burachik, Moisés; Parrott, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    An international meeting of genetically modified (GM) food safety assessors from the main importing and exporting countries from Asia and the Americas was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, between June 26(th) and 28(th), 2013. Participants shared their evaluation approaches, identified similarities and challenges, and used their experience to propose areas for future work. Recommendations for improving risk assessment procedures and avenues for future collaboration were also discussed. The deliberations of the meeting were also supported by a survey of participants which canvassed risk assessment approaches across the regions from which participants came. This project was initiated by Argentine Agri-Food Health and Quality National Service (SENASA, Ministry of Agriculture, Argentina), with the support of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) and other partner institutions. The importance of making all possible efforts toward more integrated and harmonized regulatory oversight for GM organisms (GMOs) was strongly emphasized. This exercise showed that such harmonization is a feasible goal that would contribute to sustain a fluid trade of commodities and ultimately enhance food security. Before this can be achieved, key issues identified in this meeting will have to be addressed in the near future to enable regulatory collaboration or joint work. The authors propose that the recommendations coming out of the meeting should be used as a basis for continuing work, follow up discussions and concrete actions.

  19. Food Safety by Using Machine Learning for Automatic Classification of Seeds of the South-American Incanut Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanzyk, Thomas; Anding, Katharina; Linss, Gerhard; Rodriguez Hernández, Jorge; Theska, René

    2015-02-01

    The following paper deals with the classification of seeds and seed components of the South-American Incanut plant and the modification of a machine to handle this task. Initially the state of the art is being illustrated. The research was executed in Germany and with a relevant part in Peru and Ecuador. Theoretical considerations for the solution of an automatically analysis of the Incanut seeds were specified. The optimization of the analyzing software and the separation unit of the mechanical hardware are carried out with recognition results. In a final step the practical application of the analysis of the Incanut seeds is held on a trial basis and rated on the bases of statistic values.

  20. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    SciTech Connect

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  1. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  2. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashok; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (EO) and its major component, eugenol against the fungi causing biodeterioration of food stuffs during storage. O. sanctum EO and eugenol were found efficacious in checking growth of Aspergillus flavus NKDHV8; and, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded as 0.3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively. Both of these were found superior over some prevalent synthetic antifungals and exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against 12 commonly occurring fungi. The LD50 value of O. sanctum EO on mice was found to be 4571.43 microl kg(-1) suggesting its non-mammalian toxic nature. The findings of present study reveals the possible exploitation of O. sanctum EO and eugenol as plant based safe preservatives against fungal spoilage of food stuffs during storage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kurath, Dean E.; Daniel, Richard C.; Song, Chen

    2013-03-05

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated spray releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not accurately represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from a range of prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to very large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the aerosol generation rate increases with increasing the orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size.

  4. The European ASAMPSA_E project : towards guidance to model the impact of high amplitude natural hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants. Information on the project progress and needs from the geosciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimond, Emmanuel; Decker, Kurt; Guigueno, Yves; Klug, Joakim; Loeffler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted from the combination of two correlated extreme external events (earthquake and tsunami). The consequences, in particular flooding, went beyond what was considered in the initial engineering design design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Such situations can in theory be identified using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology. PSA results may then lead industry (system suppliers and utilities) or Safety Authorities to take appropriate decisions to reinforce the defence-in-depth of the NPP for low probability event but high amplitude consequences. In reality, the development of such PSA remains a challenging task. Definitions of the design basis of NPPs, for example, require data on events with occurrence probabilities not higher than 10-4 per year. Today, even lower probabilities, down to 10-8, are expected and typically used for probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) of NPPs and the examination of so-called design extension conditions. Modelling the combinations of natural or man-made hazards that can affect a NPP and affecting some meaningful probability of occurrence seems to be difficult. The European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants. It offers a framework to discuss, at a technical level, how "extended PSA" can be developed efficiently and be used to verify if the robustness of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in their environment is sufficient. The paper will present the objectives of this project, some first lessons and introduce which type of guidance is being developed. It will explain the need of expertise from geosciences to support the nuclear safety assessment in the different area (seismotectonic, hydrological, meteorological and biological

  5. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  6. Results of an Analysis of Field Studies of the Intrinsic Dynamic Characteristics Important for the Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaznovsky, A. P. Kasiyanov, K. G.; Ryasnyj, S. I.

    2015-01-15

    A classification of the equipment important for the safety of nuclear power plants is proposed in terms of its dynamic behavior under seismic loading. An extended bank of data from dynamic tests over the entire range of thermal and mechanical equipment in generating units with VVER-1000 and RBMK-1000 reactors is analyzed. Results are presented from a study of the statistical behavior of the distribution of vibrational frequencies and damping decrements with the “small perturbation” factor that affects the measured damping decrements taken into account. A need to adjust the regulatory specifications for choosing the values of the damping decrements with specified inertial loads on equipment owing to seismic effects during design calculations is identified. Minimum values of the decrements are determined and proposed for all types of equipment as functions of the directions and natural vibration frequencies of the dynamic interactions to be adopted as conservative standard values in the absence of actual experimental data in the course of design studies of seismic resistance.

  7. Technical evaluation of the susceptibility of safety-related systems to flooding caused by the failure of non-category 1 systems for the San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Latorre, V.R.; Victor, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of Southern California Edison Company's San Onofre Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, to determine whether the failure of any non-Category 1 (seismic) equipment could result in a condition, such as flooding, that might potentially adversely affect the performance of safety-related equipment required for the safe shutdown of the facility or to mitigate the consequences of an accident. Criteria developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission were used to evaluate the acceptability of the existing protection as well as measures taken by Southern California Edison Company to minimize the danger of flooding and to protect safety-related equipment.

  8. Twenty-third water reactor safety information meeting: Volume 2, Human factors research; Advanced I and C hardware and software; Severe accident research; Probabilistic risk assessment topics; Individual plant examination: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Monteleone, S.

    1996-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the Twenty- Third Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, October 23-25, 1995. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Italy, Japan, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and Switzerland. This document, Volume 2, present topics in human factors research, advanced instrumentation and control hardware and software, severe accident research, probabilistic risk assessment, and individual plant examination. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Home Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Swimming and Water Apply Swimming and Water filter Toy Safety Apply Toy Safety filter TV and Furniture Tip-Overs Apply ... Laundry Packets Medication Poison Sleep Safety and Suffocation Toy Safety TV and Furniture Tip-Overs Water and ...

  10. Increasing the number of trained health and safety professionals in agricultural medicine: evaluation of the "building capacity" program, 2007-2013.

    PubMed

    Rudolphi, Josie M; Donham, Kelley J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The University of Iowa began training health care professionals to care for farmers' occupational health needs since 1974. In order to geographically expand this training to practicing health and safety professionals, the "Building Capacity: A National Resource of Agricultural Medicine Professionals" program was developed and launched in 2006. The model began in 1987 as a program of Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health. In 2006, with funding from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health (GPCAH), the program was expanded beyond the Iowa borders. The principal component of the program, the 40-hour course, Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for Rural Health Professionals-the Core Course (AMCC) is now being offered to health and safety professionals in nine states in the United States, in Australia, and a modified version presented in Turkey. An initial paper evaluated the first phase of the program, years 2007-2010. This paper compares the first phase (2007-2010) with the second phase (2011-2013), which has involved over 500 health and safety professionals. This paper also describes evaluation of the course and changes resulting from the evaluation. Finally, this paper describes best practices for operating this program and makes recommendations for future courses, as well as other trainings within the field.

  11. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  12. Evaluation of the Safety Analysis Report for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project. [Summary of the more significant EEG comments and the associated DOE responses

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.S.

    1985-05-01

    The Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project was first published by the US Department of Energy (DOE), WIPP Project Office (WPO) in 1980. Since that time a total of eight amendments to this Report have been published. As part of its independent evaluation of the WIPP Project for the State of New Mexico, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) maintains a continuing technical assessment of the information in this Report and its amendments. Beginning with the initial publication, and following the amendments, the EEG prepares detailed written comments and recommendations which are submitted to the WPO for consideration in future amendments. The WPO has made many substantial changes to the SAR in response to the EEG's comments. On frequent occasions, meetings between the two groups have been held in an effort to reach an accord on some of the more controversial issues. These meetings generally have been very constructive, but several important areas of conflict remain. In many instances, these areas represent changes which are to be considered by the WPO at some future date, rather than irreconcilable issues. The most important issues remaining to be resolved are included in the discussions of this report, and could be summarized as follows: (1) An amendment of the topical content to be more in accord with the DOE Order 5481.1A and AL 5481.1A. (2) Substantial revisions of the classification of components, structures and systems, and related quality assurance. (3) Revisions to the site geological and hydrologic data based on studies agreed to between DOE and the State.

  13. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Antiviral Effects of Hypericin, a Derivative of St. John's Wort Plant, in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Feinman, Lawrence; Liebes, Leonard; Ostrow, Nancy; Koslowski, Victoria; Tobia, Alfonso; Cabana, Bernard E.; Lee, Dong-Hun; Spritzler, John; Prince, Alfred M.

    2001-01-01

    Hypericin is a natural derivative of the common St. Johns wort plant, Hypericum perforatum. It has in vitro activity against several viruses, including bovine diarrhea virus, a pestivirus with structural similarities to hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a phase I dose escalation study to determine the safety and antiviral activity of hypericin in patients with chronic HCV infection. The first 12 patients received an 8-week course of 0.05 mg of hypericin per kg of body weight orally once a day; 7 patients received an 8-week course of 0.10 mg/kg orally once a day. At the end of the 8-week period of treatment, no subject had a change of plasma HCV RNA level of more than 1.0 log10. Five of 12 subjects receiving the 0.05-mg/kg/day dosing schedule and 6 of 7 subjects receiving the 0.10-mg/kg/day dosing schedule developed phototoxic reactions. No other serious adverse events associated with hypericin use occurred. The pharmacokinetic data revealed a long elimination half-life (mean values of 36.1 and 33.8 h, respectively, for the doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and mean area under the curve determinations of 1.5 and 3.1 μg/ml × hr, respectively. In sum, hypericin given orally in doses of 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg/d caused considerable phototoxicity and had no detectable anti-HCV activity in patients with chronic HCV infection. PMID:11158749

  14. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and antiviral effects of hypericin, a derivative of St. John's wort plant, in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J M; Feinman, L; Liebes, L; Ostrow, N; Koslowski, V; Tobia, A; Cabana, B E; Lee, D; Spritzler, J; Prince, A M

    2001-02-01

    Hypericin is a natural derivative of the common St. Johns wort plant, Hypericum perforatum. It has in vitro activity against several viruses, including bovine diarrhea virus, a pestivirus with structural similarities to hepatitis C virus (HCV). We conducted a phase I dose escalation study to determine the safety and antiviral activity of hypericin in patients with chronic HCV infection. The first 12 patients received an 8-week course of 0.05 mg of hypericin per kg of body weight orally once a day; 7 patients received an 8-week course of 0.10 mg/kg orally once a day. At the end of the 8-week period of treatment, no subject had a change of plasma HCV RNA level of more than 1.0 log(10). Five of 12 subjects receiving the 0.05-mg/kg/day dosing schedule and 6 of 7 subjects receiving the 0.10-mg/kg/day dosing schedule developed phototoxic reactions. No other serious adverse events associated with hypericin use occurred. The pharmacokinetic data revealed a long elimination half-life (mean values of 36.1 and 33.8 h, respectively, for the doses of 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and mean area under the curve determinations of 1.5 and 3.1 microg/ml x hr, respectively. In sum, hypericin given orally in doses of 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg/d caused considerable phototoxicity and had no detectable anti-HCV activity in patients with chronic HCV infection.

  15. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vallario, E.J.; Wolfe, H.R.

    1981-03-01

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation.

  16. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  17. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  18. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  19. A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods…

  20. A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods…

  1. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Hamilton City Water Plant Dam (M0 10261), Grand - Chariton Basin, Caldwell County, Missouri. Phase I Inspection Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    End Of Main Dam Show- ing Erosion And Deterioration Of Riprap Plate B-1l Photo No. 20 View Upstream With Intake Tower To Water Treatment Plant In... Water Treatment Plant Plate B-13 Photo No. 24 Vertical Drop And Erosion Of Upstream Face Near Right End Photo No. 25 View Upstream In Emergency Spillway...dam. Within the damage zone are the City of Hamilton water treatment plant and Highway 36 Business Route (immediately downstream), Highway 36 (0.3

  3. Shared safety management

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, L.; Stumpf, C.

    1995-11-01

    In the past 18 months, American Ref-Fuel, a Houston-based waste-to-energy company, has had three of its plants designated as Star facilities under the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) administered by OSHA. The VPP Star participants are a select group of facilities that have designed and implemented exemplary health and safety programs. They must show performance consistent with the VPP goal of aligning labor, management and OSHA into a cooperative relationship. Having a safe work environment has always been one of the core culture issues at American Ref-Fuel. They have learned the best way to maintain excellence is to listen to how each employee is affected in daily activities by safety issues and take actions to constantly reinforce the message that safety concerns never fall on deaf ears. The VPP process encourages identification of potential safety problems before they occur. The program promotes ongoing integration of safety into all facility activities, with the overall objective of eliminating employee injuries and improving plant performance; two important considerations for plant owners and facility managers searching for new tools to improve their overall bottom line.

  4. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  5. Focusing attention on dam safety

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-09-01

    When people think of hydropower, an image of a dam often comes to mind. Indeed, at most high-hazard dams, there is a hydro plant. A North American hydro industry survey shows that dams and their safety are a priority among project owners. The survey identified several recent dam safety activities: development of safety evaluation programs; dam rehabilitation for greater stability; dam monitoring installations; seismic strengthening; and emergency preparedness.

  6. Safety Equipment in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Willard A.S.

    1964-01-01

    Findings of two recent surveys on safety equipment in laboratory facilities are presented. The first survey was a pilot study of emergency shower and eye wash equipment. This study was followed by a more comprehensive random survey of safety equipment in 2,820 labs. Among other findings, the surveys indicate that many plants are underequipped, or…

  7. Guide for Science Laboratory Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, John J.

    General and specific safety procedures and recommendations for secondary school science laboratories are provided in this guide. Areas of concern include: (1) chemicals (storage, disposal, toxicity, unstable and incompatible chemicals); (2) microorganisms; (3) plants; (4) animals; (5) electricity; (6) lasers; (7) rockets; (8) eye safety and…

  8. Safety climate practice in Korean manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jong-Bae; Bae, Sejong; Ham, Byung-Ho; Singh, Karan P

    2008-11-15

    Safety climate survey was sent to 642 plants in 2003 to explore safety climate practices in the Korean manufacturing plants, especially in hazardous chemical treating plants. Out of 642 plants contacted 195 (30.4%) participated in the surveys. Data were collected by e-mail using SQL-server and mail. The main objective of this study was to explore safety climate practices (level of safety climate and the underlying problems). In addition, the variables that may influence the level of safety climate among managers and workers were explored. The questionnaires developed by health and safety executive (HSE) in the UK were modified to incorporate differences in Korean culture. Eleven important factors were summarized. Internal reliability of these factors was validated. Number of employees in the company varied from less than 30 employees (9.2%) to over 1000 employees (37.4%). Both managers and workers showed generally high level of safety climate awareness. The major underlying problems identified were inadequate health and safety procedures/rules, pressure for production, and rule breaking. The length of employment was a significant contributing factor to the level of safety climate. In this study, participants showed generally high level of safety climate, and length of employment affected the differences in the level of safety climate. Managers' commitment to comply safety rules, procedures, and effective safety education and training are recommended.

  9. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  10. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  11. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  12. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  13. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  14. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  15. Technical evaluation report TMI action -- NUREG-0737 (II.D.1). Relief and safety valve testing, Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Dockets 50-390 and 50-391)

    SciTech Connect

    Fineman, C.P.

    1995-02-01

    In the past, safety and relief valves installed in the primary coolant system of light water reactors have performed improperly. As a result, the authors of NUREG-0578 (TMI-2 Lessons Learned Task Force Status Report and Short-Term Recommendations) and, subsequently, NUREG-0737 (Clarification of TMI Action Plan Requirements) recommended development and completion of programs to do two things. First, they should reevaluate the functional performance capabilities of pressurized water reactor safety, relief, and block valves. Second, they should verify the integrity of the pressurizer safety and relief valve piping systems for normal, transient, and accident conditions. This report documents the review of those programs by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. Specifically, this report documents the review of the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Applicant response to the requirements of NUREG-0578 and NUREG-0737. This review found the Applicant provided an acceptable response reconfirming they met General Design Criteria 14, 15, and 30 of Appendix A to 10 CFR 50 for the subject equipment. It should also be noted Lockheed Idaho performed this review for both Units 1 and 2. However, the applicability of this review to Unit 2 depends on verifying that the Unit 2 as-built system conforms to the Unit 1 design reviewed in this report.

  16. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  17. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  18. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  19. Florida Postsecondary Education Security Information Act. Annual Report of Campus Crime Statistics 1991-93 and Annual Assessment of Physical Plant Safety 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Postsecondary Education Coordination.

    This state-mandated report presents crime statistics at higher education institutions in Florida and an assessment of physical plant security. The crime data list numbers of homicides, forcible sex offenses, robberies, aggravated assaults, burglaries/breaking and entering, larcenies and thefts, and motor vehicle thefts for each state university,…

  20. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  1. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  2. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  3. Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.

    PubMed

    Sturgis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants.

  4. Industrial water supply for the Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant with the ecological safety of the River Seim taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Kyakk, V. A.

    2009-09-15

    The Kursk TETs-1 heating and electric power plant is discussed as an illustration of preventing thermal contamination of its water supply (River Seim) by circulating water. An effective water supply system is taken to be one for which the overheating of the water at a monitoring site (near the outlet location) does not exceed an approved level for the water use conditions. The required cooling capacity of a spray pond for circulating and flow-through water supplies is determined.

  5. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  6. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  7. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  8. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  9. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  10. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  11. A Phase 3, multicenter, open-label, switchover trial to assess the safety and efficacy of taliglucerase alfa, a plant cell-expressed recombinant human glucocerebrosidase, in adult and pediatric patients with Gaucher disease previously treated with imiglucerase.

    PubMed

    Pastores, Gregory M; Petakov, Milan; Giraldo, Pilar; Rosenbaum, Hanna; Szer, Jeffrey; Deegan, Patrick B; Amato, Dominick J; Mengel, Eugen; Tan, Ee Shien; Chertkoff, Raul; Brill-Almon, Einat; Zimran, Ari

    2014-12-01

    Taliglucerase alfa is a β-glucosidase enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) approved in the US and other countries for the treatment of Gaucher disease (GD) in adults and is approved in pediatric and adult patients in Australia and Canada. It is the first approved plant cell-expressed recombinant human protein. A Phase 3, multicenter, open-label, 9-month study assessed safety and efficacy of switching to taliglucerase alfa in adult and pediatric patients with GD treated with imiglucerase for at least the previous 2years. Patients with stable disease were offered taliglucerase alfa treatment using the same dose (9-60U/kg body weight) and regimen of administration (every 2weeks) as imiglucerase. This report summarizes results from 26 adult and 5 pediatric patients who participated in the trial. Disease parameters (spleen and liver volumes, hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, and biomarker levels) remained stable through 9months of treatment in adults and children following the switch from imiglucerase. All treatment-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and transient in nature. Exploratory parameters of linear growth and development showed positive outcomes in pediatric patients. These findings provide evidence of the efficacy and safety profile of taliglucerase alfa as an ERT for GD in patients previously treated with imiglucerase. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT00712348. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products.

  13. 10 CFR 76.87 - Technical safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technical safety requirements. 76.87 Section 76.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.87 Technical safety requirements. (a) The Corporation shall establish technical safety requirements....

  14. 10 CFR 76.87 - Technical safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Technical safety requirements. 76.87 Section 76.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.87 Technical safety requirements. (a) The Corporation shall establish technical safety requirements....

  15. 10 CFR 76.87 - Technical safety requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technical safety requirements. 76.87 Section 76.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS Safety § 76.87 Technical safety requirements. (a) The Corporation shall establish technical safety requirements....

  16. State-of-the-Art of Non-Destructive Testing Methods and Technologies for Application to Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Dr. Herbert; Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner

  17. State-of-the-art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for application to nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Naus, Dan J.

    2014-02-01

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: •locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth •locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials •detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures •detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner •methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner

  18. State-of-the-art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for application to nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Naus, Dan J.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: •locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth •locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials •detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures •detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner •methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner.

  19. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  20. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  1. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  2. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure to ask for a certified child passenger safety technician to assist you.) continue Guidelines for ... killed if they are riding in the front passenger seat when an air bag opens. Air bags ...

  3. Plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) has the potential to act as a safety valve for excess excitation energy in the alpine plant species Ranunculus glacialis L.

    PubMed

    Laureau, Constance; De Paepe, Rosine; Latouche, Gwendal; Moreno-Chacón, Maria; Finazzi, Giovanni; Kuntz, Marcel; Cornic, Gabriel; Streb, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Ranunculus glacialis leaves were tested for their plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) content and electron flow to photorespiration and to alternative acceptors. In shade-leaves, the PTOX and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH) content were markedly lower than in sun-leaves. Carbon assimilation/light and Ci response curves were not different in sun- and shade-leaves, but photosynthetic capacity was the highest in sun-leaves. Based on calculation of the apparent specificity factor of ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), the magnitude of alternative electron flow unrelated to carboxylation and oxygenation of Rubisco correlated to the PTOX content in sun-, shade- and growth chamber-leaves. Similarly, fluorescence induction kinetics indicated more complete and more rapid reoxidation of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool in sun- than in shade-leaves. Blocking electron flow to assimilation, photorespiration and the Mehler reaction with appropriate inhibitors showed that sun-leaves were able to maintain higher electron flow and PQ oxidation. The results suggest that PTOX can act as a safety valve in R. glacialis leaves under conditions where incident photon flux density (PFD) exceeds the growth PFD and under conditions where the plastoquinone pool is highly reduced. Such conditions can occur frequently in alpine climates due to rapid light and temperature changes.

  4. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    PubMed

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  5. Expression of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase and acetolactate synthase genes in transgenic carnation: assessing the safety of a nonfood plant.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Stephen F; Senior, Michael; Nakamura, Noriko; Tsuda, Shinzo; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2013-12-04

    For 16 years, genetically modified flowers of carnation ( Dianthus caryophyllus ) have been sold to the floristry industry. The transgenic carnation carries a herbicide tolerance gene (a mutant gene encoding acetolactate synthase (ALS)) and has been modified to produce delphinidin-based anthocyanins in flowers, which conventionally bred carnation cannot produce. The modified flower color has been achieved by introduction of a gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). Transgenic carnation flowers are produced in South America and are primarily distributed to North America, Europe, and Japan. Although a nonfood crop, the release of the genetically modified carnation varieties required an environmental risk impact assessment and an assessment of the potential for any increased risk of harm to human or animal health compared to conventionally bred carnation. The results of the health safety assessment and the experimental studies that accompanied them are described in this review. The conclusion from the assessments has been that the release of genetically modified carnation varieties which express F3'5'H and ALS genes and which accumulate delphinidin-based anthocyanins do not pose an increased risk of harm to human or animal health.

  6. Use of the dog as non-rodent test species in the safety testing schedule associated with the registration of crop and plant protection products (pesticides): present status.

    PubMed

    Box, Rainer J; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-11-01

    cannot be obtained in sub-chronic studies in about 5% of cases. These conclusions are supported by several retrospective analyses using data on pharmaceutical drugs carried out in the context of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for the Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). Over 90% of drugs elicited no toxic symptoms in 12-month studies in dogs in addition to those that had been recorded previously in studies conducted for 90 or 180 days in dogs and rats. Another approach comparing the results from pre-clinical animal studies with clinical studies noted that animal studies predicted about 70% of the effects observed in volunteers, and in about 94% of cases the effects occurred in animal studies lasting not more than one month. Furthermore, the report summarises the current methods under consideration that could refine or reduce the use of dogs in toxicity testing: industrial data sharing and harmonisation of guidelines, in vitro methods, human studies, computational prediction models, and integrated testing approaches. The integrated Agricultural Chemicals Safety Assessment (ACSA) testing scheme, which is currently being developed in an international project initiated by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI, USA), is of particular relevance, since an ambitious attempt is being made to design a new comprehensive test framework incorporating modern scientific approaches and covering most aspects of current regulatory testing requirements. The ACSA project has access to the pesticide database of the US EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP). Preliminary results have confirmed the two major conclusions from the joint SET/BfR study conducted in Germany. Taking these results into account, it is recommended that the regulatory requirement for 12-month studies to be routinely carried out in dogs should be abandoned. While 90-day studies should be conducted in both rats and dogs, chronic studies should only take

  7. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  8. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  9. Aerosol Formation from High-Pressure Sprays for Supporting the Safety Analysis for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - 13183

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Schonewill, P.P.; Bontha, J.R.; Blanchard, J.; Kurath, D.E.; Daniel, R.C.; Song, C.

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) at Hanford is being designed and built to pretreat and vitrify waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford. One of the postulated events in the hazard analysis for the WTP is a breach in process piping that produces a pressurized spray with small droplets that can be transported into ventilation systems. Literature correlations are currently used for estimating the generation rate and size distribution of aerosol droplets in postulated releases. These correlations, however, are based on results obtained from small engineered nozzles using Newtonian liquids that do not contain slurry particles and thus do not represent the fluids and breaches in the WTP. A test program was developed to measure the generation rate, and the release fraction which is the ratio of generation rate to spray flow rate, of droplets suspended in a test chamber and droplet size distribution from prototypic sprays. A novel test method was developed to allow measurement of sprays from small to large breaches and also includes the effect of aerosol generation from splatter when the spray impacts on walls. Results show that the release fraction decreases with increasing orifice area, though with a weaker dependence on orifice area than the currently-used correlation. A comparison of water sprays to slurry sprays with 8 to 20 wt% gibbsite or boehmite particles shows that the presence of slurry particles depresses the release fraction compared to water for droplets above 10 μm and increases the release fraction below this droplet size. (authors)

  10. Occupational Safety Review of High Technology Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Cadwallader

    2005-01-31

    This report contains reviews of operating experiences, selected accident events, and industrial safety performance indicators that document the performance of the major US DOE magnetic fusion experiments and particle accelerators. These data are useful to form a basis for the occupational safety level at matured research facilities with known sets of safety rules and regulations. Some of the issues discussed are radiation safety, electromagnetic energy exposure events, and some of the more widespread issues of working at height, equipment fires, confined space work, electrical work, and other industrial hazards. Nuclear power plant industrial safety data are also included for comparison.

  11. 77 FR 50727 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' The DG-1206 is proposed Revision 1 of RG 1.169, dated... Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily identified by... Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' dated September...

  12. Software safety hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper.

  13. Generic criticality safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    An independent group has been designated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (MMES) to internally review Safety Analysis Reports for Packaging (SARPs) that describe containers for shipment of radioactive material. This group is called the Energy Systems Independent Review Group (ESIRG), reporting to the MMES Transportation Safety Manager as part of a central staff function. The ESIRG focus is Y-12 Plant packages, with additional review responsibilities for the Paducah Tiger UF{sub 6} overpack and 6M package. Review questions are posed directly to the SARP preparers. This paper addresses three generic issues that arose during the ESIRG criticality reviews: analysis tools, uncertainties in results, and resulting (finite) probability of criticality. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  14. An open-label dosing study to evaluate the safety and effects of a dietary plant-derived polysaccharide supplement on the N-glycosylation status of serum glycoproteins in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Alavi, A; Fraser, O; Tarelli, E; Bland, M; Axford, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The functional role of dietary carbohydrates in nutrition is one of the most complex and at times controversial areas in nutritional science. In-vitro and in-vivo studies suggest that certain dietary saccharide biopolymers can have bifidogenic and or immunomodulatory effects, and that some could represent preferential substrates or precursors that can impact cellular glycosylation. Objective: Examine the impact of oral ingestion of a standardized dietary plant-derived polydisperse polysaccharide supplement (Advanced Ambrotose powder (AA)) on the N-glycosylation status of serum glycoproteins in a cohort of healthy individuals. Design: An open-label study was carried out. This study was in two phases: pilot study (n=6 individuals) to assess safety and dose, and a larger study (n=12) to evaluate specific glycosylation changes. Serum N-glycosylation profiles, using mass spectrometry, were monitored at weekly intervals, for 7 weeks, to evaluate baseline levels and normal fluctuations. The individuals were then monitored for a further 7 weeks, during which time increasing doses of AA were ingested (1.3–5.2 g/day). Results: No adverse events were encountered. AA supplementation resulted in distinct changes in the relative intensities of seven biantennary N-glycans (P<0.001), and a significant overall shift towards increased sialylation. Regression analysis revealed a dose-dependent decrease in mono- and di-galactosylated structures (coefficient −0.130 decrease/week: P=0.02 and −0.690: P=0.005), and a concomitant increase in disialylated glycans ( × 1.083: P<0.05). Conclusions: Supplementation with the dietary plant-derived polysaccharides in AA resulted in significant changes in serum protein N-glycosylation in healthy individuals. How this occurs and whether it has biological significance remains to be evaluated. PMID:21224866

  15. Chemically characterized Mentha cardiaca L. essential oil as plant based preservative in view of efficacy against biodeteriorating fungi of dry fruits, aflatoxin secretion, lipid peroxidation and safety profile assessment.

    PubMed

    Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Prakash, Bhanu; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Bisht, Deepa; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2017-08-01

    The study reports Mentha cardiaca essential oil (EO) as plant based preservative against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of stored dry fruits. Mycoflora analysis of the dry fruits revealed Aspergillus favus LHP-PV-1 as the most aflatoxigenic isolate with highest Aflatoxin B1 content. M. cardiaca EO showed broad fungitoxic spectrum inhibiting the tested moulds contaminating dry fruits. It's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum aflatoxin inhibitory concentration (MAIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against A. favus LHP-PV-1 were recorded to be 1.25, 1.0 and 2.25 µL/mL respectively. The EO caused decrease in ergosterol content and enhanced leakage of Ca(2+), K(+) and Mg(2+) ions from treated fungal cells, depicting fungal plasma membrane as the site of antifungal action. The EO showed promising DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 value:15.89 µL/mL) and favourable safety profile with LD50 value (7133.70 mg/kg body wt.) when estimated through acute oral toxicity on mice. Carvone (61.62%) was recorded as the major component of the oil during chemical characterisation through GC-MS. Based on strong antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant potential, the chemically characterised M. cardiaca EO may be recommended as safe plant based preservative and shelf life enhancer of food items. This is the first report on antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of M. cardiaca EO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety First: Preventing Allergic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2015-01-01

    All elementary teachers should be aware of their students' allergies especially when they are planning to use plants or animals in the classroom or interacting with them in the field. This knowledge is essential because allergy symptoms can range from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock. This column shares safety information for the science…

  17. Safety First: Preventing Allergic Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2015-01-01

    All elementary teachers should be aware of their students' allergies especially when they are planning to use plants or animals in the classroom or interacting with them in the field. This knowledge is essential because allergy symptoms can range from an itchy rash to anaphylactic shock. This column shares safety information for the science…

  18. Resilience in plant-herbivore networks during secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Villa-Galaviz, Edith; Boege, Karina; del-Val, Ek

    2012-01-01

    Extensive land-use change in the tropics has produced a mosaic of successional forests within an agricultural and cattle-pasture matrix. Post-disturbance biodiversity assessments have found that regeneration speed depends upon propagule availability and the intensity and duration of disturbance. However, reestablishment of species interactions is still poorly understood and this limits our understanding of the anthropogenic impacts upon ecosystem resilience. This is the first investigation that evaluates plant-herbivore interaction networks during secondary succession. In particular we investigated succession in a Mexican tropical dry forest using data of caterpillar associations with plants during 2007-2010. Plant-herbivore networks showed high resilience. We found no differences in most network descriptors between secondary and mature forest and only recently abandoned fields were found to be different. No significant nestedness or modularity network structure was found. Plant-herbivore network properties appear to quickly reestablish after perturbation, despite differences in species richness and composition. This study provides some valuable guidelines for the implement of restoration efforts that can enhance ecological processes such as the interaction between plants and their herbivores.

  19. Safety Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  20. Online Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Describes provisions of Children's Internet Protection Act, which school districts are required to implement on or before October 31, 2001, involving the development and public dissemination of federally mandated Internet-safety policy to prevent minors from accessing inappropriate and harmful material. Provides suggestions to protect children…

  1. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and…

  2. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  3. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  4. Some views on nuclear reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the text of a speech given by Pierre Y. Tanguy (Electricite de France) at the 22nd Water Reactor Safety Meeting held in Bethesda, MD in 1994. He describes the EDF nuclear program in broad terms and proceeds to discuss operational safety results with EDF plants. The speaker also outlines actions to enhance safety planned for the future, and he briefly mentions French cooperation with the Chinese on the Daya Bay project.

  5. Safety in the Elementary Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Arlington, VA.

    This guide gives elementary school teachers suggestions for providing a safe environment for their students and covers general safety concerns in the science classroom. Information is printed in a flip chart format for easy reference. Safety areas covered include: (1) In Case of Accident; (2) Eye Protection; (3) Plants in the Classroom; (4) First…

  6. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2, Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391, Tennessee Valley Authority. Supplement number 20

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), Supplement No. 16 (September 1995), Supplement No. 17 (October 1995), Supplement No. 18 (October 1995), and Supplement No. 19 (November 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the issues identified in the SER.

  7. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  8. Safety culture evaluation and asset root cause analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Okrent, D.; Xiong, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper examines the role of organizational and management factors in nuclear power plant safety through the use of operating experiences. The ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) reports of thirteen plants (total thirty events) have been analyzed in term of twenty organizational dimensions (factors) identified by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Pennsylvania State University. For three plants detailed results are reported in this paper. The results of thirteen plants are summarized in the form of a table. The study tends to confirm that organizational and management factors play an important role in plant safety. The twenty organizational dimensions and their definitions, in general, were adequate in this study. Formalization, Safety Culture, Technical Knowledge, Training, Roles-Responsibilities and Problem Identification appear to be key organizational factors which influence the safety of nuclear power plants studied.

  9. Perceived neighborhood safety and sleep quality: a global analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Trinh, Ha Ngoc; Wen, Ming; Hale, Lauren

    2016-02-01

    Building on previous North American and European studies of neighborhood context and sleep quality, we tested whether several self-reported sleep outcomes (sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sleepiness, lethargy, and overall sleep quality) vary according to the level of perceived neighborhood safety in six countries: Mexico, Ghana, South Africa, India, China, and Russia. Using data (n = 39,590) from Wave I of the World Health Organization's Longitudinal Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010), we estimated a series of multinomial and binary logistic regression equations to model each sleep outcome within each country. Taken together, our results show that respondents who feel safe from crime and violence in their neighborhoods tend to exhibit more favorable sleep outcomes than respondents who feel less safe. This general pattern is especially pronounced in China and Russia, moderately evident in Mexico, Ghana, and South Africa, and sporadic in India. Perceptions of neighborhood safety are strongly associated with insomnia symptoms and poor sleep quality (past 30 days), moderately associated with sleepiness, lethargy, and poor sleep quality (past 2 days), and inconsistently associated with sleep duration (past two days). We show that perceived neighborhood safety is associated with more favorable self-reported sleep outcomes in six understudied countries. Additional research is needed to replicate our findings using longitudinal data, more reliable neighborhood measures, and more direct measures of sleep quality in these and other regions of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety.

  11. Safety harness

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.W.

    1991-04-08

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  12. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  13. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing Strangulation and Entrapment Household Safety: Preventing Suffocation Internet Safety Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Knowing Your Child's Medical History Lead Poisoning Leaving Your Child Home Alone Making ...

  14. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  15. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  16. Safety Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    all rags, waste, etc., soiled by combustible or flaxmable materials kept In tightly rnosed metal containers for daily disposal? 3. Are fire plans ...To prevent cold weather injuries, does the cowmander ensure that: (TBMad 81, pars, 5) a. Safety is included in planning ? b. Suitable cold weather gear...pages 2-2 thru 2-6) 2. Are prior planning and coordination of sling load operations always accomplished between the ground crews and aviation crews

  17. Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) and X-ray, are an increasing source of ionising radiation exposure to our community. Exposure to ionising radiation is associated with increased risk of malignancy, proportional to the level of exposure. Every diagnostic test using ionising radiation needs to be justified by clinical need. General practitioners need a working knowledge of radiation safety so they can adequately inform their patients of the risks and benefits of diagnostic imaging procedures.

  18. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009116 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  19. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009124 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  20. Veg-01 Plant Harvest

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-06-10

    ISS040-E-009125 (10 June 2014) --- In the International Space Station?s Harmony node, NASA astronaut Steve Swanson, Expedition 40 commander, harvests a crop of red romaine lettuce plants that were grown from seed inside the station?s Veggie facility, a low-cost plant growth chamber that uses a flat-panel light bank for plant growth and crew observation. For the Veg-01 experiment, researchers are testing and validating the Veggie hardware, and the plants will be returned to Earth to determine food safety.

  1. Safety assured financial evaluation of maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erguina, Vera

    Management decisions in complex industrial facilities usually consider both the economic and environmental aspects of the plant's performance. For nuclear power plants (NPPs), safety is also a very substantial issue. The objectives of this dissertation are to develop and demonstrate a novel useful conceptual model that could be used to allocate maintenance funds for a nuclear power plant in such a way as to meet all specified safety requirements and objectives, while achieving a high degree of economic performance. The model is based on the general theory that the reliability of a plant at any time is a function of its initial reliability and the maintenance history of the individual plant components (Smith, 1997). Such a model can assist in evaluating strategic management decisions regarding allocation of funds for nuclear power plant maintenance. It could be used as a simulation tool; various scenarios could be studied to answer "what if" questions. Simulations of this type will allow a better understanding of the relationship between maintenance, economic performance, and safety, and consequently will lead to better decision making. The novelty of this model is tied to the intimate relationship that it develops between maintenance activities at a nuclear plant, and their relationship to prescribed safety requirements and to the economic performance of that plant.

  2. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Improvement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Speas, I.G.

    1987-04-29

    This report addresses questions raised by criticality safety violation at several DOE plants. Two charts are included that define the severity and reporting requirements for the six levels of accidents. A summary is given of all reported criticality incident at the DOE plants involved. The report concludes with Martin Marietta's Nuclear Criticality Safety Policy Statement. (JDH)

  3. Payload safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J.

    1979-01-01

    Space Shuttle payload safety requirements are summarized. Consideration is given to NASA objectives on STS payloads, payload safety documents, STS payload safety management, safety implementation possibilities, the hazard control procedure, and significant technical requirements.

  4. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  5. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113.44 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted...

  6. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted...

  7. Safety design of prototype fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chetal, S.C.; Singh, Om Pal

    2004-07-01

    The basic design and safety design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is presented. Design aspects covered include safety classification, seismic categorization, design basis conditions, design safety limits, core physics, core monitoring, shutdown system, decay heat removal system, protection against sodium leaks and tube leaks in steam generator, plant layout, radiation protection, event analysis, beyond design basis accidents, integrity of primary containment, reactor containment building and design pressure resulting from core disruptive accident. The measures provided in the design represent a robust case of the safety of the reactor. (authors)

  8. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  9. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  10. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Adults: United States, 2007-2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories consumed from fast food. The lack of difference, in the percentage of calories consumed from fast food, between non- ... and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2010. Does the ... income? Overall, no difference was observed by income status in the percentage ...

  11. National spatial and temporal patterns of notified dengue cases, Colombia 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Angela Cadavid; Baker, Peter; Clements, Archie C A

    2014-07-01

    To explore the variation in the spatial distribution of notified dengue cases in Colombia from January 2007 to December 2010 and examine associations between the disease and selected environmental risk factors. Data on the number of notified dengue cases in Colombia were obtained from the National Institute of Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud - INS) for the period 1 January 2007 through 31 December 2010. Data on environmental factors were collected from the Worldclim website. A Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the relationship between monthly dengue cases and temperature, precipitation and elevation. Monthly dengue counts decreased by 18% (95% credible interval (CrI): 17-19%) in 2008 and increased by 30% (95% CrI: 28-31%) and 326% (95% CrI: 322-331%) in 2009 and 2010, respectively, compared to 2007. Additionally, there was a significant, nonlinear effect of monthly average precipitation. The results highlight the role of environmental risk factors in determining the spatial of dengue and show how these factors can be used to develop and refine preventive approaches for dengue in Colombia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Objective functional compensation in NHIL: INAIL prosthesic protocol in Lombardy, 2007-2010].

    PubMed

    Calcinoni, O; Polo, L

    2011-01-01

    Even if NHIL gives already right to economic compensation, our Insurance aimed to real functional compensation, to reduce handicap in everyday life. Together with Professor Giordano, Audioprosthesists' Association and Manufacturers' representatives, INAIL Medical Superintendence started in 2003 a study on this problem, involving some of his forensic physician and ENT staff; in 2007-2009 INAIL issued directives innovating and planning the rules in prosthesis provision, not only acoustical ones. In 2010 started an experimental protocol to rule hearing aid provision in all INAIL centers, throughout Italy. Authors present first results of this protocol in Lombardy, related to previous and national ones.

  13. An inverse modeling study of circulation in the Eastern Bering Sea during 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, Gleb; Yaremchuk, Max; Francis, Oceana; Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Weingartner, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-06-01

    A two-way nested 4d-variational data assimilation system is implemented in the Eastern Bering Sea (EBS) to investigate changes in circulation and thermodynamic state for a 3.8 year period. Assimilated observations include data from 19 moorings deployed on the shelf and in the Bering Strait, 1705 hydrographic stations occupied during eight surveys, and remotely sensed sea surface temperature and sea surface height (SSH) data. Validation of the presented 4dVar reanalysis against the output of two sequential data-assimilative systems (the Bering Ecosystem Study ice-ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (BESTMAS) and the Arctic Cap Nowcast-Forecast System (ACNFS)) has shown that the product is more consistent with the observed transports in the Bering Strait and in the EBS interior both in terms of their magnitude and time variability. Analysis of the data-optimized solution quantifies a sequence of wind-forced events that resulted in the anomalous heat and freshwater transports through the Bering Strait, including a 28 day long flow reversal that occurred in November 2009 and carried Siberian Coastal Current water down to the Gulf of Anadyr. Lagrangian study of the Arctic-bound Pacific waters indicates the extreme importance of the cross-shelf exchange along the path of the Bering Slope Current and quantifies the spectrum of residence times for the waters entering EBS through Unimak Pass and through Aleutian passages. Residence times in the EBS cold pool are diagnosed to be 2-3 times longer than those in the surrounding waters.

  14. Corotating Interaction Regions as Seen by the STEREO Heliospheric Imagers 2007 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conlon, T. M.; Milan, S. E.; Davies, J. A.; Williams, A. O.

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) mission has coincided with a pronounced solar minimum. This allowed for easier detection of corotating interaction regions (CIRs). CIRs are formed by the interaction between fast and slow solar-wind streams ejected from source regions on the solar surface that rotate with the Sun. High-density plasma blobs that have become entrained at the stream interface can be tracked out to large elongations in data from the Heliospheric Imager (HI) instruments onboard STEREO. These blobs act as tracers of the CIR itself such that their HI signatures can be used to estimate CIR source location and radial speed. We estimate the kinematic properties of solar-wind transients associated with 40 CIRs detected by the HI instrument onboard the STEREO-A spacecraft between 2007 and 2010. We identify in-situ signatures of these transients at L1 using the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and compare the in-situ parameters with the HI results. We note that solar-wind transients associated with CIRs appear to travel at or close to the slow solar-wind speed preceding the event as measured in situ. We also highlight limitations in the commonly used analysis techniques of solar-wind transients by considering variability in the solar wind.

  15. Aerosol variability and atmospheric transport in the Himalayan region from CALIOP 2007-2010 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, S.; Cagnazzo, C.; Cairo, F.; Di Liberto, L.; Fierli, F.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the spatial distribution of different aerosol types, their seasonal variability and sources.The analysis of four years of CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization) vertically resolved aerosol data allows the identification of spatial patterns of desert dust and carbonaceous particles in different atmospheric layers. Clusters of Lagrangian back trajectories highlight the transport pathways from source regions during the dusty spring season. The analysis shows a prevalence of dust; at low heights it occurs frequently (up to 70% of available observations) and is distributed north of the Tibetan Plateau with a main contribution from the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts, and west of the Tibetan Plateau, originating from the deserts of southwest Asia and advected by the Westerlies. Above the Himalayas the dust amount is minor but still not negligible (occurrence around 20%) and mainly affected by the transport from more distant deserts sources (Sahara and Arabian Peninsula). Carbonaceous aerosol, produced mainly in northern India and eastern China, is subject to shorter-range transport and is indeed observed closer to the sources, while there is a limited amount reaching the top of the plateau. Data analysis reveals a clear seasonal variability in the frequencies of occurrence for the main aerosol types; dust is regulated principally by the monsoon dynamics, with maximal occurrence in spring. We also highlight relevant interannual differences, showing a larger presence of aerosol in the region during 2007 and 2008. The characterization of the aerosol spatial and temporal distribution in terms of observational frequency is a key piece of information that can be directly used for the evaluation of global aerosol models.

  16. Three Years of on Orbit ISS Oxygen Generation System Operation 2007-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diderich, Greg S.; Polis, Pete; VanKeuren, Steven P.; Erickson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) has accumulated 240 days of continuous operation at varied oxygen production rates within the US Laboratory Module (LAB) since it was first activated in July 2007. OGS relocated from the ISS LAB to Node 3 during 20A Flight (February 2010). The OGS rack delivery was accelerated for on-orbit checkout in the LAB, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006. During the on-orbit checkout interval within the LAB from July 2007 to October 2008, OGS operational times were limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Longer runtimes are now achievable due to the continuous feedwater availability after ULF2 delivery and activation of the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) racks. OGS is considered a critical function to maintaining six crew capability. There have been a number of failures which interrupted or threatened to interrupt oxygen production. Filters in the recirculation loop have clogged and have been replaced, Hydrogen sensors have fallen out of specifications, a pump delta pressure sensor failed, a pump failed to start, and the voltage on the cell stack increased out of tolerance. This paper will discuss the operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  17. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  18. The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer in Korea from 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ae; Oh, In-Hwan; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Jung, Jae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study estimates the socioeconomic cost and burden for breast cancer patients in Korea between 2007 and 2010. Materials and Methods This study used a prevalence-based approach to estimate the cost of breast cancer. Breast cancer patients were defined as those who were hospitalized or have visited an outpatient clinic during the period from 2007 to 2010. The socioeconomic costs of breast cancer were subdivided into two costs: direct and indirect. Results From 2007 to 2010, the prevalence of treated breast cancer increased from 7.9% to 20.4%. The total socioeconomic costs incurred by breast cancer increased by approximately 40.7% from US $668.49 million in 2007 to US $940.75 million in 2010. The direct medical care costs for 2010 were 1.4 times greater (US $399.22 million) than for 2007 (US $278.71 million). The direct non-medical costs rose from US $50.69 million in 2007 to US $75.83 million in 2010, a 49.6% increase. Regarding the economic burden of breast cancer, the total indirect costs were US $339.09 million in 2007 and increased by 37.3% to US $465.70 million in 2010. In the sensitivity analysis, with the annual discount rate for each year ranging from 0%-5%, the costs increased 1.1-1.2 times. Conclusion Due to the growing incidence of breast cancer, the annual prevalence and related costs are increasing. We must strive to reduce the socioeconomic burden of breast cancer through preventive measures and early screening. PMID:25687860

  19. Rekindling Longwood University's Rhetoric and Professional Writing Concentration and Minor, 2007-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Kristen Dayle

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of redesigning and reviving Longwood University's Rhetoric and Professional Writing program involved skills in collaboration, negotiation, and advertisement. While unexpected obstacles arose, taking an honest look at the existing program design and working to maintain the focus on rhetoric helped to circumvent failure. Finally,…

  20. Changing Epidemiology of Common Cancers in Southern Iran, 2007-2010: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Masoompour, Seyed Masoom; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Honarvar, Behnam; Tabatabaee, Seyed Hamidreza; Moghadami, Mohsen; Khosravizadegan, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    We have evaluated the ever changing epidemiology of cancers in Fars province, Iran since the re-establishment of Fars cancer registry. Based on the collected data from all related sources in Fars province from 2007–2010 we calculated the cancer age-standardized rates per 100,000 person-years (ASRs). The results are presented as incidence rates of cases by site according to the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O), sex, age, crude rate, and ASRs. In women the total ASR was 41.70 per 100,000 from 1985–1989 which had increased to 55.50 and 95.46 during 1998–2002 and 2007–2010. The incidence of breast cancer in women during 2007–2010 was about two and four times higher than 1998–2002 and 1985–1989. The incidence of colorectal cancer in women during 2007–2010 was about three and five times higher than 1998–2002 and 1985–1989. In men the total ASR was 62.9 per 100,000 in 1985–1989 that increased to 64.50 and 101.48 during 1998–2002 and 2007–2010. Although stomach cancer was the most common cancer among men during 1985–1989 and 1998–2002, but in recent study bladder cancer was the most common cancer among men in Fars province. The incidence of colorectal cancer in men during 2007–2010 was about three times higher than 1998–2002 and 1985–1989. This study shows growing incidence of cancer in southern Iran. The colorectal cancer in both genders had increased and its pattern is similar to western countries. In men, bladder and prostate cancers had a growing rate and the incidences of these cancers in the present study were greater than stomach cancer. PMID:27219458