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Sample records for plant sarracenia purpurea

  1. Nutrient limitation and morphological plasticity of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea in contrasting wetland environments.

    PubMed

    Bott, Terry; Meyer, Gretchen A; Young, Erica B

    2008-01-01

    * Plasticity of leaf nutrient content and morphology, and macronutrient limitation were examined in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpurea, in relation to soil nutrient availability in an open, neutral pH fen and a shady, acidic ombrotrophic bog, over 2 yr following reciprocal transplantation of S. purpurea between the wetlands. * In both wetlands, plants were limited by nitrogen (N) but not phosphorus (P) (N content < 2% DW(-1), N : P < 14) but photosynthetic quantum yields were high (F(V)/F(M) > 0.79). Despite carnivory, leaf N content correlated with dissolved N availability to plant roots (leaf N vs , r(2) = 0.344, P < 0.0001); carnivorous N acquisition did not apparently overcome N limitation. * Following transplantation, N content and leaf morphological traits changed in new leaves to become more similar to plants in the new environment, reflecting wetland nutrient availability. Changes in leaf morphology were faster when plants were transplanted from fen to bog than from bog to fen, possibly reflecting a more stressful environment in the bog. * Morphological plasticity observed in response to changes in nutrient supply to the roots in natural habitats complements previous observations of morphological changes with experimental nutrient addition to pitchers.

  2. Nitrogen availability alters the expression of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of nutrients, especially nitrogen, is a global environmental problem with well-documented consequences for ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring nitrogen deposition is relatively expensive, monitoring stations are widely spaced, and estimates and predicted impacts of nitrogen deposition are currently derived from spatial modeling and interpolation of limited data. Ombrotrophic ("rain-fed") bogs are nutrient-poor ecosystems that are especially sensitive to increasing nutrient input, and carnivorous plants, which are characteristic of these widespread ecosystem types, may be especially sensitive indicators of N deposition. Botanical carnivory is thought to have evolved in nutrient-poor and well-lit habitats such as bogs because the marginal benefits accruing from carnivory exceed the marginal photosynthetic costs associated with the maintenance of carnivorous organs. However, the production of carnivorous organs can be a phenotypically plastic trait. The northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, produces leaves specialized for prey capture and nutrient uptake (pitchers) and leaves that are more efficient at photosynthesis (phyllodia). We hypothesized that relative allocation to these two types of leaves reflects ambient nitrogen availability. We manipulated nutrient availability to plants with leaf enrichment and whole-plot fertilization experiments. Increased nitrogen, but not phosphorus, reduced production of pitchers relative to phyllodia; this result provided empirical support for the cost-benefit model of the evolution of botanical carnivory. Because this phenotypic shift in leaf production occurs in ecological time, our results suggest that S. purpurea could be a reliable and inexpensive biological indicator of nitrogen deposition rates. This suggestion is supported by field observations across a geographic gradient of nitrogen deposition. PMID:11904363

  3. Nitrogen availability alters the expression of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of nutrients, especially nitrogen, is a global environmental problem with well-documented consequences for ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring nitrogen deposition is relatively expensive, monitoring stations are widely spaced, and estimates and predicted impacts of nitrogen deposition are currently derived from spatial modeling and interpolation of limited data. Ombrotrophic ("rain-fed") bogs are nutrient-poor ecosystems that are especially sensitive to increasing nutrient input, and carnivorous plants, which are characteristic of these widespread ecosystem types, may be especially sensitive indicators of N deposition. Botanical carnivory is thought to have evolved in nutrient-poor and well-lit habitats such as bogs because the marginal benefits accruing from carnivory exceed the marginal photosynthetic costs associated with the maintenance of carnivorous organs. However, the production of carnivorous organs can be a phenotypically plastic trait. The northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, produces leaves specialized for prey capture and nutrient uptake (pitchers) and leaves that are more efficient at photosynthesis (phyllodia). We hypothesized that relative allocation to these two types of leaves reflects ambient nitrogen availability. We manipulated nutrient availability to plants with leaf enrichment and whole-plot fertilization experiments. Increased nitrogen, but not phosphorus, reduced production of pitchers relative to phyllodia; this result provided empirical support for the cost-benefit model of the evolution of botanical carnivory. Because this phenotypic shift in leaf production occurs in ecological time, our results suggest that S. purpurea could be a reliable and inexpensive biological indicator of nitrogen deposition rates. This suggestion is supported by field observations across a geographic gradient of nitrogen deposition.

  4. Effects of a Ciliate Protozoa Predator on Microbial Communities in Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Paisie, Taylor K.; Miller, Thomas E.; Mason, Olivia U.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems. PMID:25423622

  5. Characterizing the cytoprotective activity of Sarracenia purpurea L., a medicinal plant that inhibits glucotoxicity in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea L., is a widely distributed species in North America with a history of use as both a marketed pain therapy and a traditional medicine in many aboriginal communities. Among the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Québec, the plant is employed to treat symptoms of diabetes and the leaf extract demonstrates multiple anti-diabetic activities including cytoprotection in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The current study aimed to further investigate this activity by identifying the plant parts and secondary metabolites that contribute to these cytoprotective effects. Methods Ethanolic extracts of S. purpurea leaves and roots were separately administered to PC12 cells exposed to glucose toxicity with subsequent assessment by two cell viability assays. Assay-guided fractionation of the active extract and fractions was then conducted to identify active principles. Using high pressure liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, the presence of identified actives in both leaf and root extracts were determined. Results The leaf extract, but not that of the root, prevented glucose-mediated cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Several fractions elicited protective effects, indicative of multiple active metabolites, and, following subfractionation of the polar fraction, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and morroniside were isolated as active constituents. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of hyperoside in the leaf but not root extract and, although morroniside was detected in both organs, its concentration was seven times higher in the leaf. Conclusion Our results not only support further study into the therapeutic potential and safety of S. purpurea as an alternative and complementary treatment for diabetic complications associated with glucose toxicity but also identify active principles that can be used for purposes of standardization and quality control. PMID:23216659

  6. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-03-16

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf.

  7. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  8. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  9. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2005-01-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 °C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  10. Antidiabetic compounds from Sarracenia purpurea used traditionally by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Asim; Guerrero-Analco, Jose A; Martineau, Louis C; Musallam, Lina; Madiraju, Padma; Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John T

    2012-07-27

    Through ethnobotanical surveys, the CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines identified 17 boreal forest plants stemming from the pharmacopeia of the Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay region of Northern Quebec) that were used traditionally against diabetes symptoms. The leaves of Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant), one of the identified Cree plants, exhibited marked antidiabetic activity in vitro by stimulating glucose uptake in C2C12 mouse muscle cells and by reducing glucose production in H4IIE rat liver cells. Fractionation guided by glucose uptake in C2C12 cells resulted in the isolation of 11 compounds from this plant extract, including a new phenolic glycoside, flavonoid glycosides, and iridoids. Compounds 6 (isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside), 8 [kaempferol-3-O-(6″-caffeoylglucoside], and 11 (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) potentiated glucose uptake in vitro, which suggests they represent active principles of S. purpurea (EC(50) values of 18.5, 13.8, and 60.5 μM, respectively). This is the first report of potentiation of glucose uptake by compounds 6 and 8, while compound 11 (isolated from Vaccinium vitis) was previously shown to enhance glucose uptake. Treatment of H4IIE liver cells with the new compound 1, 6'-O-caffeoylgoodyeroside, decreased hepatic glucose production by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase enzymatic activity (IC(50) = 13.6 μM), which would contribute to lowering glycemia and to the antidiabetic potential of S. purpurea. PMID:22738356

  11. Antidiabetic compounds from Sarracenia purpurea used traditionally by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Asim; Guerrero-Analco, Jose A; Martineau, Louis C; Musallam, Lina; Madiraju, Padma; Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John T

    2012-07-27

    Through ethnobotanical surveys, the CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines identified 17 boreal forest plants stemming from the pharmacopeia of the Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay region of Northern Quebec) that were used traditionally against diabetes symptoms. The leaves of Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant), one of the identified Cree plants, exhibited marked antidiabetic activity in vitro by stimulating glucose uptake in C2C12 mouse muscle cells and by reducing glucose production in H4IIE rat liver cells. Fractionation guided by glucose uptake in C2C12 cells resulted in the isolation of 11 compounds from this plant extract, including a new phenolic glycoside, flavonoid glycosides, and iridoids. Compounds 6 (isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside), 8 [kaempferol-3-O-(6″-caffeoylglucoside], and 11 (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) potentiated glucose uptake in vitro, which suggests they represent active principles of S. purpurea (EC(50) values of 18.5, 13.8, and 60.5 μM, respectively). This is the first report of potentiation of glucose uptake by compounds 6 and 8, while compound 11 (isolated from Vaccinium vitis) was previously shown to enhance glucose uptake. Treatment of H4IIE liver cells with the new compound 1, 6'-O-caffeoylgoodyeroside, decreased hepatic glucose production by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase enzymatic activity (IC(50) = 13.6 μM), which would contribute to lowering glycemia and to the antidiabetic potential of S. purpurea.

  12. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  13. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa.

  14. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa. PMID:25689607

  15. The bacterial composition within the Sarracenia purpurea model system: local scale differences and the relationship with the other members of the food web.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah M; Akob, Denise M; Green, Stefan J; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, contain a microscopic aquatic food web that is considered a model system in ecological research. The species identity of the intermediate and top trophic level of this food web, as well the detritivore midge, are highly similar across the native geographic range of S. purpurea and, in some cases, appear to have co-evolved with the plant. However, until recently, the identity, geographic variation, and diversity of the bacteria in the bottom trophic level of this food web have remained largely unknown. This study investigated bacterial community composition inside the leaves of S. purpurea to address: 1) variation in bacterial communities at the beginning of succession at the local scale in different areas of the plant's native geographic range (southern and mid-regional sites) and 2) the impacts of bacterial consumers and other members of the aquatic food web (i.e., insects) on bacterial community structure. Communities from six leaves (one leaf per plant) from New York and Florida study sites were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene cloning. Each pitcher within each site had a distinct community; however, there was more overlap in bacterial composition within each site than when communities were compared across sites. In contrast, the identity of protozoans and metazoans in this community were similar in species identity both within a site and between the two sites, but abundances differed. Our results indicate that, at least during the beginning of succession, there is no strong selection for bacterial taxa and that there is no core group of bacteria required by the plant to start the decomposition of trapped insects. Co-evolution between the plant and bacteria appears to not have occurred as it has for other members of this community. PMID:23227224

  16. The bacterial composition within the Sarracenia purpurea model system: local scale differences and the relationship with the other members of the food web.

    PubMed

    Gray, Sarah M; Akob, Denise M; Green, Stefan J; Kostka, Joel E

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, contain a microscopic aquatic food web that is considered a model system in ecological research. The species identity of the intermediate and top trophic level of this food web, as well the detritivore midge, are highly similar across the native geographic range of S. purpurea and, in some cases, appear to have co-evolved with the plant. However, until recently, the identity, geographic variation, and diversity of the bacteria in the bottom trophic level of this food web have remained largely unknown. This study investigated bacterial community composition inside the leaves of S. purpurea to address: 1) variation in bacterial communities at the beginning of succession at the local scale in different areas of the plant's native geographic range (southern and mid-regional sites) and 2) the impacts of bacterial consumers and other members of the aquatic food web (i.e., insects) on bacterial community structure. Communities from six leaves (one leaf per plant) from New York and Florida study sites were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene cloning. Each pitcher within each site had a distinct community; however, there was more overlap in bacterial composition within each site than when communities were compared across sites. In contrast, the identity of protozoans and metazoans in this community were similar in species identity both within a site and between the two sites, but abundances differed. Our results indicate that, at least during the beginning of succession, there is no strong selection for bacterial taxa and that there is no core group of bacteria required by the plant to start the decomposition of trapped insects. Co-evolution between the plant and bacteria appears to not have occurred as it has for other members of this community.

  17. The microbial Phyllogeography of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2011-05-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants host diverse microbial communities. This plant-microbe association provides a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary processes that influence the spatial diversity of microbial communities. Using next-generation sequencing of environmental samples, we surveyed microbial communities from 29 pitcher plants (Sarracenia alata) and compare community composition with plant genetic diversity in order to explore the influence of historical processes on the population structure of each lineage. Analyses reveal that there is a core S. alata microbiome, and that it is similar in composition to animal gut microfaunas. The spatial structure of community composition in S. alata (phyllogeography) is congruent at the deepest level with the dominant features of the landscape, including the Mississippi river and the discrete habitat boundaries that the plants occupy. Intriguingly, the microbial community structure reflects the phylogeographic structure of the host plant, suggesting that the phylogenetic structure of bacterial communities and population genetic structure of their host plant are influenced by similar historical processes.

  18. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers.

  19. Deep phylogeographic structure and environmental differentiation in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Amanda J; Hanes, Margaret M; Hird, Sarah M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2012-10-01

    We collected ~29 kb of sequence data using Roche 454 pyrosequencing in order to estimate the timing and pattern of diversification in the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia alata. Utilizing modified protocols for reduced representation library construction, we generated sequence data from 86 individuals across 10 populations from throughout the range of the species. We identified 76 high-quality and high-coverage loci (containing over 500 SNPs) using the bioinformatics pipeline PRGmatic. Results from a Bayesian clustering analysis indicate that populations are highly structured, and are similar in pattern to the topology of a population tree estimated using *BEAST. The pattern of diversification within Sarracenia alata implies that riverine barriers are the primary factor promoting population diversification, with divergence across the Mississippi River occurring more than 60,000 generations before present. Further, significant patterns of niche divergence and the identification of several outlier loci suggest that selection may contribute to population divergence. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using next-generation sequencing to investigate intraspecific genetic variation in nonmodel species.

  20. Deep phylogeographic structure and environmental differentiation in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Amanda J; Hanes, Margaret M; Hird, Sarah M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2012-10-01

    We collected ~29 kb of sequence data using Roche 454 pyrosequencing in order to estimate the timing and pattern of diversification in the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia alata. Utilizing modified protocols for reduced representation library construction, we generated sequence data from 86 individuals across 10 populations from throughout the range of the species. We identified 76 high-quality and high-coverage loci (containing over 500 SNPs) using the bioinformatics pipeline PRGmatic. Results from a Bayesian clustering analysis indicate that populations are highly structured, and are similar in pattern to the topology of a population tree estimated using *BEAST. The pattern of diversification within Sarracenia alata implies that riverine barriers are the primary factor promoting population diversification, with divergence across the Mississippi River occurring more than 60,000 generations before present. Further, significant patterns of niche divergence and the identification of several outlier loci suggest that selection may contribute to population divergence. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using next-generation sequencing to investigate intraspecific genetic variation in nonmodel species. PMID:22556200

  1. Ants provide nutritional and defensive benefits to the carnivorous plant Sarracenia minor.

    PubMed

    Moon, Daniel C; Rossi, Anthony M; Depaz, Jacqueline; McKelvey, Lindsey; Elias, Sheryl; Wheeler, Emily; Moon, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Ants can have important, but sometimes unexpected, effects on the plants they associate with. For carnivorous plants, associating with ants may provide defensive benefits in addition to nutritional ones. We examined the effects of increased ant visitation and exclusion of insect prey from pitchers of the hooded pitcher plant Sarracenia minor, which has been hypothesized to be an ant specialist. Visitation by ants was increased by placing PVC pipes in the ground immediately adjacent to 16 of 32 pitcher plants, which created nesting/refuge sites. Insects were excluded from all pitchers of 16 of the plants by occluding the pitchers with cotton. Treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 factorial design in order to isolate the hypothesized defensive benefits from nutritional ones. We recorded visitation by ants, the mean number of ants captured, foliar nitrogen content, plant growth and size, and levels of herbivory by the pitcher plant mining moth Exyra semicrocea. Changes in ant visitation and prey capture significantly affected nitrogen content, plant height, and the number of pitchers per plant. Increased ant visitation independent of prey capture reduced herbivory and pitcher mortality, and increased the number of pitchers per plant. Results from this study show that the hooded pitcher plant derives a double benefit from attracting potential prey that are also capable of providing defense against herbivory.

  2. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  3. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Jordan D.; Zellmer, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  4. Assimilation of Cd and Cu by the carnivorous plant Sarracenia leucophylla raf. fed contaminated prey.

    PubMed

    Moody, Christopher; Green, Iain D

    2010-03-01

    Many species of carnivorous plants have become endangered through exposure to multiple risks such as habitat loss, illegal poaching, and pollution. A potential threat to these plants posed by pollution stems from the contamination of their invertebrate prey with trace metals. This study examined the potential for prey to act as sources of the trace metals Cd and Cu for the pitcher plant Sarracenia leucophylla. Cd- and Cu-contaminated Diptera larvae were fed to S. leucophylla plants in separate experiments. The results demonstrated that Cd and Cu were readily transferred to the shoots of S. leucophylla in a dose-dependent manner. While the assimilation of Cu decreased with treatment level, the assimilation of Cd did not. Some assimilated Cu appeared to be translocated to the roots, but Cd was strongly retained in the shoots, where it was related to a reduction in shoot biomass. This suggested that on exposure to Cd-contaminated prey, the plants either experienced phytotoxicity or there was disruption of nutrient acquisition from the prey. Accumulation of Cu was not related to any sign of phytotoxicity.

  5. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  6. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  7. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change.

  8. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. PMID:27076412

  9. Isolation, culture, and plant regeneration from Echinacea purpurea protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zeng-guang; Liu, Chun-zhao; Murch, Susan I; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-01-01

    A plant regeneration system from the isolated protoplasts of Echinacea purpurea L. using an alginate solid/liquid culture is described in the chapter. Viable protoplasts were isolated rom 100 mg of young leaves of 4-wk-old seedlings in an isolation mixture containing 1.0% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% pectinase, and 0.3 mol/L mannitol. After isolation and purification, the mesophyll protoplasts were embedded into 0.6% Na-alginate at the density 1 x 10(-5) mL and cultured in modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) culture medium supplemented with 0.3 mol/L sucrose, 2.5 micromol/L benzylaminopurine (BA), and 5.0 micromol/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The visible colonies were present after 4 wk of culture. The protoplast-derived clones were transferred onto gellan gum-solidified basal medium supplemented with 1.0 micromol/L BA and 2.0 micromol/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and formed compact and green calli. Shoot development was achieved by subculturing the calli onto the same basal medium supplemented with 5.0 micromol/L BA and 2.0 micromol/L IBA. Further subculture onto basal medium resulted in the regeneration of complete plantlets.

  10. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  11. Floral herbivory increases with inflorescence size and local plant density in Digitalis purpurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletvold, Nina; Grindeland, John M.

    2008-07-01

    Insect herbivores search for their host plants in heterogeneous environments, and the efficiency of host location may be influenced by plant architecture and abundance. In this study, we ask how plant and habitat characteristics traditionally thought to attract pollinators are related to attack rates by floral herbivores. Patterns of floral herbivory by the moth larva Eupithecia pulchellata were studied in relation to inflorescence size and local plant density in two years in a natural population of the facultative biennial Digitalis purpurea. Overall levels of herbivory were low, 84% of the infested plants lost less than 10% of their flowers. Only 9% of the plants lost more than 20% of their flowers. Probability of herbivory at the plant level increased strongly with inflorescence height, and it was considerably higher in dense patches compared to sparse ones. There was no effect of local plant density on the functional relationship between inflorescence size and probability of herbivory. Both number and proportion of damaged flowers per plant increased with inflorescence height. The results suggest that E. pulchellata is attracted to dense patches and large individuals of D. purpurea, and that negative effects of herbivory increase with plant size. This implies diminishing returns for investment in more flowers in D. purpurea, and indicates that herbivory may select for smaller flowering size and flower number in this monocarpic species.

  12. Phylogeny and biogeography of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Butler, Elena D; Hicks, Emily Jean; Naczi, Robert F C; Calie, Patrick J; Bell, Charles D; Davis, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44-53 million years ago (Mya) (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya). By 25-44 (HPD = 35) Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America) had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America). This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14-32 (HPD = 23) Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2-7, HPD = 4 Mya); the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation, <3 Mya

  13. Phylogeny and biogeography of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Butler, Elena D; Hicks, Emily Jean; Naczi, Robert F C; Calie, Patrick J; Bell, Charles D; Davis, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44-53 million years ago (Mya) (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya). By 25-44 (HPD = 35) Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America) had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America). This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14-32 (HPD = 23) Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2-7, HPD = 4 Mya); the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation, <3 Mya

  14. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Carnivorous Plant Family Sarraceniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Butler, Elena D.; Hicks, Emily Jean; Naczi, Robert F. C.; Calie, Patrick J.; Bell, Charles D.; Davis, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44–53 million years ago (Mya) (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya). By 25–44 (HPD = 35) Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America) had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America). This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14–32 (HPD = 23) Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2–7, HPD = 4 Mya); the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene

  15. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  16. Culturable bacteria present in the fluid of the hooded-pitcher plant Sarracenia minor based on 16S rDNA gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Alex J; Swenson, Janice E; Casamatta, Dale A

    2007-08-01

    The culturable microbial community within the pitcher fluid of 93 Sarracenia minor carnivorous plants was examined over a 2-year study. Many aspects of the plant/bacterial/insect interaction within the pitcher fluid are minimally understood because the bacterial taxa present in these pitchers have not been identified. Thirteen isolates were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The Proteobacteria were the most abundant taxa and included representatives from Serratia, Achromobacter, and Pantoea. The Actinobacteria Micrococcus was also abundant while Bacillus, Lactococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Rhodococcus were infrequently encountered. Several isolates conformed to species identifiers (>98% rDNA gene sequence similarity) including Serratia marcescens (isolates found in 27.5% of pitchers), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (37.6%), Micrococcus luteus (40.9%), Bacillus cereus (isolates found in 10.2%), Bacillus thuringiensis (5.4%), Lactococcus lactis (17.2%), and Rhodococcus equi (2.2%). Species-area curves suggest that sampling efforts were sufficient to recover a representative culturable bacterial community. The bacteria present represent a diverse community probably as a result of introduction by insect vectors, but the ecological significance remains under explored. PMID:17380356

  17. Culturable bacteria present in the fluid of the hooded-pitcher plant Sarracenia minor based on 16S rDNA gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Alex J; Swenson, Janice E; Casamatta, Dale A

    2007-08-01

    The culturable microbial community within the pitcher fluid of 93 Sarracenia minor carnivorous plants was examined over a 2-year study. Many aspects of the plant/bacterial/insect interaction within the pitcher fluid are minimally understood because the bacterial taxa present in these pitchers have not been identified. Thirteen isolates were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The Proteobacteria were the most abundant taxa and included representatives from Serratia, Achromobacter, and Pantoea. The Actinobacteria Micrococcus was also abundant while Bacillus, Lactococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Rhodococcus were infrequently encountered. Several isolates conformed to species identifiers (>98% rDNA gene sequence similarity) including Serratia marcescens (isolates found in 27.5% of pitchers), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (37.6%), Micrococcus luteus (40.9%), Bacillus cereus (isolates found in 10.2%), Bacillus thuringiensis (5.4%), Lactococcus lactis (17.2%), and Rhodococcus equi (2.2%). Species-area curves suggest that sampling efforts were sufficient to recover a representative culturable bacterial community. The bacteria present represent a diverse community probably as a result of introduction by insect vectors, but the ecological significance remains under explored.

  18. Chromatographic methods for metabolite profiling of virus- and phytoplasma-infected plants of Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Epifano, Francesco; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Orlandini, Giulia; Cavicchi, Lisa; Genovese, Salvatore; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania; Curini, Massimo; Bertaccini, Assunta; Bellardi, Maria Grazia

    2011-10-12

    This study was focused on the effects of virus and phytoplasma infections on the production of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, alkamides, and essential oil. The identification of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and MS(2). Quantitative analysis of these compounds was carried out using HPLC-DAD. The results indicated that the presence of the two pathogens significantly decreases (P < 0.05) the content of cichoric acid, the main caffeic acid derivative. Regarding the main alkamide, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the content of this secondary metabolite was observed in virus-infected plants in comparison with healthy plants, while in the phytoplasma-infected sample the variation of this secondary metabolite was not appreciable. The % relative area of the E/Z isomers of this alkamide was also found to change in infected samples. The gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS analysis of E. purpurea essential oil enabled the identification of 30 compounds. The main significant differences (P < 0.05) in the semiquantitative composition were observed for three components: limonene, cis-verbenol, and verbenone. The results indicate that the presence of virus and phytoplasma has an appreciable influence on the content of E. purpurea secondary metabolites, which is an important issue in defining the commercial quality, market value, and therapeutic efficacy of this herbal drug. PMID:21830789

  19. Biological activity and phytochemical analysis of three Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Arung, Enos Tangke; Aryani, Farida; Min, Yu-Hong; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kim, Yong-ung

    2011-03-01

    Extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum, and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presence of phytochemicals, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of M. koenigii, S. polyanthum, and Z. purpurea were extracted with ethanol. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality test, and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. M. koenigii leaf extract exhibited the most activity in the test microorganism activity index (AI), 0.38-1.25, when compared with standard drugs. S. polyanthum ripened fruit displayed significant antioxidant activity (90%) in comparison to ascorbic acid (95%). Z. purpurea rhizome extract possessed the highest cytotoxic effect with a LC(50) of 52 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis revealed that carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid were present in the extracts of M. koenigii leaves and twigs, S. polyanthum leaves and ripened and unripe fruits, and Z. purpurea rhizome, while saponin was only present in the S. polyanthum ripened fruit extract. Our work revealed that the M. koenigii leaves, S. polyanthum ripened fruit, and Z. purpurea rhizome extracts have potential as sources of new antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds, respectively. PMID:21440883

  20. Antibiotic resistance differentiates Echinacea purpurea endophytic bacterial communities with respect to plant organs.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P < 0.0001). Interestingly this uneven antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere. PMID:25283726

  1. Antibiotic resistance differentiates Echinacea purpurea endophytic bacterial communities with respect to plant organs.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Alessio; Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Fondi, Marco; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-10-01

    Recent findings have shown that antibiotic resistance is widespread in multiple environments and multicellular organisms, as plants, harboring rich and complex bacterial communities, could be hot spot for emergence of antibiotic resistances as a response to bioactive molecules production by members of the same community. Here, we investigated a panel of 137 bacterial isolates present in different organs of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea, aiming to evaluate if different plant organs harbor strains with different antibiotic resistance profiles, implying then the presence of different biological interactions in the communities inhabiting different plant organs. Data obtained showed a large antibiotic resistance variability among strains, which was strongly related to the different plant organs (26% of total variance, P < 0.0001). Interestingly this uneven antibiotic resistance pattern was present also when a single genus (Pseudomonas), ubiquitous in all organs, was analyzed and no correlation of antibiotic resistance pattern with genomic relatedness among strains was found. In conclusion, we speculate that antibiotic resistance patterns are tightly linked to the type of plant organ under investigation, suggesting the presence of differential forms of biological interaction in stem/leaves, roots and rhizosphere.

  2. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident.

  3. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. PMID:22417315

  4. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment.

  5. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. PMID:27273012

  6. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    PubMed

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151804

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151804

  9. Claviceps purpurea expressing polygalacturonases escaping PGIP inhibition fully infects PvPGIP2 wheat transgenic plants but its infection is delayed in wheat transgenic plants with increased level of pectin methyl esterification.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Chiara; Raiola, Alessandro; Janni, Michela; Gordon, Anna; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) can affect pathogen infection and ergot disease development. Wheat transgenic plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 did not show a clear reduction of disease symptoms when infected with C. purpurea. To ascertain the possible cause underlying this lack of improved resistance of PvPGIP2 plants, we expressed both polygalacturonases present in the C. purpurea genome, cppg1 and cppg2 in Pichia pastoris. In vitro assays using the heterologous expressed PGs and PvPGIP2 showed that neither PG is inhibited by this inhibitor. To further investigate the role of PG in the C. purpurea/wheat system, we demonstrated that the activity of both PGs of C. purpurea is reduced on highly methyl esterified pectin. Finally, we showed that this reduction in PG activity is relevant in planta, by inoculating with C. purpurea transgenic wheat plants overexpressing a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor (PMEI) and showing a high degree of pectin methyl esterification. We observed reduced disease symptoms in the transgenic line compared with null controls. Together, these results highlight the importance of pectin degradation for ergot disease development in wheat and sustain the notion that inhibition of pectin degradation may represent a possible route to control of ergot in cereals.

  10. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-10-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs.

  11. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs. PMID:22215975

  12. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae) shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

    PubMed Central

    Suguiyama, Vanessa F.; Silva, Emerson A.; Meirelles, Sergio T.; Centeno, Danilo C.; Braga, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP) of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80 and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC. PMID:24672534

  13. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. PMID:26202210

  14. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment.

  15. Genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to urban and rural environments in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, G M; Droste, A

    2012-11-01

    The Trad-MCN bioassay was used to investigate the genotoxicity on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea plants exposed to variations in the environmental conditions in urban and rural sites in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, over a one-year period. In spring 2009 and in summer, autumn and winter 2010, potted plants of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed at two sites with different characteristics: the urban area of the municipality of Estância Velha, with leather and footwear industrial activity, and a Site of Special Environmental Interest in the rural area of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo. Other plants comprised the control group and were kept indoors. Frequencies of micronuclei (MCN) were determined in early tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Climate data were also registered during the experiment. MCN frequencies in the urban area were significantly higher (up to 8.13) than those found in the rural area (up to 1.26) and in the control group (up to 1.10), which did not differ statistically from each other over the year. The higher MCN frequencies observed in the urban site can be attributed to air pollution, but also may have been influenced by microclimatic and daily thermal variation differences between sites. Higher temperatures recorded in spring and summer may have influenced MCN frequencies observed in the urban site. No clear relation was observed between rainfall and MCN frequencies. Similar and high relative humidity percentages were registered over the period of the study. Considering that the bioindicator plant presents an integrated response to abiotic factors such as pollutants and weather conditions, it can be used as an additional tool that can point to synergistic effects of environmental variables on organisms.

  16. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities

    PubMed Central

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use cone-shaped leaves to trap animals for nutrient supply but are not able to kill all intruders of their traps. Numerous species, ranging from bacteria to vertrebrates, survive and propagate in the otherwise deadly traps. This paper reviews the literature on phytotelmata of CPPs. Pitcher Fluid as a Habitat The volumes of pitchers range from 0·2 mL to 1·5 L. In Nepenthes and Cephalotus, the fluid is secreted by the trap; the other genera collect rain water. The fluid is usually acidic, rich in O2 and contains digestive enzymes. In some taxa, toxins or detergents are found, or the fluid is extremely viscous. In Heliamphora or Sarracenia, the fluid differs little from pure water. Inquiline Diversity Pitcher inquilines comprise bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungi, rotifers, crustaceans, arachnids, insects and amphibia. The dominant groups are protists and Dipteran larvae. The various species of CPPs host different sets of inquilines. Sarracenia purpurea hosts up to 165 species of inquilines, followed by Nepenthes ampullaria with 59 species, compared with only three species from Brocchinia reducta. Reasons for these differences include size, the life span of the pitcher as well as its fluid. Mutualistic Activities Inquilines closely interact with their host. Some live as parasites, but the vast majority are mutualists. Beneficial activities include secretion of enzymes, feeding on the plant's prey and successive excretion of inorganic nutrients, mechanical break up of the prey, removal of excessive prey and assimilation of atmospheric N2. Conclusions There is strong evidence that CPPs influence their phytotelm. Two strategies can be distinguished: (1) Nepenthes and Cephalotus produce acidic, toxic or digestive fluids and host a limited diversity of inquilines. (2) Genera without efficient enzymes such as Sarracenia or Heliamphora host diverse organisms and depend to a large extent on their symbionts for prey utilization

  17. Rethinking niche evolution: experiments with natural communities of Protozoa in pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E; Moran, Emma R; terHorst, Casey P

    2014-08-01

    Classic niche theory predicts that competing species will evolve to use different resources and interact less, whereas recent niche-converge ideas predict that species evolve to use similar resources and interact more. Most data supporting niche evolution are based on observations of contemporary niche use, whereas experimental support is quite sparse. We followed the evolution of four species of Protozoa during succession in the water-filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, and found that evolution in multispecies systems follows a surprising pattern. Over several hundred generations, weak competitors evolved to be stronger, while strong competitors evolved to become weaker, which does not conform to expectations of either niche divergence or convergence. Evolution in this system appears to occur in response to characteristics of a suite of several competitors in the community, rather than pairwise interactions. Ecologists may need to rethink the roles of competition and evolution in structuring communities.

  18. Plant progesterone 5beta-reductase is not homologous to the animal enzyme. Molecular evolutionary characterization of P5betaR from Digitalis purpurea.

    PubMed

    Gavidia, Isabel; Tarrío, Rosa; Rodríguez-Trelles, Francisco; Pérez-Bermúdez, Pedro; Seitz, H Ulrich

    2007-03-01

    Plants of the genus Digitalis produce cardiac glycosides, i.e. digoxin, which are widely used for congestive heart failure. Progesterone 5beta-reductase (P5betaR) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of these natural products. Here, we have carried out the purification and partial amino acid sequencing of the native P5betaR from foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), and isolated a cDNA encoding this enzyme. Similarly to other steroid 5beta-reductases, the recombinant P5betaR catalyzes the stereospecific reduction of the Delta(4)-double bond of several steroids with a 3-oxo,Delta(4,5) structure. The gene encoding P5betaR is expressed in all plant organs, and maximally transcribed in leaves and mature flowers. P5betaR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, bearing no structural homology to its mammalian counterpart, which is a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. A similar situation occurs with 3beta-hydroxy-Delta(5)-steroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), the gene immediately preceding P5betaR in the cardenolide pathway, which suggests that the entire route has evolved independently in animals and plants. P5betaR is retained only in plants, where it is ubiquitous, and a few distantly related bacterial lineages after its diversification from the last universal common ancestor. Evolutionary conserved changes in its putative active site suggest that plant P5betaR is a member of a novel subfamily of extended SDRs, or a new SDR family.

  19. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG–trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG–trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea. PMID:16126899

  20. Domestication of a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree, Spondias purpurea.

    PubMed

    Miller, Allison; Schaal, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Contemporary patterns of genetic variation in crops reflect historical processes associated with domestication, such as the geographic origin(s) of cultivated populations. Although significant progress has been made in identifying several global centers of domestication, few studies have addressed the issue of multiple origins of cultivated plant populations from different geographic regions within a domestication center. This study investigates the domestication history of jocote (Spondias purpurea), a Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Sequences of the chloroplast spacer trnG-trnS were obtained for cultivated and wild S. purpurea trees, two sympatric taxa (Spondias mombin var. mombin and Spondias radlkoferi), and two outgroups (S. mombin var. globosa and Spondias testudinus). A phylogeographic approach was used and statistically significant associations of clades and geographical location were tested with a nested clade analysis. The sequences confirm that wild populations of S. purpurea are the likely progenitors of cultivated jocote trees. This study provides phylogeographic evidence of multiple domestications of this Mesoamerican cultivated fruit tree. Haplotypes detected in S. purpurea trees form two clusters, each of which includes alleles recovered in both cultivated and wild populations from distinct geographic regions. Cultivated S. purpurea populations have fewer unique trnG-trnS alleles than wild populations; however, five haplotypes were absent in the wild. The presence of unique alleles in cultivation may reflect contemporary extinction of the tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. These data indicate that some agricultural habitats may be functioning as reservoirs of genetic variation in S. purpurea.

  1. Diversity and community structure of Archaea inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting plants from an acidic bog.

    PubMed

    Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Yavitt, Joseph B; Zinder, Stephen H; Thies, Janice E

    2010-05-01

    Plant root exudates increase nutrient availability and influence microbial communities including archaeal members. We examined the archaeal community inhabiting the rhizoplane of two contrasting vascular plants, Dulichium arundinaceum and Sarracenia purpurea, from an acidic bog in upstate NY. Multiple archaeal 16S rRNA gene libraries showed that methanogenic Archaea were dominant in the rhizoplane of both plants. In addition, the community structure (evenness) of the rhizoplane was found markedly different from the bulk peat. The archaeal community in peat from the same site has been found dominated by the E2 group, meanwhile the rhizoplane communities on both plants were co-dominated by Methanosarcinaceae (MS), rice cluster (RC)-I, and E2. Complementary T-RFLP analysis confirmed the difference between bulk peat and rhizoplane, and further characterized the dominance pattern of MS, RC-I, and E2. In the rhizoplane, MS was dominant on both plants although as a less variable fraction in S. purpurea. RC-I was significantly more abundant than E2 on S. purpurea, while the opposite was observed on D. arundinaceum, suggesting a plant-specific enrichment. Also, the statistical analyses of T-RFLP data showed that although both plants overlap in their community structure, factors such as plant type, patch location, and time could explain nearly a third of the variability in the dataset. Other factors such as water table, plant replicate, and root depth had a low contribution to the observed variance. The results of this study illustrate the general effects of roots and the specific effects of plant types on their nearby archaeal communities which in bog-inhabiting plants were mainly composed by methanogenic groups.

  2. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods. PMID:26009695

  3. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists’ attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods. PMID:26009695

  4. Comprehensive analysis of alternative splicing in Digitalis purpurea by strand-specific RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Suo, Fengmei; Lei, Wanjun; Gu, Lianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea (D. purpurea) is one of the most important medicinal plants and is well known in the treatment of heart failure because of the cardiac glycosides that are its main active compounds. However, in the absence of strand specific sequencing information, the post-transcriptional mechanism of gene regulation in D. purpurea thus far remains unknown. In this study, a strand-specific RNA-Seq library was constructed and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq platforms to characterize the transcriptome of D. purpurea with a focus on alternative splicing (AS) events and the effect of AS on protein domains. De novo RNA-Seq assembly resulted in 48,475 genes. Based on the assembled transcripts, we reported a list of 3,265 AS genes, including 5,408 AS events in D. purpurea. Interestingly, both glycosyltransferases and monooxygenase, which were involved in the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, are regulated by AS. A total of 2,422 AS events occurred in coding regions, and 959 AS events were located in the regions of 882 unique protein domains, which could affect protein function. This D. purpurea transcriptome study substantially increased the expressed sequence resource and presented a better understanding of post-transcriptional regulation to further facilitate the medicinal applications of D. purpurea for human health.

  5. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable.

  6. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable. PMID:19428263

  7. In vitro characterization of a nineteenth-century therapy for smallpox.

    PubMed

    Arndt, William; Mitnik, Chandra; Denzler, Karen L; White, Stacy; Waters, Robert; Jacobs, Bertram L; Rochon, Yvan; Olson, Victoria A; Damon, Inger K; Langland, Jeffrey O

    2012-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, smallpox ravaged through the United States and Canada. At this time, a botanical preparation, derived from the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea, was proclaimed as being a successful therapy for smallpox infections. The work described characterizes the antipoxvirus activity associated with this botanical extract against vaccinia virus, monkeypox virus and variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. Our work demonstrates the in vitro characterization of Sarracenia purpurea as the first effective inhibitor of poxvirus replication at the level of early viral transcription. With the renewed threat of poxvirus-related infections, our results indicate Sarracenia purpurea may act as another defensive measure against Orthopoxvirus infections.

  8. Physiological and proteomic adaptation of the alpine grass Stipa purpurea to a drought gradient.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunqiang; Dong, Chao; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiong; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Stipa purpurea, an endemic forage species on the Tibetan Plateau, is highly resistant to cold and drought, but the mechanisms underlying its responses to drought stress remain elusive. An understanding of such mechanisms may be useful for developing cultivars that are adaptable to water deficit. In this study, we analyzed the physiological and proteomic responses of S. purpurea under increasing drought stress. Seedlings of S. purpurea were subjected to a drought gradient in a controlled experiment, and proteins showing changes in abundance under these conditions were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. A western blotting analysis was conducted to confirm the increased abundance of a heat-shock protein, NCED2, and a dehydrin in S. purpurea seedlings under drought conditions. We detected carbonylated proteins to identify oxidation-sensitive proteins in S. purpurea seedlings, and found that ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) was one of the oxidation-sensitive proteins under drought. Together, these results indicated drought stress might inhibit photosynthesis in S. purpurea by oxidizing RuBisCO, but the plants were able to maintain photosynthetic efficiency by a compensatory upregulation of unoxidized RuBisCO and other photosynthesis-related proteins. Further analyses confirmed that increased abundance of antioxidant enzymes could balance the redox status of the plants to mitigate drought-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25646623

  9. Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of the Alpine Grass Stipa purpurea to a Drought Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunqiang; Dong, Chao; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiong; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Stipa purpurea, an endemic forage species on the Tibetan Plateau, is highly resistant to cold and drought, but the mechanisms underlying its responses to drought stress remain elusive. An understanding of such mechanisms may be useful for developing cultivars that are adaptable to water deficit. In this study, we analyzed the physiological and proteomic responses of S. purpurea under increasing drought stress. Seedlings of S. purpurea were subjected to a drought gradient in a controlled experiment, and proteins showing changes in abundance under these conditions were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. A western blotting analysis was conducted to confirm the increased abundance of a heat-shock protein, NCED2, and a dehydrin in S. purpurea seedlings under drought conditions. We detected carbonylated proteins to identify oxidation-sensitive proteins in S. purpurea seedlings, and found that ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) was one of the oxidation-sensitive proteins under drought. Together, these results indicated drought stress might inhibit photosynthesis in S. purpurea by oxidizing RuBisCO, but the plants were able to maintain photosynthetic efficiency by a compensatory upregulation of unoxidized RuBisCO and other photosynthesis-related proteins. Further analyses confirmed that increased abundance of antioxidant enzymes could balance the redox status of the plants to mitigate drought-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25646623

  10. [Extract of the Echinacea purpurea herb: an allopathic phytoimmunostimulant].

    PubMed

    Bauer, R; Hoheisel, O; Stuhlfauth, I; Wolf, H

    1999-01-01

    In Northamerican folk medicine Echinacea purpurea L. Moench (purple coneflower) was used as a medicinal plant. Nowadays various formulations containing stabilized or dried pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea as an active ingredient are often administered to treat common colds. These preparations are very well tolerated and safe. Allergic reactions, mainly reversible skin reactions, may occur especially in persons showing hypersensibility after contact with plants from the Compositae family. Pharmacological data let assume purple coneflower pressed juice preparations stimulate the innate immune system and increase the resistance to common colds. In this context the stimulation of the oxidative burst as well as the modulation on monokine secretion by the pressed juice of purple coneflower are reviewed. Also relevant clinical studies are presented concerning the treatment of infections respectively of common cold. PMID:10483677

  11. The effect of coloured light on Ipomoea purpurea growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surducan, Vasile; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil

    2009-08-01

    Ipomoea purpurea is a climbing ornamental plant native to Mexico. The paper is describing the experimental setup and results for indoor growing plants exposed to white LED light (inside a reference chamber) and four different wavelength LED lights (inside a measure chamber). Four growing experiments of 12-15 days, took place in identical environmental conditions (identical temperature and relative humidity inside the reference and measure chambers, similar lighting conditions and soil moisture). At the end of the experiments, the plant chlorophyll and xanthophylls content have been measured and the plant aspect (vegetal mass, leaves colour and robustness) has been observed. The smallest content in chlorophyll (a and b) was developed by the plants growth in blue light (480 nm), however those plants where 10% taller than plants growth in white light, but less robust. The higher content in carotenoids and xanthophylls was observed in plants which growth in white and red light.

  12. Biotechnological Approaches for Biomass and Cardenolide Production in Digitalis purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alonso, Naivy; Chong-Pérez, Borys; Capote, Alina; Pérez, Anabel; Gerth, André; Angenon, Geert; Jiménez, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea L. is one of the main economically viable sources of cardenolides (cardiac glycosides) for the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, production of cardenolides in plants grown by traditional agriculture is not always an efficient process and can be affected by biotic and abiotic factors. This chapter provides two biotechnology strategies for biomass and cardenolide production in D. purpurea. Firstly, we report biomass production using a temporary immersion system (TIS), combined with cardenolide extraction and quantification. Secondly, an efficient protocol for genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens is provided. These strategies can be used independently or combined in order to increase the content of cardiac glycosides in D. purpurea and to unravel biosynthetic pathways associated to cardiac glycoside production. PMID:27108311

  13. Temporal rhythm of petal programmed cell death in Ipomoea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Gui, M-Y; Ni, X-L; Wang, H-B; Liu, W-Z

    2016-09-01

    Flowers are the main sexual reproductive organs in plants. The shapes, colours and scents of corolla of plant flowers are involved in attracting insect pollinators and increasing reproductive success. The process of corolla senescence was investigated in Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae) in this study. In the research methods of plant anatomy, cytology, cell chemistry and molecular biology were used. The results showed that at the flowering stage cells already began to show distortion, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane degradation and tonoplast dissolution and rupture. At this stage genomic DNA underwent massive but gradual random degradation. However, judging from the shape and structure, aging characteristics did not appear until the early flower senescence stage. The senescence process was slow, and it was completed at the late stage of flower senescence with a withering corolla. We may safely arrive at the conclusion that corolla senescence of I. purpurea was mediated by programmed cell death (PCD) that occurred at the flowering stage. The corolla senescence exhibited an obvious temporal rhythm, which demonstrated a high degree of coordination with pollination and fertilization. PMID:27259176

  14. Evolution in response to direct and indirect ecological effects in pitcher plant inquiline communities.

    PubMed

    terHorst, Casey P

    2010-12-01

    Ecologists have long recognized the importance of indirect ecological effects on species abundances, coexistence, and diversity. However, the evolutionary consequences of indirect interactions are rarely considered. Here I conduct selection experiments and examine the evolutionary response of Colpoda sp., a ciliated protozoan, to other members of the inquiline community of purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea). I measured the evolution of six traits in response to (1) predation by mosquito larvae, (2) competition from other ciliated protozoans, and (3) simultaneous predation and competition. The latter treatment incorporated both direct effects and indirect effects due to interactions between predators and competitors. Population growth rate and cell size evolved in response to direct effects of predators and competitors. However, trait values in the multispecies treatment were similar to those in the monoculture treatment, indicating that direct effects were offset by strong indirect effects on the evolution of traits. For most of the traits measured, indirect effects were opposed to, and often stronger than, direct effects. These indirect effects occurred as a result of behavioral changes of the predator in the presence of competitors and as a result of reduced densities of competitors in the presence of predators. Incorporating indirect effects provides a more realistic description of how species evolve in complex natural communities.

  15. Activities and Prevalence of Proteobacteria Members Colonizing Echinacea purpurea Fully Account for Macrophage Activation Exhibited by Extracts of This Botanical.

    PubMed

    Haron, Mona H; Tyler, Heather L; Pugh, Nirmal D; Moraes, Rita M; Maddox, Victor L; Jackson, Colin R; Pasco, David S

    2016-09-01

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously, we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could be accounted for by total bacterial load within the plant material. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that the type of bacteria, in addition to bacterial load, is necessary to fully account for extract activity. Bacterial community composition within commercial and freshly harvested (wild and cultivated) E. purpurea aerial samples was determined using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Bacterial isolates representing 38 different taxa identified to be present within E. purpurea were acquired, and the activity exhibited by the extracts of these isolates varied by over 8000-fold. Members of the Proteobacteria exhibited the highest potency for in vitro macrophage activation and were the most predominant taxa. Furthermore, the mean activity exhibited by the Echinacea extracts could be solely accounted for by the activities and prevalence of Proteobacteria members comprising the plant-associated bacterial community. The efficacy of E. purpurea material for use against respiratory infections may be determined by the Proteobacterial community composition of this plant, since ingestion of bacteria (probiotics) is reported to have a protective effect against this health condition.

  16. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin

    2015-02-01

    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau. PMID:26094467

  17. GIS-based characterization of the geographic distributions of wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Miller, Allison J; Knouft, Jason H

    2006-12-01

    Humans are having a profound impact on the geographic distributions of plant populations. In crop species, domestication has been accompanied by the geographic expansion of cultivated populations relative to their wild ancestors. We used a geographical information system (GIS)-based approach to investigate differences in the environmental factors characterizing the geographic distributions of cultivated and wild populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea. Locality data for 86 cultivated and 28 wild S. purpurea populations were used in conjunction with environmental data layers and Maxent, a maximum entropy application for predicting species distributions. Interpredictivity analyses and principal components analysis revealed that the predicted distribution of wild S. purpurea is nested within the cultivated distribution and that the ecological niche (defined by environmental characteristics) of cultivated S. purpurea has expanded relative to that of wild populations. Significant differences between wild and cultivated populations were detected for five environmental variables, corresponding to the expansion of S. purpurea during the domestication process from its native habitat in the Mesoamerican tropical dry forests into less seasonal habitats. These data suggest that humans have altered the range of habitats occupied by cultivated S. purpurea populations relative to their wild progenitors.

  18. Exploration of diuretic potential and electrolyte excretion of Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, D; Narayana, T V; Vidyasagar; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-03-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (Fabaceae) is a well-known traditional plant with diuretic effect but no scientific work published till date to support the claimed ethnomedical use. Therefore, the present study appraised the diuretic potential of methanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea (METP) in male wistar rats. The powdered plant material was extracted with methanol by hot extraction. The animals were divided into five groups for diuretic activity. The first group served as saline control (0.9%% saline solution, 25 ml/kg, body weight (b.w)), the second group received osmotic diuretic, urea (1 g/kg b.w), the third group received high-ceiling diuretic, furosemide (5 mg/kg b.w), and the other two groups were administered various concentrations of METP (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w) orally to hydrated rats and their urine volume was measured at 5th and 24th hr after drug administration, while animals were deprived of food and water. After collection of urine, the parameters such as urine output, diuretic activity, electrolyte excretion of Na(++), K(++), Ca(2++), and Cl(-), and pH were analyzed. METP at various dose levels exhibited significant diuretic activity as evidenced by increased urine volume, electrolyte concentration, and alkaline pH in comparison to control group of animals. The present study provides a quantitative basis for explaining the folkloric use of Tephrosia purpurea as a diuretic agent in Indian traditional system of medicine. PMID:22432799

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kerketta, Priscilla; Patnaik, Subhasree; Roy, Birendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced sub-acute toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) @ 500 mg/kg daily for the same time period, whereas only deionized water was given to Group I (control). Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress parameters and arsenic concentration were assessed in liver. Histopathology was also conducted. Results: It has been seen that TPE (500 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced serum ALT, AST, ALP activity and increased total protein and reduced necrosis and inflammation in liver of group III compared to group II. A significantly (P < 0.01) higher LPO and lower GSH levels without change in SOD activity in liver was also observed in group II compared to group III, though there was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation between them. The plant extract also protects the animals of group III from significant (P < 0.01) reduction in body weight. Conclusion: Our study shows that supplementation of Tephrosia purpurea extract (500 mg/kg) could ameliorate the hepatotoxic action of arsenic. PMID:24741193

  20. Production of gentamicins by Micromonospora purpurea.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, A Z; Salem, H M; Eissa, A E

    1978-01-01

    The natural medium contained the following ingredients (g/l): glucose 8.0, or black strap molasses (treated with 0.2--0.3 g/l EDTA) 12.0, fodder yeast (50.0% total nitrogen) 2.0, or folder yeast (40.0% total nitrogen) 6.0, or yeast extract 8.0, or tryptone 8.0, and CaCO3 1.0. Treated black strap molasses with EDTA and fodder yeast proved to be effective in the fermentative production of gentamicins. The most suitable chelating agent was EDTA in the form of disodium for the treatment of Komombo molasses in a concentration of 0.2--0.3 g/l, while potassium ferrocyanide and methylene blue had depressing effects on the production of gentamicins. The most effective carbon source, present in Egyptian black strap molasses, was glucose. Addition of glucose to the medium was preferable at the beginning of the fermentation process. Trace elements present in molasses were very essential for the microbial growth and biosynthesis of gentamicins as proved when molasses ash was added to the natural medium. Organic nitrogen sources were more suitable than inorganic nitrogen sources for the production of gentamicins by Micromonospora purpurea. The microorganism utilized the synthetic medium, but the antibiotic yields were less than those produced in the natural medium. The synthetic medium exhibited stimulatory effects of certain amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, and purine and pyrimidine bases on the fermentative production of gentamicins. Therefore, the ingredients increasing yields of gentamicins were mainly phenylalanine, iso-leucine, lysine, methionine, leucine, arginine, glycine, beta-alanine, cystine, tryptophan, malic acid, maleic acid, cobalamin, folic acid, riboflavin, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, biotin, nicotinamide, uracil, adenine, guanine, and adenosine. Trace elements (Co, Mo, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) exhibited their important role on the biosynthesis and production of gentamicins by Micromonospora purpurea. PMID:696047

  1. The NADPH oxidase Cpnox1 is required for full pathogenicity of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Giesbert, Sabine; Schürg, Timo; Scheele, Sandra; Tudzynski, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in interactions between phytopathogenic fungi and their hosts is well established. An oxidative burst mainly caused by superoxide formation by membrane-associated NADPH oxidases is an essential element of plant defence reactions. Apart from primary effects, ROS play a major role as a second messenger in host response. Recently, NADPH oxidase (nox)-encoding genes have been identified in filamentous fungi. Functional analyses have shown that these fungal enzymes are involved in sexual differentiation, and there is growing evidence that they also affect developmental programmes involved in fungus-plant interactions. Here we show that in the biotrophic plant pathogen Claviceps purpurea deletion of the cpnox1 gene, probably encoding an NADPH oxidase, has impact on germination of conidia and pathogenicity: Deltacpnox1 mutants can penetrate the host epidermis, but they are impaired in colonization of the plant ovarian tissue. In the few cases where macroscopic signs of infection (honeydew) appear, they are extremely delayed and fully developed sclerotia have never been observed. C. purpurea Nox1 is important for the interaction with its host, probably by directly affecting pathogenic differentiation of the fungus.

  2. Coevolutionary elaboration of pollination-related traits in an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and a tabanid fly in the Nepalese Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Babu Ram; Shrestha, Mani; Burd, Martin; Adhikari, Subodh; Sun, Yong-Shuai; Li, Qing-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Geographical variation in the interacting traits of plant-pollinator mutualism can lead to local adaptive differentiation. We tested Darwin's hypothesis of reciprocal selection as a key driving force for the evolution of floral traits of an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and proboscis length of a tabanid fly (Philoliche longirostris). We documented the pattern of trait variation in R. purpurea and P. longirostris across five populations. At each site, we quantified pollinator-mediated selection on floral display area, inflorescence height and corolla length of R. purpurea by comparing selection gradients for flowers exposed to natural pollination and to supplemental hand pollination. Reciprocal selection between plant and fly was examined at two sites via the relationship between proboscis length and nectar consumption (fly benefit) and corolla length and pollen deposition (plant benefit). Local corolla tube length was correlated with local fly proboscis length among the five sites. We found strong linear selection imposed by pollinators on corolla tube length at all sites, but there was no consistent relationship of fitness to inflorescence height or floral display area. Selection between corolla length and proboscis length was reciprocal at the two experimental sites examined. The geographical pattern of trait variation and the evidence of selection is consistent with a mosaic of local, species-specific reciprocal selection acting as the major driving force for the evolution of corolla length of R. purpurea and proboscis length of P. longirostris. PMID:27112321

  3. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes.

  4. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang; Li, You-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds.

  5. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  6. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Emily R.; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N.; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F.; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  7. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pagé, Antoine P; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls). An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the efficiency of current

  8. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pagé, Antoine P; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls). An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the efficiency of current

  9. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands. PMID:19256436

  10. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands.

  11. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  12. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  13. Type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Claviceps purpurea with ricinoleic acid, a hydroxyl fatty acid of industrial importance, as preferred substrate.

    PubMed

    Mavraganis, Ioannis; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Vrinten, Patricia; Smith, Mark; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-02-01

    Claviceps purpurea, the fungal pathogen that causes the cereal disease ergot, produces glycerides that contain high levels of ricinoleic acid [(R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid] in its sclerotia. Recently, a fatty acid hydroxylase (C. purpurea FAH [CpFAH]) involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid was identified from this fungus (D. Meesapyodsuk and X. Qiu, Plant Physiol. 147:1325-1333, 2008). Here, we describe the cloning and biochemical characterization of a C. purpurea type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase (CpDGAT2) involved in the assembly of ricinoleic acid into triglycerides. The CpDGAT2 gene was cloned by degenerate RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR). The expression of this gene restored the in vivo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the quadruple mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246, in which all four TAG biosynthesis genes (DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2) are disrupted. In vitro enzymatic assays using microsomal preparations from the transformed yeast strain indicated that CpDGAT2 prefers ricinoleic acid as an acyl donor over linoleic acid, oleic acid, or linolenic acid, and it prefers 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol over 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol as an acyl acceptor. The coexpression of CpFAH with CpDGAT2 in yeast resulted in an increased accumulation of ricinoleic acid compared to the coexpression of CpFAH with the native yeast DGAT2 (S. cerevisiae DGA1 [ScDGA1]) or the expression of CpFAH alone. Northern blot analysis indicated that CpFAH is expressed solely in sclerotium cells, with no transcripts of this gene being detected in mycelium or conidial cells. CpDGAT2 was more widely expressed among the cell types examined, although expression was low in conidiospores. The high expression of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH in sclerotium cells, where high levels of ricinoleate glycerides accumulate, provided further evidence supporting the roles of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH as key enzymes for the synthesis and assembly of ricinoleic acid in C. purpurea. PMID

  14. Domestication and the distribution of genetic variation in wild and cultivated populations of the Mesoamerican fruit tree Spondias purpurea L. (Anacardiaceae).

    PubMed

    Miller, Allison J; Schaal, Barbara A

    2006-05-01

    Domestication occurs as humans select and cultivate wild plants in agricultural habitats. The amount and structure of variation in contemporary cultivated populations has been shaped, in part, by how genetic material was transferred from one cultivated generation to the next. In some cultivated tree species, domestication involved a shift from sexually reproducing wild populations to vegetatively propagated cultivated populations; however, little is known about how domestication has impacted variation in these species. We employed AFLP data to explore the amount, structure, and distribution of variation in clonally propagated domesticated populations and sexually reproducing wild populations of the Neotropical fruit tree, Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae). Cultivated populations from three different agricultural habitats were included: living fences, backyards, and orchards. AFLP data were analysed using measures of genetic diversity (% polymorphic loci, Shannon's diversity index, Nei's gene diversity, panmictic heterozygosity), population structure (F(ST) analogues), and principal components analyses. Levels of genetic variation in cultivated S. purpurea populations are significantly less than variation found in wild populations, although the amount of diversity varies in different agricultural habitats. Cultivated populations have a greater proportion of their genetic variability distributed among populations than wild populations. The genetic structure of backyard populations resembles that of wild populations, but living fence and orchard populations have 1/3 more variability distributed among populations, most likely a reflection of relative levels of vegetative reproduction. Finally, these results suggest that S. purpurea was domesticated in two distinct regions within Mesoamerica.

  15. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  16. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  17. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  18. Overexpression of SpCBL6, a calcineurin B-like protein of Stipa purpurea, enhanced cold tolerance and reduced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Supriyo, Basak; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize SpCBL6 (GenBank accession number: KT780442) from Stipa purpurea and elucidate the function of this protein in abiotic stress. The full-length cDNA of SpCBL6 was isolated from S. purpurea by rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Laser confocal microscopy was used to analyze the subcellular localization of SpCBL6. The constructs of 35S:GFP-SpCBL6 was used to transform wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants (ecotype Columbia-0) with the floral dip method. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and ion leakage was performed to investigate the role of SpCBL6 in abiotic stress. The open reading frame of SpCBL6 contains 681 bp nucleotides and encodes a 227-amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SpCBL6 showed the highest similarity with rice OsCBL6. SpCBL6 transcripts were induced by freezing and drought treatments. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpCBL6 was located in membrane of protoplast. Overexpression of SpCBL6 in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that the transgenic plants were more tolerant to cold treatment, but less tolerant to drought, compared with the plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the drought stress marker genes were inhibited in transgenic plants, whereas the cold stress marker genes were enhanced. Further analysis showed that SpCBL6-overexpressing plants showed enhanced water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and reduced ion leakage compared with the wild-type after cold treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that SpCBL6, a new member of the CBL gene family isolated from S. purpurea, enhances cold tolerance and reduces drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27393148

  19. Pharmacognostical Standardization of Tephrosia purpurea Pers Root

    PubMed Central

    Sandhya, S.; Ventaka, Ramana K.; Vinod, K.R

    2010-01-01

    Wild Indigo or Purple Tephrosia or fish poison occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. It is widely used in the treatment of inflammation, diabetes, rheumatism, asthma, diarrhoea and many other ailments. But so far the pharmacognostic standardization has not been reported for its proper identification. Hence the present study is a pharmacognosy work carried out for the root part. This may help in the identification of the plant species. A thin transverse section, powder microscopy, measurement of the dimensions of cell structures, fluorescence analysis and physico chemical parameters were conducted for the root. From the TS, the secondary xylem fibres and vessels were found to be the tissues of diagnostic importance. The xylem vessels were of two types: narrow and long; broad and short. The important characters in the powdered microscopy were vessel elements, fibres and xylem parenchyma cells. The different fluorescent light shades were obtained under short and long UV light for both powder as well as the extracts of the root. The proximate analysis values were also obtained in a satisfactory way. Combining all these data a suitable root profile for plant can be constructed which may help in the identification of quality of the plant part. PMID:22557415

  20. Induction of tetraploids from petiole explants through colchicine treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Nilanthi, Dahanayake; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x = 22) Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA), 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L) of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x = 44) shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature. PMID:19696915

  1. A spatially explicit analysis of seedling recruitment in the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea.

    PubMed

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Brys, Rein; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    Seed dispersal and the subsequent recruitment of new individuals into a population are important processes affecting the population dynamics, genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of plant populations. Spatial patterns of seedling recruitment were investigated in two populations of the terrestrial orchid Orchis purpurea using both univariate and bivariate point pattern analysis, parentage analysis and seed germination experiments. Both adults and recruits showed a clustered spatial distribution with cluster radii of c. 4-5 m. The parentage analysis resulted in offspring-dispersal distances that were slightly larger than distances obtained from the point pattern analyses. The suitability of microsites for germination differed among sites, with strong constraints in one site and almost no constraints in the other. These results provide a clear and coherent picture of recruitment patterns in a tuberous, perennial orchid. Seed dispersal is limited to a few metres from the mother plant, whereas the availability of suitable germination conditions may vary strongly from one site to the next. Because of a time lag of 3-4 yr between seed dispersal and actual recruitment, and irregular flowering and fruiting patterns of adult plants, interpretation of recruitment patterns using point patterns analyses ideally should take into account the demographic properties of orchid populations.

  2. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  3. The costs and benefits of tolerance to competition in ipomoea purpurea, the common morning glory.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Lindsay; Baucom, Regina S

    2014-06-01

    Tolerance to competition has been hypothesized to reduce the negative impact of plant-plant competition on fitness. Although competitive interactions are a strong selective force, an analysis of net selection on tolerance to competition is absent in the literature. Using 55 full/half-sibling families from 18 maternal lines in the crop weed Ipomoea purpurea, we measured fitness and putative tolerance traits when grown with and without competition in an agricultural field. We tested for the presence of genetic variation for tolerance to competition and determined if there were costs and benefits of this trait. We also assessed correlations between tolerance and potential tolerance traits. We uncovered a fitness benefit of tolerance in the presence of competition and a cost in its absence. We failed to detect evidence of additive genetic variation underlying tolerance, but did uncover the presence of a significant maternal-line effect for tolerance, which suggests its evolutionary trajectory is not easily predicted. The cost of tolerance is likely due to later initiation of flowering of tolerant individuals in the absence of competition, whereas relative growth rate was found to positively covary with tolerance in the presence of competition, and can thus be considered a tolerance trait.

  4. Non-specific symbiotic germination of Cynorkis purpurea (Thouars) Kraezl., a habitat-specific terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rafter, M; Yokoya, K; Schofield, E J; Zettler, L W; Sarasan, V

    2016-08-01

    of C. purpurea. C. purpurea was found to be a mycorrhizal generalist, despite its specific habitat preference, highlighting the complex interaction between the plant, fungi, and the environment. The potential impact on conservation strategies of understanding the requirements for orchid seed germination and development by identifying and using OMF from diverse sources is discussed in detail.

  5. Non-specific symbiotic germination of Cynorkis purpurea (Thouars) Kraezl., a habitat-specific terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rafter, M; Yokoya, K; Schofield, E J; Zettler, L W; Sarasan, V

    2016-08-01

    of C. purpurea. C. purpurea was found to be a mycorrhizal generalist, despite its specific habitat preference, highlighting the complex interaction between the plant, fungi, and the environment. The potential impact on conservation strategies of understanding the requirements for orchid seed germination and development by identifying and using OMF from diverse sources is discussed in detail. PMID:26984810

  6. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Antoine P.; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea‘s ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls). An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the efficiency of

  7. Chemoraces and Habitat Specialization of Claviceps purpurea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Olšovská, Jana; Linka, Marek; Kolínská, Renata; Flieger, Miroslav

    2000-01-01

    We studied genetic variability of 100 isolates of Claviceps purpurea by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), an EcoRI restriction site polymorphism in the 5.8S ribosomal DNA (rDNA), the alkaloids produced, and conidial morphology. We identified three groups: (i) group G1 from fields and open meadows (57 isolates), (ii) group G2 from shady or wet habitats (41 isolates), and (iii) group G3 from Spartina anglica from salt marshes (2 isolates). The sclerotia of G1 isolates contained ergotamines and ergotoxines; G2 isolates produced ergosine and ergocristine along with small amounts of ergocryptine; and G3 isolates produced ergocristine and ergocryptine. The conidia of G1 isolates were 5 to 8 μm long, the conidia of G2 isolates were 7 to 10 μm long, and the conidia of G3 isolates were 10 to 12 μm long. Sclerotia of the G2 and G3 isolates floated on water. In the 5.8S rDNA analysis, an EcoRI site was found in G1 and G3 isolates but not in G2 isolates. The host preferences of the groups were not absolute, and there were host genera that were common to both G1 and G2; the presence of members of different groups in the same locality was rare. Without the use of RAPD or rDNA polymorphism, it was not possible to distinguish the three groups solely on the basis of phenotype, host, or habitat. In general, populations of C. purpurea are not host specialized, as previously assumed, but they are habitat specialized, and collecting strategies and toxin risk assessments should be changed to reflect this paradigm shift. PMID:11097923

  8. Functional characterization of the first filamentous fungal tRNA-isopentenyltransferase and its role in the virulence of Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Janine; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, Paul

    2016-08-01

    In plants, cytokinins (CKs) are synthesized de novo or by the degradation of modified tRNAs. Recently, the first fungal de novo pathway was identified within the plant pathogen Claviceps purpurea. As the deletion of the de novo pathway did not lead to a complete loss of CKs, this work focuses on the tRNA-modifying protein tRNA-isopentenyltransferase (CptRNA-IPT). The contribution of this enzyme to the CK pool of Claviceps and the role of CKs in the host-pathogen interaction are emphasized. The effects of the deletion of cptRNA-ipt and the double deletion of cptRNA-ipt and the key gene of de novo biosynthesis cpipt-log on growth, CK biosynthesis and virulence were analyzed. In addition, the sites of action of CptRNA-IPT were visualized using reporter gene fusions. In addition to CK-independent functions, CptRNA-IPT was essential for the biosynthesis of cis-zeatin (cZ) and contributed to the formation of isopentenyladenine (iP) and trans-zeatin (tZ). Although ΔcptRNA-ipt was reduced in virulence, the 'CK-free' double deletion mutant was nearly apathogenic. The results prove a redundancy of the CK biosynthesis pathway in C. purpurea for iP and tZ formation. Moreover, we show, for the first time, that CKs are required for the successful establishment of a host-fungus interaction. PMID:27074411

  9. Evaluation of chemical parameters and ecotoxicity of a soil developed on gossan following application of polyacrylates and growth of Spergularia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; de Varennes, Amarilis; Macías, Felipe; Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and ecotoxicity of a mine soil developed on gossan materials and amended with hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers after a growth cycle of Spergularia purpurea. Different acute bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization; microalgae growth inhibition; germination and growth of lettuce and oat) were carried out with simulated leachates, pore water and soil samples. The germination and growth of native shrubs (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula sampaioana) were also evaluated in the lysimeters where S. purpurea had grown. The soil had high total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (3.50-8.60), As (2.55-2.73), Cu (0.13-0.91) and Pb (4.48-6.16). However, the percentages of elements in aqueous extracts (simulating leachates, pore water, and the conditions of the rhizosphere soil) were small when compared to their total soil concentrations (less than 9% except for Na in leachates). Growth of S. purpurea and other natural colonization of plant species (Poaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families) improved chemical characteristics but the application of the polyacrylate polymers contributed to a further improvement of soil quality. However, this was not sufficient to ensure the growth of a large number of shrubs despite a great germination rate. Among the several species used on the ecotoxicological assessment, the D. magna test was the only bioassay that showed a clear toxicity of soil leachates, suggesting the importance of using several ecotoxicological tests to assess the environmental risk of soil contamination and its rehabilitation. Although the studied soil can be considered contaminated taking into account the total soil concentrations of Al, As, Cu and Pb, the low concentrations of the same chemical elements in extractable solutions, that simulated the fractions really available for organisms, did not demonstrate a substantial toxic effects in the organisms and, consequently, negative impact on the environment.

  10. Development and characterization of 29 polymorphic EST-SSR markers for Stipa purpurea (Poaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Yang, Yunqiang; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed using Illumina sequencing for further genetic diversity studies of Stipa purpurea (Poaceae). Methods and Results: Twenty-nine polymorphic and eight monomorphic EST-SSR loci were developed and characterized in 90 individuals from nine S. purpurea populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and heterozygosity within populations and total heterozygosity ranged from 0.04–0.76 and from 0.04–0.87, respectively. Of 37 loci, 12 showed interspecific transferability and polymorphism in a related species, S. glareosa. Conclusions: These newly developed EST-SSR primers provide a useful tool to investigate genetic diversity at the population level and to analyze the population structure of S. purpurea. PMID:27610274

  11. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the red alga Porphyra purpurea. Cyanobacterial introns and shared ancestry of red and green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, G; Saint-Louis, D; Gray, M W; Lang, B F

    1999-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Porphyra purpurea, a circular-mapping genome of 36,753 bp, has been completely sequenced. A total of 57 densely packed genes has been identified, including the basic set typically found in animals and fungi, as well as seven genes characteristic of protist and plant mtDNAs and specifying ribosomal proteins and subunits of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene contains two group II introns that are extraordinarily similar to those found in the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp, suggesting a recent lateral intron transfer between a bacterial and a mitochondrial genome. Notable features of P. purpurea mtDNA include the presence of two 291-bp inverted repeats that likely mediate homologous recombination, resulting in genome rearrangement, and of numerous sequence polymorphisms in the coding and intergenic regions. Comparative analysis of red algal mitochondrial genomes from five different, evolutionarily distant orders reveals that rhodophyte mtDNAs are unusually uniform in size and gene order. Finally, phylogenetic analyses provide strong evidence that red algae share a common ancestry with green algae and plants. PMID:10488235

  12. Studies on the immunomodulatory activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Damre, A S; Gokhale, A B; Phadke, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2003-04-01

    The flavonoid fraction of Tephrosia purpurea (FFTP) was studied for its effect on cellular and humoral functions and on macrophage phagocytosis in mice. Oral administration of FFTP (10-40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. It also produced a significant, dose-related decrease in sheep erythrocyte-specific haemagglutination antibody titre. However, the fraction failed to show a significant change in the macrophage phagocytic activity. The results obtained indicate the ability of the flavonoidal fraction of T. purpurea to modulate both the cell-mediated and the humoral components of the immune system.

  13. Type II Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Claviceps purpurea with Ricinoleic Acid, a Hydroxyl Fatty Acid of Industrial Importance, as Preferred Substrate ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mavraganis, Ioannis; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Vrinten, Patricia; Smith, Mark; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea, the fungal pathogen that causes the cereal disease ergot, produces glycerides that contain high levels of ricinoleic acid [(R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid] in its sclerotia. Recently, a fatty acid hydroxylase (C. purpurea FAH [CpFAH]) involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid was identified from this fungus (D. Meesapyodsuk and X. Qiu, Plant Physiol. 147:1325-1333, 2008). Here, we describe the cloning and biochemical characterization of a C. purpurea type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase (CpDGAT2) involved in the assembly of ricinoleic acid into triglycerides. The CpDGAT2 gene was cloned by degenerate RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR). The expression of this gene restored the in vivo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the quadruple mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246, in which all four TAG biosynthesis genes (DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2) are disrupted. In vitro enzymatic assays using microsomal preparations from the transformed yeast strain indicated that CpDGAT2 prefers ricinoleic acid as an acyl donor over linoleic acid, oleic acid, or linolenic acid, and it prefers 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol over 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol as an acyl acceptor. The coexpression of CpFAH with CpDGAT2 in yeast resulted in an increased accumulation of ricinoleic acid compared to the coexpression of CpFAH with the native yeast DGAT2 (S. cerevisiae DGA1 [ScDGA1]) or the expression of CpFAH alone. Northern blot analysis indicated that CpFAH is expressed solely in sclerotium cells, with no transcripts of this gene being detected in mycelium or conidial cells. CpDGAT2 was more widely expressed among the cell types examined, although expression was low in conidiospores. The high expression of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH in sclerotium cells, where high levels of ricinoleate glycerides accumulate, provided further evidence supporting the roles of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH as key enzymes for the synthesis and assembly of ricinoleic acid in C. purpurea. PMID

  14. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the liverwort Pleurozia purpurea reveals extremely conservative mitochondrial genome evolution in liverworts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Xue, Jiayu; Li, Libo; Liu, Yang; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes have been known to be highly unusual in their large sizes, frequent intra-genomic rearrangement, and generally conservative sequence evolution. Recent studies show that in early land plants the mitochondrial genomes exhibit a mixed mode of conservative yet dynamic evolution. Here, we report the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the liverwort Pleurozia purpurea. The circular genome has a size of 168,526 base pairs, containing 43 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes, and 31 group I or II introns. It differs from the Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial genome, the only other liverwort chondriome that has been sequenced, in lacking two genes (trnRucg and trnTggu) and one intron (rrn18i1065gII). The two genomes have identical gene orders and highly similar sequences in exons, introns, and intergenic spacers. Finally, a comparative analysis of duplicated trnRucu and other trnR genes from the two liverworts and several other organisms identified the recent lateral origin of trnRucg in Marchantia mtDNA through modification of a duplicated trnRucu. This study shows that the mitochondrial genomes evolve extremely slowly in liverworts, the earliest-diverging lineage of extant land plants, in stark contrast to what is known of highly dynamic evolution of mitochondrial genomes in seed plants.

  15. Echinacea purpurea: A Proprietary Extract of Echinacea purpurea Is Shown to be Safe and Effective in the Prevention of the Common Cold.

    PubMed

    Ross, Stephanie Maxine

    2016-01-01

    The research study in this review represents the largest clinical trial to date that evaluated the safety and efficacy of Echinacea purpurea for prophylactic treatment of the common cold, in addition to investigating its risk-benefit in a long-term treatment period. The clinical application of the proprietary standardized Echinacea purpurea extract(Echinaforce) demonstrated efficacy as a preventive cold treatment option over a 4-month duration. This study showed that Echinacea’s long-term prevention was associated with a reduction in the total number of cold episodes, a reduction in the number of days with colds, and a reduction in cold episodes requiring additional medication. Furthermore, the Echinacea test agent inhibited virally confirmed colds, exhibited maximal effects on recurrent infections, and demonstrated that its preventive effects increased relative to therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. In summary, Echinacea purpurea when taken as recommended for the prevention of the common cold appears to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.

  16. The geographic mosaic of herbicide resistance evolution in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea: Evidence for resistance hotspots and low genetic differentiation across the landscape

    PubMed Central

    Kuester, Adam; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2015-01-01

    Strong human-mediated selection via herbicide application in agroecosystems has repeatedly led to the evolution of resistance in weedy plants. Although resistance can occur among separate populations of a species across the landscape, the spatial scale of resistance in many weeds is often left unexamined. We assessed the potential that resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea has evolved independently multiple times across its North American range. We examined both adaptive and neutral genetic variations in 44 populations of I. purpurea by pairing a replicated dose–response greenhouse experiment with SSR genotyping of experimental individuals. We uncovered a mosaic pattern of resistance across the landscape, with some populations exhibiting high-survival postherbicide and other populations showing high death. SSR genotyping revealed little evidence of isolation by distance and very little neutral genetic structure associated with geography. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis uncovered evidence for migration and admixture among populations before the widespread use of glyphosate rather than the very recent contemporary gene flow. The pattern of adaptive and neutral genetic variations indicates that resistance in this mixed-mating weed species appears to have evolved in independent hotspots rather than through transmission of resistance alleles across the landscape. PMID:26366199

  17. The geographic mosaic of herbicide resistance evolution in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea: Evidence for resistance hotspots and low genetic differentiation across the landscape.

    PubMed

    Kuester, Adam; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2015-09-01

    Strong human-mediated selection via herbicide application in agroecosystems has repeatedly led to the evolution of resistance in weedy plants. Although resistance can occur among separate populations of a species across the landscape, the spatial scale of resistance in many weeds is often left unexamined. We assessed the potential that resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea has evolved independently multiple times across its North American range. We examined both adaptive and neutral genetic variations in 44 populations of I. purpurea by pairing a replicated dose-response greenhouse experiment with SSR genotyping of experimental individuals. We uncovered a mosaic pattern of resistance across the landscape, with some populations exhibiting high-survival postherbicide and other populations showing high death. SSR genotyping revealed little evidence of isolation by distance and very little neutral genetic structure associated with geography. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis uncovered evidence for migration and admixture among populations before the widespread use of glyphosate rather than the very recent contemporary gene flow. The pattern of adaptive and neutral genetic variations indicates that resistance in this mixed-mating weed species appears to have evolved in independent hotspots rather than through transmission of resistance alleles across the landscape.

  18. Effects of fire and nitrogen addition on forage quality of Aristida purpurea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt.) is a native perennial bunchgrass with limited forage value that dominates sites with disturbed soils and persists with continued severe grazing. Fire and nitrogen addition have been used to reduce threeawn and may increase grazing utilization of threeawn by...

  19. Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation

  20. Herb-Drug Interaction between Echinacea purpurea and Etravirine in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of the botanical supplement Echinacea purpurea to interact with etravirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of HIV. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with etravirine (400 mg once daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root/extract-containing capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 8 h) for 14 days. Etravirine concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h after a morning dose of etravirine on day 0 and etravirine plus E. purpurea on day 14. Individual etravirine pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 by means of the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 46 years (interquartile range, 41 to 50), and the median body weight was 76 kg (interquartile range, 68 to 92). Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for etravirine coadministered with E. purpurea relative to etravirine alone was 1.07 (90% CI, 0.81 to 1.42) for the maximum concentration, 1.04 (90% CI, 0.79 to 1.38) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, and 1.04 (90% CI, 0.74 to 1.44) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval. In conclusion, the coadministration of E. purpurea with etravirine was safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected patients; our data suggest that no dose adjustment for etravirine is necessary. PMID:22869560

  1. Effects of flavonoids from Martynia annua and Tephrosia purpurea on cutaneous wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Santram; Jain, Avijeet; Jain, Alok Pal; Pawar, Rajesh Singh; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Martynia annua L. (M. annua), (Martyniaccae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of epilepsy, sore throat and inflammatory disorders. The leaf paste is used topically on Tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands and wounds of domestic animals. Tephrosia purpurea (T. purpurea), (Fabaceae) has been used traditionally as a remedy for asthma, gonorrhea, rheumatism and ulcers. This study aimed to evaluate the potential wound healing effects of different fractions ofethanol extract of M. annua leaves and aerial parts of T. purpurea. Materials and Methods: Methanol fraction of M. annua (MAF-C) and ethyl acetate fraction of T. purpurea (TPF-A) were evaluated for healing potential in dead-space and burn wound models. An ointment (5% w/w) of MAF-C and TPF-A, pongamol (0.2 and 0.5% w/w) and luteolin (0.2 and 0.5% w/w) was applied topically twice a day. The effects were compared with Povidone Iodine ointment with respect to protein, collagen content, enzymatic assay and histopathological finding of granuloma tissues. Results: Ethanol extracts of M. annua and T. purpureawere exhibited total flavonoid contents of 126.2 ± 4.69 and 171.6 ± 6.38 mg (quercetin equivalent), respectively. HPLC fingerprinting confirmed the presence of luteolin in M. annua and quercetin in T. purpurea. TPF-A and MAF-C ointments (5% w/w) significantly increases the hydroxyproline and protein contents. Luteolin and pongamol ointments were also found to be effective in both wound models. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that 5% w/w ointment of TPF-A and MAF-C fractions were more effective than isolated flavonoids in wound healing which may be due to synergistic interactions between the flavonoids and other constituents. PMID:27761428

  2. Fire and nitrogen effects on Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea)abundance in northern mixed-grass prairie old fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt. varieties) is a native grass capable of increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and creating a stable state. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reduci...

  3. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities from roots of Stipa purpurea in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Denghong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zhao, Yuhui; Han, Rongbing; Qin, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Stipa purpurea is among constructive endemic species in the alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. To reveal the fungal community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere and roots of this important grass and to analyze the potential influence of different habitats on the structure of fungal communities, we explored the root endophyte and the directly associated rhizosphere communities of S. purpurea by using internal transcribed spacer rRNA cloning and sequencing methods. We found that the roots of S. purpurea are associated with a diverse consortium of Basidiomycota (59.8%) and Ascomycota (38.5%). Most fungi obtained from rhizosphere soil in S. purpurea have been identified as Ascomycetes, while the high proportion detected in roots were basidiomycetous endophytes. The species richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal assemblages were higher in roots than in the rhizosphere soil. Fungi inhabiting the rhizosphere and roots of S. purpurea are significantly different, and the rhizosphere and endophyte communities are largely independent with little overlap in the dominant phyla or operational taxonomic units. Taken together, these results suggested that a wide variety of fungal communities are associated with the roots and rhizosphere soil of S. purpurea and that the fungal assemblages are strongly influenced by different habitats. PMID:27348421

  4. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve a good ecological potential and good surface water chemical status for all surface waters. Widely constant shading with riparian vegetation is the potential natural plant cover condition and plays a key role by the implementation of the WFD. The shading effect of vegetation is considered to be particularly relevant for small and medium sized rivers with slow flow velocity. Soil Bioengineering measures effect technical (e.g. soil protection), ecological and socio-economical issues on river systems. Positive ecological effects are based on the development of the used plants and result among others in shading of the water body. Natural bank vegetation provides very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages and reduces the incident solar radiation up to 95%. Consequently large riparian wooded areas form a microclimate that leads to a decrease of water temperature or prevent an increase. They even reduce evaporation and increase the relative air humidity which contributes to reducing water temperature and enlarges the oxygen uptake capacity. Accordingly the daily variations of temperature and those of oxygen content are definitely lower in vegetated areas. This issue is especially important considering climate change scenarios with increasing water temperatures. From an ecological point of view it is essential to quantify the processes. There are different ways to characterize densities of vegetation. Most of them - such as the method by Braun-Blanquet and Londo - rely on estimations of the dominance of species. Applying this kind of procedures on riparian vegetation result in uncertainties due to the strong variations in height and densities. Hemispherical photographs are a standardized method in forest ecology under more or less uniform forest stand conditions. However it is now hardly used for riparian vegetation stands. Questions that will be addressed are the determination of annual stand

  5. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could ...

  6. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence supports the theory that the bacterial communities colonizing E. purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could be a...

  7. Evolutionary history of Purple cone spruce (Picea purpurea) in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: homoploid hybrid origin and Pleistocene expansion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongshuai; Abbott, Richard J; Li, Lili; Li, Long; Zou, Jiabin; Liu, Jianquan

    2014-02-01

    Hybridization and introgression can play an important role in speciation. Here, we examine their roles in the origin and evolution of Picea purpurea, a diploid spruce species occurring on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Phylogenetic relationships and ecological differences between this species and its relatives, P. schrenkiana, P. likiangensis and P. wilsonii, are unclear. To clarify them, we surveyed sequence variation within and between them for 11 nuclear loci, three chloroplast (cp) and two mitochondrial (mt) DNA fragments, and examined their ecological requirements using ecological niche modelling. Initial analyses based on 11 nuclear loci rejected a close relationship between P. schrenkiana and P. purpurea. BP&P tests and ecological niche modelling indicated substantial divergence between the remaining three species and supported the species status of P. purpurea, which contained many private alleles as expected for a well-established species. Sequence variation for cpDNA and mtDNA suggested a close relationship between P. purpurea and P. wilsonii, while variation at the nuclear se1364 gene suggested P. purpurea was more closely related to P. likiangensis. Analyses of genetic divergence, Bayesian clustering and model comparison using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) of nuclear (nr) DNA variation all supported the hypothesis that P. purpurea originated by homoploid hybrid speciation from P. wilsonii and P. likiangensis. The ABC analysis dated the origin of P. purpurea at the Pleistocene, and the estimated hybrid parameter indicated that 69% of its nuclear composition was contributed by P. likiangensis and 31% by P. wilsonii. Our results further suggested that during or immediately following its formation, P. purpurea was subject to organelle DNA introgression from P. wilsonii such that it came to possess both mtDNA and cpDNA of P. wilsonii. The estimated parameters indicated that following its origin, P. purpurea underwent an

  8. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns.

  9. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns. PMID:20207477

  10. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B

    2013-05-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm.

  11. The Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Gene Cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Prevents Formation of the Previously Unknown Clapurines

    PubMed Central

    Tudzynski, Paul; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important food contaminant and well known for the production of the toxic ergot alkaloids. Apart from that, little is known about its secondary metabolism and not all toxic substances going along with the food contamination with Claviceps are known yet. We explored the metabolite profile of a gene cluster in C. purpurea with a high homology to gene clusters, which are responsible for the formation of epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) toxins in other fungi. By overexpressing the transcription factor, we were able to activate the cluster in the standard C. purpurea strain 20.1. Although all necessary genes for the formation of the characteristic disulfide bridge were expressed in the overexpression mutants, the fungus did not produce any ETPs. Isolation of pathway intermediates showed that the common biosynthetic pathway stops after the first steps. Our results demonstrate that hydroxylation of the diketopiperazine backbone is the critical step during the ETP biosynthesis. Due to a dysfunctional enzyme, the fungus is not able to produce toxic ETPs. Instead, the pathway end-products are new unusual metabolites with a unique nitrogen-sulfur bond. By heterologous expression of the Leptosphaeria maculans cytochrome P450 encoding gene sirC, we were able to identify the end-products of the ETP cluster in C. purpurea. The thioclapurines are so far unknown ETPs, which might contribute to the toxicity of other C. purpurea strains with a potentially intact ETP cluster. PMID:27390873

  12. Biomonitoring the genotoxic potential of the air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea under climatic conditions in the Sinos River basin, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cassanego, M B B; Sasamori, M H; Petry, C T; Droste, A

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluated the genotoxic effects of the atmospheric air on Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in urban areas with different intensities of vehicular traffic and in riparian forest fragments in the Sinos River Basin (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), considering the influence of climatic conditions prevailing in these environments. Bimonthly, from May 2012 to March 2013, cuttings with flower buds were exposed for 8 h in urban and riparian forest environments in the municipalities of Caraá, Taquara and Campo Bom in the upper, middle and lower sections, respectively, of the Sinos River Basin. Simultaneously, negative controls were made and climatic data were recorded. Micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were determined in young tetrads of pollen mother cells and expressed as MCN/100 tetrads. Significantly higher MCN frequencies were observed in buds exposed in urban and riparian forest environments in Taquara (up to 7.23 and 4.80, respectively) and Campo Bom (up to 4.90 and 4.23, respectively) than in buds exposed in Caraá (up to 2.90 and 2.50, respectively), in the majority of samplings, and in relation to the negative control (up to 1.93) in all months. Over the course of the period monitored, there were significant variations in MCN frequencies at all sampling points, with the exception of the urban environment in Caraá. For the urban environments, relation between the MCN frequency, vehicular traffic and mean temperature was observed. For the riparian forest fragments, there was no association between MCN frequency and climatic factors. Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea can be considered a useful tool to point out areas with increased atmospheric pollution, since the exposure of plants under severe climatic conditions is avoided to minimize their negative influence on the formation of micronuclei.

  13. The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

    2010-03-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction.

  14. The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

    2010-03-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  15. The Carnivorous Pale Pitcher Plant Harbors Diverse, Distinct, and Time-Dependent Bacterial Communities▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Margaret M.; Fuselier, Danielle M.; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  16. Herb-Drug Interaction between Echinacea purpurea and Darunavir-Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Patients▿

    PubMed Central

    Moltó, José; Valle, Marta; Miranda, Cristina; Cedeño, Samandhy; Negredo, Eugenia; Barbanoj, Manuel José; Clotet, Bonaventura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, fixed-sequence study was to investigate the potential of Echinacea purpurea, a commonly used botanical supplement, to interact with the boosted protease inhibitor darunavir-ritonavir. Fifteen HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy including darunavir-ritonavir (600/100 mg twice daily) for at least 4 weeks were included. E. purpurea root extract capsules were added to the antiretroviral treatment (500 mg every 6 h) from days 1 to 14. Darunavir concentrations in plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after a morning dose of darunavir-ritonavir on days 0 (darunavir-ritonavir) and 14 (darunavir-ritonavir plus echinacea). Individual darunavir pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis and compared between days 0 and 14 with the geometric mean ratio (GMR) and its 90% confidence interval (CI). The median age was 49 (range, 43 to 67) years, and the body mass index was 24.2 (range, 18.7 to 27.5) kg/m2. Echinacea was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. The GMR for darunavir coadministered with echinacea relative to that for darunavir alone was 0.84 (90% CI, 0.63-1.12) for the concentration at the end of the dosing interval, 0.90 (90% CI, 0.74-1.10) for the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h, and 0.98 (90% CI, 0.82-1.16) for the maximum concentration. In summary, coadministration of E. purpurea with darunavir-ritonavir was safe and well tolerated. Individual patients did show a decrease in darunavir concentrations, although this did not affect the overall darunavir or ritonavir pharmacokinetics. Although no dose adjustment is required, monitoring darunavir concentrations on an individual basis may give reassurance in this setting. PMID:21078942

  17. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-01-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  18. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-05-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  19. Metabolic responses of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaves to mycorrhization as revealed by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy metabolite profiling

    PubMed Central

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Chamoun, Rony; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-01-01

    The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants' metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html) are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs. PMID:26042135

  20. Multigene analysis suggests ecological speciation in the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea

    PubMed Central

    DOUHAN, G. W.; SMITH, M. E.; HUYRN, K. L.; WESTBROOK, A.; Beerli, P.; FISHER, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important pathogen of grasses and source of novel chemical compounds. Three groups within this species (G1, G2, and G3) have been recognized based on habitat association, sclerotia and conidia morphology, and alkaloid production. These groups have further been supported by RAPD and AFLP markers, suggesting this species may be more accurately described as a species complex. However, all divergent ecotypes can coexist in sympatric populations with no obvious physical barriers to prevent gene flow. In this study, we used both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to test for speciation within C. purpurea using DNA sequences from ITS, a RAS-like locus, and a portion of beta-tubulin. The G1 types are significantly divergent from the G2/G3 types based on each of the three loci and the combined dataset, whereas the G2/G3 types are more integrated with one another. Although the G2 and G3 lineages have not diverged as much as the G1 lineage based on DNA sequence data, the use of three DNA loci does reliably separate the G2 and G3 lineages. However, the population genetic analyses strongly suggest little to no gene flow occurring between the different ecotypes and we argue that this process is driven by adaptations to ecological habitats; G1 isolates are associated with terrestrial grasses, G2 isolates are found in wet and shady environments, and G3 isolates are found in salt marsh habitats. PMID:18373531

  1. Commercial Seed Lots Exhibit Reduced Seed Dormancy in Comparison to Wild Seed Lots of Echinacea purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Luping; Wang, Xiping; Chen, Ying; Scalzo, Richard; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Davis, Jeanine M.; Hancock, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Seed germination patterns were studied in E. purpurea (L.) Moench grouped by seed source, one group of seven lots from commercially cultivated populations and a second group of nine lots regenerated from ex situ conserved wild populations. Germination tests were conducted in a growth chamber in light (40 μmol·m−2·s−1) or darkness at 25 °C for 20 days after soaking the seeds in water for 10 minutes. Except for two seed lots from wild populations, better germination was observed for commercially cultivated populations in light (90% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 95%) and in darkness (88% mean among seed lots, ranging from 82% to 97%) than for wild populations in light (56% mean among seed lots, ranging from 9% to 92%) or in darkness (37% mean among seed lots, ranging from 4% to 78%). No germination difference was measured between treatments in light and darkness in the commercially cultivated populations, but significant differences were noted for treatments among wild populations. These results suggest that repeated cycles of sowing seeds during cultivation without treatments for dormancy release resulted in reduced seed dormancy in E. purpurea. PMID:16429595

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Tephrosia Purpurea in Arsenic-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Ravuri Halley; Kerketta, Priscilla; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Toppo, Reetu; Prasad, Raju; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Roy, Birendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TPE) against arsenic-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: Twenty four number of wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) was orally given to group I for 28 days, additionally group II was orally treated with TPE (500 mg/kg), while the control group was kept untreated with neither arsenic nor TPE. Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress indices and arsenic concentration in kidney were estimated. Histopathology of kidney was also conducted. Results: Group II animals show significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine, and increased serum albumin level compared to group I. The higher lipid peroxidation with exhausted superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione level were noticed in group I compared to group II. There was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation in kidneys between the two arsenic treated groups, but the histopathology of kidney of group II rats revealed reduced necrosis and intact tubular architecture as compared to group I. Conclusions: Tephrosia Purpurea extract has a significant role in protecting the animals from arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24748739

  3. Identification of Medicinally Active Ingredient in Ultradiluted Digitalis purpurea: Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Cyclic-Voltammetric Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Purkait, Bulbul

    2012-01-01

    Serially diluted and agitated (SAD) drugs available commercially are in use with great faith because of the astonishing results they produce. The scientific viewpoint attached to the centuries-old therapy with SAD drugs, as in homeopathy, remained doubtful for want of appropriate research and insufficient evidence base. The conflicting points related to SAD drug mostly related to the level of concentrations/dilutions, use of drug in contradictory clinical conditions compared to the modern system of medicine, identification of medicinally active ingredient in concentrations and dilutions used in commercially available SAD drugs, and lack of laboratory-based pharmacological data vis-à-vis modern medicine. Modus operandi of SAD drug is also unknown. To address some of these issues an analytical study was carried out wherein commercially available SAD drug Digitalis purpurea, commonly used in different systems of medicine, was put to test. Various concentrations of commercially available Digitalis purpurea were analyzed using analytical methods: cyclic voltammetry, emission spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. These analytical methods apparently identified the medicinal ingredients and effect of serial dilution in commercial preparation of the drugs. PMID:22606641

  4. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  5. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:26138047

  6. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria.

  7. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  8. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  9. Recreational use of D-lysergamide from the seeds of Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea, and Ipomoea purpurea in Poland.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R; Swiergiel, Artur H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there are important changes in recreational drug use. The aim of the present study was to analyse reports published on a recreational web site by drug users who ingested seeds of plants belonging to the Convolvulaceae family and to compare them with available medical case reports. We have also included reports describing the effects induced by "druids fantasy," which is a new drug allegedly containing the same alkaloid as the seeds of A. nervosa. Our search reveals the reoccurrence of recreational use of I. tricolor and violacea (morning glory), which had not been reported in medical literature since 1968. We have also found that drug users are experimenting with other species, such as I. purpurea, whose psychoactive properties are unknown. Symptoms and doses reported by drug users were comparable with the few available medical case reports. The most worrying symptom was suicidal ideation reported by two subjects who ingested A. nervosa and Ipomoea seeds. Effects induced by druids fantasy were comparable with the effects induced by A. nervosa and various Ipomoea species. The ingestion of seeds was frequently associated with taking drugs such as cannabis and hashish, although other combinations, for example with dextromethorphan, were also reported.

  10. Recreational use of D-lysergamide from the seeds of Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea, and Ipomoea purpurea in Poland.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R; Swiergiel, Artur H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there are important changes in recreational drug use. The aim of the present study was to analyse reports published on a recreational web site by drug users who ingested seeds of plants belonging to the Convolvulaceae family and to compare them with available medical case reports. We have also included reports describing the effects induced by "druids fantasy," which is a new drug allegedly containing the same alkaloid as the seeds of A. nervosa. Our search reveals the reoccurrence of recreational use of I. tricolor and violacea (morning glory), which had not been reported in medical literature since 1968. We have also found that drug users are experimenting with other species, such as I. purpurea, whose psychoactive properties are unknown. Symptoms and doses reported by drug users were comparable with the few available medical case reports. The most worrying symptom was suicidal ideation reported by two subjects who ingested A. nervosa and Ipomoea seeds. Effects induced by druids fantasy were comparable with the effects induced by A. nervosa and various Ipomoea species. The ingestion of seeds was frequently associated with taking drugs such as cannabis and hashish, although other combinations, for example with dextromethorphan, were also reported. PMID:23662334

  11. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  12. Purpurediolin and purpurenin, two new cytotoxic adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona purpurea.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Mata, R

    1998-05-01

    Two novel cytotoxic acetogenins, purpurediolin (1) and purpurenin (2), were isolated from the seeds of Annona purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. In addition, six known acetogenins were obtained, namely, bullatacin, squamocin (annonin I), motrilin (squamocin C), annoglaucin, xylomatenin, and annonacin A. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against six human solid tumor cell lines. PMID:9599253

  13. Extracellular metabolism of sucrose in a submerged culture of Claviceps purpurea: formation of monosaccharides and clavine alkaloids.

    PubMed Central

    Kren, V; Pazoutová, S; Rylko, V; Sajdl, P; Wurst, M; Rehácek, Z

    1984-01-01

    Transformation of extracellular sucrose during cultivation of Claviceps purpurea led to the formation of mono- and oligosaccharides. Maltose was a suitable substrate for submerged fermentation of alkaloids. Fermentation in a medium with maltose was characterized by an insignificant formation of glucans, intensive sporulation, suspension growth of mycelium, and a higher formation of elymoclavine. Glucose alone yielded low levels of total alkaloids and high glucan formation; on the other hand, glucose promoted the formation of elymoclavine. PMID:6508291

  14. Purpurediolin and purpurenin, two new cytotoxic adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona purpurea.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Mata, R

    1998-05-01

    Two novel cytotoxic acetogenins, purpurediolin (1) and purpurenin (2), were isolated from the seeds of Annona purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. In addition, six known acetogenins were obtained, namely, bullatacin, squamocin (annonin I), motrilin (squamocin C), annoglaucin, xylomatenin, and annonacin A. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against six human solid tumor cell lines.

  15. Ultrastructural Evidence for a Dual Function of the Phloem and Programmed Cell Death in the Floral Nectary of Digitalis purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Gaffal, Karl Peter; Friedrichs, Gudrun Johanna; El-Gammal, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The floral nectary of Digitalis purpurea is a transitory organ with stomatal exudation of nectar. In this type of nectary, the nectar is thought to be transported to the exterior via intercellular ducts that traverse the nectariferous tissue. The latter is also traversed by a ramified system of phloem strands from which prenectar sugar is most probably unloaded. The aims of this study were to provide some of the basic information needed to evaluate the possible mechanism involved in nectar secretion and to discover the fate of the nectary. Methods The ultrastructure of the nectary was investigated at different stages of development by analysis of a series of ultrathin (7 × 10−8 m) sections 7 × 10−7 m apart from one another. Proportions of the cells typical of the nectary were documented by 3D-reconstruction and morphometry. Key Results The phloem consisted of variably shaped sieve elements and companion cells which, as a rule, were more voluminous than the sieve elements. Direct contact between the phloem strands and intercellular ducts was observed. In contrast to the phloem, which remained structurally intact beyond the secretory phase, the nectariferous tissue exhibited degenerative changes reminiscent of programmed cell death (PCD), which started as early as the onset of secretion and progressed in a cascade-like fashion until final cell death occurred in the exhausted nectary. Hallmarks of PCD were: increased vacuolation; increase in electron opacity of individual cells; progressive incorporation of plasmatic components into the vacuole reminiscent of autophagy; degradation of plastids starting with hydrolysis of starch; deformation of the nucleus and gradual disappearance of chromatin; loss of tonoplast integrity and subsequent autolysis of the rest of cellular debris. Degeneration of the cells occurred against a background of increasing cell size. Conclusions The cytological and anatomical evidence presented here, and calculations

  16. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Richard A; Aldous, Michael B; Worden, Katherine A; Grant, Kathryn L

    2008-01-01

    Background Recurrent otitis media is a common problem in young children. Echinacea and osteopathic manipulative treatment have been proposed as preventive measures, but have been inadequately studied. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Echinacea purpurea and/or osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) for prevention of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, two-by-two factorial trial with 6-month follow-up, conducted 1999 – 2002 in Tucson, Arizona. Patients were aged 12–60 months with recurrent otitis media, defined as three or more separate episodes of acute otitis media within six months, or at least four episodes in one year. Ninety children (44% white non-Hispanic, 39% Hispanic, 57% male) were enrolled, of which 84 had follow-up for at least 3 months. Children were randomly assigned to one of four protocol groups: double placebo, echinacea plus sham OMT, true OMT (including cranial manipulation) plus placebo echinacea, or true echinacea plus OMT. An alcohol extract of Echinacea purpurea roots and seeds (or placebo) was administered for 10 days at the first sign of each common cold. Five OMT visits (or sham treatments) were offered over 3 months. Results No interaction was found between echinacea and OMT. Echinacea was associated with a borderline increased risk of having at least one episode of acute otitis media during 6-month follow-up compared to placebo (65% versus 41%; relative risk, 1.59, 95% CI 1.04, 2.42). OMT did not significantly affect risk compared to sham (44% versus 61%; relative risk, 0.72, 95% CI 0.48, 1.10). Conclusion In otitis-prone young children, treating colds with this form of echinacea does not decrease the risk of acute otitis media, and may in fact increase risk. A regimen of up to five osteopathic manipulative treatments does not significantly decrease the risk of acute otitis media. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00010465 PMID:18831749

  17. Biogenic nano-scale silver particles by Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract and their inborn antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajitha, B.; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y.; Reddy, P. Sreedhara

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Tephrosia purpurea leaf extract. The biomolecules present in the leaf extract are responsible for the formation of Ag NPs and they found to play dual role of both reducing as well as capping agents. The high crystallinity of Ag NPs is evident from bright circular spot array of SAED pattern and diffraction peaks in XRD profile. The synthesized Ag NPs are found to be nearly spherical ones with size approximately ∼20 nm. FTIR spectrum evidences the presence of different functional groups of biomolecules participated in encapsulating Ag NPs and the possible mechanism of Ag NPs formation was also suggested. Appearance of yellow color and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 425 nm confirms the Ag NPs formation. PL spectra showed decrement in luminescence intensity at higher excitation wavelengths. Antimicrobial activity of Ag NPs showed better inhibitory activity towards Pseudomonas spp. and Penicillium spp. compared to other test pathogens using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay.

  18. Pleiotropic effects of an allele producing white flowers in Ipomoea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Coberly, L Caitlin; Rausher, Mark D

    2008-05-01

    Although it is generally believed that pollinators are the primary selective agents driving flower-color evolution, it has recently been suggested that pleiotropic effects of mutations affecting flower color may serve as important constraints on floral evolution. We examined this hypothesis using white-flowered variants of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea. Previous experiments indicate that the white-flowered a allele has a transmission advantage because of increased selfing and no detectable pollen discounting. We confirm this transmission advantage using a large field experiment in which both selfing rate and outcross success were measured for all three genotypes at the A locus. We also demonstrate that this transmission advantage is opposed by apparent pleiotropic effects in aa individuals manifested as reduced survival from germination to flowering. The magnitude of this effect, in combination with the known magnitude of inbreeding depression, more than compensates for the transmission advantage. Our results thus support the notion that deleterious pleiotropy may influence the evolutionary trajectory of flower-color mutants.

  19. Antifungal activity of extracts from endophytic fungi associated with Smallanthus maintained in vitro as autotrophic cultures and as pot plants in the greenhouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes associated with leaves, lateral shoots, and roots of Echinacea purpurea, a medicinal plant used by Native Americans, were evaluated for antifungal activity as well as larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti. A total of 39 fungal isolates were identif...

  20. Secondary cell wall composition and candidate gene expression in developing willow (Salix purpurea) stems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yongfang; Gritsch, Cristina; Tryfona, Theodora; Ray, Mike J; Andongabo, Ambrose; Hassani-Pak, Keywan; Jones, Huw D; Dupree, Paul; Karp, Angela; Shewry, Peter R; Mitchell, Rowan A C

    2014-05-01

    The properties of the secondary cell wall (SCW) in willow largely determine the suitability of willow biomass feedstock for potential bioenergy and biofuel applications. SCW development has been little studied in willow and it is not known how willow compares with model species, particularly the closely related genus Populus. To address this and relate SCW synthesis to candidate genes in willow, a tractable bud culture-derived system was developed in Salix purpurea, and cell wall composition and RNA-Seq transcriptome were followed in stems during early development. A large increase in SCW deposition in the period 0-2 weeks after transfer to soil was characterised by a big increase in xylan content, but no change in the frequency of substitution of xylan with glucuronic acid, and increased abundance of putative transcripts for synthesis of SCW cellulose, xylan and lignin. Histochemical staining and immunolabeling revealed that increased deposition of lignin and xylan was associated with xylem, xylem fibre cells and phloem fibre cells. Transcripts orthologous to those encoding xylan synthase components IRX9 and IRX10 and xylan glucuronyl transferase GUX1 in Arabidopsis were co-expressed, and showed the same spatial pattern of expression revealed by in situ hybridisation at four developmental stages, with abundant expression in proto-xylem, xylem fibre and ray parenchyma cells and some expression in phloem fibre cells. The results show a close similarity with SCW development in Populus species, but also give novel information on the relationship between spatial and temporal variation in xylan-related transcripts and xylan composition.

  1. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. PMID:25600644

  2. Differentiation of the two major species of Echinacea (E. augustifolia and E. purpurea) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method and chemometric analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, simple, and reliable flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to discriminate two major Echinacea species (E. purpurea and E. angustifolia) samples. Fifty-eight Echinacea samples collected from United States were analyzed using FIMS. Principle component analysis (PCA) a...

  3. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, F.; Mamat, S. S.; Kamarolzaman, M. F. F.; Seyedan, A. A.; Jakius, K. F.; Mahmood, N. D.; Shahril, M. S.; Suhaili, Z.; Mohtarrudin, N.; Susanti, D.; Somchit, M. N.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae), hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP) was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM-) induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n = 6) were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or MEBP (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC) also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control), whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P < 0.05) in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:23853662

  4. Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea Vent) Reduces Fecal Shedding of Escherichia coli in Pastured Cattle.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, Y; Iwaasa, A D; Li, Y; Xu, Z; Schellenberg, M P; Liu, X L; McAllister, T A; Stanford, K

    2015-08-01

    A 3-year (2009 to 2011) grazing study was conducted to assess the effects of purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent) on fecal shedding of total Escherichia coli in cattle. Three pasture types were used in the experiment: bromegrass (Check), mixed cool season grasses with PPC (Simple), and mixed cool and warm grasses with PPC (Complex). Pastures were rotationally grazed during a summer and fall grazing period. PPC was grazed in summer at the vegetative or early flower stage and at the flower or early seed stage during the fall. Fecal samples were collected for enumeration of E. coli and chemical analyses. Forage samples were collected throughout grazing for analysis. Condensed tannins (CT) were only detected in Simple and Complex pastures that contained PPC, with higher concentrations found in the fall than in the summer. Fecal counts of E. coli in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures linearly decreased (P < 0.05) over summer to fall in all 3 years, an outcome not observed in cattle grazing the Check pasture. Across the three grazing seasons, fecal E. coli was lower (P < 0.05) in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures than in those grazing the Check pasture during the fall. During the fall, feces collected from cattle grazing the Check pasture had higher (P < 0.05) values for pH, N, NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, but a lower (P < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio than feces collected from cattle grazing Simple or Complex pastures. In a second experiment, two strains of E. coli were cultured in M9 medium containing 25 to 200 μg/ml of PPC CT. Growth of E. coli was linearly (P < 0.01) reduced by increasing levels of PPC CT. Scanning electron micrographs showed electron-dense filamentous material associated with the outer membrane of E. coli cells exposed to CT. Incorporation of PPC into forage reduced the fecal shedding of E. coli from grazing cattle, likely due to the anti-E. coli properties of PPC CT.

  5. Efficient counter-current chromatographic isolation and structural identification of two new cinnamic acids from Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Li, JiaYin; Li, MiLu; Hu, Xia; Tan, Jun; Liu, Zhong Hua

    2012-10-01

    Two new cinnamic acids, 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-isoferuloyltartaric (3), and 2, 3-di-O-isoferuloyltartaric acid (5), along with three known caffeic acids, cichoric acid (1), 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-feruloyltartaric acid (2) and 2-O-caffeoyl-3-O-p-coumaroyltartaric acid (4), have been successfully isolated and purified from Echinacea purpurea. In this study, we investigated an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of cinnamic acids from E. purpurea by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation was performed using a two-phase solvent composed of n-hexane-ethyl-acetate-methanol-0.5% aqueous acetic acid (1:3:1:4, v/v). The upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase as the mobile phase, with a flow rate of 1.6 mL/min. From 250 mg of crude extracts, 65.1 mg of 1, 8.3 mg of 2, 4.0 mg of 3, 4.5 mg of 4, and 4.3 mg of 5 were isolated in one-step, with purities of 98.5%, 97.7%, 94.6%, 94.3%, and 98.6%, respectively, as evaluated by HPLC-DAD. The chemical structures were identified by electro spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra. HSCCC was very efficient for the separation and purification of the cinnamic acids from

  6. An Old Yellow Enzyme Gene Controls the Branch Point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea Ergot Alkaloid Pathways▿

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Christine M.; Cheng, Johnathan Z.; O'Connor, Sarah E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Ergot fungi in the genus Claviceps and several related fungal groups in the family Clavicipitaceae produce toxic ergot alkaloids. These fungi produce a variety of ergot alkaloids, including clavines as well as lysergic acid derivatives. Ergot alkaloids are also produced by the distantly related, opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. However, this fungus produces festuclavine and fumigaclavines A, B, and C, which collectively differ from clavines of clavicipitaceous fungi in saturation of the last assembled of four rings in the ergoline ring structure. The two lineages are hypothesized to share early steps of the ergot alkaloid pathway before diverging at some point after the synthesis of the tricyclic intermediate chanoclavine-I. Disruption of easA, a gene predicted to encode a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme class, in A. fumigatus led to accumulation of chanoclavine-I and chanoclavine-I-aldehyde. Complementation of the A. fumigatus easA mutant with a wild-type allele from the same fungus restored the wild-type profile of ergot alkaloids. These data demonstrate that the product of A. fumigatus easA is required for incorporation of chanoclavine-I-aldehyde into more-complex ergot alkaloids, presumably by reducing the double bond conjugated to the aldehyde group, thus facilitating ring closure. Augmentation of the A. fumigatus easA mutant with a homologue of easA from Claviceps purpurea resulted in accumulation of ergot alkaloids typical of clavicipitaceous fungi (agroclavine, setoclavine, and its diastereoisomer isosetoclavine). These data indicate that functional differences in the easA-encoded old yellow enzymes of A. fumigatus and C. purpurea result in divergence of their respective ergot alkaloid pathways. PMID:20435769

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DERYNG AND CLEVENGER-TYPE APPARATUS IN ISOLATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE MUTELINA PURPUREA THELL. FLOWERS.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Sieniawska, Elwira; Kowalski, Radoslaw; Wesolowskp, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, both qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of M. purpurea essential oil obtained in the Deryng and Clevenger-type apparatuses were compared. As a result, content of volatile compounds were: 785.67 mg/mL and 833.33 mg/mL in the oil obtained in the Deryng (D-EO) and Clevenger-type apparatuses (C-EO), respectively. The major components of both essential oils from M. purpurea were: a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, (Z)-sesquisabinene hydrate, (E)-sesquisabinene hydrate, and a-bis-abolol. The correlation coefficients values are not determined by the differences in the concentrations of the components resulting from the application of two different methods of distillation. PMID:26642659

  8. Molecular characterization of the NADPH oxidase complex in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea: CpNox2 and CpPls1 are important for a balanced host-pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Janine; Buttermann, Dagmar; Herrmann, Andrea; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species producing NADPH oxidase (Nox) complexes are involved in defense reactions in animals and plants while they trigger infection-related processes in pathogenic fungi. Knowledge about the composition and localization of these complexes in fungi is limited; potential components identified thus far include two to three catalytical subunits, a regulatory subunit (NoxR), the GTPase Rac, the scaffold protein Bem1, and a tetraspanin-like membrane protein (Pls1). We showed that, in the biotrophic grass-pathogen Claviceps purpurea, the catalytical subunit CpNox1 is important for infection. Here, we present identification of major Nox complex partners and a functional analysis of CpNox2 and the tetraspanin CpPls1. We show that, as in other fungi, Nox complexes are important for formation of sclerotia; CpRac is, indeed, a complex partner because it interacts with CpNoxR, and CpNox1/2 and CpPls1 are associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. However, unlike in all other fungi, Δcppls1 is more similar to Δcpnox1 than to Δcpnox2, and CpNox2 is not essential for infection. In contrast, Δcpnox2 shows even more pronounced disease symptoms, indicating that Cpnox2 controls the infection process and moderates damage to the host. These data confirm that fungal Nox complexes have acquired specific functions dependent of the lifestyle of the pathogen. PMID:23777432

  9. Nectar, not colour, may lure insects to their death.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katherine F; Ellison, Aaron M

    2009-08-23

    We experimentally demonstrate in the field that prey of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea are attracted to sugar, not to colour. Prey capture (either all taxa summed or individual common taxa considered separately) was not associated with total red area or patterning on pitchers of living pitcher plants. We separated effects of nectar availability and coloration using painted 'pseudopitchers', half of which were coated with sugar solution. Unsugared pseudopitchers captured virtually no prey, whereas pseudopitchers with sugar solution captured the same amount of prey as living pitchers. In contrast to a recent study that associated red coloration with prey capture but that lacked controls for nectar availability, we infer that nectar, not colour, is the primary means by which pitcher plants attract prey.

  10. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, M.; Schoop, R.; Suter, A.; Klein, P.; Eccles, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety (risk) and efficacy (benefit) of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root) or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions). Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P < 0.05). Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio. PMID:23024696

  11. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee.

    PubMed

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants' ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation.

  12. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee.

    PubMed

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants' ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation. PMID:26263160

  13. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication.

  14. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication. PMID:24789140

  15. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T.; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants’ ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation. PMID:26263160

  16. A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kuester, Adam; Wilson, Ariana; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting that populations of this species sampled from agricultural fields have experienced genetic bottleneck events that have led to lower neutral genetic diversity. Heterozygosity excess tests indicate that these bottlenecks may have occurred prior to 2003. A greenhouse assay of individuals sampled from the field as seed found that populations of this species, on average, exhibited modest increases in herbicide resistance over time. However, populations differed significantly between sampling years for resistance: some populations maintained high resistance between the sampling years whereas others exhibited increased or decreased resistance. Our results show that populations of this noxious weed, capable of adapting to strong selection imparted by herbicide application, may lose genetic variation as a result of this or other environmental factors. We probably uncovered only modest increases in resistance on average between sampling cohorts due to a strong and previously identified fitness cost of resistance in this species, along with the potential that nonresistant migrants germinate from the seed bank.

  17. A resurrection experiment finds evidence of both reduced genetic diversity and potential adaptive evolution in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kuester, Adam; Wilson, Ariana; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the negative economic and ecological impact of weeds, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that influence their persistence in agricultural fields. Here, we use a resurrection approach to examine the potential for genotypic and phenotypic evolution in Ipomoea purpurea, an agricultural weed that is resistant to glyphosate, the most widely used herbicide in current-day agriculture. We found striking reductions in allelic diversity between cohorts sampled nine years apart (2003 vs. 2012), suggesting that populations of this species sampled from agricultural fields have experienced genetic bottleneck events that have led to lower neutral genetic diversity. Heterozygosity excess tests indicate that these bottlenecks may have occurred prior to 2003. A greenhouse assay of individuals sampled from the field as seed found that populations of this species, on average, exhibited modest increases in herbicide resistance over time. However, populations differed significantly between sampling years for resistance: some populations maintained high resistance between the sampling years whereas others exhibited increased or decreased resistance. Our results show that populations of this noxious weed, capable of adapting to strong selection imparted by herbicide application, may lose genetic variation as a result of this or other environmental factors. We probably uncovered only modest increases in resistance on average between sampling cohorts due to a strong and previously identified fitness cost of resistance in this species, along with the potential that nonresistant migrants germinate from the seed bank. PMID:27357067

  18. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (< 100 km apart) had diverged significantly, suggesting local adaptation. Asymmetrical long-distance inter-population gene flow occurs along the sampling transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change. PMID:27580056

  19. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Zhao, Yao; You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (< 100 km apart) had diverged significantly, suggesting local adaptation. Asymmetrical long-distance inter-population gene flow occurs along the sampling transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change. PMID:27580056

  20. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Zhao, Yao; You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (< 100 km apart) had diverged significantly, suggesting local adaptation. Asymmetrical long-distance inter-population gene flow occurs along the sampling transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change.

  1. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  2. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  3. Comparative studies on plant range size: Linking reproductive and regenerative traits in two Ipomoea species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Julia; Funes, Guillermo; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-09-01

    Reproductive and regenerative traits associated with colonization and persistence ability may determine plant range size. However, few comparative studies on plant distribution have assessed these traits simultaneously. Pollinator richness and frequency of visits, autonomous self-pollination ability, reproductive output (i.e., reproductive traits), seed bank strategy and seedling density (i.e., regenerative traits) were compared between the narrowly distributed Ipomoea rubriflora O'Donnell (Convolvulaceae) and its widespread congener Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. The narrowly distributed species showed higher ecological specialization to pollinators and lower autonomous self-pollination ability. Frequency of visits, natural seed/ovule ratio and fruit set, and total fruit production did not differ between species. However, the number of seeds produced per fruit was lower in the narrowly distributed species, translating into lower total seed production per plant. Indeed, I. rubriflora formed smaller transient and persistent seed banks and showed lower seedling density than the widespread I. purpurea. These reproductive and regenerative trait results suggest that the narrowly distributed species may have lower colonization and persistence ability than its widespread congener. They further suggest that the negative effects of lower fecundity in the narrowly distributed species might persist in time through the long-lasting effects of total seed production on seed bank size, reducing the species' ability to buffered environmental stochasticity. However, other regenerative traits, such as seed size, and processes such as pre- and post-dispersal seed predation, might modulate the effects of plant fecundity on plant colonization and persistence ability and thus range size.

  4. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Narimanian, M; Badalyan, M; Panosyan, V; Gabrielyan, E; Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    2005-08-01

    The clinical efficacy of KanJang oral solution, a fixed combination of standardised extracts of Echinacea purpurea, Adhatoda vasica and Eleutherococcus senticosus, was compared with the combined extracts of Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus alone (Echinacea mixture) in a controlled, double blind, randomized trial, and with Bromhexine (a standard treatment) in a controlled, open, randomized clinical trial on patients with non-complicated acute respiratory tract infections. Many of the parameters evaluated, such as severity of coughing, frequency of coughing, efficacy of mucus discharge in the respiratory tract, nasal congestion and a general feeling of sickness, showed significantly greater improvement in patients treated with KanJang compared with those receiving the standard treatment. However, no significant differences in the improvement of these symptoms (except in a reduced frequency of coughing) were observed between patients treated with the Echinacea mixture and those receiving the standard treatment. The only explanation is that the lack of extract of A. vasica in the Echinacea mixture reduces its efficacy compared with the complete KanJang oral solution even though direct double-blind comparison yielded no significant differences between these two groups of patients. The recovery time of patients being treated with KanJang or Echinacea mixture was 2 days shorter than that of patients receiving the standard treatment. None of the patients completing the study reported adverse reactions to the medication taken. The significance of the results obtained in this study is discussed with respect to the efficacy of KanJang in the treatment of acute respiratory infection and to the concept that multi-drug therapy offers higher efficacy compared with mono-drug treatment of such infections. PMID:16121513

  5. Structural and functional characteristics of S-like ribonucleases from carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Emi; Jumyo, Shinya; Arai, Naoki; Kanna, Kensuke; Kume, Marina; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Tanase, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although the S-like ribonucleases (RNases) share sequence homology with the S-RNases involved in the self-incompatibility mechanism in plants, they are not associated with this mechanism. They usually function in stress responses in non-carnivorous plants and in carnivory in carnivorous plants. In this study, we clarified the structures of the S-like RNases of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Nepenthes bicalcarata and Sarracenia leucophylla, and compared them with those of other plants. At ten positions, amino acid residues are conserved or almost conserved only for carnivorous plants (six in total). In contrast, two positions are specific to non-carnivorous plants. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S-like RNases of the carnivorous plants form a group beyond the phylogenetic relationships of the plants. We also prepared and characterized recombinant S-like RNases of Dionaea muscipula, Cephalotus follicularis, A. vesiculosa, N. bicalcarata and S. leucophylla, and RNS1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. The recombinant carnivorous plant enzymes showed optimum activities at about pH 4.0. Generally, poly(C) was digested less efficiently than poly(A), poly(I) and poly(U). The kinetic parameters of the recombinant D. muscipula enzyme (DM-I) and A. thaliana enzyme RNS1 were similar. The k cat/K m of recombinant RNS1 was the highest among the enzymes, followed closely by that of recombinant DM-I. On the other hand, the k cat/K m of the recombinant S. leucophylla enzyme was the lowest, and was ~1/30 of that for recombinant RNS1. The magnitudes of the k cat/K m values or k cat values for carnivorous plant S-like RNases seem to correlate negatively with the dependency on symbionts for prey digestion.

  6. Structural and functional characteristics of S-like ribonucleases from carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Emi; Jumyo, Shinya; Arai, Naoki; Kanna, Kensuke; Kume, Marina; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Tanase, Jun-ichi; Ohyama, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although the S-like ribonucleases (RNases) share sequence homology with the S-RNases involved in the self-incompatibility mechanism in plants, they are not associated with this mechanism. They usually function in stress responses in non-carnivorous plants and in carnivory in carnivorous plants. In this study, we clarified the structures of the S-like RNases of Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Nepenthes bicalcarata and Sarracenia leucophylla, and compared them with those of other plants. At ten positions, amino acid residues are conserved or almost conserved only for carnivorous plants (six in total). In contrast, two positions are specific to non-carnivorous plants. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the S-like RNases of the carnivorous plants form a group beyond the phylogenetic relationships of the plants. We also prepared and characterized recombinant S-like RNases of Dionaea muscipula, Cephalotus follicularis, A. vesiculosa, N. bicalcarata and S. leucophylla, and RNS1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. The recombinant carnivorous plant enzymes showed optimum activities at about pH 4.0. Generally, poly(C) was digested less efficiently than poly(A), poly(I) and poly(U). The kinetic parameters of the recombinant D. muscipula enzyme (DM-I) and A. thaliana enzyme RNS1 were similar. The k cat/K m of recombinant RNS1 was the highest among the enzymes, followed closely by that of recombinant DM-I. On the other hand, the k cat/K m of the recombinant S. leucophylla enzyme was the lowest, and was ~1/30 of that for recombinant RNS1. The magnitudes of the k cat/K m values or k cat values for carnivorous plant S-like RNases seem to correlate negatively with the dependency on symbionts for prey digestion. PMID:24771022

  7. Carnivorous Syndrome in Asian Pitcher Plants of the Genus Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Masarovičová, Elena; Hudák, Ján

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Pitcher plants Nepenthes alata and N. mirabilis are carnivorous species with leaves composed of a photosynthetic part (lamina) and a pitcher trap. This characteristic permitted direct physiological and anatomical comparison between these two distinct parts of the leaves to determine those features involved in the ‘carnivorous syndrome’, which include low net photosynthetic assimilation rate (AN) and low photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). Methods Photosynthetic rate (AN) and respiration rate (Rd) were measured gasometrically, chlorophyll concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and nitrogen concentration was determined using a CHN elemental analyser in lamina and trap separately. Anatomy of N. alata was observed using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. AN, foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration were also compared with values for other carnivorous plant species (genera Sarracenia, Drosera) that combine both autotrophic and carnivorous functions into the same physical organ. Key Results It was found that the AN in Nepenthes lamina was low and PNUE was only slightly higher or similar in comparison with other carnivorous plants. It was not observed that the pitcher had a higher Rd than the lamina, but AN in the pitcher was significantly lower than in the lamina. Nepenthes possesses a cluster of characters that could result in reduced photosynthesis in the pitcher and be responsible for carnivorous function of the leaf: replacement of chlorophyll-containing cells with digestive glands, low chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, compact mesophyll with a small portion of intercellular spaces, absence of palisade parenchyma and low stomatal density. Conclusion Low photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen efficiency, chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration of Nepenthes pitchers was found, together with a set of features that characterized the carnivorous syndrome. Dual use of leaves for photosynthesis and

  8. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  9. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  10. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

  11. Flood and debris flow interactions with roads promote the invasion of exotic plants along steep mountain streams, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, Nicholas A.; Jones, Julia A.

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the interactions among geomorphic and biogeographic processes that govern the invasion by two contrasting exotic plant species—a shrub, scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius) and an herb, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea), over several decades of road and stream networks in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon. Distributions of C. scoparius and D. purpurea were mapped along hillslopes and streams in 1993, 2002, and 2003. The mapped distributions were related to debris flow pathways and changes in stream morphology interpreted from field surveys and air photos over the period 1993 to 2003. Laboratory trials examined the response of seed germination to scarification (to test effects of transport by debris flows), soaking (to test effects of fluvial transport), and substrate texture (to test effects on establishment). C. scoparius and D. purpurea were present along roads and in clearcuts in the Andrews Forest from the 1970s to 2003, but invaded the stream (Lookout Creek) only after debris flows and floods during an extreme storm in 1996. Laboratory trials demonstrated that seeds could germinate on a variety of substrates after scarification and flood transport. Mapping and air photo/GIS analysis indicated that the distributions of exotic plants were located on freshly scoured bars and floodplains adjacent to the active channel, downstream of seed sources along roads that were connected to the main stem of Lookout Creek by road ditch drainage systems, and debris flow paths. This paper outlines a conceptual model for the invasion of exotic plants, highlighting the connectivity between road and stream networks provided by geomorphic processes in steep forested landscapes.

  12. Characterization of an arabinogalactan-protein isolated from pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea by precipitation with the beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent.

    PubMed

    Classen, B; Witthohn, K; Blaschek, W

    2000-08-01

    An arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) from pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea herb was isolated from a high molecular weight fraction by precipitation with the beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent, followed by gel-permeation chromatography. It revealed characteristic features of other AGPs: i.e., a high amount of polysaccharide (83%) with a ratio of galactose to arabinose of 1.8:1, some uronic acids (4-5%), and a low protein content (7%) with high levels of serine, alanine and hydroxyproline. The molecular weight was estimated to be 1.2 x 10(6) Da. Linkage and 13C NMR analyses showed that the AGP is composed of a highly branched core polysaccharide of 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked Galp residues with terminal Araf, GlcAp and terminal units of Araf-(1-->5)-Araf-(1-->. Partial acid hydrolysis resulted in loss of Araf residues at the periphery of the molecule. Complete loss of reactivity toward the beta-glucosyl Yariv antigen was then noticed.

  13. Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface.

  14. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators.

    PubMed

    Hudec, Jozef; Burdová, Mária; Kobida, L'ubomír; Komora, Ladislav; Macho, Vendelín; Kogan, Grigorij; Turianica, Ivan; Kochanová, Radka; Lozek, Otto; Habán, Miroslav; Chlebo, Peter

    2007-07-11

    The changes of the antioxidant (AOA) and antiradical activities (ARA) and the total contents of phenolics, anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxybenzoic acid in roots and different aerial sections of Echinacea purpurea, nettle, and dandelion, after treatment with ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, a polyamine inhibitor (O-phosphoethanolamine, KF), and a phenol biosynthesis stimulator (carboxymethyl chitin glucan, CCHG) were analyzed spectrophotometrically; hydroxycinnamic acids content was analyzed by RP-HPLC with UV detection. Both regulators increased the AOA measured as inhibition of peroxidation (IP) in all herb sections, with the exception of Echinacea stems after treatment with KF. In root tissues IP was dramatically elevated mainly after CCHG application: 8.5-fold in Echinacea, 4.14-fold in nettle, and 2.08-fold in dandelion. ARA decrease of Echinacea leaves treated with regulators was in direct relation only with cichoric acid and caftaric acid contents. Both regulators uphold the formation of cinnamic acid conjugates, the most expressive being that of cichoric acid after treatment with CCHG in Echinacea roots from 2.71 to 20.92 mg g(-1). There was a strong relationship between increase of the total phenolics in all sections of Echinacea, as well as in the studied sections of dandelion, and the anthocyanin content.

  15. A novel benzofuran, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide, from Tephrosia purpurea suppressed histamine H1 receptor gene expression through a protein kinase C-δ-dependent signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Kadota, Takuya; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Nemoto, Hisao; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor (H1R) gene is upregulated in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and its expression level is strongly correlated with the severity of allergic symptoms. We previously reported isolation of the putative anti-allergic compound, 4-methoxybenzofuran-5-carboxamide (MBCA) from Tephrosia purpurea and its chemical synthesis (Shill et al., Bioorg Med Chem 2015;23:6869-6874). However, the mechanism underlying its anti-allergic activity remains to be elucidated. Here, we report the mechanism of MBCA on phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)- or histamine-induced upregulation of H1R gene expression in HeLa cells, and in vivo effects of MBCA were also determined in toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI)-sensitized rats. MBCA suppressed PMA- and histamine-induced upregulation of H1R expression at both mRNA and protein levels and inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ at Tyr(311) and subsequent translocation to the Golgi. Furthermore, MBCA ameliorated allergic symptoms and suppressed the elevation of H1R and helper T cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine mRNAs in TDI-sensitized rats. Data suggest that MBCA alleviates nasal symptoms in TDI-sensitized rats through the inhibition of H1R and Th2 cytokine gene expression. The mechanism of its H1R gene suppression underlies the inhibition of PKCδ activation.

  16. Echinacea purpurea root extract inhibits TNF release in response to Pam3Csk4 in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fast, David J; Balles, John A; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy; Rana, Jatinder

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Echinacea have historically been shown to be immunostimulatory. We describe in this work however the anti-inflammatory effect of a water extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (EPRW) that inhibited Pam3Csk4 stimulated production of TNFα by human monocytic THP-1 cells. The polyphenols and alkylamides typically found in Echinacea extracts were absent in EPRW suggesting that the anti-inflammatory component(s) was a polysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as chemical inhibition of PI3K abolished the EPRW anti-inflammatory effect. Demonstration of phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 proteins, downstream targets of PI3K confirmed EPRW-mediated activation of this pathway. In conclusion, this observation suggests that non-alkylamide/non-polyphenolic phytochemicals from Echinacea may contribute in part to some of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects such as reduced severity of symptoms that have been observed in vivo in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with Echinacea.

  17. The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Millette, Katie L; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled leaves of pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at multiple spatial scales (i.e., leaf, plant, cluster, peatland). Using generalized linear mixed models and multimodel inference, we estimated effects of the amount of habitat, patch size, interpatch distance, and patch isolation, measured at different spatial scales, on genetic differentiation (FST) among larval samples from leaves within plants, plants within clusters, and clusters within peatlands. Among leaves and plants, genetic differentiation appears to be driven by female oviposition behaviors and is influenced by habitat isolation at a broad (peatland) scale. Among clusters, gene flow is spatially restricted and aspects of both the amount of habitat and configuration at the focal scale are important, as is their interaction. Our results suggest that both habitat amount and configuration can be important determinants of genetic structure and that their relative influence is scale dependent. PMID:25628865

  18. Comparison of Conventional Microwave and Focused Microwave-assisted Extraction to Enhance the Efficiency of the Extraction of Antioxidant Flavonols from Jocote Pomace (Spondias purpurea L.).

    PubMed

    Reis, Letícia C B; Carneiro, Larissa M; Branco, Carla R C; Branco, Alexsandro

    2015-06-01

    Jocote (Spondias purpurea L.) is rich in phenolic compounds which have antioxidant properties. The focused microwave-assisted extraction (FMAE) was compared with the conventional microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain flavonols from jocote pomace. The effects of parameters such as the extraction time, the temperature and the composition of the solvent mixture (i.e., the ethanol to water ration) were evaluated and optimized using a statistical experimental design approach. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the important effects and interactions of these independent variables on the extractive yield and quantification of some flavonoids. In addition, the antioxidant activity was analyzed. The total phenolic and flavonoid content was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated according to the DPPH assay. The results showed that the optimum extracting parameters used FMAE with extraction time of 20 min, temperature of 68 °C and ethanol composition of 80% in water. Under these conditions, a yield of 3.42% was obtained. Rutin and quercetin were quantified (0.19 mg/mL and 0.024 mg/mL, respectively) through HPLC-DAD. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were found to be 0.897 g GAE/g and 1.271 g QE/g, respectively. In the DPPH scavenging assay, the IC50 value of the extract occurred at 43.10 μg/mL. This study shows that FMAE is suitable as an efficient extraction procedure for the extraction of flavonols from jocote pomace.

  19. The impact of dense willow stands (Salix purpurea L.) on the hydrology and soil stability of heavily compacted soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter; Obriejetan, Michael; Florineth, Florin

    2010-05-01

    Willows are often used in soil bioengineering techniques for stabilizing heavily compacted soils (e.g. embankments, landfills, levees etc.). Beyond reinforcing and anchoring effects by their root matrix, plants enhance soil stability by decreasing pore-water pressure due to evapotranspiration. In the common praxis of soil bioengineering, it is taken for granted that willow stands have higher evapotranspiration rates than grass-herb (turf) vegetation. But the positive effect of dense willow stands on pore water pressure from the soil bioengineering point of view is insufficiently studied and therefore difficult to quantify. Hence, the study investigates the effect of willow stands on evapotranspiration and seepage compared to grass-herb vegetation using a lysimeter-like setup. The weighable lysimeters are composed of two planted barrels (one with a dense willow stand grown from brush mattresses; one with turf vegetation) and one unplanted barrel. The fill material used is a mineral silt-sand-gravel classified as silty sand compacted to 97% Proctor [DPr], meaning a dry density [ρD] of 1.97 g/cm³. Each barrel is equipped with two soil moisture sensors, four tensiometers and seepage measurement devices. Furthermore the relevant meteorological parameters as precipitation, air temperature, air moisture wind speed and radiation are measured. Plant parameters such as biomass, leaf area index and root growth are observed in 17 additional barrels. The talk is going to deal with methodology and setup of the lysimeter investigations, showing the results of the first growing season of these two vegetation types compared to bare soil. As result of the first growing season, evapotranspiration rates of the willow stands were significantly higher than those found with grass-herb vegetation, whereas seepage was significantly lower.

  20. Screening of condensed tannins from Canadian prairie forages for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 with an emphasis on purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Ominski, K H; He, M; Xu, Z; Krause, D O; Acharya, S N; Wittenberg, K M; Liu, X L; Stanford, K; McAllister, T A

    2013-04-01

    Tannins from forages grown (n = 10) on the Canadian prairie, as well as from Quebracho, Rhus semialata, and brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), were screened for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity against E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 at a concentration of 400 μg/ml for each tannin type, except for brown seaweed, which was at 50 μg/ml. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring the optical density at 600 nm over 24 h. Tannin from seaweed at a concentration of 50 μg/ml inhibited growth of strain 3081. Among the terrestrial forages, only condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent; PPC) increased (P < 0.05) the lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of E. coli O157:H7. The anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT was further assessed by culturing E. coli strain ATCC 25922 and eight strains of E. coli O157:H7 with PPC CT at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml. Selected strains were enumerated after 0, 6, and 24 h of incubation, and fatty acid composition was determined after 24 h of incubation. E. coli strain 25922 was cultured with 0, 50, or 200 μg of CT per ml and harvested during the exponential growth phase for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Increasing CT concentration linearly increased (P < 0.001) the lag times of seven strains and linearly reduced (P < 0.001) the growth rates of eight E. coli O157:H7 strains. Proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in the total fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.01) by CT at 50 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT disrupted the outer membrane structure. Anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT at levels of up to 200 μg/ml was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, and the mechanism of anti-E. coli activity may involve alteration in the fatty acid composition and disruption of the outer membrane of the cell. PMID:23575115

  1. Screening of condensed tannins from Canadian prairie forages for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 with an emphasis on purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Ominski, K H; He, M; Xu, Z; Krause, D O; Acharya, S N; Wittenberg, K M; Liu, X L; Stanford, K; McAllister, T A

    2013-04-01

    Tannins from forages grown (n = 10) on the Canadian prairie, as well as from Quebracho, Rhus semialata, and brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), were screened for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity against E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 at a concentration of 400 μg/ml for each tannin type, except for brown seaweed, which was at 50 μg/ml. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring the optical density at 600 nm over 24 h. Tannin from seaweed at a concentration of 50 μg/ml inhibited growth of strain 3081. Among the terrestrial forages, only condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent; PPC) increased (P < 0.05) the lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of E. coli O157:H7. The anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT was further assessed by culturing E. coli strain ATCC 25922 and eight strains of E. coli O157:H7 with PPC CT at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml. Selected strains were enumerated after 0, 6, and 24 h of incubation, and fatty acid composition was determined after 24 h of incubation. E. coli strain 25922 was cultured with 0, 50, or 200 μg of CT per ml and harvested during the exponential growth phase for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Increasing CT concentration linearly increased (P < 0.001) the lag times of seven strains and linearly reduced (P < 0.001) the growth rates of eight E. coli O157:H7 strains. Proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in the total fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.01) by CT at 50 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT disrupted the outer membrane structure. Anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT at levels of up to 200 μg/ml was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, and the mechanism of anti-E. coli activity may involve alteration in the fatty acid composition and disruption of the outer membrane of the cell.

  2. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  3. Leaf protein concentrate as food supplement from arid zone plants.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mala

    2010-06-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas where prevalence of droughts and famines is a recurring feature, forest cover can in general make valuable contributions to food security and provide income to the rural poor. Protein and calorie malnutrition is widespread in these areas leading to high child mortality rate. Plant species can play an important role in overcoming this by being used as a source of leaf protein concentrate (LPC), a highly nutritious food. LPC should be considered seriously as it can serve as an additional protein source in the case of non-ruminants and man, especially in drought prone areas. The use of LPC in developing countries as an alternative protein source to fishmeal in broiler diet holds tremendous promise as it can substantially lower high cost of fishmeal and eventually the acute shortage of animal protein supply. Potential tropical plants for LPC production have been evaluated and selected for further research by United States Department of Agriculture. The present study was aimed to determine the potential of arid zone plants for preparation of LPC. Extraction characteristics of the several plant species have been studied and the quality of LPC prepared from them was investigated. Different fractions, chloroplastic and cytoplasmic proteins, were analyzed for their crude protein contents. Analysis of LPC shows considerable differences in their protein contents, which was found to range from 13.7 to 88.9%. Based on this, Achyranthes aspera and Tephrosia purpurea were found to be the best suited plants for LPC preparation.

  4. Hydrology and Geostatistics of a Vermont, USA Kettlehole Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, Paula J.; Hession, W. Cully; Rizzo, Donna M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to predict the response of peatland ecosystems to hydrologic changes is imperative for successful conservation and remediation efforts. We studied a 1.25-ha Vermont kettlehole bog for one year (September 2001-October 2002) to identify hydrologic controls, temporal and spatial variability in flow regimes, and to link hydrologic processes to density of the carnivorous plant ( Sarracenia purpurea), an ombrotrophic bog specialist. Using a spatial array of nested piezometers, we measured surface and subsurface flow in shallow peat and surrounding mineral soil. Our unique sampling array was based on a repeated measures factorial design with: (1) incremental distances from a central kettlehole pond; (2) equal distances between piezometers; and (3) at three depths from the peat surface. Local flow patterns in the peat were controlled by snowpack storage during winter and spring months and by evapotranspiration and pond water elevation during summer and fall months. Hydraulic head values showed a local reversal within the peat during spring months which was reflected in higher chemical constituent concentrations in these wells. On a regional scale, higher permeable soils diverted groundwater beneath the peatland to a nearby wetland complex. Horizontal water gradient magnitudes were larger in zones where the peatland was perched above regional groundwater and smaller in zones where a hydraulic connection existed between the peatland and the regional groundwater. The density of pitcher plants ( S. purpurea) is strongly correlated to the distance from a central pond, [Fe 3+], [Na +], [Cl -], and [SO42-]. The pH, conductivity, and [Ca 2+] had significant effects of depth and time with horizontal distance correlations between 20 and 26 m. The pH samples had temporal correlations between 27 and 79 days. The link between pitcher plants and ion chemistry; significant effects of peatland chemistry on distance, depth, and time; and spatial and temporal correlations are

  5. Reversed-phase high-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Photodiode Array Detector Validated Simultaneous Quantification of six Bioactive Phenolic Acids in Roscoea purpurea Tubers and their In vitro Cytotoxic Potential against Various Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Dharmesh; Srivastava, Amit; Sood, Anil; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roscoea purpurea or Roscoea procera Wall. (Zingiberaceae) is traditionally used for nutrition and in the treatment of various ailments. Objective: Simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (RP-HPLC) photodiode array detector identification of phenolic acids (PA's) was carried out in whole extract of tuber and their cytotoxic potential was estimated along with radical scavenging action. Bioactivity guided fractionation was also done to check the response potential against the same assay. Materials and Methods: Identification and method validation was performed on RP-HPLC column and in vitro assays were used for bioactivity. Results: Protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin, and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774%, 0.064%, 0.265%, 1.125%, 0.128%, and 0.528%, respectively. Validated method for simultaneous determination of PA's was found to be accurate, reproducible, and linearity was observed between peak area response and concentration. Recovery of identified PA's was within the acceptable limit of 97.40–104.05%. Significant pharmacological response was observed in whole extract against in vitro cytotoxic assay, that is, Sulforhodamine B assay, however, fractionation results in decreased action potential. Similar pattern of results were observed in the antioxidant assay, as total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were highest in whole extract and decreases with fractionation. Radical scavenging activity was prominent in chloroform fraction, exhibiting IC50 at 0.25 mg/mL. Conclusion: Study, thus, reveals that R. purpurea exhibit significant efficacy in cytotoxic activity with the potentiality of scavenging free radicals due the presence of PA's as reported through RP-HPLC. SUMMARY Proto-catechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774, 0.064, 0.265, 1.125, 0.128 and 0.528 %Preliminary cytotoxic activity revealed that whole

  6. Alkaloid cluster gene ccsA of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea encodes chanoclavine I synthase, a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidoreductase mediating the transformation of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan to chanoclavine I.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Nicole; Olsovská, Jana; Sulc, Miroslav; Tudzynski, Paul

    2010-03-01

    Ergot alkaloids are indole-derived secondary metabolites synthesized by the phytopathogenic ascomycete Claviceps purpurea. In wild-type strains, they are exclusively produced in the sclerotium, a hibernation structure; for biotechnological applications, submerse production strains have been generated by mutagenesis. It was shown previously that the enzymes specific for alkaloid biosynthesis are encoded by a gene cluster of 68.5 kb. This ergot alkaloid cluster consists of 14 genes coregulated and expressed under alkaloid-producing conditions. Although the role of some of the cluster genes in alkaloid biosynthesis could be confirmed by a targeted knockout approach, further functional analyses are needed, especially concerning the early pathway-specific steps up to the production of clavine alkaloids. Therefore, the gene ccsA, originally named easE and preliminarily annotated as coding for a flavin adenine dinucleotide-containing oxidoreductase, was deleted in the C. purpurea strain P1, which is able to synthesize ergot alkaloids in axenic culture. Five independent knockout mutants were analyzed with regard to alkaloid-producing capability. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), ultrapressure liquid chromatography (UPLC), and mass spectrometry (MS) analyses revealed accumulation of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan (Me-DMAT) and traces of dimethylallyltryptophan (DMAT), the first pathway-specific intermediate. Since other alkaloid intermediates could not be detected, we conclude that deletion of ccsA led to a block in alkaloid biosynthesis beyond Me-DMAT formation. Complementation with a ccsA/gfp fusion construct restored alkaloid biosynthesis. These data indicate that ccsA encodes the chanoclavine I synthase or a component thereof catalyzing the conversion of N-methyl-dimethylallyltryptophan to chanoclavine I. PMID:20118373

  7. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

  8. Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-04-01

    The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis.

  9. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  11. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  12. Turning up the heat: temperature influences the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up effects.

    PubMed

    Hoekman, David

    2010-10-01

    Understanding how communities respond to changes in temperature is a major challenge for community ecology. Temperature influences the relative degree to which top-down and bottom-up forces structure ecological communities. In greenhouse experiments using the aquatic community found in pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea), I tested how temperature affected the relative importance of top-down (mosquito predation) and bottom-up (ant carcasses) forces on protozoa and bacteria populations. While bottom-up effects did not vary consistently with temperature, the top-down effects of predators on protozoa increased at higher temperatures. These results suggest that temperature could change the relative importance of top-down and bottom-up effects in ecological communities. Specifically, higher temperature may increase the strength of top-down effects by raising predator metabolic rate and concomitant processes (e.g., activity, foraging, digestion, growth) relative to cooler temperatures. These findings apply broadly to an understanding of trophic interactions in a variable environment and are especially relevant in the context of ongoing climate change.

  13. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    PubMed

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species.

  14. Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-01-01

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The

  15. Laboratory observations on the larvicidal efficacy of three plant species against mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) and lymphatic filariasis in the semi-arid desert.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna; Sherwani, M R K

    2012-05-01

    Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1,193.0 mg l(-1)) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality < 10-30%). Tests carried out with methanol extracts of fresh leaves (24 hr LC50: 89.2, 171.2, 369.7) and flowers (24 hr LC50: 94.7,617.3, 1384.0 mg l-(-1)) of Calotropis showed that preparations from fresh parts were 2-3 times more effective as compared to the stored plant parts. Efficacy was less than 10-30% with both An. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while An. stephensi was still susceptible to extracts from both leaves and flowers even after two years of storage. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for methanol extracts of seeds of T. purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2,128.1 and 118.8 mg l(-1) for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-(1) with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that

  16. The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to assess the quality and stability of fruit products: an example using red mombin pulp (Spondias purpurea L.).

    PubMed

    Todisco, Katieli Martins; Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Costa, José Maria Correia da; Clemente, Edmar

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea) pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD) as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP) or laminated packages (LP). The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99), at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products. PMID:25338176

  17. The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to assess the quality and stability of fruit products: an example using red mombin pulp (Spondias purpurea L.).

    PubMed

    Todisco, Katieli Martins; Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Costa, José Maria Correia da; Clemente, Edmar

    2014-10-21

    The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea) pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD) as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP) or laminated packages (LP). The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99), at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products.

  18. Ecosystem engineering and manipulation of host plant tissues by the insect borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Uribe-Mú, Claudia A; Martínez-Méndez, A Karen; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Cristobal-Pérez, E Jacob; García-Oliva, Felipe; Quesada, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by insect herbivores occurs as the result of structural modification of plants manipulated by insects. However, only few studies have evaluated the effect of these modifications on the plant responses induced by stem-borers that act as ecosystem engineers. In this study, we evaluated the responses induced by the herbivory of the twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) on its host plant Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae), and its relationship with the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer. Our results demonstrated that O. albomarginata chamela branch removal induced the development of lateral branches increasing the resources needed for the development of future insect generations, of its own offspring and of many other insect species. Detached branches represent habitats with high content of nitrogen and phosphorous, which eventually can be incorporated into the ecosystem, increasing nutrient cycling efficiency. Consequently, branch removal and the subsequent plant tissue regeneration induced by O. albomarginata chamela represent key mechanisms underlying the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer, which enhances arthropod diversity in the ecosystem.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches' Broom Disease in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li; Yang, Jun-Yi; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2015-11-25

    The bacterial genus "Candidatus Phytoplasma" contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches' broom disease in Taiwan.

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches’ Broom Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial genus “Candidatus Phytoplasma” contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches’ broom disease in Taiwan. PMID:26607900

  1. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology. PMID:27660624

  2. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G.; Greer, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology.

  3. The Willow Microbiome Is Influenced by Soil Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Concentration with Plant Compartment-Specific Effects.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Stacie; Yergeau, Étienne; Tremblay, Julien; Legendre, Pierre; Whyte, Lyle G; Greer, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between plants and microorganisms, which is the driving force behind the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) contamination in phytoremediation technology, is poorly understood. Here, we aimed at characterizing the variations between plant compartments in the microbiome of two willow cultivars growing in contaminated soils. A field experiment was set-up at a former petrochemical plant in Canada and after two growing seasons, bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, roots, and stems samples of two willow cultivars (Salix purpurea cv. FishCreek, and Salix miyabeana cv. SX67) growing at three PHC contamination concentrations were taken. DNA was extracted and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced using an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Following multivariate statistical analyses, the level of PHC-contamination appeared as the primary factor influencing the willow microbiome with compartment-specific effects, with significant differences between the responses of bacterial, and fungal communities. Increasing PHC contamination levels resulted in shifts in the microbiome composition, favoring putative hydrocarbon degraders, and microorganisms previously reported as associated with plant health. These shifts were less drastic in the rhizosphere, root, and stem tissues as compared to bulk soil, probably because the willows provided a more controlled environment, and thus, protected microbial communities against increasing contamination levels. Insights from this study will help to devise optimal plant microbiomes for increasing the efficiency of phytoremediation technology. PMID:27660624

  4. Streamlining Plant Sample Preparation: The Use of High-Throughput Robotics to Process Echinacea Samples for Biomarker Profiling by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Leasa A.; Isaac, Issa; Gray, Dean E.; Schwartz, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Several species in the genus Echinacea are beneficial herbs popularly used for many ailments. The most popular Echinacea species for cultivation, wild collection, and herbal products include E. purpurea (L.) Moench, E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., and E. angustifolia (DC). Product adulteration is a key concern for the natural products industry, where botanical misidentification and introduction of other botanical and nonbotanical contaminants exist throughout the formulation and production process. Therefore, rapid and cost-effective methods that can be used to monitor these materials for complex product purity and consistency are of benefit to consumers and producers. The objective of this continuing research was to develop automated, high-throughput processing methods that, teamed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, differentiate Echinacea species by their mass profiles. Small molecules, peptide, and proteins from aerial parts (leaf/stem/flowers), seeds, and roots from E. purpurea and E. angustifolia; seeds and roots from E. pallida; and off-the-shelf Echinacea supplements were extracted and analyzed by MS using methods developed on the ProPrep liquid handling system (Genomic Solutions). Analysis of these samples highlighted key MS signal patterns from both small molecules and proteins that characterized the individual Echinacea materials analyzed. Based on analysis of pure Echinacea samples, off-the-shelf products containing Echinacea could then be evaluated in a streamlined process. Corresponding analysis of dietary supplements was used to monitor for product composition, including Echinacea species and plant materials used. These results highlight the potential for streamlined, automated approaches for agricultural species differentiation and botanical product evaluation. PMID:17916796

  5. Streamlining plant sample preparation: the use of high-throughput robotics to process echinacea samples for biomarker profiling by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Greene, Leasa A; Isaac, Issa; Gray, Dean E; Schwartz, Sarah A

    2007-09-01

    Several species in the genus Echinacea are beneficial herbs popularly used for many ailments. The most popular Echinacea species for cultivation, wild collection, and herbal products include E. purpurea (L.) Moench, E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., and E. angustifolia (DC). Product adulteration is a key concern for the natural products industry, where botanical misidentification and introduction of other botanical and nonbotanical contaminants exist throughout the formulation and production process. Therefore, rapid and cost-effective methods that can be used to monitor these materials for complex product purity and consistency are of benefit to consumers and producers. The objective of this continuing research was to develop automated, high-throughput processing methods that, teamed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, differentiate Echinacea species by their mass profiles. Small molecules, peptide, and proteins from aerial parts (leaf/stem/flowers), seeds, and roots from E. purpurea and E. angustifolia; seeds and roots from E. pallida; and off-the-shelf Echinacea supplements were extracted and analyzed by MS using methods developed on the ProPrep liquid handling system (Genomic Solutions). Analysis of these samples highlighted key MS signal patterns from both small molecules and proteins that characterized the individual Echinacea materials analyzed. Based on analysis of pure Echinacea samples, off-the-shelf products containing Echinacea could then be evaluated in a streamlined process. Corresponding analysis of dietary supplements was used to monitor for product composition, including Echinacea species and plant materials used. These results highlight the potential for streamlined, automated approaches for agricultural species differentiation and botanical product evaluation.

  6. Characterisation of the FAD2 gene family from Hiptage benghalensis: a ricinoleic acid accumulating plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Rong; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-08-01

    We have characterised the FAD2 gene family from Hiptage benghalensis, a tropical plant that accumulates high levels of ricinoleic acid in its seeds. Functional characterisation of six FAD2 gene family members showed that two of them were capable of functioning as Δ12-hydroxylases while the other FAD2 members were confirmed to be Δ12-desaturases. The Δ12-hydroxylation function of these two genes was confirmed in yeast cells, using C16:1(Δ9) and C18:1(Δ9) monounsaturated fatty acids as substrates. These Δ12-hydroxylases, like the other Δ12-hydroxylases previously cloned from plants Ricinus communis (castor), Physaria fendleri and fungus Claviceps purpurea, also showed some Δ12-desaturase activity. The hydroxylation activity of the two Hiptage hydroxylases was further confirmed by their expression in the Arabidopsis fad2/fae1 double mutant where they were able to produce equivalent or higher levels hydroxylated fatty acids in the seed oil when compared with the other known hydroxylases.

  7. Evolutionary demography of iteroparous plants: incorporating non-lethal costs of reproduction into integral projection models.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tom E X; Williams, Jennifer L; Jongejans, Eelke; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2012-07-22

    Understanding the selective forces that shape reproductive strategies is a central goal of evolutionary ecology. Selection on the timing of reproduction is well studied in semelparous organisms because the cost of reproduction (death) can be easily incorporated into demographic models. Iteroparous organisms also exhibit delayed reproduction and experience reproductive costs, although these are not necessarily lethal. How non-lethal costs shape iteroparous life histories remains unresolved. We analysed long-term demographic data for the iteroparous orchid Orchis purpurea from two habitat types (light and shade). In both the habitats, flowering plants had lower growth rates and this cost was greater for smaller plants. We detected an additional growth cost of fruit production in the light habitat. We incorporated these non-lethal costs into integral projection models to identify the flowering size that maximizes fitness. In both habitats, observed flowering sizes were well predicted by the models. We also estimated optimal parameters for size-dependent flowering effort, but found a strong mismatch with the observed flower production. Our study highlights the role of context-dependent non-lethal reproductive costs as selective forces in the evolution of iteroparous life histories, and provides a novel and broadly applicable approach to studying the evolutionary demography of iteroparous organisms.

  8. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza virus (IV) infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV) in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF) in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV) of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1), were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options for IV replication and

  9. Bauhinia purpurea--a new paraffin section marker for Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease. A comparison with Leu-M1 (CD15), LN2 (CD74), peanut agglutinin, and Ber-H2 (CD30).

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, A. B.; Akagi, T.; Jeon, H. J.; Miyake, K.; Murakami, I.; Yoshino, T.; Takahashi, K.; Nose, S.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-three cases of Hodgkin's disease (thirteen nodular sclerosis, four diffuse, lymphocyte predominance, and sixteen mixed cellularity) were studied with Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), peanut agglutinin (PNA), anti-Leu-M1, LN2, and Ber-H2 by the avidinbiotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method in paraffin sections. Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and variants were stained positively with one or more of the reagents in all cases. BPA staining was positive in 32 of 33 cases (97.0%), PNA staining was positive in 23 of 33 cases (69.7%), Leu-M1 was positive in 13 of 33 cases (39.4%), LN2 was positive in 14 of 33 cases (42.4%), and Ber-H2 was positive in 24 of 33 cases (72.7%). Many RS cells were stained moderately to strongly and were readily recognized in 31 cases (96.9%) of BPA+, 10 (43.5%) of PNA+, 8 (61.5%) of Leu-M1+, 6 (42.9%) of LN2+, and 22 (91.7%) of Ber-H2+ cases; in the remaining positive cases, the RS cells were found only after careful searching. Three staining patterns were recognized: paranuclear, diffuse cytoplasmic, and membranous. These three patterns were obtained with all markers except for LN2. LN2 showed diffuse cytoplasmic staining in most of the positive cells, and a few cells showed paranuclear deposits. BPA reactivity was not affected by formalin fixation or paraffin embedding. Except for RS cells, BPA also showed dense cytoplasmic staining reaction with macrophage-histiocytes. Sixty cases of non-Hodgkin's diffuse lymphomas (30 T- and 30 B-cell origin) were also studied. Tumor cells were not stained with BPA, PNA, and Leu-M1, but stained positively with LN2 in six T-cell lymphomas and thirteen B-cell lymphomas, and with Ber-H2 in six T-cell lymphomas and one B-cell lymphoma. In conclusion, to facilitate the detection of RS cells and related variants in paraffin sections, BPA can be accepted as a useful marker due to its high-detection rate, reproducible staining pattern, and resistance to fixatives. Images Figure 1 PMID:1352944

  10. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  11. Plant assemblage composition and soil P concentration differentially affect communities of AM and total fungi in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Klabi, Rim; Bell, Terrence H; Hamel, Chantal; Iwaasa, Alan; Schellenberg, Mike; Raies, Aly; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adding inorganic P- and N-fixing legumes to semi-arid grasslands can increase forage yield, but soil nutrient concentrations and plant cover may also interact to modify soil fungal populations, impacting short- and long-term forage production. We tested the effect of plant assemblage (seven native grasses, seven native grasses + the domesticated N-fixing legume Medicago sativa, seven native grasses + the native N-fixing legume Dalea purpurea or the introduced grass Bromus biebersteinii + M. sativa) and soil P concentration (addition of 0 or 200 P2O5 kg ha(-1) at sowing) on the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and total fungi over two consecutive years, using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS amplicons. Treatment effects were stronger in the wet year (2008) than the dry year (2009). The presence of an N-fixing legume with native grasses generally increased AM fungal diversity, while the interaction between soil P concentration and plant assemblage modified total fungal community structure in 2008. Excluding interannual variations, which are likely driven by moisture and plant productivity, AM fungal communities in semi-arid grasslands appear to be primarily affected by plant assemblage composition, while the composition of other fungi is more closely linked to soil P.

  12. Plant assemblage composition and soil P concentration differentially affect communities of AM and total fungi in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Klabi, Rim; Bell, Terrence H; Hamel, Chantal; Iwaasa, Alan; Schellenberg, Mike; Raies, Aly; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adding inorganic P- and N-fixing legumes to semi-arid grasslands can increase forage yield, but soil nutrient concentrations and plant cover may also interact to modify soil fungal populations, impacting short- and long-term forage production. We tested the effect of plant assemblage (seven native grasses, seven native grasses + the domesticated N-fixing legume Medicago sativa, seven native grasses + the native N-fixing legume Dalea purpurea or the introduced grass Bromus biebersteinii + M. sativa) and soil P concentration (addition of 0 or 200 P2O5 kg ha(-1) at sowing) on the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and total fungi over two consecutive years, using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS amplicons. Treatment effects were stronger in the wet year (2008) than the dry year (2009). The presence of an N-fixing legume with native grasses generally increased AM fungal diversity, while the interaction between soil P concentration and plant assemblage modified total fungal community structure in 2008. Excluding interannual variations, which are likely driven by moisture and plant productivity, AM fungal communities in semi-arid grasslands appear to be primarily affected by plant assemblage composition, while the composition of other fungi is more closely linked to soil P. PMID:25764537

  13. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  14. Intermediate-consumer identity and resources alter a food web with omnivory.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2007-07-01

    1. Omnivory is an important interaction that has been the centre of numerous theoretical and empirical studies in recent years. Most of these studies examine the conditions necessary for coexistence between an omnivore and an intermediate consumer. Trait variation in ecological interactions (competition and predator tolerance) among intermediate consumers has not been considered in previous empirical studies despite the evidence that variation in species-specific traits can have important community-level effects. 2. I conducted a multifactorial microcosm experiment using species from the Sarracenia purpurea phytotelmata community, organisms that inhabit the water collected within its modified leaves. The basal trophic level consisted of bacterial decomposers, the second trophic level (intermediate consumers) consisted of protozoa and rotifers, and the third trophic level (omnivore) were larvae of the pitcher plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Trophic level number (1, 2 and 3), resources (low and high), omnivore density (low and high) and intermediate consumer (monoculture of five protozoa and rotifers) identity were manipulated. Abundance of the basal trophic level, intermediate consumers, and growth of the omnivore were measured, as well as time to extinction (intermediate consumers) and time to pupation (mosquito larvae). 3. The presence of different intermediate consumers affected both bacteria abundance and omnivore growth. At high resource levels, Poteriochromonas, Colpidium and Habrotrocha rosa reduced bacteria densities greater than omnivore reduction of bacteria. Mosquito larvae did not pupate at low resource levels except when Poteriochromonas and Colopoda were present as intermediate consumers. Communities with H. rosa were the only ones consistent with the prediction that omnivores should exclude intermediate consumers at high resources. 4. These results had mixed support for predictions from omnivory food web theory. Intermediate consumers responded and

  15. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  16. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  17. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Poppenga, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A large number of plants can cause adverse effects when ingested by animals or people. Plant toxicity is due to a wide diversity of chemical toxins that include alkaloids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids. There are several notable toxic plants for which a specific chemical responsible for toxicity has not been determined. There are many examples of species differences in terms of their sensitivity to intoxication from plants. Pets, such as dogs and cats, and people, especially children, are frequently exposed to the same toxic plants due to their shared environments. On the other hand, livestock are exposed to toxic plants that are rarely involved in human intoxications due to the unique environments in which they are kept. Fortunately, adverse effects often do not occur or are generally mild following most toxic plant ingestions and no therapeutic intervention is necessary. However, some plants are extremely toxic and ingestion of small amounts can cause rapid death. The diagnosis of plant intoxication can be challenging, especially in veterinary medicine where a history of exposure to a toxic plant is often lacking. Analytical tests are available to detect some plant toxins, although their diagnostic utility is often limited by test availability and timeliness of results. With a few notable exceptions, antidotes for plant toxins are not available. However, general supportive and symptomatic care often is sufficient to successfully treat a symptomatic patient.

  18. The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Early Land Plants Treubia lacunosa and Anomodon rugelii: Dynamic and Conservative Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wang, Bin; Li, Libo; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-01-01

    Early land plant mitochondrial genomes captured important changes of mitochondrial genome evolution when plants colonized land. The chondromes of seed plants show several derived characteristics, e.g., large genome size variation, rapid intra-genomic rearrangement, abundant introns, and highly variable levels of RNA editing. On the other hand, the chondromes of charophytic algae are still largely ancestral in these aspects, resembling those of early eukaryotes. When the transition happened has been a long-standing question in studies of mitochondrial genome evolution. Here we report complete mitochondrial genome sequences from an early-diverging liverwort, Treubia lacunosa, and a late-evolving moss, Anomodon rugelii. The two genomes, 151,983 and 104,239 base pairs in size respectively, contain standard sets of protein coding genes for respiration and protein synthesis, as well as nearly full sets of rRNA and tRNA genes found in the chondromes of the liverworts Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The gene orders of these two chondromes are identical to those of the other liverworts and moss. Their intron contents, with all cis-spliced group I or group II introns, are also similar to those in the previously sequenced liverwort and moss chondromes. These five chondromes plus the two from the hornworts Phaeoceros laevis and Megaceros aenigmaticus for the first time allowed comprehensive comparative analyses of structure and organization of mitochondrial genomes both within and across the three major lineages of bryophytes. These analyses led to the conclusion that the mitochondrial genome experienced dynamic evolution in genome size, gene content, intron acquisition, gene order, and RNA editing during the origins of land plants and their major clades. However, evolution of this organellar genome has remained rather conservative since the origin and initial radiation of early land plants, except within vascular plants. PMID

  19. The mitochondrial genomes of the early land plants Treubia lacunosa and Anomodon rugelii: dynamic and conservative evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wang, Bin; Li, Libo; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-01-01

    Early land plant mitochondrial genomes captured important changes of mitochondrial genome evolution when plants colonized land. The chondromes of seed plants show several derived characteristics, e.g., large genome size variation, rapid intra-genomic rearrangement, abundant introns, and highly variable levels of RNA editing. On the other hand, the chondromes of charophytic algae are still largely ancestral in these aspects, resembling those of early eukaryotes. When the transition happened has been a long-standing question in studies of mitochondrial genome evolution. Here we report complete mitochondrial genome sequences from an early-diverging liverwort, Treubia lacunosa, and a late-evolving moss, Anomodon rugelii. The two genomes, 151,983 and 104,239 base pairs in size respectively, contain standard sets of protein coding genes for respiration and protein synthesis, as well as nearly full sets of rRNA and tRNA genes found in the chondromes of the liverworts Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The gene orders of these two chondromes are identical to those of the other liverworts and moss. Their intron contents, with all cis-spliced group I or group II introns, are also similar to those in the previously sequenced liverwort and moss chondromes. These five chondromes plus the two from the hornworts Phaeoceros laevis and Megaceros aenigmaticus for the first time allowed comprehensive comparative analyses of structure and organization of mitochondrial genomes both within and across the three major lineages of bryophytes. These analyses led to the conclusion that the mitochondrial genome experienced dynamic evolution in genome size, gene content, intron acquisition, gene order, and RNA editing during the origins of land plants and their major clades. However, evolution of this organellar genome has remained rather conservative since the origin and initial radiation of early land plants, except within vascular plants.

  20. [Transgenic plants].

    PubMed

    Blum, H E

    2002-12-01

    Advances in molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology have revolutionized our understanding of the pathogenesis as well as the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of human diseases. Similar developments characterize plant biotechnology with the production of plant derived biomedical as well as health products. Apart from the fundamentals of molecular plant genetics, the production of transgenic plants as well as the clinical relevance, benefits, limitations and potential problems of plant biotechnology will be reviewed in some detail. It is a particular challenge to physicians in an increasingly informed environment to be informed about the new developments in molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology and to have a qualified opinion about their clinical relevance.

  1. Plant nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Herth, Simone

    2011-11-01

    The anthropogenic release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment poses a potential hazard to human health and life. The interplay between NPs and biological processes is receiving increasing attention. Plants expose huge interfaces to the air and soil environment. Thus, NPs are adsorbed to the plant surfaces, taken up through nano- or micrometer-scale openings of plants and are translocated within the plant body. Persistent NPs associated with plants enter the human food chain. In this Opinion, we document the occurrence and character of NPs in the environment and evaluate the need for future research on toxicological effects. Plant nanotoxicology is introduced as a discipline that explores the effects and toxicity mechanisms of NPs in plants, including transport, surface interactions and material-specific responses.

  2. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    that the plants considered seem to be rather highly tolerant towards environmental pollution, since their metabolic equilibrium is not altered by increased metal uptake. This suggests that the selected plants could be useful in phytoremediation of metal contaminated sites. The phytoremediation ability of Salix species (S. eleagnos, S. purpurea and S. caprea) for heavy metals and in particular zinc was estimated. Plantago major has very high metal concentrations in the roots and could be recommended for phytostabilization.

  3. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  4. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  5. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  6. Electronic plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  7. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  8. Plant Minders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Indoor plants are automatically watered by the Aqua Trends watering system. System draws water from building outlets or from pump/reservoir module and distributes it to the plants via a network of tubes and adjustable nozzles. Key element of system is electronic controller programmed to dispense water according to the needs of various plants in an installation. Adjustable nozzle meters out exactly right amount of water at proper time to the plant it's serving. More than 100 Aqua/Trends systems are in service in the USA, from a simple residential system to a large Mirage III system integrated to water all greenery in a large office or apartment building.

  9. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  10. Plant Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are faced with defending themselves against a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc. Immunity is multi-layered and complex. Plants can induce defenses when they recognize small peptides, proteins or double-stranded RNA associated with pathogens. Recognitio...

  11. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  12. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  13. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. PMID:26363398

  14. Effects of leaf wetting and high humidity on stomatal function in leafy cuttings and intact plants of Corylus maxima.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Michael C.; Harrison-Murray, Richard S.; Knight, Linda; Evered, Carol E.

    2001-10-01

    When rooted cuttings of Corylus maxima Mill. cv. Purpurea are moved from the wet and humid conditions of the rooting environment, the leaves frequently shrivel and die. Since the newly formed adventitious root system has been shown to be functional in supplying water to the shoot, stomatal behaviour in C. maxima was investigated in relation to the failure to prevent desiccation. Stomatal conductance (gs) in expanding leaves (L3) of cuttings increased almost 10-fold over the first 14 days in the rooting environment (fog), from 70 to 650 mmol m-2 s-1. In contrast, gs of expanded leaves (L1) changed little and was in the region of 300 mmol m-2 s-1. Midday leaf water potential was much higher in cuttings than in leaves on the mother stock-plant (-0.5 versus -1.2 MPa) even before any roots were visible. Despite this, leaf expansion of L3 was inhibited by >50% in cuttings and stomata showed a gradual reduction in their ability to close in response to abscisic acid (ABA). To determine whether the loss of stomatal function in cuttings was due to severance or to unnaturally low vapour pressure deficit and wetting in fog, intact plants were placed alongside cuttings in the rooting environment. The intact plants displayed reductions in leaf expansion and in the ability of stomata to close in response to dark, desiccation and ABA. However, in cuttings, the additional effect of severance resulted in smaller leaves than in intact plants and more severe reduction in stomatal closure, which was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in stomatal density and distinctively rounded stomatal pores. The similarities between stomatal dysfunction in C. maxima and that observed in many species propagated in vitro are discussed, as is the possible mechanism of dysfunction. PMID:12060301

  15. Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus Cuscuta

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, Joel R; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; de Pamphilis, Claude W

    2007-01-01

    Background Plastid genome content and protein sequence are highly conserved across land plants and their closest algal relatives. Parasitic plants, which obtain some or all of their nutrition through an attachment to a host plant, are often a striking exception. Heterotrophy can lead to relaxed constraint on some plastid genes or even total gene loss. We sequenced plastid genomes of two species in the parasitic genus Cuscuta along with a non-parasitic relative, Ipomoea purpurea, to investigate changes in the plastid genome that may result from transition to the parasitic lifestyle. Results Aside from loss of all ndh genes, Cuscuta exaltata retains photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes that evolve under strong selective constraint. Cuscuta obtusiflora has incurred substantially more change to its plastid genome, including loss of all genes for the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase. Despite extensive change in gene content and greatly increased rate of overall nucleotide substitution, C. obtusiflora also retains all photosynthetic and photorespiratory genes with only one minor exception. Conclusion Although Epifagus virginiana, the only other parasitic plant with its plastid genome sequenced to date, has lost a largely overlapping set of transfer-RNA and ribosomal genes as Cuscuta, it has lost all genes related to photosynthesis and maintains a set of genes which are among the most divergent in Cuscuta. Analyses demonstrate photosynthetic genes are under the highest constraint of any genes within the plastid genomes of Cuscuta, indicating a function involving RuBisCo and electron transport through photosystems is still the primary reason for retention of the plastid genome in these species. PMID:17956636

  16. Plant secretomics

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Tehreem; Shaheen, Kanwal; Parveen, Sajida; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2014-01-01

    Plant secretomes are the proteins secreted by the plant cells and are involved in the maintenance of cell wall structure, relationship between host and pathogen, communication between different cells in the plant, etc. Amalgamation of methodologies like bioinformatics, biochemical, and proteomics are used to separate, classify, and outline secretomes by means of harmonizing in planta systems and in vitro suspension cultured cell system (SSCs). We summed up and explained the meaning of secretome, methods used for the identification and isolation of secreted proteins from extracellular space and methods for the assessment of purity of secretome proteins in this review. Two D PAGE method and HPLC based methods for the analysis together with different bioinformatics tools used for the prediction of secretome proteins are also discussed. Biological significance of secretome proteins under different environmental stresses, i.e., salt stress, drought stress, oxidative stress, etc., defense responses and plant interactions with environment are also explained in detail. PMID:25763623

  17. Plant grafting.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  18. Hydroponic estimation of heavy metal accumulation by different genotypes of Salix.

    PubMed

    Mleczek, Miroslaw; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Magdziak, Zuzanna; Golinski, Piotr K

    2010-01-01

    The absorption abilities of selected heavy metals by twelve genotypes of willow (Salix) were compared in a hydroponic experiment. Coefficients of increased ion concentrations in tissues of each tested genotype were determined in relation to initial values. Some plants exhibited high sorption of particular metals (Salix purpurea Utilissima' and Salix purpurea 233') with limited sorption of other metals. The results indicate possible application of willow genotypes, with selective sorption of analyzed heavy metals. Ranking of genotypes according to their capacity for heavy metals absorption, individually and/or jointly, makes it possible to apply such information in the remediation of soil and/or sewage contaminated with individual or a complex of several heavy metals simultaneously. The most effective Salix genotypes were: Salix purpurea Utilissima' and Salix petiolaria 'Rigida'. The lowest accumulation was observed in Salix purpurea Green Dicks', Salix purpurea Uralensis' and Salix purpurea Nigra longifolia pendula'. Statistical analysis confirmed the above results.

  19. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  20. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  1. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  2. Plant Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Leather, Gerald R.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1978-01-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N2 gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O2 gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN3 and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence. It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  3. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  4. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  5. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  6. The Essence of "Plantness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, W. Marshall

    1990-01-01

    Major differences between plants and animals are presented. Discussed are autotrophs and heterotrophs, plant growth and development, gas exchange, the evolution of plants, ecosystem components, the alleged inferiority of plants, and fungi. (CW)

  7. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  8. Plants. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The study of plants is often limited to studying plant structure with little emphasis on the vital role plants play in our natural system and the variety of ways man uses plants. This unit, designed for intermediate level elementary students, reviews basic plant structure, discusses roles of plants in nature's system, illustrates plant…

  9. Plants on Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawniczak, Stefanie; Gerber, D. Timothy; Beck, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Food, medicine, clothing--much of what people encounter every day comes from plants or plant products. However, plants often do not get as much attention in the K-12 curriculum as they deserve. Because of the essential role plants play in peoples lives, it is important to include standards-based plant units in the elementary science curriculum.…

  10. The plant microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail. PMID:23805896

  11. Poinsettia plant exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  12. Herbivore induced plant volatiles

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul Rashid; Sharma, Hari Chand; Paulraj, Michael Gabriel; War, Mohd Yousf; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory through different defensive mechanisms. The induction of volatile emission is one of the important and immediate response of plants to herbivory. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are involved in plant communication with natural enemies of the insect herbivores, neighboring plants, and different parts of the damaged plant. Release of a wide variety of HIPVs in response to herbivore damage and their role in plant-plant, plant-carnivore and intraplant communications represents a new facet of the complex interactions among different trophic levels. HIPVs are released from leaves, flowers, and fruits into the atmosphere or into the soil from roots in response to herbivore attack. Moreover, HIPVs act as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents to insect pests. HIPVs also mediate the interactions between the plants and the microorganisms. This review presents an overview of HIPVs emitted by plants, their role in plant defense against herbivores and their implications for pest management. PMID:22105032

  13. Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This student plant growth investigation on the International Space Station compares plant growth on the ground with plant growth in space. Brassica rapa seeds, commonly known as a turnip mustard, w...

  14. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  15. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects. PMID:12546668

  16. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  17. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  18. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast plants,"…

  19. Carbon nanotube reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction: a novel extraction technique for the measurement of caffeic acid in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Es'haghi, Zarrin; Golsefidi, Mazyar Ahmadi; Saify, Ali; Tanha, Ali Akbar; Rezaeifar, Zohre; Alian-Nezhadi, Zahra

    2010-04-23

    A new design of hollow fiber solid-liquid phase microextraction (HF-SLPME) was developed for the determination of caffeic acid in medicinal plants samples as Echinacea purpure. The membrane extraction with sorbent interface used in this research is a three-phase supported liquid membrane consisting of an aqueous (donor phase), organic solvent/nano sorbent (membrane) and aqueous (acceptor phase) system operated in direct immersion sampling mode. The multi-walled carbon nanotube dispersed in the organic solvent is held in the pores of a porous membrane supported by capillary forces and sonification. It is in contact with two aqueous phases: the donor phase, which is the aqueous sample, and the acceptor phase, usually an aqueous buffer. All microextraction experiments were supported using an Accurel Q3/2 polypropylene hollow fiber membrane (600 microm I.D., 200 microm wall thicknesses, and 0.2 microm pore size). The experimental setup is very simple and highly affordable. The hollow fiber is disposable, so single use of the fiber reduces the risk of cross-contamination and carry-over problems. The proposed method allows the very effective and enriched recuperation of an acidic analyte into one single extract. In order to obtain high enrichment and extraction efficiency of the analyte using this novel technique, the main parameters were optimized. Under the optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity (0.0001-50 microg/L), repeatability, low limits of detection (0.00005 microg/L) and excellent enrichment (EF=2108). PMID:20227700

  20. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  1. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  2. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  3. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOEpatents

    Srienc, Friedrich; Somers, David A.; Hahn, J. J.; Eschenlauer, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  4. PLANT DERMATITIS: ASIAN PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Goon, Anthony Teik Jin; Goh, Chee Leok

    2011-01-01

    Occupational and recreational plant exposure on the skin is fairly common. Plant products and extracts are commonly used and found extensively in the environment. Adverse reactions to plants and their products are also fairly common. However, making the diagnosis of contact dermatitis from plants and plant extracts is not always simple and straightforward. Phytodermatitis refers to inflammation of the skin caused by a plant. The clinical patterns may be allergic phytodermatitis, photophytodermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, pharmacological injury, and mechanical injury. In this article, we will focus mainly on allergy contact dermatitis from plants or allergic phytodermatitis occurring in Asia. PMID:22345775

  5. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  6. [Immunostimulating action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H; Proksch, A; Riess-Maurer, I; Vollmar, A; Odenthal, S; Stuppner, H; Jurcic, K; Le Turdu, M; Fang, J N

    1985-01-01

    From the water or alcaline-water extracts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. and -angustifolia DC., Eupatorium cannabium L. and -perfoliatum L., Chamomilla recutita L. Rauscher, Calendula officinalis L., Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. B., Achyrocline satureioides DC., Arnica montana L., Sabal serrulata Roem. et Schult., and Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax) senticosus Maxim. polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000 and higher have been isolated, which, according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. The isolated compounds belong to the group of watersoluble, acidic branched-chain heteroglycans. Their immunostimulating activity is compared and discussed with respect to other polysaccharides of biological activity.

  7. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 μg/disc and 500 μg/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C

  8. Thrips management program for plants for planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips Management includes sanitation, exclusion, chemical control and biological control. Sanitation. Remove weeds, old plant debris, and growing medium from within and around the greenhouse. Eliminate old stock plants as these are a source of thrips and viruses. Removing old flowers may reduce the...

  9. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  10. Comparative Transcriptomic Approaches Exploring Contamination Stress Tolerance in Salix sp. Reveal the Importance for a Metaorganismal de Novo Assembly Approach for Nonmodel Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Marleau, Julie; Nissim, Werther Guidi; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.

    2016-01-01

    Metatranscriptomic study of nonmodel organisms requires strategies that retain the highly resolved genetic information generated from model organisms while allowing for identification of the unexpected. A real-world biological application of phytoremediation, the field growth of 10 Salix cultivars on polluted soils, was used as an exemplar nonmodel and multifaceted crop response well-disposed to the study of gene expression. Sequence reads were assembled de novo to create 10 independent transcriptomes, a global transcriptome, and were mapped against the Salix purpurea 94006 reference genome. Annotation of assembled contigs was performed without a priori assumption of the originating organism. Global transcriptome construction from 3.03 billion paired-end reads revealed 606,880 unique contigs annotated from 1588 species, often common in all 10 cultivars. Comparisons between transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic methodologies provide clear evidence that nonnative RNA can mistakenly map to reference genomes, especially to conserved regions of common housekeeping genes, such as actin, α/β-tubulin, and elongation factor 1-α. In Salix, Rubisco activase transcripts were down-regulated in contaminated trees across all 10 cultivars, whereas thiamine thizole synthase and CP12, a Calvin Cycle master regulator, were uniformly up-regulated. De novo assembly approaches, with unconstrained annotation, can improve data quality; care should be taken when exploring such plant genetics to reduce de facto data exclusion by mapping to a single reference genome alone. Salix gene expression patterns strongly suggest cultivar-wide alteration of specific photosynthetic apparatus and protection of the antenna complexes from oxidation damage in contaminated trees, providing an insight into common stress tolerance strategies in a real-world phytoremediation system. PMID:27002060

  11. Comparative Transcriptomic Approaches Exploring Contamination Stress Tolerance in Salix sp. Reveal the Importance for a Metaorganismal de Novo Assembly Approach for Nonmodel Plants.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Nicholas J B; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Marleau, Julie; Nissim, Werther Guidi; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E

    2016-05-01

    Metatranscriptomic study of nonmodel organisms requires strategies that retain the highly resolved genetic information generated from model organisms while allowing for identification of the unexpected. A real-world biological application of phytoremediation, the field growth of 10 Salix cultivars on polluted soils, was used as an exemplar nonmodel and multifaceted crop response well-disposed to the study of gene expression. Sequence reads were assembled de novo to create 10 independent transcriptomes, a global transcriptome, and were mapped against the Salix purpurea 94006 reference genome. Annotation of assembled contigs was performed without a priori assumption of the originating organism. Global transcriptome construction from 3.03 billion paired-end reads revealed 606,880 unique contigs annotated from 1588 species, often common in all 10 cultivars. Comparisons between transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic methodologies provide clear evidence that nonnative RNA can mistakenly map to reference genomes, especially to conserved regions of common housekeeping genes, such as actin, α/β-tubulin, and elongation factor 1-α. In Salix, Rubisco activase transcripts were down-regulated in contaminated trees across all 10 cultivars, whereas thiamine thizole synthase and CP12, a Calvin Cycle master regulator, were uniformly up-regulated. De novo assembly approaches, with unconstrained annotation, can improve data quality; care should be taken when exploring such plant genetics to reduce de facto data exclusion by mapping to a single reference genome alone. Salix gene expression patterns strongly suggest cultivar-wide alteration of specific photosynthetic apparatus and protection of the antenna complexes from oxidation damage in contaminated trees, providing an insight into common stress tolerance strategies in a real-world phytoremediation system. PMID:27002060

  12. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer M.; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Preuss, Daphne

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  13. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  14. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach; Jennifer M. , Zieler; Helge , Jin; RongGuan , Keith; Kevin , Copenhaver; Gregory P. , Preuss; Daphne

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  15. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  16. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  17. Plant growth and cultivation.

    PubMed

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory. PMID:23073874

  18. Plant growth and cultivation.

    PubMed

    Podar, Dorina

    2013-01-01

    There is a variety of methods used for growing plants indoor for laboratory research. In most cases plant research requires germination and growth of plants. Often, people have adapted plant cultivation protocols to the conditions and materials at hand in their own laboratory and growth facilities. Here I will provide a guide for growing some of the most frequently used plant species for research, i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rice (Oryza sativa). However, the methods presented can be used for other plant species as well, especially if they are related to the above-mentioned species. The presented methods include growing plants in soil, hydroponics, and in vitro on plates. This guide is intended as a starting point for those who are just beginning to work on any of the above-mentioned plant species. Methods presented are to be taken as suggestive and modification can be made according to the conditions existing in the host laboratory.

  19. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  20. The language of plants.

    PubMed

    McGovern, T W

    1999-03-01

    Precise identification of plants requires consistent use of a well-established binomial nomenclature. This review highlights the basis for the systematic method of naming plants, the importance of its use, and the reasons for nomenclature changes over time. Furthermore, it provides practical tips for the identification of specific plants in the course of managing patients with suspected plant-induced contact dermatitis. PMID:10072341

  1. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  2. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  3. Plant or Animal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  4. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  5. Cycling Through Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Children notice seeds and plants every day. But do they really understand what seeds are and how they are related to plants? Have they ever observed what is inside the seed? What happens to the "things" inside a seed when it grows? What do plants need to grow, and what do they need to stay healthy? Through a sequence of three related learning…

  6. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Living things respond to a stimulus, which is a change in the surroundings. Some common stimuli are noises, smells, and things the people see or feel, such as a change in temperature. Animals often respond to a stimulus by moving. Because plants can't move around in the same way animals do, plants have to respond in a different way. Plants can…

  7. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  8. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  9. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  10. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    PubMed

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  11. Steroid plant hormones: effects outside plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Zhabinskii, Vladimir N; Khripach, Natalia B; Khripach, Vladimir A

    2015-05-01

    Brassinosteroids (BS) are the first group of steroid-hormonal compounds isolated from and acting in plants. Among numerous physiological effects of BS growth stimulation and adaptogenic activities are especially remarkable. In this review, we provide evidence that BS possess similar types of activity also beyond plant kingdom at concentrations comparable with those for plants. This finding allows looking at steroids from a new point of view: how common are the mechanisms of steroid bioregulation in different types of organisms from protozoa to higher animals.

  12. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. Outsourcing meets expanded plant`s requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.E.

    1997-03-01

    This article describes a system provided and operated by outside contractor that converts treated sewage water to high-purity makeup for expanded gas-turbine plant with minimal environmental impact. Florida Power Corp. (FPC), St. Petersburg, Fla., faced various challenges when planning to expand the Intercession City gas-turbine plant located near Kissimmee, Fla. One challenge was dealing with water for NO{sub x} emissions reduction supplied from the Kissimmee sanitary sewage treatment plant. Another was to minimize or eliminate wastewater generated by chemical cleaning of the reverse-osmosis (RO) system envisioned for the plant. Because of the substantial capital investment needed to meet these challenges, FPC outsourced the design, construction, and operation of the water treatment system to Ecolochem Inc., Norfolk, VA. After three years of operation, the system is meeting all design requirements and is saving the utility about $250,000/yr.

  14. Genomics and plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Aljanabi, S

    2001-01-01

    Much of our most basic understanding of genetics has its roots in plant genetics and crop breeding. The study of plants has led to important insights into highly conserved biological process and a wealth of knowledge about development. Agriculture is now well positioned to take its share benefit from genomics. The primary sequences of most plant genes will be determined over the next few years. Informatics and functional genomics will help identify those genes that can be best utilized to crop production and quality through genetic engineering and plant breeding. Recent developments in plant genomics are reviewed.

  15. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  16. Prep plant population rebounds

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2005-10-01

    Demand and higher prices allows more operators to build and upgrade plants. The 2005 US Prep Plant Census found that the number of coal preparation plants has grown from 212 to 265 in five years - a 53 plant gain or a 20% increase over that reported by Coal Age in 2000. The number of bituminous coal washing facilities grew by 43 to 250. The article discusses the survey and the companies involved and presents a table giving key details of plants arranged by state. 6 tabs.

  17. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  18. Bumper transgenic plant crop

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1991-07-05

    Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

  19. Plant life management

    SciTech Connect

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad.

  20. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories.

  1. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  2. Aquaporins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Maurel, Christophe; Boursiac, Yann; Luu, Doan-Trung; Santoni, Véronique; Shahzad, Zaigham; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants.

  3. Pharming and transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Liénard, David; Sourrouille, Christophe; Gomord, Véronique; Faye, Loïc

    2007-01-01

    Plant represented the essence of pharmacopoeia until the beginning of the 19th century when plant-derived pharmaceuticals were partly supplanted by drugs produced by the industrial methods of chemical synthesis. In the last decades, genetic engineering has offered an alternative to chemical synthesis, using bacteria, yeasts and animal cells as factories for the production of therapeutic proteins. More recently, molecular farming has rapidly pushed towards plants among the major players in recombinant protein production systems. Indeed, therapeutic protein production is safe and extremely cost-effective in plants. Unlike microbial fermentation, plants are capable of carrying out post-translational modifications and, unlike production systems based on mammalian cell cultures, plants are devoid of human infective viruses and prions. Furthermore, a large panel of strategies and new plant expression systems are currently developed to improve the plant-made pharmaceutical's yields and quality. Recent advances in the control of post-translational maturations in transgenic plants will allow them, in the near future, to perform human-like maturations on recombinant proteins and, hence, make plant expression systems suitable alternatives to animal cell factories. PMID:17875476

  4. Toxic proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed.

  5. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  6. Plant synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  7. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  8. Hallucinogenic plants of abuse.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Nicola

    2008-04-01

    Man has used hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms for centuries. The characteristics of these plants that led to their incorporation into important ritualistic and spiritual traditions, however, have also resulted in their widespread propagation and abuse. Hallucinogenic plants have long been depicted as innocuous substances, yet their unpredictable nature makes intoxication potentially dangerous. In present-day society, there is greater access to these drugs and a growing trend among the younger generations to experiment with these plants in a recreational fashion. Emergency physicians need to be aware of the potential sources of plant hallucinogens and the spectrum of toxic effects. A review of the more common hallucinogenic plants and fungi is discussed with reference to historical, pharmacological and clinical aspects of these intoxications.

  9. [Genetic engineering in plants].

    PubMed

    Demarly, Y

    1992-11-01

    Until recent years, plant genetic was involved in heredity studies through the analysis of segregations in progenies after crossing. New potentiality arose as genetic tools with the use of dissociated plant elements, transforming and cultivating them in vitro. When plants are regenerated from manipulated tissues, new structures of varieties (clones) new genotypes (transgenic plants) and new regulations of genes expression (vitrovariants) open new ways for plant genetic engineering. Progressively these technological tools are integrated in the methods of plant breeding. Yet all possible consequences of these new types of heredity and of these new genetic structures must be evaluated. As first priority the analysis of possible incidences in the field of food, nutrition and health gives the basis for diagnostics and organisations aiming to avoid the release of genotypes which could have unwanted effects.

  10. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  11. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  12. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  13. Plant Productivity and ESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, V.; Drysdale, A.; Bartsev, S.; Wheeler, R.; Fowler, P.

    An approach for relating Plant Productivity (PP) and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) has been formulated. On this basis, possible reductions of ESM have been analyzed in relation to:-the general mission scenario;-the physiology and cultivation of mixed plant crops;-natural and modified environmental conditions for plant cultivation;-benefits of management approaches;-degree of closure of the artificial support system;-improved plant chamber design. This approach is applied to estimates of minimal ESM for Martian Deployable Greenhouse (MDG).

  14. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  15. Modeling plant morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle

    2006-02-01

    Applications of computational techniques to developmental plant biology include the processing of experimental data and the construction of simulation models. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past few years. Complex image-processing techniques are used to integrate sequences of two-dimensional images into three-dimensional descriptions of development over time and to extract useful quantitative traits. Large amounts of data are integrated into empirical models of developing plant organs and entire plants. Mechanistic models link molecular-level phenomena with the resulting phenotypes. Several models shed light on the possible properties of active auxin transport and its role in plant morphogenesis. PMID:16376602

  16. Modeling plant morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle

    2006-02-01

    Applications of computational techniques to developmental plant biology include the processing of experimental data and the construction of simulation models. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past few years. Complex image-processing techniques are used to integrate sequences of two-dimensional images into three-dimensional descriptions of development over time and to extract useful quantitative traits. Large amounts of data are integrated into empirical models of developing plant organs and entire plants. Mechanistic models link molecular-level phenomena with the resulting phenotypes. Several models shed light on the possible properties of active auxin transport and its role in plant morphogenesis.

  17. Oil from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, M.

    1983-01-01

    As a result of the exhaustion of our supplies of ancient photosynthesis (oil and gas) it is necessary to develop renewable fuels for the future. The most immediate source of renewable fuel is, of course, the annually growing green plants, some of which produce hydrocarbon(s) directly. New plant sources can be selected for this purpose, plants which have high potential for production of chemicals and liquid fuels. Suggestions are made for modification of both the product character and the productivity of the plants. Ultimately, a totally synthetic device will be developed for the conversion of solar quanta into useful chemical form completely independent of the need for arable land.

  18. Pilot plant becomes demonstration plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.

  19. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  20. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... eating parts of the plant or from the plant touching the eye include: Burning in the mouth or throat Damage to the outer clear layer (cornea) of the eye Diarrhea Eye pain Hoarse ... may be severe enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing.

  1. Ocean thermal plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Modular Ocean Thermal-Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant permits vital component research and testing and serves as operational generator for 100 megawatts of electric power. Construction permits evaporators and condensers to be tested in same environment in which they will be used, and could result in design specifications for most efficient plant facilities in future.

  2. Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1982-01-01

    Some simple field investigations on plant water relations are described which demonstrate links between physiological and external environmental factors. In this way, a more complex picture of a plant and how it functions within its habitat and the effects the environment has on it can be built up. (Author/JN)

  3. Plants Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    This study quide is intended to provide students with information about the types and functions of plants, along with some individual learning activities. The guide contains sections about: (1) the contributions of plants to life on earth and the benefits they afford to humanity; (2) the processes of photosynthesis and respiration; (3) the flow of…

  4. Kashaya Pomo Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Jennie; And Others

    The monograph describes more than 200 plants growing within the approximately 300 square miles of the original land of the Kashaya Pomo Indians, which lies along the coast of Sonoma County, California. An introduction provides information on the plant communities represented (redwood forest, mixed evergreen forest, oak woodland, Douglas fir…

  5. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  6. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  7. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  8. Plant names and classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter updates one of the same title from Edition 12 of Stearn’s Introductory Biology published in 2011. It reviews binomial nomenclature, discusses three codes of plant nomenclature (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

  9. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOEpatents

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  10. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  11. Overview of plant pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    PubMed

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  13. Plant pathogen resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  14. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  15. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations.

  16. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  17. Stress detection in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How can the status of plant stress be measured rapidly and accurately in the hundreds of trees managed within a commercial orchard? Two technologies have been developed over the past two decades that will provide useful information to detect plant stress in orchard systems: 1) Reflectance of visibl...

  18. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  19. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  20. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  1. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  2. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  3. Better Plants Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  4. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  5. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations. PMID:6559112

  6. Plant Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    Appropriate for secondary school botany instruction, this study guide focuses on the important roles of plants in human lives. Following a rationale for learning the basic skills of a botanist, separate sections discuss the process sunlight undergoes during photosynthesis, the flow of energy in the food chain, alternative plant lifestyles, plant…

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  9. Plant plastid engineering.

    PubMed

    Wani, Shabir H; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B

    2010-11-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation.

  10. Plant performance enhancement program

    SciTech Connect

    Munchausen, J.H.

    1995-09-01

    The Plant Performance Enhancement Program (P{sup 2}EP), an initiative of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), responds to strong industry incentives to improve nuclear plant thermal efficiency and electrical output. Launched by EPRI`s Nuclear Power Division, P{sup 2}EP operates within the purview of the Plant Support Engineering (PSE) Program, with day-to-day activities conducted out of the P{sup 2}EP office headquartered at EPRI`s facility in Charlotte, North Carolina. This alignment is consistent with EPFU`s strategic targets in support of industry goals, keeping P{sup 2}EP`s mission in clear focus: Helping utility thermal performance engineers improve the heat rate of nuclear power plants, thereby increasing unit average capacity and reducing plant operations and maintenance costs per kilowatt-hour.

  11. Plants on the move

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Livia Camilla Trevisan; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2011-01-01

    One may think that plants seem relatively immobile. Nevertheless, plants not only produce movement but these movements can be quite rapid such as the closing traps of carnivorous plants, the folding up of leaflets in some Leguminosae species and the movement of floral organs in order to increase cross pollination. We focus this review on thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements, both in vegetative and reproductive parts of higher plants. Ultrastructural studies revealed that most thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements are caused by differentially changing cell turgor within a given tissue. Auxin has emerged as a key molecule that modulates proton extrusion and thus causing changes in cell turgor by enhancing the activity of H+ATPase in cell membranes. Finding conserved molecules and/or operational molecular modules among diverse types of movements would help us to find universal mechanisms controlling movements in plants and thus improve our understanding about the evolution of such phenomena. PMID:22231201

  12. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  13. Plant plastid engineering.

    PubMed

    Wani, Shabir H; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N B

    2010-11-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation. PMID:21532834

  14. Exploiting plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Schläger, Sabrina; Dräger, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants have been used for medicine since ancient times. Modern pharmaceuticals still rely on alkaloid extraction from plants, some of which grow slowly, are difficult to cultivate and produce low alkaloid yields. Microbial cells as alternative alkaloid production systems are emerging. Before industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts, several steps have to be taken. Original alkaloid-forming enzymes have to be elucidated from plants. Their activity in the heterologous host cells, however, may be low. The exchange of individual plant enzymes for alternative catalysts with better performance and optimal fermentation parameters appear promising. The overall aim is enhancement and stabilization of alkaloid yields from microbes in order to replace the tedious extraction of low alkaloid concentrations from intact plants.

  15. Plant secretome proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Alexandersson, Erik; Ali, Ashfaq; Resjö, Svante; Andreasson, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The plant secretome refers to the set of proteins secreted out of the plant cell into the surrounding extracellular space commonly referred to as the apoplast. Secreted proteins maintain cell structure and acts in signaling and are crucial for stress responses where they can interact with pathogen effectors and control the extracellular environment. Typically, secreted proteins contain an N-terminal signal peptide and are directed through the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. However, in plants many proteins found in the secretome lack such a signature and might follow alternative ways of secretion. This review covers techniques to isolate plant secretomes and how to identify and quantify their constituent proteins. Furthermore, bioinformatical tools to predict secretion signals and define the putative secretome are presented. Findings from proteomic studies and important protein families of plant secretomes, such as proteases and hydrolases, are highlighted. PMID:23378846

  16. Plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond; Levine, Howard G.; Paul, Anna Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Virtually all scenarios for the long-term habitation of spacecraft and other extraterrestrial structures involve plants as important parts of the contained environment that would support humans. Recent experiments have identified several effects of spaceflight on plants that will need to be more fully understood before plant-based life support can become a reality. The International Space Station (ISS) is the focus for the newest phase of space-based research, which should solve some of the mysteries of how spaceflight affects plant growth. Research carried out on the ISS and in the proposed terrestrial facility for Advanced Life Support testing will bring the requirements for establishing extraterrestrial plant-based life support systems into clearer focus.

  17. Exploiting plant alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Schläger, Sabrina; Dräger, Birgit

    2016-02-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants have been used for medicine since ancient times. Modern pharmaceuticals still rely on alkaloid extraction from plants, some of which grow slowly, are difficult to cultivate and produce low alkaloid yields. Microbial cells as alternative alkaloid production systems are emerging. Before industrial application of genetically engineered bacteria and yeasts, several steps have to be taken. Original alkaloid-forming enzymes have to be elucidated from plants. Their activity in the heterologous host cells, however, may be low. The exchange of individual plant enzymes for alternative catalysts with better performance and optimal fermentation parameters appear promising. The overall aim is enhancement and stabilization of alkaloid yields from microbes in order to replace the tedious extraction of low alkaloid concentrations from intact plants. PMID:26748036

  18. Shaping plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  19. Mycoplasma infections of plants.

    PubMed

    Bove, J M

    1981-07-01

    Plants can be infected by two types of wall-less procaryotes, spiroplasmas and mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO), both located intracellularly in the phloem tissues of affected plants. Spiroplasmas have been cultured, characterized and shown to be true members of the class Mollicutes. MLO have not yet been cultured or characterized; they are thought to be mycoplasma-like on the basis of their ultrastructure as seen in situ, their sensitivity to tetracycline and resistance to penicillin. Mycoplasmas can also be found on the surface of plants. These extracellularly located organisms are members of the following genera: Spiroplasma. Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma. The presence of such surface mycoplasmas must not be overlooked when attempts to culture MLO from affected plants are undertaken. Sensitive serological techniques such as the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can successfully be used to compare the MLO located in the phloem of affected plants with those eventually cultured from the same plants. In California and Morocco periwinkles naturally infected with both Spiroplasma citri and MLO have been reported. With such doubly infected plants, the symptom expression has been that characteristic of the MLO disease (phyllody or stolbur), not that given by S. citri. Only S. citri can be cultured from such plants, but this does not indicate that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease expressed by the plant. In California many nonrutaceous plants have been found to be infected with S. citri. Stubborn affected citrus trees represent an important reservoir of S. citri, and Circulifer tenellus is an active leafhopper vector of S. citri. Hence, it is not surprising that in California MLO-infected fruit trees could also become infected with S. citri but it would not mean that S. citri is the causal agent of the disease. Criteria are discussed that are helpful in distinguishing between MLO infections and S. citri infections.

  20. Aquaporins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Maurel, Christophe; Boursiac, Yann; Luu, Doan-Trung; Santoni, Véronique; Shahzad, Zaigham; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants. PMID:26336033

  1. Shaping plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  2. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  3. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  4. 3. PLANT 3 FLOWLINE DEPARTING PLANT 2. THIS SECTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PLANT 3 FLOWLINE DEPARTING PLANT 2. THIS SECTION OF FLOWLINE WAS THE LAST REMAINING OF WOOD-STAVE CONSTRUCTION. ICE ON FLOWLINE DELINEATES LEAKS. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 2, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  5. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  6. Plants as Environmental Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, Don Rufus A

    2006-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all plants to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, plants generate various types of intracellular and intercellular electrical signals mostly in the form of action and variation potentials in response to these environmental changes. However, over a long period, only certain plants with rapid and highly noticeable responses for environmental stresses have received much attention from plant scientists. Of particular interest to our recent studies on ultra fast action potential measurements in green plants, we discuss in this review the evidence supporting the foundation for utilizing green plants as fast biosensors for molecular recognition of the direction of light, monitoring the environment, and detecting the insect attacks as well as the effects of pesticides, defoliants, uncouplers, and heavy metal pollutants. PMID:19521490

  7. Plants and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karminskiy, V.; Tarkhanovskiy, V.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of two plants, wall cress and short-day red goosefoot, was traced for their entire lifetime in weightlessness. In the beginning both plants grew normally: the seeds sprouted in the normal periods, and the shoots did not differ in any way from the control plants. It is true that certain roots lost their normal orientation and did not go deeper into the nutrient medium, but rather crept over its surface. But then both the wall cress and the goosefoot slowed down their normal rate of growth, which became noticeable from the rate of formation of new leaves in the wall cress and stem development in the goosefoot. Although no disorders were successfully found in the morphology of the two plants, almost half of the experimental cress and goosefoot plants ceased growth completely, yellowed and died. The other part continued to develop normally and by the end of vegetation, differed from the control plants only in a lower height. Not all were fertile since certain experimental plants, after losing spatial orientation, became twisted and produced sterile flowers.

  8. Hierarchies of plant stiffness.

    PubMed

    Brulé, Veronique; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano; Western, Tamara L

    2016-09-01

    Plants must meet mechanical as well as physiological and reproductive requirements for survival. Management of internal and external stresses is achieved through their unique hierarchical architecture. Stiffness is determined by a combination of morphological (geometrical) and compositional variables that vary across multiple length scales ranging from the whole plant to organ, tissue, cell and cell wall levels. These parameters include, among others, organ diameter, tissue organization, cell size, density and turgor pressure, and the thickness and composition of cell walls. These structural parameters and their consequences on plant stiffness are reviewed in the context of work on stems of the genetic reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), and the suitability of Arabidopsis as a model system for consistent investigation of factors controlling plant stiffness is put forward. Moving beyond Arabidopsis, the presence of morphological parameters causing stiffness gradients across length-scales leads to beneficial emergent properties such as increased load-bearing capacity and reversible actuation. Tailoring of plant stiffness for old and new purposes in agriculture and forestry can be achieved through bioengineering based on the knowledge of the morphological and compositional parameters of plant stiffness in combination with gene identification through the use of genetics.

  9. Cytoskeleton and plant organogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Benedikt; Bao, Yi-Qun; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2002-01-01

    The functions of microtubules and actin filaments during various processes that are essential for the growth, reproduction and survival of single plant cells have been well characterized. A large number of plant structural cytoskeletal or cytoskeleton-associated proteins, as well as genes encoding such proteins, have been identified. Although many of these genes and proteins have been partially characterized with respect to their functions, a coherent picture of how they interact to execute cytoskeletal functions in plant cells has yet to emerge. Cytoskeleton-controlled cellular processes are expected to play crucial roles during plant cell differentiation and organogenesis, but what exactly these roles are has only been investigated in a limited number of studies in the whole plant context. The intent of this review is to discuss the results of these studies in the light of what is known about the cellular functions of the plant cytoskeleton, and about the proteins and genes that are required for them. Directions are outlined for future work to advance our understanding of how the cytoskeleton contributes to plant organogenesis and development. PMID:12079673

  10. Hierarchies of plant stiffness.

    PubMed

    Brulé, Veronique; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano; Western, Tamara L

    2016-09-01

    Plants must meet mechanical as well as physiological and reproductive requirements for survival. Management of internal and external stresses is achieved through their unique hierarchical architecture. Stiffness is determined by a combination of morphological (geometrical) and compositional variables that vary across multiple length scales ranging from the whole plant to organ, tissue, cell and cell wall levels. These parameters include, among others, organ diameter, tissue organization, cell size, density and turgor pressure, and the thickness and composition of cell walls. These structural parameters and their consequences on plant stiffness are reviewed in the context of work on stems of the genetic reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), and the suitability of Arabidopsis as a model system for consistent investigation of factors controlling plant stiffness is put forward. Moving beyond Arabidopsis, the presence of morphological parameters causing stiffness gradients across length-scales leads to beneficial emergent properties such as increased load-bearing capacity and reversible actuation. Tailoring of plant stiffness for old and new purposes in agriculture and forestry can be achieved through bioengineering based on the knowledge of the morphological and compositional parameters of plant stiffness in combination with gene identification through the use of genetics. PMID:27457986

  11. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned.

  12. Plant perceptions of plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gail M

    2004-01-01

    Plant-associated Pseudomonas live as saprophytes and parasites on plant surfaces and inside plant tissues. Many plant-associated Pseudomonas promote plant growth by suppressing pathogenic micro-organisms, synthesizing growth-stimulating plant hormones and promoting increased plant disease resistance. Others inhibit plant growth and cause disease symptoms ranging from rot and necrosis through to developmental dystrophies such as galls. It is not easy to draw a clear distinction between pathogenic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas. They colonize the same ecological niches and possess similar mechanisms for plant colonization. Pathogenic, saprophytic and plant growth-promoting strains are often found within the same species, and the incidence and severity of Pseudomonas diseases are affected by environmental factors and host-specific interactions. Plants are faced with the challenge of how to recognize and exclude pathogens that pose a genuine threat, while tolerating more benign organisms. This review examines Pseudomonas from a plant perspective, focusing in particular on the question of how plants perceive and are affected by saprophytic and plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas (PGPP), in contrast to their interactions with plant pathogenic Pseudomonas. A better understanding of the molecular basis of plant-PGPP interactions and of the key differences between pathogens and PGPP will enable researchers to make more informed decisions in designing integrated disease-control strategies and in selecting, modifying and using PGPP for plant growth promotion, bioremediation and biocontrol. PMID:15306406

  13. [Methanol metabolism in plants].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, S S; Zolotar'ova, O K

    2011-01-01

    Methabolism of methanol in plant organisms is considered in the paper. Enzymes of consecutive oxidation of methanol and enzymes responsible for incorporation of carbon from methanol molecule to methyl groups of phospholipids, carboxylic acids and carbohydrates have been described. The peculiarity of plant organisms is in interaction of reactions of methanol transformation with pathways of photorespiration and C1-metabolism and in the capacity to use methanol carbon to form organic matter through photosynthesis. The inclusion of methanol metabolites in anabolic processes occurs at the level of formaldehyde and formiate. As a result, exogenous methanol at low concentrations can stimulate the photosynthetic efficiency of plants.

  14. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Casagrande, F.

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  15. TOR signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants.

  16. Plant genomics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Campos-de Quiroz, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to extract biological meaning from DNA data. Although genomic issuesare addressed from a plant perspective, this review provides insights into the genomic analyses of other organisms. PMID:12462991

  17. Our World: Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how plants use light to make their own food in a process called photosynthesis. See how NASA uses LED lights to help grow plants in space. Design your own plant growth chamber like the one...

  18. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  19. These Plants Have Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Brian

    1995-01-01

    Describes a learning-cycle approach to teach a lesson exploring the biotic potential of plants. Discusses the phases of learning: exploration, concept invention, and application. Lists five resources. (JRH)

  20. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  1. The Plant Population Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Results achieved by researchers in the field of genetic plant engineering are described. However, it is believed that if their efforts were more decentralized, more farmers, especially in developing countries, could benefit and substantial advances made in production. (BL)

  2. Plant protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. PMID:26911286

  3. Memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  4. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  5. Plant Growth Facility (PGF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  6. Desalination Plant Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J. V.

    1992-10-01

    MSF21 and VTE21 perform design and costing calculations for multistage flash evaporator (MSF) and multieffect vertical tube evaporator (VTE) desalination plants. An optimization capability is available, if desired. The MSF plant consists of a recovery section, reject section, brine heater, and associated buildings and equipment. Operating costs and direct and indirect capital costs for plant, buildings, site, and intakes are calculated. Computations are based on the first and last stages of each section and a typical middle recovery stage. As a result, the program runs rapidly but does not give stage by stage parameters. The VTE plant consists of vertical tube effects, multistage flash preheater, condenser, and brine heater and associated buildings and equipment. Design computations are done for each vertical tube effect, but preheater computations are based on the first and last stages and a typical middle stage.

  7. [Tumor formation in plants].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, T V; Lutova, L A; Nester, Iu

    2001-09-01

    The data on genetic tumors in plant species and interspecific hybrids, as well as the problems of Agrobacterium-induced tumors are reviewed. The role of the horizontal gene transfer in the induction of genetic tumors is discussed. PMID:11642121

  8. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  9. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  10. Education Highlights: Plant Health

    ScienceCinema

    Michaels, Michelle; Cook, David

    2016-07-12

    Argonne intern Michelle Michaels from Oakland Community College worked with Argonne mentor David Cook in studying trends in plant health. This research will help farmers determine crop yield during the growing season.

  11. Environments for Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

  12. Poison plants (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to sunlight, or by poor circulation, even stress. An example of contact dermatitis is the reaction of a sensitive person's skin to poison ivy, oak or sumac. Contact with these plants, which contain a chemical called urushiol, produces an ...

  13. Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  14. Roots in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Cody, M L

    1986-09-01

    In 1727 the pioneer vegetation scientist Stephen Hales realized that I much that was of importance to his subject material took place below on ground. A good deal of descriptive work on plant roots and root systems was done in the subsequent two centuries; in crop plants especially, the gross morphology of root systems was well known by the early 20th century. These descriptive studies were extended to natural grasslands by Weaver and his associates and to deserts by Cannon by the second decade of this century, but since that time the study of subterranean growth form appears to have lapsed, as a recent review by Kummerow indicates. Nevertheless, growth form is an important aspect of plant ecology, and subterranean growth form is especially relevant to the study of vegetation in and areas (which is the main subject of this commentary). Moreover, there is a real need for more research to be directed towards understanding plant root systems in general. PMID:21227785

  15. Desalination Plant Optimization

    1992-10-01

    MSF21 and VTE21 perform design and costing calculations for multistage flash evaporator (MSF) and multieffect vertical tube evaporator (VTE) desalination plants. An optimization capability is available, if desired. The MSF plant consists of a recovery section, reject section, brine heater, and associated buildings and equipment. Operating costs and direct and indirect capital costs for plant, buildings, site, and intakes are calculated. Computations are based on the first and last stages of each section and amore » typical middle recovery stage. As a result, the program runs rapidly but does not give stage by stage parameters. The VTE plant consists of vertical tube effects, multistage flash preheater, condenser, and brine heater and associated buildings and equipment. Design computations are done for each vertical tube effect, but preheater computations are based on the first and last stages and a typical middle stage.« less

  16. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  17. DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of si

  18. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  19. Selection of Transformed Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  20. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  1. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  2. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  3. Variable plant spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a system for varying the spacings between soybean plants as they grow to maximize the number of plants grown in a given volume. The project was studied to aid in the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The resulting design consists of plant trays which are three dimensional trapezoids arranged into circles in a compact geometrical configuration. These circles are stacked together in back to back pairs to form a long cylinder. In each growth tray, plants will be housed in individual containers containing a nutrient delivery system and a plant support mechanism. Between the containers, a half trellis has been designed to space the plants for maximum space efficiency. The design allows for localized seeding and harvesting mechanisms due to the chambers' geometrical configuration. In addition, the components have been designed for ease of cleaning and minimal maintenance. Next semester, the individual components will be constructed and tested to determine the success of the design.

  4. Detecting Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through an exclusive patent license from NASA Stennis Space Center, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., has developed a hand-held tool that helps farmers, foresters and other growers detect unhealthy crops before the human eye can see the damage. Developed by two NASA researchers, the Observer,TM shows the viewer which plants are under stress through multispectral imaging, a process that uses specific wavelengths of the light spectrum to obtain information about objects-in this case, plants. With this device, several wavelengths of light collect information about the plant and results are immediately processed and displayed. NASA research found that previsible signs of stress, such as such as a lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease, or insect damage, can be detected by measuring the chlorophyll content based on light energy reflected from the plant. The Observer detects stress up to 16 days before deterioration is visible to the eye. Early detection provides an opportunity to reverse stress and save the plant. The hand-held, easily operated unit works in both natural and artificial light, making it suitable for outdoor or indoor planting.

  5. Regulation of transgenic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, C.J. )

    1991-09-04

    Plants modified by recombinant DNA (rDNA) have been known since 1983 when three research teams independently reported the first stable integration of foreign DNA into plant cells and the regeneration of genetically modified plants. By 1987 rDNA-modified crop species were available that warranted field evaluation of traits conferred by the new genes. By the end of 1992 more than 40 species of rDNA-modified food and fiber crops will have been described and almost 600 field tests of rDNA-modified plants will be completed or in progress in more than 20 countries around the world. Many of these tests will involve plants of potential commercial value since they represent genetic improvements in disease or pest resistance, hybridization technologies, or value-added food traits such as nutritional or processing enhancements. The field tests evidence the substantial public and private commitments that have been made to agricultural biotechnology. They also provide tangible proof of very successful technology transfer from basic plant molecular biology laboratories to problem-solving research programs that should help ensure agricultural sufficiency into the next century.

  6. Urea metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency.

  7. Pellet plant energy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  8. Tetraspanin genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2012-07-01

    Tetraspanins represent a four-transmembrane protein superfamily with a conserved structure and amino acid residues that are present in mammals, insects, fungi and plants. Tetraspanins interact with each other or with other membrane proteins to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that play important roles in development, pathogenesis and immune responses via facilitating cell-cell adhesion and fusion, ligand binding and intracellular trafficking. Here, we emphasize evolutionary aspects within the plant kingdom based on genomic sequence information. A phylogenetic tree based on 155 tetraspanin genes of 11 plant species revealed ancient and fast evolving clades. Tetraspanins were only present in multicellular plants, were often duplicated in the plant genomes and predicted by the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph for gene expression analysis to be either functionally redundant or divergent. Tetraspanins contain a large extracellular loop with conserved cysteines that provide the binding sites for the interactions. The Arabidopsis thaliana TETRASPANIN1/TORNADO2/EKEKO has a function in leaf and root patterning and TETRASPANIN3 was identified in the plasmodesmatal proteome, suggesting a role in cell-cell communication during plant development.

  9. Chromium toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Cervantes, Carlos; Loza-Tavera, Herminia; Avudainayagam, S

    2005-07-01

    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Toxicity of Cr to plants depends on its valence state: Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by carriers of essential ions such as sulfate or iron. Toxic effects of Cr on plant growth and development include alterations in the germination process as well as in the growth of roots, stems and leaves, which may affect total dry matter production and yield. Cr also causes deleterious effects on plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, water relations and mineral nutrition. Metabolic alterations by Cr exposure have also been described in plants either by a direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. The potential of plants with the capacity to accumulate or to stabilize Cr compounds for bioremediation of Cr contamination has gained interest in recent years. PMID:15878200

  10. Plant Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Greb, Thomas; Lohmann, Jan U

    2016-09-12

    Among the trending topics in the life sciences, stem cells have received a fair share of attention in the public debate - mostly in connection with their potential for biomedical application and therapies. While the promise of organ regeneration and the end of cancer have captured our imagination, it has gone almost unnoticed that plant stem cells represent the ultimate origin of much of the food we eat, the oxygen we breathe, as well the fuels we burn. Thus, plant stem cells may be ranked among the most important cells for human well-being. Research by many labs in the last decades has uncovered a set of independent stem cell systems that fulfill the specialized needs of plant development and growth in four dimensions. Surprisingly, the cellular and molecular design of these systems is remarkably similar, even across diverse species. In some long-lived plants, such as trees, plant stem cells remain active over hundreds or even thousands of years, revealing the exquisite precision in the underlying control of proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. In this minireview, we introduce the basic features of the three major plant stem cell systems building on these facts, highlight their modular design at the level of cellular layout and regulatory underpinnings and briefly compare them with their animal counterparts. PMID:27623267

  11. Logan generating plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, M.V.

    1995-08-01

    The Logan Generating Plant is a $500 million, 202-megawatt (MW), pulverized-coal cogeneration facility. Its electricity output - enough for 270,000 homes - is sold to Atlantic Electric. It also supplies all of the steam (up to 50,000 pounds per hour) to a nearby Monsanto facility. The plant went into commercial service in September 1994. Currently, the facility employs 62 people. In addition to becoming an active, long-term employer in Logan Township, the plant will help stimulate the local economy for years to come as a consumer of goods and services. In addition, local and state revenues from the Logan plant provide a much needed economic boost. Cogeneration, which is the production of electric power and thermal energy (heat) from a single energy source, provides efficiency benefits in fuel consumption, capital investment and operating costs. Electricity and process steam from the Logan plant helps Monsanto control its energy costs, thus helping it remain competitive. The Logan Generating Plant plays an important role in the economic development of southern New Jersey by providing clean, dependable and competitively priced electricity to Atlantic Electric for resale to its utility customers. The environmental and economic benefits of the facility are discussed.

  12. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

  13. Vision in Plants via Plant-Specific Ocelli?

    PubMed

    Baluška, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Although plants are sessile organisms, almost all of their organs move in space and thus require plant-specific senses to find their proper place with respect to their neighbours. Here we discuss recent studies suggesting that plants are able to sense shapes and colours via plant-specific ocelli. PMID:27491517

  14. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  15. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  16. Electroanalysis of Plant Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Supalkova, Veronika; Huska, Dalibor; Diopan, Vaclav; Hanustiak, Pavel; Zitka, Ondrej; Stejskal, Karel; Baloun, Jiri; Pikula, Jiri; Havel, Ladislav; Zehnalek, Josef; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise wide group of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions of glutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of these compounds and their interactions with cadmium(II) ions and Murashige-Skoog medium is presented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealed the effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM) on cadmium uptake and thiols content in maize plants during 192 hours long experiments using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II) ions and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determine glutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the plants cultivated in nutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition and then the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μM Cd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize plant parts to 96 hours Cd exposition but subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination in treated maize plants after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one plant was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd) in comparison with non-treated plant (control) where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse plant thiols.

  17. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  18. Plants in alpine environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  19. Chemical signaling between plants and plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Vittorio; Fuqua, Clay

    2013-01-01

    Studies of chemical signaling between plants and bacteria in the past have been largely confined to two models: the rhizobial-legume symbiotic association and pathogenesis between agrobacteria and their host plants. Recent studies are beginning to provide evidence that many plant-associated bacteria undergo chemical signaling with the plant host via low-molecular-weight compounds. Plant-produced compounds interact with bacterial regulatory proteins that then affect gene expression. Similarly, bacterial quorum-sensing signals result in a range of functional responses in plants. This review attempts to highlight current knowledge in chemical signaling that takes place between pathogenic bacteria and plants. This chemical communication between plant and bacteria, also referred to as interkingdom signaling, will likely become a major research field in the future, as it allows the design of specific strategies to create plants that are resistant to plant pathogens.

  20. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  1. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  2. Tidal power plants in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Bernshtein, L.B. )

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

  3. Who Needs Plants? Science (Experimental).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropeik, Bernard H.; Kleinman, David Z.

    The basic elective course in introductory botany is designed for secondary students who probably will not continue study in plant science. The objectives of the course are to help the student 1) identify, compare and differentiate types of plants; 2) identify plant cell structures; 3) distinguish between helpful and harmful plants; 4) predict…

  4. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  5. Plant based butters.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Kalyani; Balasubramanian, S; Chandra, Pitam

    2015-07-01

    During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described. PMID:26139864

  6. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  7. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  8. Energy efficient desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    An energy efficient seawater desalination plant, which produces pure distilled water at an operating cost 30 to 90 percent lower than that of other desalination plants, and which is large enough to serve a city of at least 55,000, has been constructed in Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. The St. Thomas plant consists of two units, each capable of producing up to 1.45 million gallons of water per day, nearly 16 percent more than specifications. A third identical unit is located on St. Croix. The three units were designed and built by Israel Desalination Engineering (IDE), of Tel-Aviv, at a total cost of $15 million. They are located next to generating units which supply low grade (low pressure) steam for the desalting operation. Both the generating and desalination units belong to the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority. The plants are low temperature operation (70/sup 0/C) which allows use of low grade or spent steam from the power plant. The cost of such low pressure steam is lower than the cost of high pressure steam or electric power required by other desalination processes. Low temperature operation has other advantages. It reduces problems of corrosion and scale formation and allows the use of totally non-corrosive plastic tubing and large low cost aluminum alloy heat transfer surfaces.

  9. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  10. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642

  11. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  12. Calcium in Plants

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, PHILIP J.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter‐cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental challenges. This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of different plants for Ca, and how this impacts on natural flora and the Ca content of crops. It also reviews recent work on (a) the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across cellular membranes, (b) understanding the origins and specificity of [Ca2+]cyt signals and (c) characterizing the cellular [Ca2+]cyt‐sensors (such as calmodulin, calcineurin B‐like proteins and calcium‐dependent protein kinases) that allow plant cells to respond appropriately to [Ca2+]cyt signals. PMID:12933363

  13. Domestication and plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  14. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  15. Arsenite transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Ali, Waqar; Isayenkov, Stanislav V; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Maathuis, Frans J M

    2009-07-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid which is toxic to living organisms. Natural occurrence of arsenic and human activities have led to widespread contamination in many areas of the world, exposing a large section of the human population to potential arsenic poisoning. Arsenic intake can occur through consumption of contaminated crops and it is therefore important to understand the mechanisms of transport, metabolism and tolerance that plants display in response to arsenic. Plants are mainly exposed to the inorganic forms of arsenic, arsenate and arsenite. Recently, significant progress has been made in the identification and characterisation of proteins responsible for movement of arsenite into and within plants. Aquaporins of the NIP (nodulin26-like intrinsic protein) subfamily were shown to transport arsenite in planta and in heterologous systems. In this review, we will evaluate the implications of these new findings and assess how this may help in developing safer and more tolerant crops.

  16. Trehalose metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Lunn, John Edward; Delorge, Ines; Figueroa, Carlos María; Van Dijck, Patrick; Stitt, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Trehalose is a quantitatively important compatible solute and stress protectant in many organisms, including green algae and primitive plants. These functions have largely been replaced by sucrose in vascular plants, and trehalose metabolism has taken on new roles. Trehalose is a potential signal metabolite in plant interactions with pathogenic or symbiotic micro-organisms and herbivorous insects. It is also implicated in responses to cold and salinity, and in regulation of stomatal conductance and water-use efficiency. In plants, as in other eukaryotes and many prokaryotes, trehalose is synthesized via a phosphorylated intermediate, trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P). A meta-analysis revealed that the levels of Tre6P change in parallel with sucrose, which is the major product of photosynthesis and the main transport sugar in plants. We propose the existence of a bi-directional network, in which Tre6P is a signal of sucrose availability and acts to maintain sucrose concentrations within an appropriate range. Tre6P influences the relative amounts of sucrose and starch that accumulate in leaves during the day, and regulates the rate of starch degradation at night to match the demand for sucrose. Mutants in Tre6P metabolism have highly pleiotropic phenotypes, showing defects in embryogenesis, leaf growth, flowering, inflorescence branching and seed set. It has been proposed that Tre6P influences plant growth and development via inhibition of the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK1). However, current models conflict with some experimental data, and do not completely explain the pleiotropic phenotypes exhibited by mutants in Tre6P metabolism. Additional explanations for the diverse effects of alterations in Tre6P metabolism are discussed.

  17. Expander plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Expander plant design is iterative. In order to calculate an answer it is necessary to have an answer to start with. Consequently, the starting point for a final design is a function of the experience level of the designer and his personal preference. This paper assumes that the designer has no experience in expander plant design and concentrates on providing methods for assuming an answer that will be close enough to the final answer that the design can be done with a minimum number of iterations. For illustration, several typical process designs are presented.

  18. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  19. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    PubMed

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions.

  20. Orgenic plants: gene-manipulated plants compatible with organic farming.

    PubMed

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2012-11-01

    Based on recent advances in plant gene technology, I propose to develop a new category of GM plants, orgenic plants, that are compatible with organic farming. These orgenic plants do not contain herbicide resistance genes to avoid herbicide application in agriculture. Furthermore, they either contain genes that are naturally exchanged between species, or are sterile to avoid outcrossing if they received a transgene from a different species. These GM plants are likely to be acceptable to most skeptics of GM plants and facilitate the use of innovative new crops.

  1. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  2. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions.

  3. Plants and Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsell, Eric; Hug, J. William

    2007-01-01

    Investigations with Wisconsin Fast Plants can make the subject matter come alive...or dead, depending on the experimental treatment. This became apparent when a university-based teacher educator and a fifth-grade teacher collaborated on a professional development experience aimed at increasing understanding of how science inquiry could be used…

  4. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  5. Wanted: Schoolyard Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for studying weeds in grades four through nine. "Wanted" posters are prepared with the scientific name of a common weed and a few identifying features. Students find the plant, give it an "alias" or common name, and then draw the "wanted" picture. Presents six wanted posters and describes expansion lessons and follow-up…

  6. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  7. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  8. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  9. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  10. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. PMID:27105933

  11. Diagnosing Physical Plant Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, B. P.; Smith, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a survey designed to help administrators evaluate functional aspects, adequacy of employee work areas, quality of housekeeping methods, maintenance response, interior and exterior appearances, alteration and renovation satisfaction, employee feelings about parking adequacy, plant security, and attraction and function of roads and…

  12. Plant biochemistry course, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides a brief description of a summer lecture course on metabolic pathways and regulation of flow through these pathways in plants. Descriptions of the 1992 course held at La Jolla,Ca; 1993 course held in Madison, Wis, and plans for the 1994 course projected for East Lansing, MI.

  13. Microgravity Plant Growth Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two visitors watch a TV monitor showing plant growth inside a growth chamber designed for operation aboard the Space Shuttle as part of NASA's Space Product Development program. The exhibit, featuring work by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, was at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  14. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  15. Aquatic plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Twelve fact sheets are presented which cover different forms of aquatic plant management in Guntersville Reservoir. These cover the introduction of grass carp and other biological controls, drawdown of reservoir water, herbicide use, harvesting, impacts on recreational uses, and other issues of concern. (SM)

  16. PLANTS OF RAMAYANA*

    PubMed Central

    Balapure, K. M.; Maheshwari, J. K.; Tandon, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The article presents a list of plants mentioned in Ramayana one of the two great epics of this country which has been compiled and the probable equivalent botanical names have been fixed. This study will be useful to the botanists, palaeo – botanists, ethonobotanists, foresters, naturalists and environmentalists as well. PMID:22557592

  17. Plants of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on plants of the desert, including various adaptations for life with limited water supplies. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. A ready-to-copy student worksheet is included. (DH)

  18. Rethinking Tree Planting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henry

    1994-01-01

    This author contends that observing and understanding natural succession is far more valuable to students than memories of planting lonely seedlings in a schoolyard. An approach that provides a richer experience using an holistic approach to habitat restoration is explored. (LZ)

  19. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  20. Plant Life without Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    We propose that the ability to synthesize ethylene was selectively lost in evolution when the ancestors of fully aquatic higher plants lost their terrestrial lifestyle. We suggest that there has been negative selection on ethylene in these submerged species because it might interfere with growth in permanently deluged environments.

  1. T Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-27

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  2. Apical Dominance in Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, D. J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a tentative hypothesis for the control of plant branching (apical dominance). Explores the mechanism by which apical buds inhibit the growth of axillary buds on the same shoot. Presents an up-to-date picture of the problem and gives economic implications of the study. (BR)

  3. Herbicides and plant hormesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide hormesis is commonly observed at sub-toxic doses of herbicides and other phytotoxins. The occurrence and magnitude of this phenomenon is influenced by plant growth stage and physiological status, environmental factors, the endpoint measured, and the timing between treatment and endpoint me...

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  5. Peru, People and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  6. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  7. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  8. Tetrapyrrole Signaling in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Tetrapyrroles make critical contributions to a number of important processes in diverse organisms. In plants, tetrapyrroles are essential for light signaling, the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, the assimilation of nitrate and sulfate, respiration, photosynthesis, and programed cell death. The misregulation of tetrapyrrole metabolism can produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is not surprising that tetrapyrrole metabolism is strictly regulated and that tetrapyrrole metabolism affects signaling mechanisms that regulate gene expression. In plants and algae, tetrapyrroles are synthesized in plastids and were some of the first plastid signals demonstrated to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plants, the mechanism of tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling remains poorly understood. Additionally, some of experiments that tested ideas for possible signaling mechanisms appeared to produce conflicting data. In some instances, these conflicts are potentially explained by different experimental conditions. Although the biological function of tetrapyrrole signaling is poorly understood, there is compelling evidence that this signaling is significant. Specifically, this signaling appears to affect the accumulation of starch and may promote abiotic stress tolerance. Tetrapyrrole-dependent plastid-to-nucleus signaling interacts with a distinct plastid-to-nucleus signaling mechanism that depends on GENOMES UNCUOPLED1 (GUN1). GUN1 contributes to a variety of processes, such as chloroplast biogenesis, the circadian rhythm, abiotic stress tolerance, and development. Thus, the contribution of tetrapyrrole signaling to plant function is potentially broader than we currently appreciate. In this review, I discuss these aspects of tetrapyrrole signaling. PMID:27807442

  9. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  10. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  11. Salinity and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsford, Simon; Meredith, Steve; Munday, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents science activities that mirror real life issues relating to plants and sustainability. Describes how to turn seed growing activities into an environmental simulation. Discusses the advantages of cross-curriculum learning opportunities. Includes student references and notes for teachers. (KHR)

  12. Planting for Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chad P.; Decker, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Songbirds and small mammals can be encouraged to visit and live in residential yards if structures such as bird feeders and birdbaths are provided and if vegetation is planted to provide basic requirements of wildlife habitat. Examples and instructions are provided. (RE)

  13. Evolution of plant senescence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Howard; Huang, Lin; Young, Mike; Ougham, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic characteristics of senescence

  14. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant–parasite interactions. PMID:26322059

  15. Plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-06-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  16. Autophagy in plants and phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kohki; Takano, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Plants and plant-associated microorganisms including phytopathogens have to adapt to drastic changes in environmental conditions. Because of their immobility, plants must cope with various types of environmental stresses such as starvation, oxidative stress, drought stress, and invasion by phytopathogens during their differentiation, development, and aging processes. Here we briefly describe the early studies of plant autophagy, summarize recent studies on the molecular functions of ATG genes, and speculate on the role of autophagy in plants and phytopathogens. Autophagy regulates senescence and pathogen-induced cell death in plants, and autophagy and pexophagy play critical roles in differentiation and the invasion of host cells by phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:20079356

  17. Top 10 Plant Viruses in Molecular Plant Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientific and economic importance were used to rank plant viruses to indicate the Top 10. Each virus is discussed to open debate and conversation within and beyond the plant virology community as new pathogens come and go in importance....

  18. Curvilinear effects of invasive plants on plant diversity: plant community invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants.

  19. Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  20. Curvilinear effects of invasive plants on plant diversity: plant community invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata.

    PubMed

    Qi, Shan-Shan; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856