Science.gov

Sample records for plant steels final

  1. Fact Sheet - Final Air Toxics Rule for Steel Pickling and HCI Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact Sheet summarizing the main points of the national emssions standard for hazaradous air pollutants (NESHAP) for Steel Pickling— HCl Process Facilities and Hydrochloric Acid Regeneration Plants as promulgated on June 22, 1999.

  2. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  4. 38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, BOILERS UNDER CONSTRUCTION IN BOILER PLANT LOCATED EAST OF MAIN STEEL PLANT, 1909. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  5. In plant demonstration of high temperature EM pulser and pulsed EMAT receiver: Final report: Experimental development and testing of ultrasonic system for high temperature applications on hot steel

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, D.M.; Sperline, P.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report describes work performed under the Field Work Proposal on the ''In-Plant Demonstration of a High-Temperature EM Pulser and pulsed EMAT Receiver'' for the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Programs. Cost sharing by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) helped provide both technical guidance and equipment for the plant demonstration. This report covers the time period from January 1988 through September 1988.

  6. 30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HEARTH FURNACE CHARGING CREW, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Colletion, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  7. Optimisation of the steel plant dust recycling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Darius-Alexandru; Hepuť, Teodor; Puťan, Vasile

    2016-06-01

    The widespread use of oxygen in the EAF steel-making process led to the increase of furnace productivity and reduction of specific energy consumption. Following the increase of the metal bath temperature, the brown smoke exhaust process is intensified, which requires mandatory gas treatment. The steel plant dust resulting from the treatment of waste gases is a manufacturing waste which must be recycled in the steel plant. Due to the fineness of the waste, when conducting the researches we processed it through pelletization. The processing of this waste aims not only its granulometric composition, but also the chemical composition (mainly the zinc content). After processing the data, we choose the optimal waste recycling technology based on the resistance of pellets and final content of zinc.

  8. Creep behavior of modified 9% CrMo cast steel for application in coal-fired steam power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, K.H.; Koenig, H.

    1995-02-01

    Laboratory creep studies of modified 9% CrMo cast ferritic steel indicate that its performance will be very similar to that of the popular ASME P-91 9% Cr wrought ferritic steel. This report includes an investigation of the physical parameters and properties of modified 9% CrMo cast ferritic steel, including castability and weldability; thermal, low-cycle fatigue, corrosion, and creep strength; and long-term toughness in tests of up to 50,000 hours on large components and specimens.

  9. Modernization of Controls Improves Productivity and Reduces Energy Costs at a Large Steel Plant (Weirton Steel Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    In 1996 and 1997, Weirton Steel upgraded the utilities control systems at its main steel manufacturing plant in Weirton, WV. In response to increasing energy costs and the need to remain competitive in the steel industry, Weirton Steel commissioned a comprehensive energy management study of the facility, which provided the basis for an energy management control strategy.

  10. Clean cast steel technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, C.E.; Griffin, J.A.

    1998-06-01

    This report documents the results obtained from the Clean Cast Steel Technology Program financially supported by the DOE Metal Casting Competitiveness Research Program and industry. The primary objective of this program is to develop technology for delivering steel free of oxide macroinclusions to mold cavities. The overall objective is to improve the quality of cast steel by developing and demonstrating the technology for substantially reducing surface and sub-surface oxide inclusions. Two approaches are discussed here. A total of 23 castings were produced by submerge pouring along with sixty conventionally poured castings. The submerged poured castings contained, on average, 96% fewer observable surface inclusions (11.9 vs 0.4) compared to the conventionally poured cast parts. The variation in the population of surface inclusions also decreased by 88% from 5.5 to 0.7. The machinability of the casting was also improved by submerged pouring. The submerge poured castings required fewer cutting tool changes and less operator intervention during machining. Subsequent to these trials, the foundry has decided to purchase more shrouds for continued experimentation on other problem castings where submerge pouring is possible. An examination of melting and pouring practices in four foundries has been carried out. Three of the four foundries showed significant improvement in casting quality by manipulating the melting practice. These melting practice variables can be grouped into two separate categories. The first category is the pouring and filling practice. The second category concerns the concentration of oxidizable elements contained in the steel. Silicon, manganese, and aluminum concentrations were important factors in all four foundries. Clean heats can consistently be produced through improved melting practice and reducing exposure of the steel to atmospheric oxygen during pouring and filling.

  11. Radiocesium contamination at a steel plant in Ireland.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, J O; Hone, C; Turvey, F J

    1996-04-01

    Radioactive sources have been inadvertently incorporated into consignments of scrap metal in various locations throughout the world. In 1990, a 3.7 GBq 137 Cs source, due for transfer from a Scottish industrial establishment to one in England, was mistakenly included in a scrap consignment destined for Irish Steel, a metal recycling plant in County Cork in the Republic of Ireland. Unaware of the presence of the source, Irish Steel smelted this consignment in the usual manner. This involved separation of some non-ferrous materials which were then exported, in pellet form, To Pasminco Europe (now Britannia Zinc Ltd.) in Avonmouth, U.K. The presence of 137 Cs contamination in these pellets was detected by the U.K. company in the course of a routine radiation survey. Irish Steel carried out extensive decontamination of its plant, placing the contaminated dust in secure storage. The company has equipped itself with radiation detection devices which monitor incoming scrap. Outgoing products and furnace dust are also monitored on a routine basis. While this incident was of negligible radiological significance as far as personnel were concerned, the financial cost to Irish Steel have been substantial. It highlights the need for surveillance, by national competent authorities, of the movement of radioactive sources from production through use to final disposal.

  12. Development of superplastic steel processing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.

    1995-04-01

    Objective was to provide basis for producing, processing, and forming UHCS (ultrahigh carbon steel) on a commercial scale. Business plans were developed for potential commercialization. Effort was directed at improving the combination of flow stress and forming rates in UHCS alloys in order to make near net shape superplastic forming competitive; the result was the development of a series of UHCS alloys and processing, the selection of which depends on the specific requirements of the commercial application. Useful ancillary properties of these materials include: improved mechanical properties, wear resistance, and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures.

  13. The interrelationship between environmental goals, productivity improvement, and increased energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation into the interrelationships between plant-level productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental improvements for integrated pulp and paper mills and integrated steel mills in the US. Integrated paper and steel plants are defined as those facilities that use some form of onsite raw material to produce final products (for example, paper and paperboard or finished steel). Fully integrated pulp and paper mills produce onsite the pulp used to manufacture paper from virgin wood fiber, secondary fiber, or nonwood fiber. Fully integrated steel mills process steel from coal, iron ore, and scrap inputs and have onsite coke oven facilities.

  14. 76 FR 68400 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... order on certain steel threaded rod (``steel threaded rod'') from the People's Republic of China..., through March 31, 2010. \\1\\ See Certain Steel Threaded Rod from the People's Republic of...

  15. 33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, 1800-HORSEPOWER CORLISS STEAM ENGINE AND FLYWEEL FOR 22-INCH MILL, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  16. 77 FR 26738 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of high pressure steel cylinders (steel...\\ \\1\\ See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

  17. 76 FR 1599 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from Brazil. The... stainless steel bar (SSB) from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results...

  18. 8. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF NEW PUMP PLANT CONSTRUCTION WORK, SHOWING STEEL MANIFOLD RUNNING BELOW GRADE, April 24, 1952 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. [Measurement of chemical agents in metallurgy field: electric steel plant].

    PubMed

    Cottica, D; Grignani, E; Ghitti, R; Festa, D; Apostoli, P

    2012-01-01

    The steel industry maintains its important position in the context of the Italian production involving thousands of workers. The iron and steel processes are divided into primary steel industry, production of intermediate minerals, and secondary steel, scrap from the production of semi-finished industrial and consumer sector (metal inserted into components and metal used for dissipative uses, primarily coatings) and industrial waste. The paper presents the results of environmental monitoring carried out in some electric steel plant for the measurement of airborne chemicals that characterize the occupational exposure of workers employed in particular area like electric oven, to treatment outside the furnace, continuous casting area. For the sampling of the pollutants were used both personal and in fixed positions samplers. The pollutants measured are those typical of steel processes inhalable dust, metals, respirable dust, crystalline silica, but also Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

  20. 77 FR 12553 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... second administrative review of the antidumping duty order \\1\\ on steel wire garment hangers from the... September 30, 2010. \\1\\ See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the...

  1. 76 FR 48802 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

  2. Weirton Steel Corporation logistics and integrated scheduling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Guzzetta, M.B.

    1996-06-01

    In order to remain competitive in the changing steel market, US steel producers restructured by taking on foreign and domestic partners, closing facilities and/or trimming work forces, and modernizing their steel making facilities. However, very little was done to develop production management technology to complement these changes. The Logistics and Integrated Scheduling program (LIS) was undertaken to address this issue. LIS is an information management system that delivers better customer service, better quality materials, and a just-in-time delivery system. It involves three major components: (1) material marking and sensing: advanced R&D applied to determining cost effective, feasible solutions to passive inventory; (2) material inventory and tracking: advanced technology applied to managing inventory movement; (3) planning and scheduling: beginning with annual production plans, order management, and operational constraints, the ability to build integrated schedules capable of pull through and push through scheduling for various plant capability levels and location configurations with rapid turnaround capability. LIS provides accurate, automated tracking of material flows throughout the mill, the collection and analysis of production data, and automated schedule optimization.

  3. Final Report Auto/Steel Partnership Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III

    1999-06-09

    This is the final report in which effects of strain-rate, temperature, and stress-state on the yield stress and the strain hardening behavior of many common steels used in automobile construction were investigated. The yield and flow stresses were found to exhibit very high rate sensitivities for most of the steels while the hardening rates were found to be insensitive to strain rate and temperature at lower temperatures or at higher strain rates. This behavior is consistent with the observation that overcoming the intrinsic Peierls stress is shown to be the rate-controlling mechanism in these materials at low temperatures. The dependence of the yield stress on temperature and strain rate was found to decrease while the strain hardening rate increased. The Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) model was adopted to model the stress-strain behavior of the steels. Parameters for the constitutive relations were derived for the MTS model and also for the Johnson-Cook (JC) and the Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) models. The results of this study substantiate the applicability of these models for describing the high strain-rate deformation of these materials. The JC and ZA models, however, due to their use of a power strain hardening law were found to yield constitutive relations for the materials which are strongly dependent on the range of strains for which the models were optimized.

  4. Final Scientific Report Steel Foundry Refractory Lining Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Peaslee, K.D.

    2002-12-02

    The overall objective of the program was to optimize refractory materials and foundry processing used in casting steel. This objective was to be met by completing the following: (1) Surveying the steel foundries both through paper/electronic surveys sent to North American steel foundries as well as plant visits to participants. Information concerning refractory selection and performance as well as refractory and steelmaking practices provides a baseline for future comparison and to identify opportunities for substantial improvement in energy efficiency. (2) Conducting post-mortem analysis of materials from existing refractory/steelmaking practices to determine wear/failure mechanisms. (3) Identify areas for research on developing refractories for use in steel foundry furnaces, adjusting steelmaking practices to improve efficiency and modifying slag practices to improve refractory performance. The overall objective of the steel foundry refractory lining optimization program was to review established refractory and steelmaking practices to identify opportunities for improvements that would yield substantial energy savings for steel foundries. Energy savings were expected to arise from improved efficiency of the electric arc furnaces and from reductions in the post-casting welding and grinding that are normally required. Ancillary energy savings related to a reduction in the amount of refractories currently produced to meet the needs of the steel foundry industry, and a shift from pre-fired materials (shaped refractories) to monolithic refractories that are heat treated ''in situ'' were anticipated. A review of the complete program results indicates that techniques for achieving the overall goal were demonstrated. The main difference between the predicted and the actual achievements relates to the areas from which actual energy savings could be realized. Although reductions in furnace tap temperature would result in a reduction in the power required for melting, such

  5. 37. REDUCTION PLANT DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. REDUCTION PLANT - DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased within an outer steel shell (top half missing). As fish were tumbled by the rotating screen, they were cooked and dried by live steam piped into the dryer through overhead pipes. The dryer is mounted on a slight angle, aiding the process by moving the drying fish towards the exhaust end of the dryer. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  6. 77 FR 39467 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty... the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India. The review..., 2012, the Department published Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results and...

  7. 75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil... results of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar...

  8. 75 FR 44766 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe from Turkey: Final Results of...) order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008, period of review (POR). See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From...

  9. 77 FR 64468 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Final Affirmative... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel... the publication of the preliminary determination.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel...

  10. 77 FR 24462 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final... the antidumping duty order on certain steel nails (``steel nails'') from the People's Republic of... Department's final margin calculations. \\1\\ See Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of...

  11. 77 FR 3281 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-1188 (Final)] High Pressure Steel Cylinders From China; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing... high pressure steel cylinders, provided for in subheading 7311.00.00 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule... compressed or liquefied gas (``high pressure steel cylinders''). High pressure steel cylinders are...

  12. 76 FR 27987 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Amended Final... on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand, which covered Saha Thai Steel Pipe... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

  13. 77 FR 19191 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final... on steel wire garment hangers (``hangers'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ On... Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final...

  14. 77 FR 17418 - Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Galvanized Steel Wire From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative... subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from the... U.S. producers that filed the petition for this investigation are Davis Wire Corporation,...

  15. 76 FR 72721 - Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... the subject merchandise as galvanized steel wire which is a cold- drawn carbon quality steel product... COMMISSION Galvanized Steel Wire From China and Mexico; Scheduling of the Final Phase of Countervailing Duty... Mexico of galvanized steel wire, provided for in subheading 7217.20 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule...

  16. 76 FR 62039 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of 2009-2010 Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of... certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products from India (``hot-rolled steel'') manufactured by Ispat... Preliminary Results \\2\\ of this review. \\2\\ See Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From...

  17. 76 FR 42679 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of... certain hot- rolled carbon steel flat products from India manufactured by Essar Steel Limited (``Essar...\\ of this review. \\2\\ See Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Notice...

  18. 76 FR 13357 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Correction Notice to Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Correction Notice to... administrative review for stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from Mexico. See Stainless Steel Sheet and.... See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping...

  19. 76 FR 36086 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of... welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico... Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico, 75...

  20. New wastewater treatment facility at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nodianos, M.J.; Goshe, A.J.

    1995-07-01

    With stricter wastewater regulatory limits on the horizon and a consent decree issued by the Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp. opted to upgrade the existing biological treatment plant and construct a terminal treatment plant for organic polishing at the Steubenville East Coke Plant. Prior to this project, three main sources were treated at the biological treatment plant prior to being discharged to the Ohio River, those being excess flushing liquor, benzol interceptor sump water from the light oil recovery plant and direct cooler condensate from the desulfurization facility. Additionally, storm water and other contaminated process waste streams are now treated at the plant along with the previously mentioned sources. Bio plant effluent is then treated at the newly constructed terminal treatment plant where it is passed through sand filters for solids removal and carbon filters where any remaining organic constituents are removed. The new system treats an average of 700,000 gal of wastewater per day, compared to 450,000 gal/day before modifications. As a result of the upgraded system, phenolic compounds and ammonias have been dramatically reduced in coke plant wastewater returning to the Ohio River.

  1. 78 FR 13017 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue...

  2. Advanced steel reheat furnaces: Research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Q.; Koppang, R.; Maly, P.; Moyeda, D.; Li, X.

    1999-01-14

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of two phases of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate an Advanced Steel Reheat Furnace (SSRF) concept which incorporates two proven and commercialized technologies, oxy-fuel enriched air (OEA) combustion and gas reburning (GR). The combined technologies aim to improve furnace productivity with higher flame radiant heat transfer in the heating zones of a steel reheat furnace while controlling potentially higher NOx emissions from these zones. The project was conducted under a contract sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). Specifically, this report summarizes the results of a modeling study and an experimental study to define and evaluate the issues which affect the integration and performance of the combined technologies. Section 2.0 of the report describes the technical approach uses in the development and evaluation of the advanced steel reheat furnace. Section 3.0 presents results of the modeling study applied to a model steel furnace. Experimental validation of the modeling results obtained from EER`s Fuel Evaluation Facility (FEF) pilot-scale furnace discussed in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides an economic evaluation on the cost effectiveness of the advanced reheat furnace concept. Section 6.0 concludes the report with recommendations on the applicability of the combined technologies of steel reheat furnaces.

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, OH. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    believed that alarge ajority . vill Opt for Erie County. The Pennsylvania State Office of Planning Coesnnt HtO-B:and Devemopcuent hLs prolected: a normal...ens- I,. S. Steel vill use so much capital to build their Plant. Without this secondary teae okn o ok hsmgaino okr n hi aiis*1 aically keep tie...proposed =ill. Corienient though that may be, it d not truly seem to be a reasonable scerario. A project of this magnitude -- a Steel Vill of natior

  4. An intensive monitoring campaign of PAHs for assessing the impact of a steel plant.

    PubMed

    Di Gilio, A; Ventrella, G; Giungato, P; Tutino, M; Giua, R; Assennato, G; de Gennaro, G

    2017-02-01

    This study provided a useful approach for assessing the impact of industrial sources on surrounding, especially in a sensitive industrial area as Taranto (South of Italy). Taranto is one of the most industrialized Italian towns, where several emission sources operate simultaneously in proximity to the urban settlement. An intensive monitoring campaign of PAHs was carried out from January 28th to July 30th, 2011, in seven sites located in residential settlement around the industrial area and in the city center. The collected data were integrated with the information about wind direction and speed by means bivariate polarplot in order to characterize and localize the industrial sources. High BaP concentrations were detected especially when Benzene to Toluene ratio (B/T ratio) values excedeed 1 and all receptor sites were downwind to the steel plant. Moreover, in order to discriminate among PAH sources and quantify their contributions, a source apportionment analysis of the collected data was provided by means Principal component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) methods. Finally, the processing of PMF5.0 output by bivariate polar plot, confirmed the impact of steel plant on both industrial sites downwind the steel plant and the city center. B[a]P apportionment was quite similar for industrial and urban sites: the traffic source contributed only 11% and 24% to B[a]P measured at two sites, respectively. Therefore, the proximity of Taranto downtown to industrial pole makes negligible all other source contributions to PAH concentrations.

  5. 75 FR 45605 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Correction to Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Correction to Notice of Final... following notice: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... administrative review for all shipments of stainless steel plate in coils (``SSPC'') from Belgium entered,...

  6. 77 FR 72818 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Turkey.\\1\\ This review covers four producers and... section entitled ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  7. Final Scientific Report - "Novel Steels for High Temperature Carburizing"

    SciTech Connect

    McKimpson, Marvin G.; Liu, Tianjun; Maniruzzaman, Md

    2012-07-27

    This program was undertaken to develop a microalloy-modified grade of standard carburizing steel that can successfully exploit the high temperature carburizing capabilities of current commercial low pressure (i.e. 'vacuum') carburizing systems. Such steels can lower the amount of energy required for commercial carburizing operations by reducing the time required for deep-case carburizing operations. The specific technical objective of the work was to demonstrate a carburizing steel composition capable of maintaining a prior austenite grain size no larger than ASTM grain size number 5 after exposure to simulated carburizing conditions of 1050 C for 8 hr. Such thermal exposure should be adequate for producing carburized case depths up to about 2 mm. Such carburizing steels are expected to be attractive for use across a wide range of industries, including the petroleum, chemical, forest products, automotive, mining and industrial equipment industries. They have potential for reducing energy usage during low pressure carburizing by more than 25%, as well as reducing cycle times and process costs substantially. They also have potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from existing low pressure carburizing furnaces by more than 25%. High temperature carburizing can be done in most modern low pressure carburizing systems with no additional capital investment. Accordingly, implementing this technology on carburizing furnaces will provide a return on investment significantly greater than 10%. If disseminated throughout the domestic carburizing community, the technology has potential for saving on the order of 23 to 34 trillion BTU/year in industrial energy usage. Under the program, two compositions of microalloyed, coarsening-resistant low alloy carburizing steels were developed, produced and evaluated. After vacuum annealing at 1050oC for 8 hrs and high pressure gas quenching, both steels exhibited a prior austenite ASTM grain size number of 5.0 or finer. For

  8. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  9. 42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE CARBIDE MILL ROOM, APRIL 23, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  10. 43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. U.S. NITRATE PLANT UNDER CONSTRUCTION, STEEL BEING ERECTED FOR THE MACHINE SHOP, FEBRUARY 28, 1918. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  11. 77 FR 75980 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final... antidumping investigation of steel wire garment hangers from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam... continue to determine that steel wire garment hangers from Vietnam are being, or are likely to be, sold...

  12. 77 FR 50160 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; Scheduling of the Final Phase of... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from Taiwan of steel wire garment hangers and less- than-fair-value imports from Taiwan and Vietnam of steel wire garment...

  13. 77 FR 73616 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... the review are as follows: Bao/Baoshan International Trade Corp./Bao Steel Metals Trading Corp... Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping... preliminary results of the administrative review (``AR'') of certain cut-to-length carbon steel plate...

  14. 77 FR 26739 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final...'') in the antidumping investigation of high pressure steel cylinders from the People's Republic of China... Determination. The Department continues to find that high pressure steel cylinders from the PRC are being,...

  15. 75 FR 47260 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey: Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration (A-489-807) Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey: Notice of...) in the 2005-2006 administrative review of certain steel concrete reinforcing bars (rebar) from Turkey..., through March 31, 2006. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Turkey; Final Results...

  16. 75 FR 22552 - Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey; Notice of Amended Final Results Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars from Turkey; Notice of Amended Final... Department) in the 2003-2004 administrative review of certain steel concrete of reinforcing bars (rebar) from...) of April 1, 2003, through March 31, 2004. See Certain Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From...

  17. 75 FR 43488 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Results of... duty (CVD) order on certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products (hot-rolled carbon steel) from India for the period of review (POR) January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. See Certain...

  18. 75 FR 27297 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Notice of Final... antidumping duty administrative review for certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products from India (``Indian Hot-Rolled''). See Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Notice of...

  19. 76 FR 65497 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Amended Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Amended Final... of the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products (HRCS) from India..., to reflect the CIT's decision in Essar. See Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from...

  20. 77 FR 38271 - Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed... changed-circumstances review with intent to revoke in part the order on stainless steel bar (SSBar) from... February 1, 2010. \\1\\ See Stainless Steel Bar From Japan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of...

  1. 78 FR 22227 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar (SSB..., through January 31, 2012. \\1\\ See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  2. 75 FR 62103 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From South Africa: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From South Africa: Final Results of Expedited... review of the countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on stainless steel plate in coils from South Africa... review of the CVD order on stainless steel plate in coils from South Africa pursuant to section 751(c)...

  3. 75 FR 76700 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Final Results of... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on SSSSC from Taiwan. See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

  4. 75 FR 6627 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of... preliminary ] results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (S4) in coils from Mexico. See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico;...

  5. 76 FR 67672 - Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Wire Rods From India: Final Results of the Expedited...) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel wire rods from... notice of initiation of the sunset review of the antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel...

  6. 75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final... welded stainless steel pipes (WSSP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one producer... antidumping duty order on WSSP from Korea. See Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from the Republic of...

  7. 75 FR 62101 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From the Republic of Korea: Final...'') initiated the second sunset review of the countervailing duty order (``CVD'') on stainless steel sheet and... domestic producers of stainless steel sheet and strip in coils in the United States and certified...

  8. 78 FR 34337 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel bar from India... that Ambica has not sold subject merchandise at less than normal value. \\1\\ See Stainless Steel...

  9. 78 FR 16247 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea... antidumping duty order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products (CORE) from the Republic of Korea... section entitled ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel...

  10. 76 FR 63902 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan, 76 FR 33210 (June 8, 2011) (Preliminary Results)....

  11. 77 FR 61738 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel... (Pacific Pipe) and Saha Thai Steel Pipe (Public) Company, Ltd. (Saha Thai). Based on our analysis of...

  12. 76 FR 2332 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Final Results of... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (S4) in coils from Mexico. See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico;...

  13. 75 FR 62366 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Taiwan. See Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  14. 77 FR 64473 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Sultanate of Oman: Final... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel... Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe from the Sultanate of Oman: Preliminary Negative Countervailing...

  15. 77 FR 46713 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of...) order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipe from Turkey for the January 1, 2010, through December... Results of Review'' section. \\1\\ See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe From Turkey:...

  16. 75 FR 64696 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... preliminary results of administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular ] welded carbon steel... the antidumping duty order on pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel...

  17. 75 FR 81967 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...] Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware From Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Review and Revocation of Antidumping... of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel cooking ware (POS cooking ware) from Taiwan... antidumping duty order is porcelain-on-steel cooking ware from Taiwan that does not have self-...

  18. 75 FR 20342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  19. 77 FR 16207 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Final Results of the Expedited Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Final Results of... steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the... the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain\\1\\ pursuant...

  20. 75 FR 69626 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... review of the antidumping duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India... duty order on certain welded carbon steel standard pipes and tubes from India. See Certain...

  1. 78 FR 65272 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. This review covers two... carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand.\\1\\ We invited interested parties to comment on...

  2. 75 FR 73033 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Amended Final... steel pipes and tubes (pipes and tubes) from Thailand, covering the period March 1, 2008 through... published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2010. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes...

  3. 76 FR 64900 - Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration Welded Carbon Steel Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Final Results of Expedited...) initiated a sunset review of the countervailing duty order (CVD) on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from... CVD order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey was published in the Federal Register...

  4. 78 FR 64916 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey: Final Results of... administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes (steel pipes and tubes) from Turkey for the January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011, period of...

  5. 78 FR 71563 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Final... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from... Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  6. 75 FR 4529 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Final Results of... circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes (pipes and tubes) from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 74...

  7. 76 FR 44304 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Amended Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Amended..., 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the... during the period of review. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of...

  8. 77 FR 24459 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... grades of stainless steel and ``commodity'' and ``specialty'' fittings. Specifically excluded from the... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (SSBW pipe fittings) from Italy.\\1\\ This review covers...

  9. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation.

  10. [Health & safety in a steel plant: technical and managerial action].

    PubMed

    Fusato, M

    2012-01-01

    The report presents the experience in a steel company to improve the management of issues relating to health and safety of workers. The first part of the work focuses on the description of the interventions made by the company in recent years, which can be divided into technical interventions on production facilities, training and information, organizational activities and specific projects in collaboration with the health service. The second part presents the certification project according to OHSAS 18001, with particular focus on the efforts for a lean management of the documentation required by the management systems and for the automation of internal processes. The last part finally describes in detail the manner in which it was decided to address some issues that significantly affect the factory doctor: the recording and analysis of accidents and medications, management of hazardous substances and personal protective equipment.

  11. Pinellas Plant feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Pinellas Plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. In September 1990, the Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services (HRS) entered into an agreement with DOE to independently examine environmental monitoring data from the plant and health data from Pinellas County to determine if an epidemiological study is technically feasible to measure possible off-site health effects from ionizing radiation. Through normal plant operations, some radioactive materials have been released to the environment. Eighty percent of the total plant releases of 107,707 curies occurred in the early years of plant operation (1957--1960). The primary materials released were tritium gas, tritium oxide and krypton-85. Environmental monitoring for radioactive releases from the plant has been done regularly since 1975. The US Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in assisting HRS, has determined that sufficient radiological data exist by which a dose reconstruction can be done. A dose reconstruction can provide an estimate of how much radiological exposure someone living in the vicinity of the Pinellas Plant may have suffered from environmental releases.

  12. 77 FR 1060 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination of Antidumping Duty Investigation AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department...

  13. 77 FR 59892 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Affirmative Final... determine that shipments of wire rod with an actual diameter of 4.75 mm to 5.00 mm by Deacero S.A. de C.V... included within the scope of the order on wire rod from Mexico. Further, we continue to determine...

  14. 78 FR 286 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Turkey; Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... and tubes from Turkey for the period of review (POR) May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011.\\1\\ We are..., as amended (the Act). \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Turkey; Final...

  15. Solar powered wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, D.

    1981-11-06

    Enhancement of the ability of a hyacinth pond to provide secondary effluent was studied. Control of flow geometry was addressed, and the hyacinth pond's role as part of an overall treatment system was emphasized. The use of greenhouses over the ponds to protect the plants during the winter was evaluated. The thermal and structural performances of the greenhouses were analyzed. It was concluded that the plants could be kept alive and green with only a tarpaulin-like cover in the winter climate of Texas, but to keep the plants actively growing would require a tightly built greenhouse with good infiltration control. The third area of investigation was the potential of wind power for providing energy for wastewater aeration. Aeration methods amenable to the use of wind power as the prime mover were investigated and found to compare favorably with standard aeration methods. The wind distribution at the site was monitored to determine whether the wind could be relied upon as a source of aeration energy.

  16. Binder-Jet Printing of Fine Stainless Steel Powder with Varied Final Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaee, Mohsen; Tridas, Eric M.; Crane, Nathan B.

    2017-03-01

    Binder jetting is an additive manufacturing process that produces weak porous parts that are strengthened through sintering and/or infiltration. This article reports on two different methods of preparing fine 316 stainless steel powder and their impact on the final sintered density and dimensions relative to direct printing into <22 micron powder . The first method uses agglomerates of fine powder. In the second, nylon 12 powders are mixed with the steel powder as a fugitive space holder to increase porosity. Sintered density and sintering shrinkage of agglomerate material are shown to vary with the density of the spread powder bed. Nevertheless, with added nylon, the shrinkage correlates with the shrinkage of the base steel powder, whereas the density depends on the quantity of the nylon. Thus, it is possible to create varied sintered density with compatible shrinkage levels—a key step toward creating binder-jetting systems with spatially controlled porosity.

  17. 78 FR 35248 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final... order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) for the period... Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011, 77 FR...

  18. 77 FR 62492 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less... wire garment hangers (``hangers'') from Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United... from Taiwan.\\1\\ No interested party provided case briefs or rebuttal briefs. \\1\\ See Steel Wire...

  19. 78 FR 28190 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Final Results of... carbon and certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Mexico. The period of review (POR) is October 1... Federal Register the Preliminary Results of the antidumping duty administrative review of wire rod...

  20. 78 FR 60850 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the Expedited Second Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... International Trade Administration Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Brazil: Final Results of the... certain alloy steel wire rod (wire rod) from Brazil would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence... Department initiated the second sunset review of the CVD order \\1\\ on wire rod from Brazil pursuant...

  1. 78 FR 28803 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Final Results... wire garment hangers from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on November 8, 2012.\\1\\ We gave...\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty...

  2. 78 FR 75371 - Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Diffusion-Annealed, Nickel-Plated Flat-Rolled Steel Products From Japan; Scheduling of the Final... of less-than-fair-value imports from Japan of diffusion-annealed, nickel- plated flat-rolled steel...; whether or not in coils; either plated or coated with nickel or nickel-based alloys and...

  3. 75 FR 80455 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Amended Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Amended Final... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products (HRCS... review of HRCS from India covering the POR of January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2006. See Certain...

  4. 76 FR 77775 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Amended Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Amended Final... administrative review of the countervailing duty order on certain ] hot-rolled carbon steel flat products (HRCS... of HRCS from India covering the POR of January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. See Certain...

  5. 76 FR 26694 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Final Rescission of... countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products from India. See Antidumping or... review with respect to Ispat, and provided interested parties with 20 days to comment. See Certain...

  6. 77 FR 36256 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Postponement of Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From India: Postponement of Final... investigation on circular welded carbon- quality steel pipe from India.\\1\\ On June 1, 2012, the Department... antidumping duty investigation is currently due on August 6, 2012. \\1\\ See Circular Welded...

  7. 76 FR 7534 - Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Porcelain-on-Steel Cooking Ware from the People's Republic of China: Final... Commerce (``Department'') initiated a sunset review of the antidumping duty order on porcelain-on-steel... FR 60731 (October 1, 2010) (``Sunset Initiation''); see also Antidumping Duty Order;...

  8. 78 FR 79665 - Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube Products From Turkey: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... order on welded carbon steel standard pipe and tube products (welded pipe and tube) from Turkey.\\1\\ The... Tube Products from Turkey: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011-2012,...

  9. Nuclear containment steel liner corrosion workshop : final summary and recommendation report.

    SciTech Connect

    Erler, Bryan A.; Weyers, Richard E.; Sagues, Alberto; Petti, Jason P.; Berke, Neal Steven; Naus, Dan J.

    2011-07-01

    This report documents the proceedings of an expert panel workshop conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of corrosion for the steel liner in nuclear containment buildings. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsored this work which was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. A workshop was conducted at the NRC Headquarters in Rockville, Maryland on September 2 and 3, 2010. Due to the safety function performed by the liner, the expert panel was assembled in order to address the full range of issues that may contribute to liner corrosion. This report is focused on corrosion that initiates from the outer surface of the liner, the surface that is in contact with the concrete containment building wall. Liner corrosion initiating on the outer diameter (OD) surface has been identified at several nuclear power plants, always associated with foreign material left embedded in the concrete. The potential contributing factors to liner corrosion were broken into five areas for discussion during the workshop. Those include nuclear power plant design and operation, corrosion of steel in contact with concrete, concrete aging and degradation, concrete/steel non-destructive examination (NDE), and concrete repair and corrosion mitigation. This report also includes the expert panel member's recommendations for future research.

  10. 75 FR 1755 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Final Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  11. 75 FR 34980 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube From Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, 61 FR... from Brazil, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, and Venezuela, and Amendment to Final Determination...

  12. 77 FR 64471 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Vietnam: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination AGENCY: Import Administration, International... welded carbon-quality steel pipe (``circular welded pipe'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). DATES: Effective Date: October 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher...

  13. 77 FR 50713 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From Taiwan and Vietnam; (Corrected Notice) Scheduling of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1671d(b)) (the Act) and the final phase of antidumping investigation Nos. 731-TA- 1197-1198 (Final) under section 735(b) of the Act (19 U.S.C. 1673d(b)) to determine whether an industry in... garment hangers with swivel hooks; (c) steel wire garment hangers with clips permanently affixed; and...

  14. 75 FR 34425 - Certain Steel Nails from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the First New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... made changes to the dumping margin calculations for the final results. See Memorandum to the File from... dumping margin is listed below in the section entitled ``Final Results of the Review.'' EFFECTIVE DATE... of the Review The weighted-average dumping margin for the POR is as follows: Certain Steel Nails...

  15. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions from scrap processing steel plants with electric-arc furnaces.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions of scrap iron processing steel plants were explored by measuring concentrations in stack gases of five plants, in the atmosphere (n=11) at a site close to those plants, and in soil at several sites in the region (n=40) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Observed stack-gas Σ32PCN levels from the plants without scrap preheating (189±157ngNm(-3), average±SD, n=4) showed that they are substantial PCN emitting sources. Stack-gas Σ32PCN level for the plant with scrap preheating was considerably higher (1262ngNm(-3)). Similarly, Σ32PCN emission factor for this plant was substantially higher (11.9mgton(-1)) compared to those without scrap preheating (1.30±0.98mgton(-1)). Results have also suggested that the investigated steel plants emit large quantities of fugitive particle-phase PCNs. Measured soil Σ32PCN concentrations that are considered to be representative of the atmospheric levels were greatly variable in the region, ranging between 0.003 and 10.02μgkg(-1) (dry wt). Their spatial distribution showed that main PCN sources in the region were the iron-steel plants. Ambient air levels (1620±800pgm(-3)) were substantially higher than ones observed around the world and in the study area verifying that the steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are important PCN sources. Investigation of possible mechanisms suggested that the combustion processes also contribute to emissions from EAFs in addition to evaporation of PCNs present in the scrap iron.

  16. 78 FR 12718 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative... concerning the antidumping duty order on certain steel threaded rod (``steel threaded rod'') from the People.... No other party filed comments. \\1\\ See Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of...

  17. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  18. A monitoring strategy to assess the fugitive emission from a steel plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amodio, M.; Andriani, E.; Dambruoso, P. R.; de Gennaro, G.; Di Gilio, A.; Intini, M.; Palmisani, J.; Tutino, M.

    2013-11-01

    An assessment of the fugitive emission impact on ambient air PM, PAHs and metal concentrations was performed in a residential area near the biggest European steel plant. A careful experimental design was developed to characterize fugitive emissions produced by the integrated steel plant. A PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring campaign was conducted at three sampling sites around the steel plant, in order to perform a triangulation in the area surrounding the investigated site and evaluate its impact based on wind direction. Data analysis showed that the transport of air mass, from the steelworks to one of the receptor sites, resulted in ambient air concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn and PAHs higher than those observed in the other two sites. Principal component analysis allowed the identification of four emission sources: coke ovens stack, mineral park, a crustal source and vanadium source. The first two sources were characterized by high concentrations of PAHs and metals and related to the steelworks, while the vanadium source was probably associated with maritime traffic in the port area. This preliminary monitoring approach proved effective in identifying the fugitive emission contribution of the steel plant to the surrounding air quality.

  19. Assessment of the local role of a steel making plant by POPs deposition measurements.

    PubMed

    Rada, E C; Ragazzi, M; Schiavon, M

    2014-09-01

    Atmospheric depositions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored at three sites in the vicinity of a steel making plant, located in an Italian alpine valley. A high variability in the deposition of PCDD/Fs was observed. The influence of the plant was noticeable at two of the sampling sites. However, as the congener profiles demonstrated, wood burning for domestic heating is an additional source of PCDD/Fs for the area under investigation, and this interferes with the characterization of the emissions from the steel plant. The influence of the plant, in terms of PCDD/F deposition, was not noticeable at the most distant site (2km), where an extremely high peak of PCDD/F deposition was measured during the period from 12 January-22 February 2012. The comparison between the congener distribution of PCDD/Fs observed in this sample and the fingerprints of different sources could justify the attribution of this anomalous peak to a possible episode of domestic waste combustion. In order to find a better correlation between the deposition to soil and emissions from the plant, the congener distribution of PCBs was studied. The PCB profiles observed at the three sites well reproduced the average profile found in samples of ash retained by the bag filter of the plant. Thus the monitoring of PCB deposition is an interesting starting point to calibrate dispersion models to assess the impact of steel making activities.

  20. Lifespan estimation of seal welded super stainless steels for water condenser of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Sik; Park, Sujin; Chang, Hyun Young

    2014-01-01

    When sea water was used as cooling water for water condenser of nuclear power plants, commercial stainless steels can not be applied because chloride concentration exceeds 20,000 ppm. There are many opinions for the materials selection of tube and tube sheets of a condenser. This work reviewed the application guide line of stainless steels for sea-water facilities and the estimation equations of lifespan were proposed from the analyses of both field data for sea water condenser and experimental results of corrosion. Empirical equations for lifespan estimation were derived from the pit initiation time and re-tubing time of stainless steel tubing in sea water condenser of nuclear power plants. The lifespan of seal-welded super austenitic stainless steel tube/tube sheet was calculated from these equations. Critical pitting temperature of seal-welded PRE 50 grade super stainless steel was evaluated as 60 °C. Using the proposed equation in engineering aspect, tube pitting corrosion time of seal-welded tube/tube sheet was calculated as 69.8 years and re-tubing time was estimated as 82.0 years.

  1. 77 FR 67332 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... that were not produced during the POR and updated the Thai import statistics used to value steel wire rod based on the specific carbon content reported by the RMB/IFI Group for its steel wire rod... forged, turned, cold-drawn, cold- rolled, machine straightened, or otherwise cold-finished, and...

  2. Improving the safety of LWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Study to identify current, potential research issues and efforts for improving the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) power plants. This final report describes the work accomplished, the results obtained, the problem areas, and the recommended solutions. Specifically, for each of the issues identified in this report for improving the safety of LWR power plants, a description is provided in detail of the safety significance, the current status (including information sources, status of technical knowledge, problem solution and current activities), and the suggestions for further research and development. Further, the issues are ranked for action into high, medium, and low priority with respect to primarily (a) improved safety (e.g. potential reduction in public risk and occupational exposure), and secondly (b) reduction in safety-related costs (improving or maintaining level of safety with simpler systems or in a more cost-effective manner).

  3. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  4. 77 FR 75973 - Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... provided to producers and exporters of steel wire garment hangers (garment hangers) from the Socialist... Limited (Supreme) (collectively, the Infinite Companies). \\1\\ See Steel Wire Garment Hangers From...

  5. 76 FR 66895 - Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Steel Wire Garment Hangers From the People's Republic of China: Affirmative... Department'') continues to determine that steel wire garment hangers (``garment hangers'') exported by Angang... Antidumping Duty Order: Steel Wire Garment Hangers from the People's Republic of China, 73 FR 58111 (October...

  6. 75 FR 28560 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China...'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the People's Republic of China...., Ltd. in the Antidumping Duty Investigation of Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand From the...

  7. 75 FR 32362 - Certain Steel Grating from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2008. Case History The following events have occurred since the... not involve welding or joining of multiple pieces of steel. The scope of this investigation also... involve welding or joining of multiple pieces of steel. Certain steel grating that is the subject of...

  8. 78 FR 13019 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Investigation, Final Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... International Trade Administration Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China... Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks From the People's Republic of China: Antidumping Duty Investigation, 77 FR... Co., Ltd. in the Investigation of Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of...

  9. 75 FR 81966 - Top of the Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...-580-602] Top of the Stove Stainless Steel Cooking Ware From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...) initiated the third sunset reviews of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on top of the stove...: Scope of the Orders The merchandise subject to the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on top...

  10. 78 FR 21592 - Drawn Stainless Steel Sinks from the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... notified the Department of its final determination pursuant to section 735(b)(1)(A)(i) of the Tariff Act of... mount, top mount, or undermount (to indicate the attachment relative to the countertop). Stainless steel.... Antidumping Duty Order In accordance with sections 735(b)(1)(A)(i) and 735(d) of the Act, the ITC has...

  11. 77 FR 34344 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade..., International Trade ] Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue...

  12. 78 FR 66330 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...., Ltd Panther T&H Industry Co. Ltd PSGT Trading Jingjiang Ltd Qingdao Free Trade Zone Health Intl... Fasteners Co. Zhejiang Artex Arts and Crafts Zhejiang Guangtai Industry and Trade Zhejiang Heiter Industries... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China; Final...

  13. 77 FR 27438 - Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea: Final... third five-year sunset review of the countervailing duty order on certain corrosion-resistant carbon..., plated, or coated with corrosion-resistant metals such as zinc, aluminum, or zinc-, aluminum-, nickel-...

  14. 75 FR 67346 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results of the Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils from South Korea: Correction to Final Results... Co., Ltd. (POSCO), as well as the ``all others'' rate for South Korea. Specifically, the weighted-average margin for POSCO and the ``all others'' rate for South Korea, listed as 16.26 percent, should...

  15. 78 FR 69644 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230... International Trade Administration Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited First Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Enforcement and Compliance,...

  16. Deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the vicinity of a steel manufacturing plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Jin, Guangzhu; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2012-03-01

    Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) bulk deposition were investigated at four sites at and around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, South Korea from January 2008 to May 2009. The steel complex site showed the highest average deposition fluxes of 74.0, 2.1, and 41.6 ng m-2 day-1 for ∑tri-decaPCBs (Tri-DecaCBs), ∑12PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs), and ∑8PBDEs (8 PBDE congeners), respectively, indicating the steel complex is an important source of PCBs and PBDEs. The PCB deposition was dominated by Tri-TetraCBs and BDE209 was the most abundant PBDE congener. No clear seasonal variation of PCB and PBDE deposition was observed except at the steel complex site. Precipitation appeared to play an important role in the deposition distribution of PCBs, especially when the lowly chlorinated homologues dominated. In addition, the contribution of DL PCBs (dioxin-like PCBs) to the total TEQ (toxicity equivalent quantity) showed a seasonal variation and should not be neglected in the vicinity of a steel complex.

  17. Final Report for Regulation of Embryonic Development in Higher Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, John J.

    2013-10-22

    The overall goal of the project was to define the cellular processes that underlie embryo development in plants at a mechanistic level. Our studies focused on a critical transcriptional regulator, Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON (LEC1), that is necessary and sufficient to induce processes required for embryo development. Because LEC1 regulates lipid accumulation during the maturation phase of embryo development, information about LEC1 may be useful in designing approaches to enhance biofuel production in plants. During the tenure of this project, we determined the molecular mechanisms by which LEC1 acts as a transcription factor in embryos. We also identified genes directly regulated by LEC1 and showed that many of these genes are involved in maturation processes. This information has been useful in dissecting the gene regulatory networks controlling embryo development. Finally, LEC1 is a novel isoform of a transcription factor that is conserved among eukaryotes, and LEC1 is active primarily in seeds. Therefore, we determined that the LEC1-type transcription factors first appeared in lycophytes during land plant evolution. Together, this study provides basic information that has implications for biofuel production.

  18. 75 FR 65558 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site... Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site (final SEIS) on September 9, 2010. The location of the proposed nuclear plant site was stated incorrectly in the heading of the ROD. TVA prepared the final SEIS to...

  19. Evaluation of stainless steel cladding for use in current design LWRs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Strasser, A.; Santucci, J.; Lindquist, K.; Yario, W.; Stern, G.; Goldstein, L.; Joseph, L.

    1982-12-01

    The design of stainless steel-clad LWR fuel and its performance at steady-state, transient, and accident conditions were reviewed. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits and disadvantages of substituting stainless steel-clad fuel for the currently used Zircaloy-clad fuel. For a large, modern PWR, the technology and the fuel-cycle costs of stainless steel- and Zircaloy-clad fuels were compared.

  20. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains the appendices for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Alternative geologic environs are considered. Salt, crystalline rock, argillaceous rock, and tuff are discussed. Studies on alternate geologic regions for the siting of WIPP are reviewed. President Carter's message to Congress on the management of radioactive wastes and the findings and recommendations of the interagency review group on nuclear waste management are included. Selection criteria for the WIPP site including geologic, hydrologic, tectonic, physicochemical compatability, and socio-economic factors are presented. A description of the waste types and the waste processing procedures are given. Methods used to calculate radiation doses from radionuclide releases during operation are presented. A complete description of the Los Medanos site, including archaeological and historic aspects is included. Environmental monitoring programs and long-term safety analysis program are described. (DMC)

  1. 77 FR 17017 - Certain Steel Wheels From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... response to the critical circumstances questionnaire.\\8\\ \\8\\ Sunrise, a Chinese producer of subject... Questionnaire Issued to All Interested Parties,'' (December 6, 2011). \\14\\ A Chinese producer of steel wheels... alloy composition and clad wheels, discs, and rims when carbon or alloy steel represents more than...

  2. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  3. 250 years of historic occupation on Steel Creek, Savannah River Plant, Barnwell County, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the investigation of seven historic archaeological sites on the uppper coastal plain of the South Atlantic Slope in South Carolina. These seven sites are located on the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant in the Steel Creek watershed. This project has its beginnings in 1980, when the Department of Energy initiated the reactivation of the L Reactor. At that time, the plan called for an increased thermal water discharage. In 1980, the Savannah River Plant Archaeological Research Program (SRP-ARP) conducted an intensive archaeological survey of the Steel Creek terrace edge and bottomland. In early 1984, the Department of Energy made the decision to construct a dam and create a cooling lake (L-Lake) on Steel Creek. This required a new survey. The new project initially was to be an intensive survey of the entire proposed lake area. However, construction time constraints changed the general outline of the project into a two-phased survey of the area. The first phase of the project was a survey of the dam, borrow area, discharge structure, and diversion canal. Ten sites were identified, none of which were considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The second phase of the project was the intensive survey of the lake and embankment. Twenty-six sites were located in that portion of the survey, 11 of which were considered eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places.

  4. Assessment of plant-derived hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.; Nelson, S.H.

    1981-09-30

    A number of hydrocarbon producing plants are evaluated as possible sources of rubber, liquid fuels, and industrial lubricants. The plants considered are Euphorbia lathyris or gopher plant, milkweeds, guayule, rabbit brush, jojoba, and meadow foam. (ACR)

  5. Analysis of cracking phenomena in continuous casting of 1Cr13 stainless steel billets with final electromagnetic stirring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu; Xu, Rong-jun; Fan, Zheng-jie; Li, Cheng-bin; Deng, An-yuan; Wang, En-gang

    2016-05-01

    Solidification cracking that occurs during continuous casting of 1Cr13 stainless steel was investigated with and without final electromagnetic stirring (F-EMS). The results show that cracks initiates and propagates along the grain boundaries where the elements of carbon and sulfur are enriched. The final stirrer should be appropriately placed at a location that is 7.5 m away from the meniscus, and the appropriate thickness of the liquid core in the stirring zone is 50 mm. As a stirring current of 250 A is imposed, it can promote columnar-equiaxed transition, decrease the secondary dendrite arm spacing, and reduce the segregation of both carbon and sulfur. F-EMS can effectively decrease the amount of cracks in 1Cr13 stainless steel.

  6. Enrichment of By-Product Materials from Steel Pickling Acid Regeneration Plants (TRP 9942)

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Swan, Delta Ferrites LLC

    2009-09-30

    A new process for manufacturing an enriched, iron-based product (strontium hexaferrite) in existing steel pickling acid regeneration facilities was evaluated. Process enhancements and equipment additions were made to an existing acid regeneration plant to develop and demonstrate (via pilot scale testing and partial-capacity production trials) the viability of a patented method to produce strontium-based compounds that, when mixed with steel pickling acid and roasted, would result in a strontium hexaferrite powder precursor which could then be subjected to further heat treatment in an atmosphere that promotes rapid, relatively low-temperature formation of discrete strontium hexaferrite magnetic domains yielding an enriched iron-based product, strontium hexaferrite, that can be used in manufacturing hard ferrite magnets.

  7. 77 FR 27210 - Publication of the Final National Wetland Plant List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers Publication of the Final National Wetland Plant List AGENCY: U.S... Conservation Service (NRCS), is announcing the availability of the final 2012 National Wetland Plant List (NWPL... indicator statuses and nomenclature changes of over 8,200 plants. Over 130,000 comments and votes have...

  8. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    blackberries and dewnFFTis (Rubus spp.), sheep sorrFe(fumex acetosella), goldenroas (Solidago spp. , and various grasses ( Danthonia ii cata, Panicum spp...used for pasture. Major pasture and hay plants here are alfalfa, Ladino, clover, red clover, timothy, birdsfoot trefoil, orchard grass , and...cattails, marsh grasses , and other water-tolerant plants predominate. (2-214) Conneaut Creek, upstream from the proposed project site runs through hardwood

  9. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    interplant shipments of hot bands for further processing , permit better utilization of existing finishing mill capacities within economic shipping distances...facilities for further processing into cold-rolled and coated products. Shipment of the remaining plant product will be accomplished using the existing...independently owned slag processing operation expected to be located on the plant site. This activity is expected to employ about 75 workers during Step I

  10. 76 FR 20950 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of the 2009-2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From India: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results... the 2009-2010 antidumping duty administrative review. See Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary..., the Department conducted a verification of the cost of production responses for Venus Wire...

  11. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Final Report. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document presents the executive summary of the final report of Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory), a 3-year study at Indiana University. Project STEEL achieved four major goals: (1) development, implementation, and evaluation of a microcomputer-based observation system for codification, storage, and…

  12. 75 FR 10207 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... their proprietary equivalents; (4) abrasion-resistant steels (i.e., USS AR 400, USS AR 500); (5) products made to ASTM A202, A225, A514 grade S, A517 grade S, or their proprietary equivalents; (6) ball...-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

  13. Lung Cancer Risk and Past Exposure to Emissions from a Large Steel Plant

    PubMed Central

    Ameling, Caroline; van de Kassteele, Jan; Lijzen, Johannes; Oosterlee, Arie; Keuken, Rinske; Visser, Otto; van Wiechen, Carla

    2013-01-01

    We studied the spatial distribution of cancer incidence rates around a large steel plant and its association with historical exposure. The study population was close to 600,000. The incidence data was collected for 1995–2006. From historical emission data the air pollution concentrations for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals were modelled. Data were analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression models. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for lung cancer was up to 40% higher than average in postcodes located in two municipalities adjacent to the industrial area. Increased incidence rates could partly be explained by differences in socioeconomic status (SES). In the highest exposure category (approximately 45,000 inhabitants) a statistically significant increased relative risk (RR) of 1.21 (1.01–1.43) was found after adjustment for SES. The elevated RRs were similar for men and women. Additional analyses in a subsample of the population with personal smoking data from a recent survey suggested that the observed association between lung cancer and plant emission, after adjustment for SES, could still be caused by residual confounding. Therefore, we cannot indisputably conclude that past emissions from the steel plant have contributed to the increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:24324501

  14. Dynamic materials testing and constitutive modeling of structural sheet steel for automotive applications. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Cady, C.M.; Chen, S.R.; Gray, G.T. III

    1996-08-23

    The objective of this study was to characterize the dynamic mechanical properties of four different structural sheet steels used in automobile manufacture. The analysis of a drawing quality, special killed (DQSK) mild steel; high strength, low alloy (HSLA) steel; interstitial free (IF); and a high strength steel (M-190) have been completed. In addition to the true stress-true strain data, coefficients for the Johnson-Cook, Zerilli-Armstrong, and Mechanical Threshold Stress constitutive models have been determined from the mechanical test results at various strain rates and temperatures and are summarized. Compression, tensile, and biaxial bulge tests and low (below 0.1/s) strain rate tests were completed for all four steels. From these test results it was determined to proceed with the material modeling optimization using the through thickness compression results. Compression tests at higher strain rates and temperatures were also conducted and analyzed for all the steels. Constitutive model fits were generated from the experimental data. This report provides a compilation of information generated from mechanical tests, the fitting parameters for each of the constitutive models, and an index and description of data files.

  15. Assessing dust exposure in an integrated iron and steel manufacturing plant in South India.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, B; Krishnamurthy, V; Ravibabu, K; Raghavan, S; Rajan, B K; Rajmohan, H R

    2008-01-01

    A study to monitor and estimate respirable particulate matter (RPM), toxic trace metal concentrations in the work environment was carried out in different sections of an integrated steel manufacturing industry. The average RPM concentration observed varied according to the section blast furnace was 2.41 mg/m;{3}; energy optimization furnace, 1.87 mg/m;{3}; sintering plant, 0.98 mg/m;{3}; continuous casting machine, 1.93 mg/m;{3}. The average trace metal concentration estimated from the RPM samples like iron, manganese, lead and chromium did not exceed ACGIH prescribed levels.

  16. Creep-fatigue criteria and inelastic behavior of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at elevated temperatures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggles, M.B.; Ogata, T.

    1994-02-01

    The ever increasing demand for safety requires that stringent and conservative methodology be developed for design and analysis of reactor components. At present modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is a candidate material for construction of steam generators in fast breeder reactors. Therefore high-temperature material properties and extensive insight into deformation behavior and creep-fatigue life are required to develop design guidelines for use of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel in actual plant components. However, existing information on creep-fatigue and deformation response of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is insufficient, and further experimental and modeling efforts are needed. A joint effort between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in the United States and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) in Japan was started in 1991 to investigate the inelastic behavior of and to develop creep-fatigue criteria for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at elevated temperatures. The current program focuses on uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue tests. Results of this effort are presented in this report. Section 2 introduces the test material and experimental arrangement. Uniaxial exploratory deformation tests and unified constitutive equations for inelastic analysis of modified 9Cr-1Mo steel are presented in Sections 3 and 4, respectively. Axial fatigue and creep-fatigue test results are discussed in Section 5. Section 6 is devoted to constant stress creep tests. Biaxial fatigue and creep-fatigue tests are described in Section 7. Progress in creep-fatigue life evaluation is reported in Section 8.

  17. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  18. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  19. A process integration approach to industrial water conservation: a case study for a Chinese steel plant.

    PubMed

    Tian, J R; Zhou, P J; Lv, B

    2008-03-01

    A systematic approach to optimizing water network has traditionally been utilized to exam and plan water conservation in industrial processes. In the present case study, water-pinch technology was used to analyze and optimize the water network of a steel plant near China's Zhangjiakou city. A system design was developed and a limiting constraint (Cl(-) concentration) was identified based on investigations of water quality then the minimum freshwater and wastewater targets were determined without considering water losses. The analysis was then extended by calculating the additional input of freshwater required to balance the actual water losses. A nearest-neighbor algorithm (NNA) was used to distribute the freshwater and recycled water among each of the plant's operations. The results showed that with some reconstruction of the water network, the flow rates of freshwater and wastewater could be decreased by 57.5% and 81.9%, respectively.

  20. Final Report, Volume 3, Guidance Document for the Evaluation of Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    Volume 3 is comprised of the Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (A890-5A) which is equivalent to wrought 2507. The objective of this work was to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). The various tests which were carried out were ASTM A923 Test Method A, B and C (Sodium Hydroxide Etch Test, Charpy Impact Test and Ferric Chloride Corrosion Test), ferrite measurement using Feritscope®, ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method and X-Ray Diffraction, hardness measurement using Rockwell B and C and microstructural analysis using SEM and EDS.

  1. [Controls of the plant endomembrane-secretory pathway]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    These studies are focused on elucidating the molecular structure of plant cell membranes with special reference to cell surface glycoproteins. The studies reported herein include use of monoclonal antibodies to characterize cell surface epitopes, construction of cDNA libraries of cell surface proteins, isolation of plant cell mutants by flow cytometry, detection of beta-glucouronidase marker enzyme systems in plants, expression go VSVG (the major envelope glycoprotein of Vesicular Stomatis Virus) in plant cells, and control of gene expression of cell membrane glycoproteins.(DT)

  2. 75 FR 54090 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-average dumping margins for the reviewed firms, Ambica Steels Limited (``Ambica'') and Venus Wire... reasons explained in the Preliminary Results, we have determined that Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. and... File, ``Relationship of Venus Wire Industries Pvt. Ltd. and Sieves Manufacturers (India) Pvt....

  3. Characterization of the deformation and annealing of 304L stainless steel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    Stainless steel, type 304L, was deformed at room temperature using the two processes of semi-piercing and cold-rolling and then annealed at various temperatures and times. The three metallurgical areas of work hardening, age hardening, and anneal softening were observed and characterized using metallography techniques of macrohardness, optical and transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction.

  4. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  5. Water use, productivity and interactions among desert plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ehleringer, J.R.

    1992-11-17

    Productivity, stability, and competitive interactions among ecosystem components within aridlands are key processes related directly to water in deserts. This project assumes that integrated aspects of plant metabolism provide insight into the structure and function of plant communities and ecosystems. While it is difficult to extrapolate from instantaneous physiological observations to higher scales, such as whole plant performance or to the interactions between plants as components of ecosystems, several key aspects of plant metabolism are scalable. Analyses of stable isotopic composition in plant tissues at natural abundance levels provide a useful tool that can provide insight into the consequences of physiological processes over temporal and spatial scales. Some plant processes continuously fractionate among light and heavy stable isotopic forms of an element; over time this results in integrated measures of plant metabolism. For example, carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis results in leaf carbon isotopic composition that is a measure of the set-point for photosynthetic metabolism and of water-use efficiency. Thus it provides information on the temporal scaling of a key physiological process.

  6. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the

  7. Final Report, Volume 1, Metallurgical Evaluation of Cast Duplex Stainless Steels and their Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Songqing; Lundin, Carl, W.; Batten, Greg, W.

    2005-09-30

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are being specified for chloride containing environments due to their enhanced pitting and stress corrosion cracking resistance. They exhibit improved corrosion performance over the austenitic stainless steels. Duplex stainless steels also offer improved strength properties and are available in various wrought and cast forms. Selected grades of duplex stainless steel castings and their welds, in comparison with their wrought counterparts, were evaluated, regarding corrosion performance and mechanical properties and weldability. Multiple heats of cast duplex stainless steel were evaluated in the as-cast, solution annealed (SA) static cast and SA centrifugal cast conditions, while their wrought counterparts were characterized in the SA condition and in the form of as-rolled plate. Welding, including extensive assessment of autogenous welds and a preliminary study of composite welds (shielded metal arc weld (SMAW)), was performed. The evaluations included critical pitting temperature (CPT) testing, intergranular corrosion (IGC) testing, ASTM A923 (Methods A, B and C), Charpy impact testing, weldability testing (ASTM A494), ferrite measurement and microstructural evaluations. In the study, the corrosion performances of DSS castings were characterized and assessed, including the wrought counterparts for comparison. The evaluation filled the pore of lack of data for cast duplex stainless steels compared to wrought materials. A database of the pitting corrosion and IGC behavior of cast and wrought materials was generated for a greater depth of understanding for the behavior of cast duplex stainless steel. In addition, improved evaluation methods for DSS castings were developed according to ASTM A923, A262, G48 and A494. The study revealed that when properly heat treated according to the specification, (1) DSS castings have equal or better pitting and intergranular corrosion resistance than their wrought counterparts; (2) Welding reduces the

  8. Native Michigan plants stimulate soil microbial species changes and PAH remediation at a legacy steel mill.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John C; Cable, Edward; Dabkowski, Robert T; Gargala, Stephanie; McCall, Daniel; Pangrazzi, Garett; Pierson, Adam; Ripper, Mark; Russell, Donald K; Rugh, Clayton L

    2013-01-01

    A 1.3-acre phytoremediation site was constructed to mitigate polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination from a former steel mill in Michigan. Soil was amended with 10% (v/v) compost and 5% (v/v) poultry litter. The site was divided into twelve 11.89 m X 27.13 m plots, planted with approximately 35,000 native Michigan perennials, and soils sampled for three seasons. Soil microbial density generally increased in subplots of Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Aster novae-angliae (New England aster), Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem), and Scirpus atrovirens (green bulrush) versus unplanted subplots. Using enumeration assays with root exudates, PAH degrading bacteria were greatest in soils beneath plants. Initially predominant, Arthrobacter were found capable of degrading a PAH cocktail in vitro, especially upon the addition of root exudate. Growth of some Arthrobacter isolates was stimulated by root exudate. The frequency of Arthrobacter declined in planted subplots with a concurrent increase in other species, including secondary PAH degraders Bacillus and Nocardioides. In subplots supporting only weeds, an increase in Pseudomonas density and little PAH removal were observed. This study supports the notion that a dynamic interplay between the soil, bacteria, and native plant root secretions likely contributes to in situ PAH phytoremediation.

  9. IMPROVING TACONITE PROCESSING PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COMPUTER SIMULATION, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    William M. Bond; Salih Ersayin

    2007-03-30

    This project involved industrial scale testing of a mineral processing simulator to improve the efficiency of a taconite processing plant, namely the Minorca mine. The Concentrator Modeling Center at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory, University of Minnesota Duluth, enhanced the capabilities of available software, Usim Pac, by developing mathematical models needed for accurate simulation of taconite plants. This project provided funding for this technology to prove itself in the industrial environment. As the first step, data representing existing plant conditions were collected by sampling and sample analysis. Data were then balanced and provided a basis for assessing the efficiency of individual devices and the plant, and also for performing simulations aimed at improving plant efficiency. Performance evaluation served as a guide in developing alternative process strategies for more efficient production. A large number of computer simulations were then performed to quantify the benefits and effects of implementing these alternative schemes. Modification of makeup ball size was selected as the most feasible option for the target performance improvement. This was combined with replacement of existing hydrocyclones with more efficient ones. After plant implementation of these modifications, plant sampling surveys were carried out to validate findings of the simulation-based study. Plant data showed very good agreement with the simulated data, confirming results of simulation. After the implementation of modifications in the plant, several upstream bottlenecks became visible. Despite these bottlenecks limiting full capacity, concentrator energy improvement of 7% was obtained. Further improvements in energy efficiency are expected in the near future. The success of this project demonstrated the feasibility of a simulation-based approach. Currently, the Center provides simulation-based service to all the iron ore mining companies operating in northern

  10. Final MTI Data Report: H. B. Robinson Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, M.J.

    2003-03-17

    During the period from March 2000 to September 2002, surface water temperature data was collected at the H. B. Robinson Plant near Hartsville, SC. This effort was led by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) with the assistance of local plant personnel. Permission for setting up the monitoring sites was granted by Carolina Power and Light, which owns the plant site. This work was done in support of SRTC's ground truth mission for the U.S. Department of Energy's Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI).

  11. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cells of plants are surrounded by strong walls that prevent rupture from internal pressures that can be two or three times that of an automobile tire. In this way, the walls protect the cytoplasm. However, at the same time, the cells can enlarge as they grow. How this balancing act works and how it enlarges the plant were the subject of a recent conference at the University of Delaware in Lewes. The aim was to identify areas for future research that could explain the enlargement of whole plants. There is a large practical need to predict and modify plant enlargement but the additional processes that overlie the molecular ones need to be integrated with the molecular information before a picture will emerge. How best to accomplish this involved input from cross-disciplinary areas in biomechanics, physics and engineering as well as molecular biology, biochemistry and ultrastructure.

  12. Hybrid Cooling for Geothermal Power Plants: Final ARRA Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.

    2013-06-01

    Many binary-cycle geothermal plants use air as the heat rejection medium. Usually this is accomplished by using an air-cooled condenser (ACC) system to condense the vapor of the working fluid in the cycle. Many air-cooled plants suffer a loss of production capacity of up to 50% during times of high ambient temperatures. Use of limited amounts of water to supplement the performance of ACCs is investigated. Deluge cooling is found to be one of the least-cost options. Limiting the use of water in such an application to less than one thousand operating hours per year can boost plant output during critical high-demand periods while minimizing water use in binary-cycle geothermal power plants.

  13. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Weirton Steel: Mill Identifies $1.4 Million in Annual Savings Following Plant-Wide Energy-Efficiency Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2004-01-01

    The Weirton Steel Corporation performed a plant-wide energy assessment of its steel mill plant in Weirton, West Virginia. Based on the assessment results, the company found strong economic justification for six projects that would reduce the use of fossil fuel, electrical energy, and water. All of the projects would save fossil fuel either for heating steam or firing the furnace. This savings totals 108,300 million British thermal units (MMBtu) annually or $1.27 million. Other yearly savings include 119 million gallons of water ($87,110) and 84,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) or $3,357 of electrical energy. All of the projects could be applied to other steel mills and possibly other industries using steam processes and furnaces.

  15. Nondestructive characterization of reactor pressure vessel steels: A feasibility study. Technical note (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, H.I.; Alers, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    Radiation damage to the walls of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) causes the steel to become more brittle and less able to withstand the thermal stresses of start-up and shut-down procedures. Current methods of monitoring the degree of embrittlement are based on measurements of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of surveillance specimens subjected to severe radiation damage inside the reactor itself. In order to improve on this conservative approach and extend the useful life of vessels that have been in service for many years, NIST undertook a feasibility study to investigate nondestructive techniques for inferring the DBTT of the pressure vessel wall itself. The approach used was based on the hypothesis that the changes in microstructure that accompany embrittlement could be detected by accurate measurements of the physical properties of the steel in the pressure vessel wall.

  16. Fusion welding of advanced borated stainless steels. Final report: CRADA No. CR1042

    SciTech Connect

    Robino, C.V.; Cieslak, M.J.

    1994-02-01

    This work addressed two major areas concerning joining of advanced borated stainless steels. These areas included the development of a understanding of the physical metallurgy of borated stainless steels and the development of welding processes and post-weld heat treatments for these alloys. Differential thermal analysis experiments were conducted on ten heats of borated stainless steel to determine the transformation temperatures and melting behavior of the alloys. On-heating solidus temperatures were measured for all of the alloys and were used to define the temperatures associated with the fusion line during welding. Isothermal heat treatments designed to evaluate the effects of elevated temperature exposures on the toughness of the borated grades were conducted. These tests were used to determine if significant changes in the microstructure or mechanical properties of weld heat-affected zones (HAZ) occur. Specifically, the tests addressed the solid-state region of the HAZ. The test matrix included a variety of alloy compositions and thermal exposures at temperatures near the on-heating solidus (as determined by the DTA experiments). Welding experiments designed to assess the mechanical properties and microstructure of gas-tungsten arc and electron beam welds were conducted.

  17. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  18. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  19. A&M. Demineralization plant (TAN649). Steel door. Ralph M. Parsons 1480L/ANP/GA3649MS1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Demineralization plant (TAN-649). Steel door. Ralph M. Parsons 1480-L/ANP/GA-3-649-MS-1. Date: October 1958. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0649-40-693-107443 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Bioleaching of zinc and iron from steel plant waste using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Oktay; Sever, Efsun; Bayat, Belgin; Arslan, Volkan; Poole, Colin

    2009-01-01

    The bacterial leaching of zinc and iron from solid wastes at the Isdemir iron and steel plant has been investigated using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans as the bacterial agent. The effects of a range of operational parameters, including particle size, solids concentration and pH, on the efficiency of the bioleaching process were investigated. In each test, several variables were determined to assess the efficiency of leaching, including slurry pH and redox potential, temperature, bacteria population and concentrations of zinc and iron in solution. Experimental results demonstrated that pulp solids concentration, slurry pH and solids particle size were all important parameters in the bacterial leaching process. Maximum extraction was achieved at pH values around 1.3 and a solids concentration of 1% w/v, with 35% of the Zn content and 37% of the Fe being dissolved.

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Bacillus spp. isolated from steel plant waste

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Dulcecleide B; Reis, Mariana P; Lima-Bittencourt, Cláudia I; Costa, Patrícia S; Assis, Paulo S; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa MA

    2008-01-01

    Background Molecular studies of Bacillus diversity in various environments have been reported. However, there have been few investigations concerning Bacillus in steel plant environments. In this study, genotypic and phenotypic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among 40 bacterial isolates recovered from steel plant waste were investigated using classical and molecular methods. Results 16S rDNA partial sequencing assigned all the isolates to the Bacillus genus, with close genetic relatedness to the Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus groups, and to the species Bacillus sphaericus. tDNA-intergenic spacer length polymorphisms and the 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer region failed to identify the isolates at the species level. Genomic diversity was investigated by molecular typing with rep (repetitive sequence) based PCR using the primer sets ERIC2 (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus), (GTG)5, and BOXAIR. Genotypic fingerprinting of the isolates reflected high intraspecies and interspecies diversity. Clustering of the isolates using ERIC-PCR fingerprinting was similar to that obtained from the 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic tree, indicating the potential of the former technique as a simple and useful tool for examining relationships among unknown Bacillus spp. Physiological, biochemical and heavy metal susceptibility profiles also indicated considerable phenotypic diversity. Among the heavy metal compounds tested Zn, Pb and Cu were least toxic to the bacterial isolates, whereas Ag inhibited all isolates at 0.001 mM. Conclusion Isolates with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences had different genomic fingerprints and differed considerably in their physiological capabilities, so the high levels of phenotypic diversity found in this study are likely to have ecological relevance. PMID:18928552

  2. Prediction of external corrosion for steel cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Application of an empirical method

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, B.F.

    1996-02-01

    During the summer of 1995, ultrasonic wall thickness data were collected for 100 steel cylinders containing depleted uranium (DU) hexafluoride located at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. The cylinders were selected for measurement to assess the condition of the more vulnerable portion of the cylinder inventory at PGDP. The purpose of this report is to apply the method used in Lyon to estimate the effects of corrosion for larger unsampled populations as a function of time. The scope of this report is limited and is not intended to represent the final analyses of available data. Future efforts will include continuing analyses of available data to investigate defensible deviations from the conservative assumptions made to date. For each cylinder population considered, two basic types of analyses were conducted: (1) estimates were made of the number of cylinders as a function of time that will have a minimum wall thickness of either 0 mils (1 mil = 0.00 1 in.) or 250 mils and (2) the current minimum wall thickness distributions across cylinders were estimated for each cylinder population considered. Additional analyses were also performed investigating comparisons of the results for F and G yards with the results presented in Lyon (1995).

  3. Hydrocarbons and energy from plants: Final report, 1984-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.; Otvos, J.; Taylor, S.E.; Nemethy, E.K.; Skrukrud, C.L.; Hawkins, D.R.; Lago, R.

    1988-08-01

    Plant hydrocarbon (isoprenoid) production was investigated as an alternative source to fossil fuels. Because of their high triterpenoid (hydrocarbon) content of 4--8%, Euphorbia lathyris plants were used as a model system for this study. The structure of the E. lathyris triterpenoids was determined, and triterpenoid biosynthesis studied to better understand the metabolic regulation of isoprenoid production. Triterpenoid biosynthesis occurs in two distinct tissue types in E. lathyris plants: in the latex of the laticifer cells; and in the mesophyll cells of the leaf and stem. The latex has been fractionated by centrifugation, and it has been determined that the later steps of isoprenoid biosynthesis, the conversion of mevalonic acid to the triterpenes, are compartmentized within a vacuole. Also identified was the conversion of hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA to mevalonic acid, catalyzed by the enzyme Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase, as a key rate limiting step in isoprenoid biosynthesis. At least two isozymes of this enzyme, one in the latex and another in the leaf plastids, have been identified. Environmental stress has been applied to plants to study changes in carbon allocation. Salinity stress caused a large decrease in growth, smaller decreases in photosynthesis, resulting in a larger allocation of carbon to both hydrocarbon and sugar production. An increase in Hydroxymethyl glutaryl-CoA Reductase activity was also observed when isoprenoid production increased. Other species where also screened for the production of hydrogen rich products such as isoprenoids and glycerides, and their hydrocarbon composition was determined.

  4. Hurricane Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dibra, Besart; Finucane, Zachary; Foley, Benjamin; Hall, Rudy; Damiani, Rick; Maples, Benjamin; Parker, Zachary; Robertson, Amy; Scott, George; Stehly, Tyler; Wendt, Fabian; Andersen, Mads Boel Overgaard; Raina, Amool; Wetzel, Kyle; Musial, Walter; Schreck, Scott

    2016-10-01

    Hurricanes occur over much of the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts, from Long Island to the U.S.-Mexico border, encompassing much of the nation's primary offshore wind resource. Category 5 hurricanes have made landfall as far north as North Carolina, with Category 3 hurricanes reaching New York with some frequency. Along the US West coast, typhoons strike with similar frequency and severity. At present, offshore wind turbine design practices do not fully consider the severe operating conditions imposed by hurricanes. Although universally applied to most turbine designs, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards do not sufficiently address the duration, directionality, magnitude, or character of hurricanes. To assess advanced design features that could mitigate hurricane loading in various ways, this Hurricane-Resilient Wind Plant Concept Study considered a concept design study of a 500-megawatt (MW) wind power plant consisting of 10-MW wind turbines deployed in 25-meter (m) water depths in the Western Gulf of Mexico. This location was selected because hurricane frequency and severity provided a unique set of design challenges that would enable assessment of hurricane risk and projection of cost of energy (COE) changes, all in response to specific U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) objectives. Notably, the concept study pursued a holistic approach that incorporated multiple advanced system elements at the wind turbine and wind power plant levels to meet objectives for system performance and reduced COE. Principal turbine system elements included a 10-MW rotor with structurally efficient, low-solidity blades; a lightweight, permanent-magnet, direct-drive generator, and an innovative fixed substructure. At the wind power plant level, turbines were arrayed in a large-scale wind power plant in a manner aimed at balancing energy production against capital, installation, and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs to achieve significant overall reductions in COE.

  5. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein.

  6. 75 FR 64254 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil... order on certain hot-rolled, flat-rolled carbon quality steel products (hot-rolled steel) from Brazil. See Certain Hot- Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Preliminary Results...

  7. 75 FR 47777 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... steels (i.e., USS AR 400, USS AR 500); (5) products made to ASTM A202, A225, A514 grade S, A517 grade S, or their proprietary equivalents; (6) ball bearing steels; (7) tool steels; and (8) silicon manganese... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy:...

  8. The industrial ecology of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Considine, Timothy J.; Jablonowski, Christopher; Considine, Donita M.M.; Rao, Prasad G.

    2001-03-26

    This study performs an integrated assessment of new technology adoption in the steel industry. New coke, iron, and steel production technologies are discussed, and their economic and environmental characteristics are compared. Based upon detailed plant level data on cost and physical input-output relations by process, this study develops a simple mathematical optimization model of steel process choice. This model is then expanded to a life cycle context, accounting for environmental emissions generated during the production and transportation of energy and material inputs into steelmaking. This life-cycle optimization model provides a basis for evaluating the environmental impacts of existing and new iron and steel technologies. Five different plant configurations are examined, from conventional integrated steel production to completely scrap-based operations. Two cost criteria are used to evaluate technology choice: private and social cost, with the latter including the environmental damages associated with emissions. While scrap-based technologies clearly generate lower emissions in mass terms, their emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are significantly higher. Using conventional damage cost estimates reported in the literature suggests that the social costs associated with scrap-based steel production are slightly higher than with integrated steel production. This suggests that adopting a life-cycle viewpoint can substantially affect environmental assessment of new technologies. Finally, this study also examines the impacts of carbon taxes on steel production costs and technology choice.

  9. Wetland plant communities, Galveston Bay system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.A.; Paine, J.G.

    1992-03-01

    The report is the culmination of a field investigation of wetland plant communities, and is one phase of the project, Trends and Status of Wetland and Aquatic Habitats of the Galveston Bay System, Texas, sponsored by the Galveston Bay National Estuary Program. For purpose of the topical report, wetlands are defined and classified in terms of more classical definitions, for example, salt, brackish, and fresh marshes, in accordance with project requirements. More than 150 sites were examined in the Galveston Bay system.

  10. Final Report on Oxygen Plant Development (Employing Regenerative Chemicals)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-31

    addition to a chronological description of each plant or study involved in the program , the report contains a bibliography of correspondence, memoranda...the following month, January, 1942, Kellogg formally agreed to become the central engineering agency for the NDRC oxygen program . On January 27...Z - Iquator. The Salcomine program also visualized the develop- ment of unite for use on shipboard and in long-range bombing planes. A ground unit

  11. Regulation of cell division in higher plants. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Thomas W.

    2000-02-29

    Research in the latter part of the grant period was divided into two parts: (1) expansion of the macromolecular tool kit for studying plant cell division; (2) experiments in which the roles played by plant cell cycle regulators were to be cast in the light of the emerging yeast and animal cell paradigm for molecular control of the mitotic cycle. The first objectives were accomplished to a very satisfactory degree. With regard to the second part of the project, we were driven to change our objectives for two reasons. First, the families of cell cycle control genes that we cloned encoded such closely related members that the prospects for success at raising distinguishing antisera against each were sufficiently dubious as to be impractical. Epitope tagging is not feasible in Pisum sativum, our experimental system, as this species is not realistically transformable. Therefore, differentiating the roles of diverse cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases was problematic. Secondly, our procedure for generating mitotically synchronized pea root meristems for biochemical studies was far too labor intensive for the proposed experiments. We therefore shifted our objectives to identifying connections between the conserved proteins of the cell cycle engine and factors that interface it with plant physiology and development. In this, we have obtained some very exciting results.

  12. Sewage Treatment Plants: Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 1989 Final Rule (54 FR 6660)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document includes a copy of the Federal Register publication of the February 14, 1989 Final Rule for the Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources for Sewage Treatment Plants. This document is provided courtesy of HeinOnline.

  13. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  14. Boric acid corrosion of carbon and low-alloy steel pressure-boundary components in PWRs: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, A.S.; Hall, J.F.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey of the effects of borated water leakage on carbon and low-alloy steel components (other than fasteners) in PWR applications. Boric acid corrosion field experience and laboratory test results are addressed. The report reviews and summarizes corrosion events that have occurred in PWRs and provides, for each event, plant identification, year of occurrence, component or part affected, materials, leak rates (where available), extent of corrosion and repair procedures. Laboratory test data are also discussed, including some recent unpublished data. The report recommends corrective actions that the utilities should take to prevent boric acid corrosion of pressure boundary components. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  16. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to

  17. Corrosion Behavior of Pulsed Gas Tungsten Arc Weldments in Power Plant Carbon Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaresh Babu, S. P.; Natarajan, S.

    2007-10-01

    Welding plays an essential role in fabrication of components such as boiler drum, pipe work, heat exchangers, etc., used in power plants. Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is mainly used for welding of boiler components. Pulsed GTAW is another process widely used where high quality and precision welds are required. In all arc-welding processes, the intense heat produced by the arc and the associated local heating and cooling lead to varied corrosion behavior and several metallurgical phase changes. Since the occurrence of corrosion is due to electrochemical potential gradient developed in the adjacent site of a weld metal, it is proposed to study the effects of welding on the corrosion behavior of these steels. This paper describes the experimental work carried out to evaluate and compare corrosion and its inhibition in SA 516 Gr.70 carbon steel by pulsed GTAW process in HCl medium at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 M concentrations. The parent metal, weld metal and heat affected zone are chosen as regions of exposure for the study made at room temperature (R.T.) and at 100 °C. Electrochemical polarization techniques such as Tafel line extrapolation (Tafel), linear polarization resistance (LPR), and ac impedance method have been used to measure the corrosion current. The role of hexamine and mixed inhibitor (thiourea + hexamine in 0.5 M HCl), each at 100 ppm concentration is studied in these experiments. Microstructural observation, surface characterization, and morphology using SEM and XRD studies have been made on samples exposed at 100 °C in order to highlight the nature and extent of film formation.

  18. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.

    1983-10-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

  19. Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzcharles, III, H M

    1983-01-01

    The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

  20. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  1. Trimode optimizes hybrid power plants. Final report: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.A.; O`Sullivan, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    In the Phase 2 project, Abacus Controls Inc. did research and development of hybrid systems that combine the energy sources from photovoltaics, batteries, and diesel-generators and demonstrated that they are economically feasible for small power plants in many parts of the world. The Trimode Power Processor reduces the fuel consumption of the diesel-generator to its minimum by presenting itself as the perfect electrical load to the generator. A 30-kW three-phase unit was tested at Sandia National Laboratories to prove its worthiness in actual field conditions. The use of photovoltaics at remote locations where reliability of supply requires a diesel-generator will lower costs to operate by reducing the run time of the diesel generator. The numerous benefits include longer times between maintenance for the diesel engine and better power quality from the generator. 32 figs.

  2. Solidification of low-volume power plant sludges. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.; Halverson, M.A.; Mercer, B.M.

    1981-12-01

    A literature review was conducted to obtain information on the status of hazardous waste solidification technology and application of this technology to low-volume power plant waste sludges. Because of scarcity of sludge composition data, anticipated major components were identified primarily by chemical reactions that are known to occur during treatment of specific wastewaters. Chemical and physical properties of these sludges were critically analyzed for compatibility with several types of commercially available solidification processes. The study pointed out the need for additional information on the nature of these sludges, especially leaching characteristics and the presence of substances that will interfere with solidification processes. Laboratory studies were recommended for evaluation of solidification process which have the greatest potential for converting hazardous low-volume sludges to non-hazardous waste forms.

  3. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  4. A review of plant decontamination methods: 1988 Update: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Remark, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    This document updates the state-of-the-art in decontamination technology since the publication of the previous review (EPRI NP- 1128) in May 1981. A brief description of the corrosion-film characteristics is presented as well as corrosion film differences between a BWR and PWR. The generation transportation, activation, and deposition of the radioisotopes found throughout the reactor coolant system is also discussed. Successful, well executed, decontamination campaigns are always preceded by meticulous planning and careful procedure preparation which include contingency operations. The Decontamination Planning and Preparation Section describes the technical planning steps as well as the methodology that should be followed in order to select the optimum decontamination technique for a specific application. A review of a number of the decontamination methods commercialized since 1980 is presented. The basic mechanism for each process is described as well as specific applications of the technology in the fields. Where possible, results obtained in the field are presented. The information was obtained from industry vendors as well as personnel at the plant locations that have utilized the technology. 72 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Parris Island Wastewater Treatment Plant SCADA Upgrades Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Meador, Richard J.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2004-03-18

    Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), Parris Island, SC, home of the Easter Recruiting Region Marine Corp Boot Camp, found itself in a situation common to Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. It had to deal with several different types of installed energy-related control systems that could not talk to each other. This situation was being exacerbated by the installation of a new and/or unique type of control system for every new building being constructed or older facility that was being upgraded. The Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF) and lift station controls were badly in need of a thorough inspection and a new Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system upgrade to meet environmental, safety, manpower, and maintenance concerns. A project was recently completed to implement such a wastewater treatment SCADA upgrade, which is compatible with other upgrades to the energy monitoring and control systems for Parris Island buildings and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance (DSOM) system installed at the Central Energy Plant (CEP). This project included design, specification, procurement, installation, and testing an upgraded SCADA alarm, process monitoring, and display system; and training WWTF operators in its operation. The ultimate goal of this and the other PNNL projects at Parris Island is to allow monitoring and control of energy and environmental components from a central location.

  6. On-farm US irrigation pumping plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Over 473,000 on-farm pumping plants are being used to pump and deliver irrigation water in the United States. The distribution of these units by geographic regions and potential wind power zones was determined. Over 60 percent of the pumping units in the US are smaller than 37.3 kW (50 horsepower) in size and only 9.4 percent of the units are larger than 74.6 kW in size (100 horsepower). Over 49 percent of these pumps (231,440) are located in the six Great Plains States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. This area also has the largest potential wind power in the US during the primary irrigation season. Over 51 percent of the pumping units are located in wind zones having a potential average wind power greater than 250 W/m/sup 2/ at an elevation of 50 meters. However, only 6.5 percent of the units are located in the largest potential average wind power zone (> 400 W/m/sup 2/ at 50 meters). In general, those areas which have greater potential wind power, have larger sized pumping units.

  7. BACA Project: geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The various activities that have been conducted by Union in the Redondo Creek area while attempting to develop the resource for a 50 MW power plant are described. The results of the geologic work, drilling activities and reservoir studies are summarized. In addition, sections discussing the historical costs for Union's involvement with the project, production engineering (for anticipated surface equipment), and environmental work are included. Nineteen geothermal wells have been drilled in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera: a prominent geologic feature of the Jemez mountains consisting of Pliocene and Pleistocene age volcanics. The Redondo Creek area is within a complex longitudinal graben on the northwest flank of the resurgent structural dome of Redondo Peak and Redondo Border. The major graben faults, with associated fracturing, are geologically plausible candidates for permeable and productive zones in the reservoir. The distribution of such permeable zones is too erratic and the locations too imprecisely known to offer an attractive drilling target. Log analysis indicates there is a preferred mean fracture strike of N31W in the upper portion of Redondo Creek wells. This is approximately perpendicular to the major structure in the area, the northeast-striking Redondo Creek graben. The geothermal fluid found in the Redondo Creek reservoir is relatively benign with low brine concentrations and moderate H/sub 2/S concentrations. Geothermometer calculations indicate that the reservoir temperature generally lies between 500/sup 0/F and 600/sup 0/F, with near wellbore flashing occurring during the majority of the wells' production.

  8. Dynamic test of a corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter MISTY PICTURE. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.L.; Slawson, T.R.; Harris, A.L.

    1987-11-01

    The 18-man blast shelter was tested dynamically on May 14, 1987 in the MISTY PICTURE event at White Sands Missile Range, NM. The main section of the shelter was fabricated from a 9-foot-diameter, 27.5-foot-long section of 10-gage, galvanized, corrugated steel culvert. The shelter included a vertical entryway and air intake and exhaust stacks. The shelter design was found to be conservative during a previous 50-psi validation test, and some constructibility problems were encountered with the entryway-to-shelter connections. This test was conducted to validate the modifications made to the shelter design. The modifications were made to reduce construction costs and improve constructibility. Primary modifications included: replacing the stiffened endwalls with lighter-weight unstiffened plates, connecting the entryway to an endwall rather than to the main section of the shelter, and the inclusion of an emergency exit. The structure was located at the anticipated 200-psi peak overpressure level. Post-test inspection revealed that the main section of the shelter suffered very little damage during the test. Due to the failure of the emergency exit cover plate, it was necessary to determine if enough pressure entered the shelter to affect its structural response. This test also investigated the shock environment inside the shelter.

  9. Dynamic test of a corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodson, S.C.; Slawson, T.R.; Holmes, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    At the time this study was initiated, civil defense planning in the United States called for the evacuation of nonessential personnel to safe host areas when a nuclear attack is probable, requiring the construction of blast shelters to protect the key workers remaining in the risk areas. A full-scale corrugated steel keyworker blast shelter was dynamically tested using the High Explosive Simulation Technique (HEST). The test primarily investigated the structural design of the shelter and entryway, survivability of the air-moving system components, and occupant survivability. Alternate blast designs for the 18-man shelter were also tested. The test showed that the structure can withstand a 55-psi peak overpressure loading from a 1-MT nuclear detonation with only minor damage. In-structure shock was within acceptable limits for occupants. However, typical floor-mounted shelter equipment should be shock-isolated with pads to ensure survivability. Structural modifications to decrease the cost and increase the ease of installation of the structure are recommended.

  10. Ferrite Measurement in Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steel Castings - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Zhou, G.; Ruprecht, W.

    1999-08-01

    The ability to determine ferrite rapidly, accurately and directly on a finished casting, in the solution annealed condition, can enhance the acceptance, save on manufacturing costs and ultimately improve service performance of duplex stainless steel cast products. If the suitability of a non-destructive ferrite determination methodology can be demonstrated for standard industrial measurement instruments, the production of cast secondary standards for calibration of these instruments is a necessity. With these concepts in mind, a series of experiments were carried out to demonstrate, in a non-destructive manner, the proper methodology for determining ferrite content. The literature was reviewed, with regard to measurement techniques and vagaries, an industrial ferrite measurement round-robin was conducted, the effects of casting surface finish, preparation of the casting surface for accurate measurement and the evaluation of suitable means for the production of cast secondary standards for calibration were systematically investigated. The data obtained from this research program provide recommendations to ensure accurate, repeatable, and reproducible ferrite measurement and qualifies the Feritscope for field use on production castings.

  11. Final environmental impact statement. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this document as environmental input to future decisions regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which would include the disposal of transuranic waste, as currently authorized. The alternatives covered in this document are the following: (1) Continue storing transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as it is now or with improved confinement. (2) Proceed with WIPP at the Los Medanos site in southeastern New Mexico, as currently authorized. (3) Dispose of TRU waste in the first available repository for high-level waste. The Los Medanos site would be investigated for its potential suitability as a candidate site. This is administration policy and is the alternative preferred by the DOE. (4) Delay the WIPP to allow other candidate sites to be evaluated for TRU-waste disposal. This environmental impact statement is arranged in the following manner: Chapter 1 is an overall summary of the analysis contained in the document. Chapters 2 and 4 set forth the objectives of the national waste-management program and analyze the full spectrum of reasonable alternatives for meeting these objectives, including the WIPP. Chapter 5 presents the interim waste-acceptance criteria and waste-form alternatives for the WIPP. Chapters 6 through 13 provide a detailed description and environmental analysis of the WIPP repository and its site. Chapter 14 describes the permits and approvals necessary for the WIPP and the interactions that have taken place with Federal, State, and local authorities, and with the general public in connection with the repository. Chapter 15 analyzes the many comments received on the DEIS and tells what has been done in this FEIS in response. The appendices contain data and discussions in support of the material in the text.

  12. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  13. 77 FR 17427 - Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Galvanized Steel Wire From Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Steel Wire From Mexico AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of... fair value of galvanized steel wire (galvanized wire) from Mexico.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Galvanized Steel Wire... galvanized wire from Mexico is being, or is likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair...

  14. 78 FR 67334 - Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Suspension Agreement on Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From Ukraine... administrative review of the suspension agreement on certain cut-to-length carbon steel plate from Ukraine... (Azovstal) and Ilyich Iron and Steel Works (Ilyich). See Suspension Agreement on Certain...

  15. 75 FR 29976 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Extension of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy... antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from Italy. See Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From Italy: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  16. 75 FR 76396 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit... steel sheet and strip in coils (S4 in coils) from Mexico for the period July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009. See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico; Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  17. 75 FR 28557 - Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic of China... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of pre-stressed concrete steel wire strand... Determination on October 27, 2009. See Pre-Stressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand from the People's Republic...

  18. 75 FR 18152 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from India: Extension of Time... countervailing duty order on certain hot- rolled carbon steel flat products from India covering the period January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2008. See Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From...

  19. 78 FR 64473 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Final No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of... Preliminary Results of the 2011-2012 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain hot- rolled carbon steel flat products (``hot-rolled steel'') from the People's Republic of China...

  20. 76 FR 66901 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of... duty order on certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products (``hot-rolled'') from the People's Republic... Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Intent...

  1. 78 FR 25701 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Notice of Second Amended Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India: Notice of Second...) administrative review of certain hot-rolled carbon steel flat products from India for the 2007 review period (the..., 2013 (January 2013 remand results). \\2\\ See Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products from...

  2. 76 FR 22868 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil... certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon- quality steel products (HRS) from Brazil for the period January 1...: Background Since the issuance of Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From...

  3. 77 FR 69790 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From the People's Republic of... Results of the 2010-2011 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain hot- rolled carbon steel flat products (``hot-rolled steel'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The period...

  4. 77 FR 13093 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea... administrative review of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') order on corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat... Review'' below. \\1\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from the Republic of...

  5. 76 FR 66893 - Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand, and Turkey; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From India, Thailand... antidumping duty orders on certain circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from India, Thailand, and... India, Thailand, and Turkey. See Antidumping Duty Order; Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes...

  6. 77 FR 64465 - Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of circular welded carbon-quality steel...\\ \\1\\ See Circular Welded Carbon-Quality Steel Pipe From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

  7. 76 FR 15941 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  8. 77 FR 8808 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  9. 76 FR 14649 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Extension of Time... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico for the November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009, period of review. See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results...

  10. 77 FR 6542 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of Final Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube From Turkey: Notice of... of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on certain welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey for... the preliminary decision. See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipe and Tube from Turkey:...

  11. 75 FR 28557 - Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes From Thailand: Extension of Time... antidumping duty order on circular welded carbon steel pipes and tubes from Thailand. See Circular Welded Carbon Steel Pipes and Tubes from Thailand: Preliminary Results and Rescission, in Part, of...

  12. 77 FR 21527 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... proprietary equivalents; (4) abrasion-resistant steels (i.e., USS AR 400, USS AR 500); (5) products made to ASTM A202, A225, A514 grade S, A517 grade S, or their proprietary equivalents; (6) ball bearing steels... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the...

  13. 77 FR 14002 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... unfinished. The product encompasses all grades of stainless steel and ``commodity'' and ``specialty... Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Fittings, or its foreign equivalents (e.g., DIN or JIS specifications... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and...

  14. Computer-Based Testing System. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the third of four project objectives, the development and implementation of a computer-based testing…

  15. Hydrogen generation by metal corrosion in simulated Waste Isolation Pilot Plant environments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Telander, M.R.; Westerman, R.E.

    1997-03-01

    The corrosion and gas-generation characteristics of four material types: low-carbon steel (the current waste packaging material for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant), Cu-base and Ti-base (alternative packaging) materials, and Al-base (simulated waste) materials were determined in both the liquid and vapor phase of Brine A, a brine representative of an intergranular Salado Formation brine. Test environments consisted primarily of anoxic brine with overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}. Limited tests of low-carbon steel were also performed in simulated-backfill environments and in brine environments with pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Low-carbon steel reacted at a slow, measurable rate with anoxic brine, liberating H{sub 2} on an equimolar basis with Fe reacted. Presence of CO{sub 2} caused the initial reaction to proceed more rapidly, but CO{sub 2}-induced passivation stopped the reaction if the CO{sub 2} were present in sufficient quantities. Addition of H{sub 2}S to a CO{sub 2}-passivated system caused reversal of the passivation. Low-carbon steel immersed in brine with H{sub 2}S showed no reaction, apparently because of passivation of the steel by formation of FeS. Addition of CO{sub 2} to an H{sub 2}S-passivated system did not reverse the passivation. Cu- and Ti-base materials showed essentially no corrosion when exposed to brine and overpressures of N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}S except for the rapid and complete reaction between Cu-base materials and H{sub 2}S. The Al-base materials reacted at approximately the same rate as low-carbon steel when immersed in anoxic Brine A; considerably more rapidly in the presence of CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}S; and much more rapidly when iron was present in the system as a brine contaminant. High-purity Al was much more susceptible to corrosion than the 6061 alloy. No significant reaction took place on any material in any environment in the vapor-phase exposures.

  16. Survey of the literature on low-alloy steel fastener corrosion in PWR power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of a literature survey of low alloy steel fastener corrosion in PWR applications. The report addresses boric acid corrosion (accelerated general corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking of threaded fasteners used in primary pressure boundary closures, in secondary, auxiliary, and safety system closures and in component support applications. The report reviews and summarizes corrosion events that have occurred in domestic PWRs since 1968. Information provided for each event includes plant identification, year of event, major component or part affected, fastener material, fastener diameter, number of corroded studs, the service environments, the number of degraded fasteners and the results of post-service failure analyses. Possible corrective actions that are available to eliminate or mitigate the effects of the two types of corrosion are also identified. Laboratory test data, including some recent unpublished data, that are related to fastener corrosion are also discussed. The report also includes recommended additional work in the areas of boric acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and analytical methodologies to solve these fastener corrosion problems.

  17. An Innovative Magnetic Charging Chute to Improve Productivity of Sinter Machine at Rourkela Steel Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, Sambandham Thirumalai; Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Das, Arunaba; Singh, Mithilesh Kumar; Mahanta, H. K.

    Sintering is a process in sinter machine for agglomeration of iron ore and other raw material fines into a compact porous mass, i.e., sinter, used in Blast Furnaces as an iron bearing input charge material for hot metal production. 'Permeability' of sinter-bed on sinter machine i.e., the porosity in sinter-bed of charged materials, facilitates atmospheric air passes from the top to bottom across the depth of sinter-bed, when suction created from the bottom of the bed, for efficient heat carry over from top to bottom of the bed for complete burning of charged materials for effective sintering process controls the productivity of the sinter machine. The level of 'permeability' in sinter-bed is depending upon the effectiveness of 'charging chute' in size-wise 'segregation' of charge materials across the depth in sinter-bed, achieved due to differences in the sliding velocities of particles during charging into the moving sinter-bed. The permeability achieved by the earlier conventional 'charging chute' was limited due to its design and positional constraints in sinter machine. Improving the productivity of sinter machine, through increased permeability of sinter bed is successfully achieved through implementation of an innovatively designed and developed, "Magnetic Charging Chute" at Sinter Plant no. 2 of Rourkela Steel Plant. The induced magnetic force on the charged materials while the charge materials dropping down through the charge chute has improved the permeability of sinter bed through an unique method of segregating the para-magnetic materials and the finer materials of the charge materials to top layer of sinter bed along with improved size-wise segregation of charge materials. This has increased the productivity of the sinter machine by 3% and also reduced the solid fuel consumption i.e., coke breeze in input charge materials by 1 kg/t of sinter.

  18. Small scale spatial gradients of outdoor and indoor benzene in proximity of an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Licen, Sabina; Tolloi, Arianna; Briguglio, Sara; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Adami, Gianpiero; Barbieri, Pierluigi

    2016-05-15

    Benzene is known as a human carcinogen, whose annual mean concentration exceeded the EU limit value (5 μg/m(3)) only in very few locations in Europe during 2012. Nevertheless 10% to 12% of the EU-28 urban population was still exposed to benzene concentrations above the WHO reference level of 1.7 μg/m(3). WHO recommended a wise choice of monitoring stations positioning in proximity of "hot spots" to define and assess the representativeness of each site paying attention to micro-scale conditions. In this context benzene and other VOCs of health concern (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) concentrations have been investigated, with weekly passive sampling for one year, both in outdoor and indoor air in inhabited buildings in close proximity (180 m far up to 1100 m) of an integrated steel plant in NE of Italy. Even though the outdoor mean annual benzene concentration was below the EU limit in every site, in the site closest to the works the benzene concentration was above 5 μg/m(3) in 14 weeks. These events were related to a benzene over toluene ratio above one, which is diagnostic for the presence of an industrial source, and to meteorological factors. These information pointed at the identification of the coke ovens of the plant as the dominant outdoor source of benzene. Benzene gradients with the increasing distance from coke ovens have been found for both outdoor and indoor air. Linear models linking outdoor to indoor benzene concentrations have been then identified, allowing to estimate indoor exposure from ambient air benzene data. In the considered period, a narrow area of about 250 m appeared impacted at a higher degree than the other sites both considering outdoor and indoor air. Passive BTEX sampling permits to collect information on both ambient air and daily life settings, allowing to assemble a valuable data support for further environmental cost-benefit analyses.

  19. ELWIRA "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials": University meets school - science meets high school education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss-Sieberth, Alexandra; Strauss, Alfred; Kalny, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Loiskandl, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    out in close cooperation between the scientists and the high school students, (b) high school students perform classical as well as advanced laboratory testing procedures on the selected materials under the guidance of researchers. They determine a set of mechanical properties and mechanical short and long term performance indicators, such as compression strength, Young modulus, fracture energy etc., (c) field tests on sites are performed to specify climatic characteristics of the examined materials, in order to find out their impact on the surrounding microclimate caused by for instance solar radiation and air temperature, and (d) finally an energy balance (CO2) for the selected materials over their entire life cycle will be carried out by the scientists. These results will provide an important contribution to a sustainable, climate-friendly and resource conserving handling with building materials. The aim of this poster is to present and discuss alternative scientific approaches of scientific working between scientists and high school students and to discuss the learning outcomes already obtained by the high school students within the project "Plants, wood, steel, concrete - a lifecycle as construction materials" ELWIRA.

  20. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Field methods to measure aquatic plant treatment method efficacy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Killgore, K.J.; Payne, B.S.

    1984-04-01

    The Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) of the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is developing field techniques to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics that influence the treatment efficacy. Treatment efficacy is considered a quantitative determination of the extent and duration of changes in problem aquatic plant populations attributable to the use of a treatment method (i.e., chemical, mechanical, biological, environmental). Depending on the plant species, efficacy can be determined or indicated by changes in biomass, areal distribution, or height of an aquatic plant in response to treatment. Aquatic plant biomass is sampled with a WES aquatic biomass sampler; areal distribution of aquatic plants is determined by aerial photography or with an electronic positioning system; and submersed aquatic plant height is measured with a fathometer (depth recorder) used with an electronic positioning and repositioning system (AGNAV). The APCRP has also developed field techniques to determine site characteristics that influence efficacy using commercially available instrumentation. This instrumentation can be used to measure treatment efficacy and to determine site characteristics simultaneously.

  1. TVA commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 4. Plant based on Babcock and Wilcox gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The baseline design of a coal gasification plant producing medium Btu gas, based upon the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process is documented in this report. The coal gasification plant consists of four identical modules, each with a capacity of approximately 5000 tons of coal per day as delivered to the gasifiers. The entire plant (four modules) produces 1205.7 MCFD of gas with a GHV value of approximately 299 Btu/SCF for a total heating value of about 360 billion Btu/day. The plant location is the rural site of Murphy Hill, located along the Tennessee River, some 30 miles east of Huntsville, Alabama. The desired product gas is a clean, medium-Btu gas suitable for pipeline distribution. The coal used for processing and for auxiliary boilers is a Kentucky No. 9 coal. The site is accessible by barge and road, with the plant receiving coal primarily by barge. Water needed for cooling and for process consumption will be drawn from the Tennessee River and will be treated by the plant water treatment facility. A description of the plant by major sections is included as well as flow diagrams, stream balances and lists of major equipment. Estimates of emissions and effluents are presented.

  2. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope{reg_sign} and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope{reg_sign} were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the

  3. Final Report, Volume 2, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Duplex Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Steven, W.; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    The scope of testing cast Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) required testing to several ASTM specifications, while formulating and conducting industry round robin tests to verify and study the reproducibility of the results. ASTM E562 (Standard Test Method for Determining Volume Fraction by Systematic manual Point Count) and ASTM A923 (Standard Test Methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic/Ferritic Stainless Steels) were the specifications utilized in conducting this work. An ASTM E562 industry round robin, ASTM A923 applicability study, ASTM A923 industry round robin, and an ASTM A923 study of the effectiveness of existing foundry solution annealing procedures for producing cast DSS without intermetallic phases were implemented. In the ASTM E562 study, 5 samples were extracted from various cast austenitic and DSS in order to have varying amounts of ferrite. Each sample was metallographically prepared by UT and sent to each of 8 participants for volume fraction of ferrite measurements. Volume fraction of ferrite was measured using manual point count per ASTM E562. FN was measured from the Feritescope® and converted to volume fraction of ferrite. Results indicate that ASTM E562 is applicable to DSS and the results have excellent lab-to-lab reproducibility. Also, volume fraction of ferrite conversions from the FN measured by the Feritescope® were similar to volume fraction of ferrite measured per ASTM E562. In the ASTM A923 applicability to cast DSS study, 8 different heat treatments were performed on 3 lots of ASTM A890-4A (CD3MN) castings and 1 lot of 2205 wrought DSS. The heat treatments were selected to produce a wide range of cooling rates and hold times in order to study the suitability of ASTM A923 to the response of varying amounts on intermetallic phases [117]. The test parameters were identical to those used to develop ASTM A923 for wrought DSS. Charpy V-notch impact samples were extracted from the castings and wrought

  4. Ion Deflection for Final Optics In Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, R P; Latkowski, J F

    2006-11-17

    Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stresses, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed into a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to asses the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.

  5. Ion Deflection for Final Optics in Laser Inertial Fusion Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Ryan P.

    2005-12-01

    Left unprotected, both transmissive and reflective final optics in a laser-driven inertial fusion power plant would quickly fail from melting, pulsed thermal stress, or degradation of optical properties as a result of ion implantation. One potential option for mitigating this threat is to magnetically deflect the ions such that they are directed to a robust energy dump. In this paper we detail integrated studies that have been carried out to assess the viability of this approach for protecting final optics.

  6. The First Step in the Final Shutdown of UP1 Plant: Rinsing with Chemical Reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Moulin, J.-P.; Hubert, N.; Huot, M.; Chany, P.; Oriol, C.; Vignau, B.

    2002-02-25

    The COGEMA UP1 reprocessing plant commissioned at Marcoule, France in 1958 handled roughly 20,000 metric tons of fuel from gas-cooled and research reactors. The commercial reprocessing activities of the UP1 plant ended in December 1997. CODEM , a joint venture created by the former users of the UP1 plant, including the utility Electricite de France (EDF), the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and COGEMA, was established to fund and supervise decommissioning of the plant. COGEMA was selected as the industrial operator of the decommissioning project, which is scheduled to span a period of about 40 years. COGEMA, with its CODEM partners, had made the decision to proceed to a ''Final Shutdown'' of the plant within a few years after the end of commercial operation. Final shutdown is intended to remove remaining fissile matter and highly radioactive materials, as well as some equipment, from the plant to ease the plant monitoring requirements compared with those applied when the plant was in operation. A two-step approach has been devised, including first the rinsing of the equipment with selected reagents in order to decrease the radiation exposure rate and contamination risk enough to allow further mechanical decontamination operations, such as high-pressure water scrubbing and equipment cutting. The reagents to be used and the methods employed to optimize their use in terms of quantities and sequence of use were selected by leveraging available experience, and by setting up a large-scale R&D program to test reagents both for general decontamination and for hot spots. This program also included treatment of the decontamination waste to demonstrate that this waste could be made compatible with solidification facilities of the UP1 plant, i. e., vitrification in the AVM facility and bituminization. The R&D results are described, as well as the initial results of plant decontamination.

  7. EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST ELEVATION, LTV STEEL (FORMERLY REPUBLIC STEEL), 8" BAR MILL, BUFFALO PLANT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM ROLL SHOP. 8" BAR MILL DESIGNED AND BUILT BY DONNER STEEL CO. (PREDECESSOR OF REPUBLIC), 1919-1920. FOR DESCRIPTION OF ORIGINAL MILL SEE "IRON AGE", 116\\4 (23 JULY 1925): 201-204. - LTV Steel, 8-inch Bar Mill, Buffalo Plant, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  8. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 8, Waterfowl, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    Large numbers of waterfowl have been present on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) since public access to the site was terminated in the early 1950s. Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented as occurring on the SRP. The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research and surveys on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl use of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Waterfowl use of the site has been assessed through aerial surveys of the Par Pond system and the SRP Savannah River swamp and through roost counts in the Steel Creek drainage. Aerial surveys have proven to be the most successful method of estimating waterfowl numbers each winter. The most abundant waterfowl species in the Savannah River swamp were consistently mallards and wood ducks, as determined by numbers counted. Both of these species have increased on the SRP. Mid- winter mallard numbers in both the Atlantic Flyway and in South Carolina have decreased during the same time period. In the SRP Savannah River swamp, the Steel Creek Delta and the sloughs between the Four Mile Creek and Pen Branch deltas had more mallards than did the Beaver Dam Creek Delta or the Pen Branch Delta. No differences were found for wood duck counts between the Four Mile Creek Delta sloughs, the Steel Creek Delta, or the Beaver Dam Creek Delta. The Savannah River swamp was used extensively for foraging by both mallards and wood ducks. 58 refs., 52 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. 75 FR 52967 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Palm Beach, Florida. A Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for South... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic... environmental impact statement for the South Florida and Caribbean Parks Exotic Plant Management Plan....

  10. 78 FR 29113 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic of Korea: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon-Quality Steel Plate Products From the Republic... order on certain cut-to-length carbon-quality steel plate products from the Republic of Korea. For these... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain cut-to-length...

  11. 76 FR 23279 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the First...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Works/Stanley Fastening Systems LP, and an unaffiliated wire drawing subcontractor are collectively..., nails made of round wire and nails that are cut. Certain steel nails may be of one piece construction or... such as plastic, paper, or wire. Certain steel nails subject to this proceeding are...

  12. 78 FR 16252 - Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and Thailand: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Flat Products From India, Indonesia, and... Department'') initiated the second sunset reviews of the countervailing duty (``CVD'') orders on certain hot...). Scope of the Orders The merchandise subject to these orders is hot-rolled steel of a rectangular...

  13. 75 FR 47263 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian Federation; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From the Russian... expedited sunset review of the antidumping duty suspended investigation on certain hot-rolled flat-rolled... antidumping duty investigation of certain hot-rolled flat- rolled carbon-quality steel products...

  14. 78 FR 19210 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea...) has completed its administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on corrosion-resistant...\\ See Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

  15. 77 FR 13545 - Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico: Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...) high nickel steel; (d) ball bearing steel; and (e) concrete reinforcing bars and rods. Also excluded... sulfur, more than 0.04 percent of phosphorus, more than 0.05 percent of selenium, or more than 0.01... phosphorus and sulfur, (4) 0.006 percent or less of nitrogen, and (5) not more than 0.15 percent, in...

  16. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. See Initiation of Five-Year... to the scope of the order. South Korea The products subject to this order are certain...

  17. 75 FR 63439 - Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of the Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes From India: Extension of... and tubes from India. See Certain Welded Carbon Steel Standard Pipes and Tubes from India:...

  18. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnikant; Pervez, Shamsh

    2005-02-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.

  19. Audience Analysis for "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel": A Pilot Study. Final Report Presented to United States Steel and the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. CDC Technical Report No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mark J.; And Others

    Prompted by the realization that a reference text presents special problems in audience address since there is typically a diverse set of users, a study was designed to provide preliminary data on the use of the reference text, "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel," a landmark book in the steel industry. Data on the use of the text were…

  20. Planting northern red oak acorns: Is size and planting depth important. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Auchmoody, L.R.; Smith, H.C.; Walters, R.S.

    1994-10-27

    A study was conducted in northern Pennsylvania to determine whether predation by small mammals and insects is related to the size of red oak acorns. Three sizes of acorns were used along with two planting techniques and three levels of overstory shading. Three-year results indicated that acorn size is not a factor in mammal and insect predation. Acorn size did not affect 3-year survival. Although 3-year total height growth was statistically different after 3 years, the differences were too small for practical use.

  1. New Generation Energy Efficient Refractory Application in Soaking Pits of Bhilai Steel Plant, Sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Indranil; Chintaiah, Perumetla; Bhattacharya, Ajoy Kr.; Garai, Swapan Kr.; Ray Choudhury, Pankaj Kr.; Tiwari, Laksman

    In Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP), soaking pits are used for heating ingots for successive rolling into blooms. Pits are operated at a temperature of around 1350°C. Mixed gas (Mixture of Blast Furnace gas & Coke Oven gas) of calorific value around 2040 kcal/Nm3 is used as fuel. The walls of soaking pits were lined with traditional 38% Al2O3 firebricks and top 500mm was cast with 70% Al2O3 low cement castable (LCC). This type of lining results in frequent damages due to hitting by ingots while being lifted from pit by overhead cranes thus affecting the availability of pit. Life of pits was 2 to 2.5 years in BSP with 3-4 cold repairs and 3-4 hot repairs. Energy loss through the wall is also quite high in this type of lining. To triumph over the limitations of the conventional lining, a lining design was developed for the walls which consist of special 70% Al2O3 LCC having high hot strength (HMOR) in combination with specially design flexible SS-304 anchors. Ceramic fiber blanket and insulation bricks were provided between castable and the metallic shell of the pit to minimize the heat loss. A heating schedule was developed and introduced based on available infrastructure at BSP for proper curing of modified LCC based lining. After introduction of modified lining, pit no. 14/2 is running for more than 2.5 years without any repair. To capitalize the success, two more pits i.e. 12/1 and 9/2 were converted to modified lining. These pits are also running satisfactorily for more than 1.5 years. The modification has resulted in higher availability with substantial increase in production. Shell temperature of the modified pits reduced to 90° - 140°C from 120° - 200°C of conventional pits. This shows reduction in heat loss through walls, resulting less fuel consumption and energy saving of about 18%.

  2. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fugitive PM10 emissions from an integrated iron and steel plant.

    PubMed

    Khaparde, V V; Bhanarkar, A D; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Rao, C V Chalapati

    2016-08-15

    Fugitive emissions of PM10 (particles <10μm in diameter) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in the vicinity of coking unit, sintering unit, blast furnace and steel manufacturing unit in an integrated iron and steel plant situated in India. Concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound total PAHs, benzo (a) pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs were found to be highest around the sintering unit. Concentrations of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were recorded to be highest in the coking unit whereas 5-and 6-ring PAHs were found to be highest in other units. The following indicatory PAHs were identified: indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, benzo (k) fluoranthene in blast furnace unit; indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene, dibenzo (a,h) anthracene, chrysene in sintering unit; Anthracene, fluoranthene, chrysene in coking unit and acenaphthene, fluoranthene, fluorene in steel making unit. Total-BaP-TEQ (Total BaP toxic equivalent quotient) and BaP-MEQ (Total BaP mutagenic equivalent quotient) concentration levels ranged from 2.4 to 231.7ng/m(3) and 1.9 to 175.8ng/m(3), respectively. BaP and DbA (dibenzo (a,h) anthracene) contribution to total-BaP-TEQ was found to be the highest.

  3. Spatial and seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    PubMed

    Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Hyokeun; Kang, Jung-Ho; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2010-04-15

    Four consecutive passive air samplings (September 2006-July 2007) were conducted at 15 sites around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, Korea to investigate the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ultimately the source-receptor relationships. Annual mean values of Sigma(8)PCBs (IUPAC number 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were in the range of 15.1-166 pg/m(3) with an average of 53.0 pg/m(3). The spatial distribution of PCBs for each sampling period clearly suggests that the steel complex is a major source of PCBs in this area, and the prevailing winds facilitated the atmospheric transport and dispersion of PCBs from the steel complex to the surrounding areas. Seasonal patterns of PCBs were observed clearly, which were influenced by meteorological conditions; the highest levels of PCBs were observed with the highest average air temperature, and the influence of rainfall (i.e., wet scavenging) was also observed. In addition, PCB 11, a non-Aroclor congener, was detected in high concentrations at all sites, implying that the sources of PCB 11 are both unique and ubiquitous. This study confirms that passive air sampling is a useful tool to obtain seasonal and spatial distributions of time-averaged POPs data at a local scale.

  4. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel in the presence of two novel iron-oxidizing bacteria isolated from sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ashassi-Sorkhabi, H; Moradi-Haghighi, M; Zarrini, G; Javaherdashti, R

    2012-02-01

    In this work, two novel iron oxidizing bacteria (IOB), namely Gordonia sp. MZ-89 and Enterobacter sp. M01101, were isolated from sewage treatment plants and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. Then, microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel in the presence of these bacteria was investigated. The electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to measure the corrosion rate and observe the corrosion mechanism. The results showed that the existence of these microorganisms decreased the corrosion potential and enhanced the corrosion rate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images revealed the ground boundary attacks and pitting on carbon steel samples in the presence of these bacteria after polarization. Corrosion scales were identified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was demonstrated that these bacteria can greatly affect the crystalline phase of corrosion products that also confirmed by SEM results. It was inferred that these bacteria were responsible for the corrosion of carbon steel, especially in the form of localized corrosion.

  5. How do plants enlarge? A balancing act. Workship on plant growth: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    There are signals that coordinate the development of various plant parts and thus the rates of enlargement of various plant parts and these were explored during the workshop. The participants tried to systematize their knowledge and identify over-arching concepts that need more investigation. It was generally agreed that the cell wall cannot be viewed as a passive plastic material. Synthesis and deposition take place and cause changes in the molecular architecture of the wall. Questions arise from the fact that the wall is not a constant or uniform structure but undergoes highly organized changes during enlargement while bearing a considerable load. Recent advances in signaling, biochemical analysis and ultrastructure visualization are beginning to relate to the molecular load-bearing and enzymatic activities in the wall. The participants agreed that there probably is enough information to begin developing a comprehensive model that would balance wall effects with the limitation of growth by transport, especially for water, and this could help clarify events occurring at different time scales and places. Beyond that, there seems to be a need to resolve problems of solute transport and wall behavior that are poorly understood in growing regions, leaving many promising areas for future experiments. Understanding each balancing act seems to be just the beginning.

  6. Workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gartner, B.L.

    1995-03-01

    This document is the final report on the workshop on stems and trunks in plant form and function relating to DOE grant DE-FG06-93ER20128 which took place at Oregon State University in February 1994. The resulting book is organized into four sections and a synthesis: roles of stem architecture in plant performance, roles of stems in transport and storage of water, roles of live stem cells in plant performance, and the roles of stems in preventing or reacting to response to plant injury. The synthesis stemmed from debated and discussion by the authors and a few dozen other workshop participants. The authors cover many stem functions, although the list is not exhaustive, and the focus is on terrestrial woody tree stems, primarily of temperate and boreal zones. More research on trunks, branches and twigs is important for a baseline understanding of plant biology. In the face of anticipated human-caused changes to most environments, we need not only have a baseline understanding of whole-plant biology, but also predictive capabilities for how plants will react to perturbations.

  7. Final report on accident tolerant fuel performance analysis of APMT-Steel Clad/UO₂ fuel and APMT-Steel Clad/UN-U₃Si₅ fuel concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Cetin; Galloway, Jack D.

    2014-09-12

    In FY2014 our group completed and documented analysis of new Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) concepts using BISON. We have modeled the viability of moving from Zircaloy to stainless steel cladding in traditional light water reactors (LWRs). We have explored the reactivity penalty of this change using the MCNP-based burnup code Monteburns, while attempting to minimize this penalty by increasing the fuel pellet radius and decreasing the cladding thickness. Fuel performance simulations using BISON have also been performed to quantify changes to structural integrity resulting from thinner stainless steel claddings. We account for thermal and irradiation creep, fission gas swelling, thermal swelling and fuel relocation in the models for both Zircaloy and stainless steel claddings. Additional models that account for the lower oxidation stainless steel APMT are also invoked where available. Irradiation data for HT9 is used as a fallback in the absence of appropriate models. In this study the isotopic vectors within each natural element are varied to assess potential reactivity gains if advanced enrichment capabilities were levied towards cladding technologies. Recommendations on cladding thicknesses for a robust cladding as well as the constitutive components of a less penalizing composition are provided. In the first section (section 1-3), we present results accepted for publication in the 2014 TOPFUEL conference regarding the APMT/UO₂ ATF concept (J. Galloway & C. Unal, Accident Tolerant and Neutronically Favorable LWR Cladding, Proceedings of WRFPM 2014, Sendai, Japan, Paper No.1000050). Next we discuss our preliminary findings from the thermo-mechanical analysis of UN-U₃Si₅ fuel with APMT clad. In this analysis we used models developed from limited data that need to be updated when the irradiation data from ATF-1 test is available. Initial results indicate a swelling rate less than 1.5% is needed to prevent excessive clad stress.

  8. Evaluation of pitting corrosion resistance of high-alloyed stainless steels welds for FGD plants in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, K.K.; Sung, H.J.; Im, C.S.; Hong, I.P.; Kim, D.K.

    1998-12-31

    For successful application of high-alloyed stainless steels for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) plants, pitting corrosion resistance of arc welds of N-added 6%Mo austenitic stainless steels (UNS N 08367) and super duplex stainless steels (UNS S 32550) made with various filler metals were evaluated using the Green Death solution. For Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) and Gas Metal Arc (GMA) welds of N 08367, Critical Pitting Temperature (CPT) of base metal was 65--70 C, whereas weld made by ERNiCrMo-3 filler metal yielded CPT of 50 C. Welds made by ERNiCrMo-10 or ERNiCrMo-4 filler metals showed CPT of 60--65 C and 65--70C, respectively. For GTA and GMA welds of S 32550, CPT of welds made by ERNiCrMo-3 was 45--50 C, indicating that the filler metal can provide pitting corrosion resistance matching the S 32550 alloy. Thus, a proper pitting corrosion resistance of weldments of high-alloy stainless steels can be achieved by selecting filler metals having at least +10 higher Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PRE{sub N}) value than the base metal regardless of the type of arc welding process. The over-alloyed filler metals would compensate preferential segregation of Cr, MO along the dendrite boundary, which made the dendrite core more susceptible to pitting. Nitrogen addition to the GTA welds of N 08367 made with ERNiCrMo-3 failed to improve pitting corrosion resistance, which was attributed to the precipitation of nitrogen in the weld metal in the form of Nb-nitride.

  9. B Plant, TK-21-1, analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, L.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-09

    This document is the final laboratory report for B Plant Tk-21-1. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) sample was taken from Tk-21 -1 September 26, 1996. This sample was received at 222-S Analytical Laboratory on September 27, 1996. Analyses were performed in accordance with the accompanying Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Letter of Instruction B PLANT RCRA SAMPLES TO 222S LABORATORY, LETTER OF INSTRUCTION (LOI) 2B-96-LOI-012-01 (LOI) (Westra, 1996). LOI was issued subsequent to RSA and replaces Letter of Instruction 2C-96-LOI-004-01 referenced in RSA.

  10. 75 FR 8301 - Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... steel grades BS 7191, 355 EM, and 355 EMZ, as amended by Sable Offshore Energy Project specification XB... for all shipments of the subject merchandise entered, or withdrawn from warehouse, for consumption...

  11. Corrosion Mechanism of Low-Carbon Steel in Industrial Water and Adsorption Thermodynamics in the Presence of Some Plant Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badiea, A. M.; Mohana, K. N.

    2009-12-01

    The effects of radish leaves and black cumin as plant extracts on the corrosion behavior of low-carbon steel in industrial water in the temperature range of 30 to 80 °C and velocity range of 1.44 to 2.02 m s-1 using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and mass loss measurements have been investigated. The inhibition efficiency increased with increasing concentration of the plant extracts up to a critical value but it slightly decreased with increasing temperature. Inhibition efficiency values obtained from mass loss and potentiodynamic data were in reasonable agreement. Potentiodynamic polarization clearly indicated that radish leaves and black cumin extracts acted as anodic inhibitors. The adsorption behavior was found to obey the Flory-Huggins isotherm model. The associated activation parameters and thermodynamic data of adsorption were evaluated and discussed. The results show that radish leaves and black cumin could serve as effective inhibitors for low-carbon steel in industrial water media, with black cumin providing better protection than radish leaves.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment: Construction of New Arnold Village Sewage Treatment Plant Arnold Air Force Base, Tennessee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    Vulpes vulpes ATL/P:\\ARNOLDAFB\\315331DO34\\SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT EA\\CD\\FINAL STP EA 05_05.DOC 3-11 TABLE 3-2 Common Wildlife Species Occurring in Arnold...frog is disjunct, separated from the nearest other population by several hundred miles and may represent a distinct, as yet undescribed, subspecies ...The three subspecies of the gopher frog recognized in the scientific literature are considered species of concern by the USFWS. Many of the rare

  13. Design and implementation of ergonomic performance measurement system at a steel plant in India.

    PubMed

    Ray, Pradip Kumar; Tewari, V K

    2012-01-01

    Management of Tata Steel, the largest steel making company of India in the private sector, felt the need to develop a framework to determine the levels of ergonomic performance at its different workplaces. The objectives of the study are manifold: to identify and characterize the ergonomic variables for a given worksystem with regard to work efficiency, operator safety, and working conditions, to design a comprehensive Ergonomic Performance Indicator (EPI) for quantitative determination of the ergonomic status and maturity of a given worksystem. The study team of IIT Kharagpur consists of three faculty members and the management of Tata Steel formed a team of eleven members for implementation of EPI model. In order to design and develop the EPI model with total participation and understanding of the concerned personnel of Tata Steel, a three-phase action plan for the project was prepared. The project consists of three phases: preparation and data collection, detailed structuring and validation of EPI model. Identification of ergonomic performance factors, development of interaction matrix, design of assessment tool, and testing and validation of assessment tool (EPI) in varied situations are the major steps in these phases. The case study discusses in detail the EPI model and its applications.

  14. Final Report: No{sub x} Emissions from By Product Fuel Combustion in Steel Making, September 15, 1996 - October 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Pershing, David W.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; Eddings, Eric G.; Cacciatore, David A.

    1999-01-28

    Exhaust gases from the primary operations in the steel making process are almost exclusively utilized as supplemental fuels within the steel plant. These by-product fuels include blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) which contain mixtures of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4} and trace amounts of some heavier hydrocarbons and the impurities NH{sub 3} and HCN. These fuels are burned alone or in combination with natural gas to fire the coke ovens, blast furnace stoves utility boilers and metal working furnaces. The utilization of these by-product fuels reduces the waste gas emissions at the steel mill and reduces the requirements for outside fuel sources. However, as with primary fuel sources, the combustion of these by-product fuel blends does produce hazardous pollutants, in particular nitrogen oxides, and because these are atypical fuel blends of varying composition, the pollutant formation is not well understood. The objective of this research was to develop an understanding of the mechanisms controlling NO{sub x} formation from the combustion of by-product fuels from the steel industry and investigate control and design options to minimize emissions. The minimization strategies investigated were constrained by limits on CO and hydrocarbon emissions, both of which increased under fuel-rich combustion scenarios that resulted in reduced NO{sub x} emissions. Also, the minimization strategies were constrained by the need for reasonable heat generation rates in the furnaces that employ these by-product fuels, so that product steel quality is not adversely affected.

  15. Leaching of aluminum and iron from boiler slag generated from a typical Chinese Steel Plant.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinping; Gan, Jinhua; Li, Xianwang

    2009-07-30

    This paper presents a new way of recycling aluminum and iron in boiler slag derived from coal combustion plants, which integrates efficient extraction and reuse of the leached pellets together. The boiler slag was pelletized together with washed coal and lime prior to sintering and then was sintered at 800-1200 degrees C for different periods to produce sintered pellets for the leaching test. An elemental analysis of aqueous solutions leached by sulfuric acid was determined by EDTA-Na(2)-ZnCl(2) titration method. The components and microstructures of the samples, sintered pellets and leached residue were examined by means of XRF, XRD and SEM. XRD analysis indicates that predominate minerals such as kaolinite, quartz, calcium silicide, hematate and metakoalin exist in the boiler slag. An aluminum extraction efficiency of 86.50% was achieved. The maximum extraction efficiency of Fe was 94.60% in the same conditions of that for the maximum extraction efficiency of Al. The extraction efficiencies of Al and Fe increased with an increase in temperature, leaching time and acidity. High Al extraction efficiency was obtained for pellets with high CaO content. The final product of alumina would be used directly for the production of metallic aluminum.

  16. Heavy metal pollution in farmland irrigated with river water near a steel plant - detection by magnetic and geochemical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. X.

    2012-04-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment has become an increasing problem during the last several decades. It is a key scientific issue to disclose the source, degree and extent of pollution in farmland near to heavy industries. In this study the efficiency of magnetic methods for such a purpose is tested at a Chinese city (Loudi, Hunan Province) with fast developing steel industry. Lianshui River flows through the city and passes a large steel plant at the entrance of the urban area. Previous results revealed higher heavy metal contents in the vicinity of the Fe-smelting plant and in the city region[1]. Nearby farmland usually is irrigated with water from this river. We collected vertical soil profiles to about 60 cm depth within farmland nearby Lianshui River with sampling sites distributed from the upstream (before entering the city) to the downstream region (after leaving the city area). These samples were comprehensively investigated by integrating both magnetic and chemical analyses. Heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd etc) pollution in farmland soils in the downstream region is clearly higher than in the upstream region. Magnetic susceptibility and SIRM is correlating with heavy metals contents. The SIRM background in the upstream section of unpolluted farmland soils and river sediments is low (< 7-10-3Am2kg-1), whereas the polluted soils at the surrounding of the steel plant reveal higher SIRM intensities (30 to 40-10-3Am2kg-1) within the topmost 20 cm. SIRM in river sediments also correlates with heavy metals contents; it is strongly enhanced (80 to 200-10-3Am2kg-1) at the same sites, from surface to 40 cm deep depth. Magnetic enhancement is found to be related to the presence of spherical magnetite particles with a diameter of 10~30 μm. These findings demonstrate that magnetic methods have a convenient practical application for detecting and mapping heavy metal pollution in farmland soils irrigated by river water from nearby industrial areas. Reference 1

  17. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  18. Final focus shielding designs for modern heavy-ion fusion power plant designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or to an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  19. Corrosion of stainless steels in the riser during co-processing of bio-oils in a fluid catalytic cracking pilot plant

    DOE PAGES

    Brady, M. P.; Keiser, J. R.; Leonard, D. N.; ...

    2017-01-31

    Co-processing of bio-oils with conventional petroleum-based feedstocks is an attractive initial option to make use of renewable biomass as a fuel source while leveraging existing refinery infrastructures. But, bio-oils and their processing intermediates have high concentrations of organic oxygenates, which, among their other negative qualities, can result in increased corrosion issues. A range of stainless steel alloys (409, 410, 304L, 316L, 317L, and 201) was exposed at the base of the riser in a fluid catalytic cracking pilot plant while co-processing vacuum gas oil with pine-derived pyrolysis bio-oils that had been catalytically hydrodeoxygenated to ~ 2 to 28% oxygen. Wemore » studied the processing using a catalyst temperature of 704 °C, a reaction exit temperature of 520 °C, and total co-processing run times of 57–75 h. External oxide scaling 5–30 μm thick and internal attack 1–5 μm deep were observed in these short-duration exposures. The greatest extent of internal attack was observed for co-processing with the least stabilized bio-oil, and more so for types 409, 410, 304L, 316L, 317L stainless steel than for type 201. Finally, the internal attack involved porous Cr-rich oxide formation, associated with local Ni-metal enrichment and S-rich nanoparticles, primarily containing Cr or Mn. Implications for alloy selection and corrosion are discussed.« less

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Y.; Schwam, D.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study was to improve average die life by optimizing die steel composition and the die processing. Four different steels, K,Q,C and Premium Grade H-13 have been investigated for thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Optimum heat treatment processing has been determined for each steel with respect to austenitizing temperature and tempering conditions. The effect of the quenching rate on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steels and the effect of Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance were also determined. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU was used to determine the thermal fatigue resistance as characterized by the two parameters of average maximum crack length and total crack area. The Charpy V-notch impact test was used over a -100{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F testing temperature range to evaluate the toughness and the brittle-ductile transition behavior. K steel has been identified as superior in performance compared to Premium Grade H-13. Q and C provide lower toughness and thermal fatigue resistance than H-13. Faster cooling rates provide higher thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Higher austenitizing temperatures such as 1925{degrees}F compared to 1875{degrees}F provide better thermal fatigue resistance, but lower austenitizing temperatures of 1875{degrees}F provide better toughness. Higher hardness improves thermal fatigue resistance, but reduces toughness. A minimum of Rc 46 hardness is desired for aluminum die casting dies. EDM reduces the thermal fatigue resistance compared to conventional machining operations. When the EDM process of multiple small steps of decreasing energy and post-EDM treatments are employed, the effect can be reduced to a very slight amount. Preliminary evidence of the superior performance of the K steel has been provided by ongoing field testing of inserts in multiple cavity dies.

  2. Source apportionment of aerosol particles near a steel plant by electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Martin; Müller-Ebert, Dörthe; Benker, Nathalie; Weinbruch, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    The size, morphology and chemical composition of 37,715 individual particles collected over 22 sampling days in the vicinity of a large integrated steel production were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the morphology, chemistry and beam stability the particles were classified into the following fourteen groups: silicates, sea salt, calcium sulfates, calcium carbonates, carbonate-silicate mixtures, sulfate-silicate mixtures, iron oxides, iron mixtures, metal oxide-metals, complex secondary particles, soot, Cl-rich particles, P-rich particles, and other particles. The majority of iron oxide (≈85%) and metal oxide-metal (≈70%) particles as well as ≈20% of the silicate particles are fly ashes from high temperature processes. The emissions from the steel work are dominated by iron oxide particles. For source apportionment, seven source categories and two sectors of local wind direction (industrial and urban background) were distinguished. In both sectors PM₁₀ consists of four major source categories: 35% secondary, 20% industrial, 17% soil and 16% soot in the urban background sector compared to 45% industrial, 20% secondary, 13% soil, and 9% soot in the industrial sector. As the secondary and the soot components are higher in the urban background sector than in the industrial sector, it is concluded that both components predominantly originate from urban background sources (traffic, coal burning, and domestic heating). Abatement measures should not only focus on the steel work but should also include the urban background aerosol.

  3. Pantex Plant final safety analysis report, Zone 4 magazines. Staging or interim storage for nuclear weapons and components: Issue D

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) contains a detailed description and evaluation of the significant environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) issues associated with the operations of the Pantex Plant modified-Richmond and steel arch construction (SAC) magazines in Zone 4. It provides (1) an overall description of the magazines, the Pantex Plant, and its surroundings; (2) a systematic evaluations of the hazards that could occur as a result of the operations performed in these magazines; (3) descriptions and analyses of the adequacy of the measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards; and (4) analyses of potential accidents and their associated risks.

  4. 78 FR 16651 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China; Final Results of Third Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ..., interested parties submitted surrogate value (``SV'') comments and SV rebuttal comments.\\4,5\\ On October 19...-Preliminary Surrogate Value Submission: Third Antidumping Duty Administrative Review of Certain Steel Nails... People's Republic of China, Third Administrative Review; Post-Preliminary Results Surrogate Value...

  5. 75 FR 32366 - Certain Steel Grating From the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482-3936. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Case History The... or coil of sheet or thin plate steel that has been slit and expanded, and does not involve welding or... of 10 to 18 gauge, that has been pierced and cold formed, and does not involve welding or joining...

  6. 75 FR 6631 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils from Japan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... oxide of no more than 0.05 percent. Flapper valve steel has a tensile strength of between 210 and 300 ksi, yield strength of between 170 and 270 ksi, plus or minus 8 ksi, and a hardness (Hv) of between... visible on one side, with no scratches of measurable depth. The material must exhibit residual stresses...

  7. 77 FR 27421 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates: Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... the investigation, Dubai Wire FZE and Precision Fasteners LLC, submitted timely ministerial error... Investigation of Certain Steel Nails from the United Arab Emirates: Precision Fasteners, LLC and Dubai Wire FZE..., the amended weighted average dumping margins changed from 2.80 to 2.51 percent for Precision...

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Saurwein, John

    2011-07-15

    This report is the Final Technical Report for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Prismatic HTGR Conceptual Design Project conducted by a team led by General Atomics under DOE Award DE-NE0000245. The primary overall objective of the project was to develop and document a conceptual design for the Steam Cycle Modular Helium Reactor (SC-MHR), which is the reactor concept proposed by General Atomics for the NGNP Demonstration Plant. The report summarizes the project activities over the entire funding period, compares the accomplishments with the goals and objectives of the project, and discusses the benefits of the work. The report provides complete listings of the products developed under the award and the key documents delivered to the DOE.

  9. Comprehensive cooling water study: Volume 2, Water quality, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lower, M.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 60 figs., 70 tabs.

  10. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 7, Ecology of Par Pond, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. 222 refs., 31 figs., 67 tabs.

  11. Method and plant for conversion of waste material to stable final products

    SciTech Connect

    Santen, S.; Thornblom, J.

    1985-04-02

    The invention relates to a method and plant for converting waste material containing and/or comprising thermally disintegratable chemcial substances to stable final products such as CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and HCI, the waste material being subjected to a plasma gas of high temperature generated in a plasma generator in order to effect disintegration. The waste material in feedable form is caused to flow through a reaction zone, heated by a plasma gas to at least 2000/sup 0/ C. The reaction zone comprises a cavity burned in a gas-permeable filling in piece form arranged in a reaction chamber, by means of the plasma jet from the plasma generator directed towards and projecting into said filling. An appropriate oxygen potential is maintained in at least the reaction zone such that the disintegration products are continuously converted to stable final products.

  12. Concentration of lead, cadmium, and iron in sediment dust and total suspended particles before and after initialisation of integral production in iron and steel work plant Zenica.

    PubMed

    Prcanović, Halim; Duraković, Mirnes; Beganović, Sanela

    2012-06-01

    Poor air quality is a common fact for all areas with base industry. The city of Zenica was once the metallurgical centre of Ex-Yugoslavia and is therefore highly polluted at present. Air pollution peaked in 1987 when average concentration of pollutants was extremely high (daily average concentration of SO(2) was 1800 μg m(-3)). With the beginning of the war in 1992, integral production in the steel work plant was shut down, to be re-launched in 2008. Limit values for iron do not exist, but iron has been monitored in Zenica for the past 28 years because of the presence of steel works. Concentrations of cadmium and lead have also been measured because they are very much present in polluted areas with steel works. The concentration of mentioned elements in air deposit and total suspended particles before and after integral production in the steel work plant was re-launched is the subject of this paper. Total suspended particles were measured in two locations using German standard VDI 2463 Blatt 4. Sediment dust was measured in nine locations using Bergerhoff method. The concentration of iron, lead, and cadmium was performed in the chemical laboratory of the Metallurgical Institute "Kemal Kapetanović" Zenica using standard methods. Higher concentrations of these parameters during the period of integral production clearly point to the impact of steel works on Zenica valley.

  13. Study of spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric mercury and its human exposure around an integrated steel plant, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, S.; Koshle, A.; Pervez, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Mercury release by coal combustion has been significantly increased in India. Mercury content in coal has been analyzed to 0.272 ppm by Central Pollution Control Board. Toxicological effects of elemental Hg (Hg0) exposure include respiratory and renal failures, cardiac arrest, and cerebral oedema, while subclinical exposure may induce kidney, behavioral, and cognitive dysfunctions. The present work is focused on dispersion pattern and inter-phase exchange phenomena of ambient mercury between air-particulate matter evaluations of alongwith dominance of various major routes of human exposure-dose response using regression analysis around an integrated steel plant in central India. Source-downwind type stratified random sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted for ambient monitoring of total mercury, while representative sampling plant has been adopted for persona exposure-dose response study In space-time framework. Control sites and subjects have been chosen from uncontaminated area (100 km away from any industrial activities). 06 ambient air monitoring stations and 17 subjects from workers, non-workers but local residents' categories and from controlled sites have been chosen for the study. Samples of mercury biomarkers (blood, breast milk and urine) have also been collected from same subjects in each month during sampling period. The sampling period was March 2005 to February 2006 . Samples of 30% acidified KMnO4 for air-Hg absorption, PM10, RPM and biological samples were analyzed for total mercury by ICP-AES using standard methods. Local soils and ground water were also monitored for total mercury content during the sampling period. Results have shown that mercury concentration is very high compared to prescribed limits in all receptors. Results of exchange phenomenon have shown the higher transfer of mercury from air to particulate during combustion in steel plant environment due to presence of huge amount of iron particles, in contrast to

  14. Study of spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric mercury and its human exposure around an integrated steel plant, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervez, S.; Koshle, A.; Pervez, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury release by coal combustion has been significantly increased in India. Mercury content in coal has been analyzed to 0.272 ppm by Central Pollution Control Board. Toxicological effects of elemental Hg (Hg0) exposure include respiratory and renal failures, cardiac arrest, and cerebral oedema, while subclinical exposure may induce kidney, behavioral, and cognitive dysfunctions. The present work is focused on dispersion pattern and inter-phase exchange phenomena of ambient mercury between air-particulate matter evaluations of alongwith dominance of various major routes of human exposure-dose response using regression analysis around an integrated steel plant in central India. Source-downwind type stratified random sampling plan using longitudinal study design has been adopted for ambient monitoring of total mercury, while representative sampling plant has been adopted for persona exposure-dose response study In space-time framework. Control sites and subjects have been chosen from uncontaminated area (100 km away from any industrial activities). 06 ambient air monitoring stations and 17 subjects from workers, non-workers but local residents' categories and from controlled sites have been chosen for the study. Samples of mercury biomarkers (blood, breast milk and urine) have also been collected from same subjects in each month during sampling period. The sampling period was March 2005 to February 2006 . Samples of 30% acidified KMnO4 for air-Hg absorption, PM10, RPM and biological samples were analyzed for total mercury by ICP-AES using standard methods. Local soils and ground water were also monitored for total mercury content during the sampling period. Results have shown that mercury concentration is very high compared to prescribed limits in all receptors. Results of exchange phenomenon have shown the higher transfer of mercury from air to particulate during combustion in steel plant environment due to presence of huge amount of iron particles, in contrast to

  15. CO/sub 2/ and Nd:YAG laser welding of stainless steel and beryllium copper valves: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, T.L.

    1987-03-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate Nd:YAG and CO/sub 2/ lasers as alternates to electron beam welding of beryllium copper and stainless steel valves at Bendix Kansas City Division (BKC). Samples were welded and evaluated for all current requirements. Microphotographs of cross-sections were compared to the current electron beam welds. The Nd:YAG lasers were used to weld the beryllium copper valves. The data shows this process cannot consistently provide 0.010-inch minimum weld penetration, and large weld penetration variations can be expected. A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser was used to weld the stainless steel valves and was successful in meeting the requirements of two of the assemblies attempted. Penetration was limited to approximately 0.080 inch at full power (870 watts). The CO/sub 2/ laser could not meet the penetration requirements (0.099 inch) of one of the assemblies attempted.

  16. Survey of boric acid corrosion of carbon steel components in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J. )

    1990-06-01

    A review has been performed on license responses (50) to Generic Letter 88-05. Joint Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and USNRC audits were performed on a series (10) of affected licensees. The plant audits showed a considerable variance in the mode and quality of boric acid corrosion prevention programs between utilities. The degree of importance of a boric acid corrosion control program also varied considerably between plants. In the plants where a reasonably high priority was given to the problem, the leaks were identified and corrective actions taken in a timely manner. Each of the plants audited had a boric acid corrosion prevention program in effect at the time of the plant visit. In many cases, the program consisted of modifications to existing leakage control procedures. Training of inspectors was accomplished by all audited licensees. In general, the inspectors were certified to the VT-2 qualification and in some instances to the EPRI visual inspection certifications. In general, all of the sites audited kept their plants relatively clean (with one exception). The majority of plants either cleaned their spills in short order and repaired the leaks or found methods of draining or containment of the liquids. All of the audited licensees satisfactorily addressed the four specified requirements of Generic Letter 88-05. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. 78 FR 21938 - Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permit; Architect of the Capitol-Capitol Power Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Notice of Issuance of Final Air Permit; Architect of the Capitol--Capitol Power Plant AGENCY... notice that on January 23, 2013, EPA issued a final air permit to the Architect of the Capitol for...

  18. Pilot Plant Program for the AED Advanced Coal Cleaning System. Phase II. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc. (AED), has developed a proprietary coal cleaning process which employs a combination of ionization and electrostatic separation to remove both sulfur and ash from dry pulverized coal. The Ohio Department of Energy sponsored the first part of a program to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate the process in a continuous-flow pilot plant. Various coals used by Ohio electric utilities were characterized and classified, and sulfur reduction, ash reduction and Btu recovery were measured. Sulfur removal in various coals ranged from 33 to 68% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal ranged from 17 to 59% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal of particles greater than 53 microns ranged from 46 to 88%. Btu recovery ranged from 90 to 97%. These results, especially the large percentage removal of ash particles greater than 53 microns, suggest that the AED system can contribute materially to improved boiler performance and availability. The study indicated the following potential areas for commercial utilization of the AED process: installation between the pulverizer and boiler of conventional coal-fired power utilities; reclamation of fine coal refuse; dry coal cleaning to supplement, and, if necessary, to take the place of conventional coal cleaning; upgrading coal used in: (1) coal-oil mixtures, (2) gasification and liquefaction processes designed to handle pulverized coal; and (3) blast furnaces for making steel, as a fuel supplement to the coke. Partial cleaning of coking coal blends during preheating may also prove economically attractive. Numerous other industrial processes which use pulverized coal such as the production of activated carbon and direct reduction of iron ore may also benefit from the use of AED coal cleaning.

  19. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.; Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  20. Investigation of corrosion of commercial grade AISI 316L stainless steel liner plates in desalination plant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Saricimen, H.; Jarrah, N.R.; Allam, I.M.

    1994-12-31

    The corrosion of AISI Type 316L stainless steel (316L SS) liner plates in the flash chambers of a multistage flash (MSF) desalination plant, located on the Arabian Gulf coast was investigated. The 316L SS liner plates developed severe corrosion within six years of operation. This study was conducted to develop an understanding of the mode and causes of corrosion of the liner plates, and to determine the effect of heat treatment (annealing or heat effect during welding) and temperature of salt solution on corrosion of the liner plates. Specimens of the liner plates were studied in as-received (AR) condition and after being heat treated (HT) at 900 C in air and air-cooled to room temperature. Electrochemical techniques were used to measure the corrosion of the specimens. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) installed with energy dispersive (ED) X-ray diffraction capability was used for identification of compositional and structural changes in the specimens during heat treatment and corrosion. The results showed that: (1) Commercial grade 316L SS is susceptible to pitting, crevice and grain boundary corrosion under the operating conditions in the desalination plant. The heat-affected-zone (HAZ) had larger grains and corroded more severely than other parts of the liner plates. (2) The liner plates had randomly distributed inclusions containing Ti, Cr, Mo, Mn, and S in the structure. (3) Measurement of the corrosion rate. (4) Metallographic investigation of the AR and HT samples.

  1. New approach for data evaluation of industrial wastewater treatment plant: methodology and case study for a coke and steel-processing plant.

    PubMed

    Drakides, Christian; Lay-Son, Meiling

    2009-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) treating industrial effluents produces large amount of data. Frequent sampling is done in the influent and effluent but also in intermediate points. Samples are analyzed for classical and specific contaminants and physical-chemical parameters are monitored. In this paper data from a BWWTP treating the effluents of a coke and steel-processing factory are analyzed. Due to a complex situation, this BWWTP gave poor performances that did not match environmental regulations, meanwhile upgrading proved to be uneasy. Data analysis using principal component analyses (PCA) or kinetic modeling with a Haldane model was unsuccessful in handling these data, which was attributed to undetermined toxic effects. A new methodology is reported, that allowed to identify a kinetics for thiocyanate degradation and a relation between pH and toxic effects. This analysis of the plant data allowed to make hypothesis on the process control parameters and to recommend management modifications, allowing a further increase of the performances.

  2. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry.

  3. 75 FR 75455 - Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil: Final Results of Full...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products From Brazil... certain hot-rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products (hot-rolled steel) from Brazil, pursuant to.../COSIPA) \\2\\ and Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), producers of hot-rolled steel, and the...

  4. Assessment of hydrophobicity and roughness of stainless steel adhered by an isolate of Bacillus cereus from a dairy plant

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes, Patrícia Campos; de Andrade, Nélio José; Ferreira, Sukarno Olavo; de Sá, João Paulo Natalino; Araújo, Emiliane Andrade; Delatorre, Deyse Maria Zanom; Luiz, Lívia Maria Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between the surface of stainless steel and Bacillus cereus was studied in terms of the characteristics of interfacial interaction determined from the measurement of the contact angle of the surface of B. cereus and stainless steel in the presence or absence of B. cereus adherence. The microtopographies and the roughness of the surface of stainless steel and stainless steel adhered by B. cereus were evaluated with the help of atomic force microscopy and perfilometry. The strain of B. cereus studied was considered hydrophilic, whereas the stainless steel was considered hydrophobic. The adhesion was not thermodynamically favorable (ΔGadhesion > 0) between the stainless steel and the strain of B. cereus studied. Thus, the interaction between them was not favored by the thermodynamic aspect of adhesion. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in the roughness of the surfaces of stainless steel adhered by B. cereus when analyzed by atomic force microscope and perfilometry. PMID:24031578

  5. Late Archaic-Late Woodland adaptive stability and change in the Steel Creek watershed, South Carolina: Final report of the L-Lake prehistoric investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.J.; Hanson, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This report documents the research conducted in conjunction with the excavation of four prehistoric archaeological sites (38BR259, 38BR495, 38BR527 and 38BR528) on the Upper Coastal Plain of the South Atlantic Slope in South Carolina. These predominantly Woodland period sites are located on the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) in the L-Lake area of the Steel Creek watershed. The L-Lake area was surveyed during four different phases of research conducted by the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology. The second survey of the area was part of a 40% sample of the SRP, stratified by watersheds. This on-going, multi-year survey, completed in 1986, was implemented in order to inventory and assess the cultural resources contained in the SRP and to provide the SRP with a culture resource synthesis and management plan. The intensive survey of Steel Creek was conducted during 1981 and 1982. However, because portions of the L-Lake area were not included in the sample, no sites pertinent to this report were located. The third survey, which culminated in the present research effort, resulted from a project that began in 1980 when the Department of Energy initiated the reactivation of the L Reactor. The reactivation plan prescribed an increased discharge of thermal water. Consequently, in 1980 the Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) was contracted to conduct an intensive archaeological survey of the Steel Creek terrace edge and bottomland as an initial step geared toward the mitigation of the effects of thermal water discharge on archaeological sites that would result from the restart of the L-Area Reactor. 204 refs.

  6. In situ surface studies of conversion coatings for steel and aluminum. Final report, 15 April 1989-14 September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    White, H.W.; Mansfeld, F.; Bryant, P.

    1992-11-10

    The primary goals of the work were to develop mechanisms of corrosion protection for cerium based surface layers on aluminum alloys and on polyacrylic acid (PAA) complexed zinc phosphate conversion coatings on steel. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) using tunnel current control was developed and applied to several problems. The cerium based coatings on AI 6061-T6 are shown to consist of two principle components--a poorly ordered monohydrated aluminum oxide, and an insoluble cerium oxide which forms at areas concentrated with impurities and alloying elements. Electrochemical action during the surface modification process fosters the precipitation of cerium compounds which inhibit further attack. The addition of high molecular weight PAA to the phosphating bath can significantly improve both resistance to corrosion and top-coat adherence of zinc phosphate conversion coatings on steel. Raman spectra showed the compositions of both unmodified and PAA modified films to be zinc phosphate dihydrate. Single crystallite surfaces were imaged using AFM. The morphologies of the unmodified and modified films were in general quite similar, but subtle differences were apparent. Several other projects involving surface layers and adsorbates were carried out and are described.

  7. Final compliance criteria (40 CFR part 194) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Marcinowski, F.; Kruger, M.; Forinash, E.

    1996-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is under development by the Department of Energy (DOE), is a potential geologic disposal system for defense transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. Pursuant to the 1992 WIPP Land Withdrawal Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to perform several activities including, but not limited to, issuing criteria for determining whether the WIPP complies with the radioactive waste disposal standards in 40 CFR part 191. EPA finalized these compliance criteria (40 CFR part 194), intended to implement the 40 CFR part 191 disposal standards specifically at the WIPP, in February 1996. The paper presents the Agency`s approach to WIPP`s compliance demonstration. This program is unique because the EPA`s approach Laken at the WIPP may set precedent for future approaches Liken at other radioactive disposal facilities. This document addresses many of the nuclear waste issues that are of considerable concern to the public.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  9. Ecological studies on the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) on the Savannah River Plant. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seigel, R.A.; Brandt, L.A.; Knight, J.L.; Novak, S.S.

    1986-06-01

    The American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) is the largest vertebrate of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), reaching a maximum length of 3.7 meters (12 feet) and weighing up to 175 kg (385 pounds). Currently, populations in coastal South Carolina are considered Threatened, whereas populations in inland areas (such as the SRP) are still Endangered. Because of their legal status and economic and ecological importance, it is important to determine the environmental impacts of SRP operations on the local alligator population. The major objectives under the Endangered Species Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) were as follows: (1) document and compare the present status and distribution of alligators on the SRP to previous surveys, in order to determine long-term changes in population abundance; (2) establish baseline population and ecological parameters of the Steel Creek population so that the ecological effects of L-Reactor operations can be determined, and (3) conduct ecological research on the immediate impacts of thermal effluents on American alligators. Gladden et al., (1985) summarized data on previous population surveys, temporal changes in the Par Pond population, preliminary results of the Steel Creek surveys and Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) research on the effects of thermal effluents. This report summarizes the current status of the SRP population, presents data on the abundance, movement patterns and activity cycles of the Steel Creek population, and presents additional data on the effect of cooling water releases on alligator ecology and behavior.

  10. Basic properties of steel plant dust and technological properties of direct reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Xue-Feng; Wang, Jing-Song; Xue, Qing-Guo; Ding, Yin-Gui; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Dong, Jie-Ji; Zeng, Hui

    2011-06-01

    Basic physicochemical properties of the dust from Laiwu Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. were studied. It is found that C, Zn, K, Na, etc. exist in the fabric filter dust, off gas (OG) sludge, fine ash in converter, and electrical field dust in sinter. Among these, OG sludge gives the finest particle, more than 90% of which is less than 2.51 μm. The dust can lead to a serious negative influence on the production of sintering and blast furnaces (BF) if it is recycled in sintering. The briquette and reduction experimental results showed that the qualified strength could be obtained in the case of 8wt% molasses or 4wt% QT-10 added as binders. Also, more than 75% of metallization ratio, more than 95% of dezincing ratio, as well as more than 80% of K and Na removal rates were achieved for the briquettes kept at 1250°C for 15 min during the direct reduction process. SEM observation indicated that the rates of indirect reduction and carbonization became dominating when the briquettes were kept at 1250°C for 6 min.

  11. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel-industry demonstration program. Task I. Hague forge furnaces. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lownie, H.W.; Holden, F.C.

    1982-06-01

    A program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing particular types of energy-conserving devices and equipment was carried out. One of these types of equipment and the results obtained under production conditions in commercial plants are described. The equipment under consideration includes improved forge furnaces and associated heat-recovery components. They are used to heat steel to about 2300 F prior to hot forging. The energy-conserving devices include improved insulation, automatic air-fuel ratio control, and a ceramic recuperator that recovers heat from hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature recirculating burners. Twelve Hague furnaces and retrofit packages were purchased and installed by eleven host forge shops that agree to furnish performance data for the purpose of demonstrating the energy and economic savings that can be achieved in comparison with existing equipment. Fuel savings were reported by comparing the specific energy consumption (Btu's per pound of steel heated) for each Hague furnace with that of a comparison furnace. Economic comparisons were made using payback period based on annual after-tax cash flow. Payback periods for the Hague equipment varied from less than two years to five years or more. In several cases, payback times were high only because the units were operated at a small fraction of their available capacity.

  12. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  13. A Plutonium Finishing Plant Model for the Cercla Removal Action and Decommissioning Construction Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.

    2008-07-01

    The joint policy between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for decommissioning buildings at DOE facilities documents an agreement between the agencies to perform decommissioning activities including demolition under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The use of removal actions for decommissioning integrates EPA oversight authority, DOE lead agency responsibility, and state authority for decommissioning activities. Once removal actions have been performed under CERCLA, a construction completion report is required to document the completion of the required action. Additionally, a decommissioning report is required under DOE guidance. No direct guidance was found for documenting completion of decommissioning activities and preparing a final report that satisfies the CERCLA requirements and the DOE requirements for decommissioning. Additional guidance was needed for the documentation of construction completion under CERCLA for D and D projects undertaken under the joint policy that addresses the requirements of both agencies. A model for the construction completion report was developed to document construction completion for CERCLA D and D activities performed under the joint EPA/DOE policy at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The model documentation report developed at PFP integrates the DOE requirements for establishing decommissioning end-points, documenting end-point completion and preparing a final decommissioning report with the CERCLA requirements to document completion of the action identified in the Action Memorandum (AM). The model includes the required information on health and safety, data management, cost and schedule and end-points completion. (authors)

  14. Industrial relations and uneven development: wage structure and industrial organization in the British and US iron and steel industries 1870-1970. Doctoral thesis (final)

    SciTech Connect

    Elbaum, B.L.

    1982-06-01

    The study is principally concerned with two interrelated aspects of British and U.S. iron and steel industry development, namely with long persistent disparities in wage structure and in industrial structure and performance. The origins of these disparities are traced to a critical formative period before W.W.I, which is accordingly the main period of enquiry. The argument presented links disparity in wage structure to a distinctive trade union impact which reflected and had a reciprocal influence upon, divergent industrial organization. In either country, exclusive unions of strategic process workers were able to maintain downwardly rigid tonnage wage rates, and thereby capture, plant-by-plant, a portion of the benefits of technical change and increasing productivity. But in the U.S., trade union organization met with defeat, while in Britain, union organization was consolidated under a two-tiered structure of bargaining. Union defeat in the U.S. came at the hands of oligopolistic, multi-plant firms. Union success with two-tiered bargaining in Britain was facilitated by comparative industrial fragmentation.

  15. Noise-reduction effectiveness of resilient rail fasteners on steel solid web stringer elevated structures. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.T.; Wilson, G.P.

    1989-03-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Urban Mass Transportation Administration's Technical Assistance program, the New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) studies the noise-reduction effectiveness of various resilient rail fasteners for steel elevated structures. The study included field and laboratory tests, and limited theoretical modeling to identify and optimize those characteristics most effective in reducing noise, while meeting criteria for rail stability. Top-plate bending resonance in the 500-700 Hz frequency range may be a significant factor in reducing the vibration-isolation effectiveness of resilient rail fasteners. The standing-wave elastomer resonance (thickness mode) of resilient fasteners does not appear to be significant to wayside noise reduction at 500 Hz or lower frequencies for the type of fasteners considered.

  16. Basic properties of sintering dust from iron and steel plant and potassium recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Guang; Guo, Zhancheng

    2013-06-01

    With the production of crude steel, China produces several million tons of sintering dusts which contain a great deal of valuable metals such as, K, Na, Zn, Pb. If discharged directly without adequate treatment, these elements can lead to adverse effects on the environment. Therefore, it is very necessary to determine how to separate these elements from the dust before discharge. Several physical and chemical detection methods were used to study the basic properties of sintering dust. At the same time, preliminary experiments on the recovery of the potassium resources from the sintering dust were carried out. The mean particle size of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust determined by a laser granulometer was 41.468 microm. Multi-point BET and single-point BET analysis showed that the surface area of the ESP dust was 2.697 m2/g. XRD measurements detected the following phases in the ESP dust: Fe2O3, Fe3O4, KCl and NaCl, and Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and SiO2 in the water-washed dust. SEM-EDS results proved that in the ESP dust, K mostly existed in the form of KCl particles without being coated. Leaching experiments showed that the KCl in the ESP dust could be separated and recovered by water leaching and fractional crystallization. Through the recovery experiments, the yield of K-Na vaporized crystalline salt was 18.56%, in which the mass fractions of KCl, NaCl, CaSO4 and K2SO4 were about 61.03%, 13.58%, 14.03% and 9.97%, respectively. This process is technically viable and considerable in economic benefit. There was almost no secondary pollution produced in the whole recovery process.

  17. 75 FR 69626 - Certain Steel Grating From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import Administration... Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 32366 (June 8,...

  18. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement and energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; McClelland, J.D.; Ross, M.

    1995-12-31

    The research in this paper is motivated by recommendations that were made by industry in a number of different forums: the Industry Workshop of the White House Conference on Climate Change, and more recently, in industry consultations with the Department of Energy for the Energy Policy Act Section 131(c) and Section 1605(b). These recommendations were related to reconciling conflicts in environmental goals, productivity improvements, and increased energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The paper present preliminary results from one of two industry case studies, integrated pulp and paper production (a second case study of integrated steel plants is still underway). These case studies have been undertaken to obtain a clearer understanding of the process in industry that gives rise to (potential) conflicts in compliance with environmental goals and constraints, improving productivity, and improving energy efficiency. The project consists of two phases, the industry consultation phase and the analytic phase. This paper present the framework and some results from the analytic phase. This study is still ongoing and interested persons can contact the authors for a more complete report of the study findings.

  19. PREPARATION OF U-PLANT FOR FINAL DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL - 12109E

    SciTech Connect

    FARABEE OA; HERZOG B; CAMERON C

    2012-02-16

    The U-Plant is one of the five major nuclear materials processing facilities at Hanford and was chosen as a pilot project to develop the modalities for closure of the other four facilities at Hanford and the rest of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The remedy for this facility was determined by a Record of Decision (ROD) pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). That remedy was to 'Close in Place - Partially Demolished Structure'. The U-Plant facility is identified as the 221-U Building and is a large, concrete structure nominally 247m (810 ft) long, 20 M (66 ft) wide and 24 m (77 ft) high with approximately 9 m (30 ft) being below grade level. It is a robust facility with walls ranging from 0.9 m to 2.7 m (3 ft to 9 ft) thick. One large room extends the entire length of the building that provides access to 40 sub-grade processing cells containing tanks, piping and other components. The work breakdown was divided into three major deliverables: (1) Tank D-10 Removal: removal of Tank D-10, which contained TRU waste; (2) Equipment Disposition: placement of contaminated equipment in the sub-grade cells; and (3) Canyon Grouting: grouting canyon void spaces to the maximum extent practical. A large number of pieces of contaminated equipment (pumps, piping, centrifuges, tanks, etc) from other facilities that had been stored on the canyon operating floor were placed inside of the sub-grade cells as final disposition, grouted and the cell shield plug reinstalled. This action precluded a large volume of waste being transported to another burial site. Finally, {approx}19,000 m3 ({approx}25,000 yd3) of grout was placed inside of the cells (in and around the contaminated equipment), in the major galleries. the ventilation tunnel, the external ventilation duct, and the hot pipe trench to minimize the potential for void spaces and to reduce the mobility, solubility, and/or toxicity of the grouted waste. The

  20. Final Report, Volume 4, The Development of Qualification Standards for Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, W.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope® and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation was

  1. Final Report, Volume 4, The Develpoment of Qualification Standards forCast Super Duplex Stainless Steel (2507 Wrought Equivalent)

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, Vasudevan; Lundin, Carl, D.

    2005-09-30

    The objective of the program is to determine the suitability of ASTM A923 Standard Test methods for Detecting Detrimental Intermetallic Phase in Wrought Duplex Austenitic-Ferritic Stainless Steels for 25 Cr Cast Super Duplex Stainless Steels (ASTM A890-5A). Different tests were carried out on the materials procured from various steel foundries as stated in the ASTM A923. The foundries were designated as Foundry A, B, C and D. All the materials were foundry solution annealed. Materials from Foundry D were solution heat treated at The University of Tennessee also and then they were subjected to heat treatment schedule which was derived from the testing of wrought DSS to establish the A923 specification. This was possible because the material from the same heat was sufficient for conducting the full scope of heat treatment. This was done prior to carrying out various other tests. Charpy samples were machined. The Ferrite content was measured in all the Charpy samples using Feritscope{reg_sign} and ASTM E562 Manual Point Count Method. After the ferrite content was measured the samples were sent to AMC-Vulcan, Inc. in Alabama to conduct the Charpy impact test based on ASTM A923 Test Method B. This was followed by etch testing and corrosion analysis based on ASTM A923 Test Methods A and C respectively at University of Tennessee. Hardness testing using Rockwell B and C was also carried out on these samples. A correlation was derived between all the three test methods and the best method for evaluating the presence of intermetallic in the material was determined. The ferrite content was correlated with the toughness values. Microstructural analysis was carried out on the etch test samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to determine if intermetallic phases were present. The fracture surfaces from Charpy test specimens were also observed under SEM in order to determine the presence of any cracks and whether it was a brittle or a ductile fracture. A correlation

  2. Ventilation-kinetics testing of a steel frame/rubber fabric underground shelter. Final report, Aug 89-Aug 90

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzinger, A.T.

    1991-05-01

    Design modifications were implemented on a respectively new steel frame/rubber fabric underground shelter to improve its collective protection characteristics for usage in an NBC warfare environment. Design changes were evaluated by analyzing volumetric air flow and pressure data collected from ventilation tests conducted for each design modification. Modifications to doors within the shelter proved to have significant impact on its performance. One door modification utilized velcro and rubber adhesives to attach the doorflap on the positive pressure side of the doorway. This modification increased maximum overpressure attained by the shelter from 0.125 inches of water (in.WG) to 1.8 in.WG over its original design. Test results indicated that this was due to a substantial decrease in the effective leakage areas associated with all of the doorways. At this higher overpressure, the risk of airborne nuclear fallout, biological agents, or vapors from chemical agents or aerosols penetrating into the shelter during exit/entry operations would be greatly reduced.

  3. Demonstration of shield-type longwall supports at York Canyon Mine of Kaiser Steel Corporation. Final technical report A

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, R.G.; King, R.

    1980-04-01

    This report represents work on a program that was originated by the USBM of the Department of the Interior and was transferred to the Department of Energy on October 1, 1977. A demonstration with the Government funded Hemscheidt 320 HSL caliper type shield supports was conducted at three longwall panels of Kaiser Steel Corporation's York Canyon Mine. The purpose of this longwall demonstration was to provide the US coal industry with information on all aspects of shield longwall mining in high seams. The demonstration provided a working model for the coal industry and during the project, 350 people from the industry, schools, and government agencies visited the demonstration. They were provided with a first hand knowledge of a working shield longwall. The demonstration showed that the control of large coal lumps may be a problem in the mining of coal seam thicker than 8 feet. Mining with shield type supports provided good working conditions and a safe working environment. The shield requires very little maintenance and has a high mechanical availability.

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) [SEC 1 THRU 11

    SciTech Connect

    ULLAH, M K

    2001-02-26

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in south central Washington State. The DOE Richland Operations (DOE-RL) Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) is with Fluor Hanford Inc. (FH). Westinghouse Safety Management Systems (WSMS) provides management support to the PFP facility. Since 1991, the mission of the PFP has changed from plutonium material processing to preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). The PFP is in transition between its previous mission and the proposed D and D mission. The objective of the transition is to place the facility into a stable state for long-term storage of plutonium materials before final disposition of the facility. Accordingly, this update of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) reflects the current status of the buildings, equipment, and operations during this transition. The primary product of the PFP was plutonium metal in the form of 2.2-kg, cylindrical ingots called buttoms. Plutonium nitrate was one of several chemical compounds containing plutonium that were produced as an intermediate processing product. Plutonium recovery was performed at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) and plutonium conversion (from a nitrate form to a metal form) was performed at the Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line as the primary processes. Plutonium oxide was also produced at the Remote Mechanical A (RMA) Line. Plutonium processed at the PFP contained both weapons-grade and fuels-grade plutonium materials. The capability existed to process both weapons-grade and fuels-grade material through the PRF and only weapons-grade material through the RMC Line although fuels-grade material was processed through the line before 1984. Amounts of these materials exist in storage throughout the facility in various residual forms left from previous years of operations.

  5. Trends in steel technology. [Dual phase and HSLA steels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Dual phase steels, composite products, and microalloyed steels are making inroads in the automotive industry applications for bumpers, automotive parts, bodies, mechanical parts, suspension and steering equipment and truck bumpers. New steels are also used to support solar mirrors and cells, in corrosive environments in the oil and gas industry, fusion reactors, and pressure vessels in nuclear power plants. (FS)

  6. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-B. Commercial fusion electric plant

    SciTech Connect

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-B contains the following chapters: (1) blanket and reflector; (2) central cell shield; (3) central cell structure; (4) heat transport and energy conversion; (5) tritium systems; (6) cryogenics; (7) maintenance; (8) safety; (9) radioactivity, activation, and waste disposal; (10) instrumentation and control; (11) balance of plant; (12) plant startup and operation; (13) plant availability; (14) plant construction; and (15) economic analysis.

  7. 78 FR 24721 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of the Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... review has been rescinded, the Department intends to assess antidumping duties at rates equal to the cash... listed above, the cash deposit rate will be the rate established in the amended final results of review (except, if the rate is zero or de minimis, i.e., less than 0.5 percent, a zero cash deposit rate will...

  8. 76 FR 5331 - Forged Stainless Steel Flanges From India and Taiwan: Final Results of Sunset Reviews and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... Taiwan. Because the domestic interested parties did not participate in these sunset reviews, the.... See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 67082 (November 1, 2010). We did not receive a..., issue a final determination revoking the order. Because the domestic interested parties did not file...

  9. 76 FR 3613 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... program and the Act on the Promotion of the Development of Alternative Energy program in these final... under the Act on the Promotion of the Development of Alternative Energy III. Programs Found Not To Have... Industrial Development Act (IDA) B. Energy Savings Fund Program C. Overseas Resource Development...

  10. 78 FR 17637 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Mexico: Notice of Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... the United States, an adverse facts available (AFA) rate of 48.33 percent. The application of AFA was... lawsuit with the United States Court of International Trade (CIT) challenging the Department's final... Mexico, S. de R.L. de C.V., and Southland Pipe Nipples Co., Inc. v. United States, Court No. 10-...

  11. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 6. Plant based on Texaco gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The baseline of a coal gasification plant producing medium Btu gas, based upon the Texaco gasification process is documented in this report. The coal gasification plant consists of four identical modules, each with a capacity of approximately 4800 tons of coal per day dry basis as delivered to the gasifiers. The entire plant (four modules) produces 1195.0 million standard cubic feet per day of gas with a GHV value of approximately 285 Btu/scf for a total heating value of about 341 billion Btu/day. The plant will be designed to meet all federal, state, and local standards and guidelines. A description of the plant by major sections is included as well as flow diagrams, stream balances and lists of major equipment.

  12. Computer-Based Information Management System. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume IV. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the fourth of four project objectives, the development and preliminary evaluation of a computer-based…

  13. Microcomputer-Based Assessment of Preservice Special Education Teachers. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume I. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the first of four project objectives, the development and implementation of a microcomputer-based…

  14. Special Education Teacher Computer Literacy Training. Project STEEL. A Special Project To Develop and Implement a Computer-Based Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory. Volume II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Theodore W.; And Others

    The document is part of the final report on Project STEEL (Special Teacher Education and Evaluation Laboratory) intended to extend the utilization of technology in the training of preservice special education teachers. This volume focuses on the second of four project objectives, the development of a special education teacher computer literacy…

  15. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 5, Aquatic ecology, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    1987-10-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report (Gladden et al., 1985) described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The first is a summary of environmental effects. The other seven volumes address water quality, radionuclide and heavy metal transport, wetlands, aquatic ecology, Federally endangered species, ecology of Par Pond, and waterfowl. This report documents the results of the Aquatic Ecology Program of the Comprehensive Cooling Water Study. The purpose of the Aquatic Ecology Program was to determine the environmental impacts of cooling water intake and release on the biological communities of SRP streams and swamps and the Savannah River, and the significance of these impacts on the SRP environment. 171 refs., 132 figs., 165 tabs.

  16. Reducing the chlorine dioxide demand in final disinfection of drinking water treatment plants using activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Biasibetti, Michela; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Crotti, Barbara Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests was performed at the laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests was performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 min after ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, mesoporous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and UV absorbance at wavelength 254 nm using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral mesoporous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.

  17. Final Report on EURAMET key comparison (EURAMET.M.M-K2.5) of 10 kg mass standards in stainless steel (Project code: EURAMET 1222)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vámossy, Csilla; Bulku, Defrim; Borys, Michael; Alisic, Sejla; Boskovic, Tamara; Zelenka, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The report describes a European regional key comparison of a stainless steel 10 kg standard as a multiple of the kilogram carried out under the auspices of EURAMET and designated Project 1222. This comparison is also a KCDB Regional Key Comparison, registered as EURAMET.M.M-K2.5. The objectives of this comparison are to check the measurement capabilities in the field of mass of the participating national laboratories, to facilitate the demonstration of metrological equivalence between the laboratories in Europe, and to check or support the validity of quoted calibration measurement capabilities (CMC). This comparison provides a link to CCM.M-K2. BEV (Austria) was the pilot laboratory and the provider of the transfer standard. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. The final report for CCM.M-K7: key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Borys, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Becerra, Luis Omar; Eltawil, Alaaeldin A.; Jian, Wang; Malengo, Andrea; Medina, Nieves; Snegov, Victor; Wüthrich, Christian; Scholz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In order to show equivalence in mass standards calibration among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of member countries of the "Comité international des poids et mesures" (CIPM), key comparisons (KC) of mass standards have been carried out under the auspices of the "Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les Grandeurs Apparentées" (CCM). This key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards was based on the decision of the CCM during the 12th meeting held in 2010 at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). KRISS (Republic of Korea) and PTB (Germany) acted as pilot laboratory and co-pilot laboratory, respectively. The results were evaluated with the Monte Carlo method using measurement values based on participants' reference standards calculated following the recent BIPM amendments in 2015. Regarding participant results, VNIIM (100 g and 5 g) were not consistent with the key comparison reference values within their expanded uncertainties with the coverage factor, k = 2. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  20. The steel scrap age.

    PubMed

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  1. Wastewater minimization at a stainless steel manufacturing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward-Browne, A.; Ackroyd, D.S.; Dave, B.B.

    1996-08-01

    As the environmental regulations associated with discharging water from industrial installations become increasingly more stringent and water in some areas becomes more scarce, water costs, both for purchase and disposal, become increasingly more expensive. So the importance of reusing and recycling water is heightened. This paper investigates the desire of a stainless steel manufacturing plant to improve the final product surface quality. Simple upgrading of the once-through rinsing process would have presented operational problems for the on-site effluent treatment plant and exceeded site discharge limits. A more innovative approach was sought. Explained are the stages taken to audit the plant, the initial work in proposing water recycle options and a computer modeling methodology for predicting water chemistry and economics. In conclusion, the stainless steel manufacturer discusses the implementation of the recycle project. Not only are the operational demands met, but the recycle option actually provides a return on investment to the stainless steel manufacturer rather than an additional cost.

  2. Regulatory Actions - Final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for Power Plants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) for power plants to limit mercury, acid gases and other toxic pollution from power plants. This page describes Federal regulatory actions.

  3. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  4. Noise control at fossil fuel power plants: an industrywide assessment of costs and benefits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, R.M.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the results of a study on the costs and perceived benefits of noise control measures currently installed at fossil power plants. Information for this study was sought from the entire fossil power plant industry in this country through a questionnaire survey and through discussions with utility personnel. A total of 84 power companies responded with information on plants. In addition, five power plants with extensive noise control measures were selected for detailed study. For these plants, case histories were prepared following plant visits and discussions with utility personnel regarding the specific noise control measures. Based on these case histories and the results of the questionnaire survey, noise control costs and perceived benefits are presented for major power plant equipment categories including draft fans, boiler feed pumps, turbine-generator systems, valves, and transformers. 12 references, 14 figures, 7 tables.

  5. Direct-flash-steam geothermal-power-plant assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Alt, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the project was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. The analysis was to include consideration of system and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  6. Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J.; Walrath, L.F.

    1983-04-01

    The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.

  7. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  8. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  9. B Plant canyon sample TK-21-1 analytical results for the final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1998-04-10

    This document is the analytical laboratory report for the TK-21-1 sample collected from the B Plant Canyon on February 18, 1998. The sample was analyzed in accordance with the Sampling and Analysis Plan for B Plant Solutions (SAP) (Simmons, 1997) in support of the B Plant decommissioning project. Samples were analyzed to provide data both to describe the material which would remain in the tanks after the B Plant transition is complete and to determine Tank Farm compatibility. The analytical results are included in the data summary table (Table 1).

  10. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  11. Distribution of porosity and macrosegregation in slab steel ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkadleckova, M.; Jonsta, P.; Carbol, Z.; Susovsky, M.; Michalek, K.; Socha, L.; Sviželová, J.; Zwyrtek, J.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents a new knowledge and experiences with verification and optimization of production technology of heavy slab ingot weighing 40 t from tool steel using the results of numerical modelling and of operational experiments at a steel plant in the company VÍTKOVICE HEAVY MACHINERY a.s. The final porosity, macrosegregation and the risk of cracks were predicted. Based on the results, the slab ingot can be used instead of the conventional heavy steel ingot. Also, the ratio, the chamfer, and the external shape of the wall of the new design of the slab ingot was improved, which enabled to reduce production costs while the internal quality of steel ingots was still maintained at very high level.

  12. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  13. Risk Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ritterbusch, Stanley; Golay, Michael; Duran, Felicia; Galyean, William; Gupta, Abhinav; Dimitrijevic, Vesna; Malsch, Marty

    2003-01-29

    OAK B188 Summary of methods proposed for risk informing the design and regulation of future nuclear power plants. All elements of the historical design and regulation process are preserved, but the methods proposed for new plants use probabilistic risk assessment methods as the primary decision making tool.

  14. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  15. Regulation of polyamine synthesis in plants. Final progress report, July 1, 1991--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malmberg, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    This research focused on unusual post-translational modifications occuring in a arginine decarboxylase cDNA clone in oats. A novel regulatory mechanism for polyamines was explored and an attempt was made to characterize it. A plant ornithine decarboxylase cDNA was identified in Arabidopsis. Further work remains on the mechanisms of polyamine regulation and function in plants.

  16. A Post Licensing Study of Community Effects at Two Operating Nuclear Power Plants. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Bruce J.; And Others

    In an effort to identify and assess the social, economic, and political effects of nuclear power plant construction and operation upon two host communities (Plymouth, Massachusetts and Waterford, Connecticut), a post-licensing review revealed that the primary impact of the nuclear power plants in both communities was an increase in the property…

  17. TVA coal-gasification plant conceptual design. Volume 1. Plant based on Executive overview (Summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    TVA plans to build a coal gasification plant to demonstrate the operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility producing a clean medium Btu gas (MBG) for use in various industrial applications in the TVA region. In the Phase I efforts, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation prepared conceptual designs, cost estimates, and trade-off studies of the following gasification systems: Lurgi Dry Bottom, Koppers-Totzek, Babcock and Wilcox, British Gas Slagger, and Texaco.

  18. Radon transport from uranium mill tailings via plant transpiration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Radon exhalation by vegetation planted on bare or soil-covered uranium mill wastes was studied based on an assumption that radon transport from soil to atmosphere via plants takes place in the transpiration stream. Results show that radon exhalation by plants is inversely related to water transpired, primarily a dilution effect. Radon released appeared directly related to leaf area, suggesting that radon is carried into the plant by mass flow in water; however, once within the plant, radon very likely diffuses through the entire leaf cuticle, while water vapor diffuses primarily through open stomates. Application of a computerized model for water transpiration to radon exhalation is not immediately useful until the role of water in radon transport is defined throughout the continuum from rooting medium to the atmosphere. Until then, a simple calculation based on leaf area index and Ra-226 concentration in the rooting medium can provide an estimate of radon release from revegetated wastes containing radium.

  19. Thermoeconomic optimizarion of OC-OTEC electricity and water production plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Block, D.L.; Girgis, M.A.; Huggins, J.C.; McCluney, R.; Rotundo, L.; Valenzuela, J.A.; Hutchings, B.J.; Stacy, W.D.; Sam, R.G.; Patel, B.R.

    1984-09-01

    The objectives of this yearlong project were to: (1) assess the economic and technical viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion of (OC-OTEC) for the production of electricity and/or fresh water based on the current state of the art; (2) develop conceptual designs of optimized OC-OTEC plants that produce electricity and/or fresh water for plant sizes that are economically attractive; and (3) identify the research issues that must be resolved before a commercial plant can be built. Oceanographic data for six potential sites were evaluated and generic site characteristics were developed. The generic site has a 20/sup 0/C temperature differential between the ocean surface and a depth of 1000 m. This temperature differential occurs at a distance of 5 km from shore. Current and projected prices and requirements for electricity and water at potential sites were obtained. The state of the art of components comprising the OC-OTEC plant was reviewed. Design options for each component were identified. The highest performing, least costly, and least technically uncertain design for each component was selected. Component cost and performance models were then developed and integrated into thermoeconomic system models for single- and double-stage OC-OTEC plants that produced electricity and/or fresh water. A computerized optimization procedure was developed to obtain optimal (minimum cost) plant configurations for the production of electricity and/or fresh water. All plant types - floating, moored, shelf-mounted, shallow-water and land-based plants - were evaluated. Based on the state-of-the-art and typical characteristics of potential sites, the primary thrust of the program was directed towards shallow-water and land-based plants. The shallow-water/land-based plant configurations selected had a 5-km long cold-water supply pipe and a 1-km long discharge pipe for the evaporator and condenser.

  20. 75 FR 47541 - Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil and Japan: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration Hot-Rolled Flat-Rolled Carbon-Quality Steel Products from Brazil and Japan... Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled flat-rolled... hot- rolled flat-rolled carbon-quality steel products from Brazil and Japan pursuant to section...

  1. 76 FR 25668 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Mexico: Final Results of the Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... revocation of the antidumping duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip (``SSSS'') in coils from Mexico... notice of the Preliminary Results of the second sunset review of the antidumping duty order on SSSS in... March 4, 2011. \\1\\ The domestic SSSS in coils industry includes AK Steel Corporation; Allegheny...

  2. 76 FR 17160 - Office of New Reactors; Final Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...The NRC staff is issuing its Final Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) DC/COL-ISG-021 titled ``Interim Staff Guidance on the Review of Nuclear Power Plant Designs Using a Gas Turbine Driven Standby Emergency Alternating Current Power System,'' Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML102510119 for DC/ COL-ISG-021 and ADAMS Accession No. ML102510164 for Attachment 1 to......

  3. Trial application of guidelines for nuclear plant response to an earthquake. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, W.; Oliver, R.; O`Connor, W.

    1993-09-01

    Guidelines have been developed to assist nuclear plant personnel in the preparation of earthquake response procedures for nuclear power plants. These guidelines are published in EPRI report NP-6695, ``Guidelines for Nuclear Plant Response to an Earthquake,`` dated December 1989. This report includes two sets of nuclear plant procedures which were prepared to implement the guidelines of EPRI report NP-6695. The first set were developed by the Toledo Edison Company Davis-Besse plant. Davis-Besse is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and contains relatively standard seismic monitoring instrumentation typical of many domestic nuclear plants. The second set of procedures were prepared by Yankee Atomic Electric Company for the Vermont Yankee facility. This plant is a boiling water reactor (BWR) with state-of-the-art seismic monitoring and PC-based data processing equipment, software developed specifically to implement the OBE Exceedance Criterion presented in EPRI report NP-5930, ``A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the operating Basis Earthquake.`` The two sets of procedures are intended to demonstrate how two different nuclear utilities have interpreted and applied the EPRI guidance given in report NP-6695.

  4. Evaluation of the biotic potential of microorganisms and higher plants to enhance the quality of constructed wetlands. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, D.A.; Floyd, M.; Taylor, R.W.; Sistani, K.

    1998-09-30

    A project was carried out from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1998 to evaluate the growth of several species of wetland plants in constructed cells using mine spoil as a growth medium, to evaluate microbial diversity and finally, to demonstrate the concept on an actual strip-mined site. In order to gain background information for evaluation of constructed wetlands, several wetlands on both undisturbed and strip-mined areas were evaluated to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of the substrates as well as the vegetation characteristics. The research phase of this projects consisted of 10 wetland cells each 7x16 m in size with the water depth varying from 0 to 40 cm. The substrates were allowed to stabilize over winter and each cell was planted in the spring of 1993 with 18 plants each of cattail, maidencance, soft stem bulrush and pickerel weed. All cells were thickly vegetated by the end of the first growing season.

  5. 77 FR 37384 - High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China... duty order on high pressure steel cylinders (``steel cylinders'') from the People's Republic of China.... See High Pressure Steel Cylinders From the People's Republic of China: Final...

  6. Synthesis of power plant outage schedules. Final technical report, April 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.

    1997-07-01

    This document provides a report on the creation of domain theories in the power plant outage domain. These were developed in conjunction with the creation of a demonstration system of advanced scheduling technology for the outage problem. In 1994 personnel from Rome Laboratory (RL), Kaman Science (KS), Kestrel Institute, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) began a joint project to develop scheduling tools for power plant outage activities. This report describes our support for this joint effort. The project uses KIDS (Kestrel Interactive Development System) to generate schedulers from formal specifications of the power plant domain outage activities.

  7. 76 FR 6847 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Critical Habitat for Brodiaea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... rule becomes effective on March 10, 2011. ADDRESSES: The final rule, final economic analysis, and map... with varying amounts of sand and silt. In this rule, we listed all the mapped soils that ] overlap with... is identified with mapped soils with no known clay component; however, closer study and...

  8. 76 FR 55723 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... (SQN) in Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. A notice of availability (NOA) of the Sequoyah License Renewal Final... Protection Agency (USEPA) published the NOA for the Draft SEIS in the Federal Register on November 5, 2010... considering and responding to all substantive comments, TVA completed and issued the Final SEIS. The NOA...

  9. Development study: Boiler plant and cogeneration. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-29

    This study, conducted by Sebesta Blomberg and Associates, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of PICOP Resources, Inc. The report assesses the feasibility of modernizing the power plant serving the Plywood, Paper, and Wood Products plant located in Bislig, Philippines. The main objectives of the study were to document the general condition of the power plant and the steam and electric infrastructure at the facility, identify cost reduction measures, identify methods to eliminate use of pulp and board quality wood as fuel resources, and to identify a structure of owning and operating the power plant which would reduce the capital required by PICOP. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Letter of Introduction; (2) Table of Contents; (3) Introduction; (4) Scope of Study; (5) Executive Summary; (6) Description of Existing Conditions; (7) Base Economic Model; (8) Description of Alternatives; (9) Conclusion and Recommendations; (10) Appendix.

  10. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  11. Rangeland - plant responses to elevated CO{sub 2}. Final report, October 1988--October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Research is described on plant (tallgrass) response to elevated carbon dioxide. Variables addressed include biomass production, as well as water use efficiency, photosynthetic capacity, decomposition, nutrient cycling, and forage quality.

  12. Final Rule to Reduce Toxic Air Emissions from Lime Manufacturing Plants Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains an August 2003 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Lime Manufacturing Plants. This document provides a summary of the information for this NESHAP.

  13. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  14. Design and cost study of critical OC-OTEC plant components: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, J.A.; Jasinski, T.; Stacey, W.D.; Patel, B.R.; Dolan, F.Y.

    1988-06-01

    During the FY 1983-84, system analysis studies were performed by the Florida Solar Energy Center and Creare Inc. to assess the economic and technological viability of the OC-OTEC concept for producing both electricity and fresh water on a small scale. A major conclusion of the study was that land-based OC-OTEC plants as small as 10 MWe may be economically feasible in island communities if cost credits are taken for the fresh water produced. The present study builds upon and extends the results of that work. Assess the effect of the seasonal variation in the ocean surface water temperature on the performance of OC-OTEC plants; evaluate the technical feasibility of building small scale OC-OTEC plants using existing low pressure steam turbine rotor designs; refine the plant structure model developed during the Phase I study; and develop background information and analyses to evaluate the various alternative strategies for handling noncondensible gases in OC-OTEC plants. Refinements in OC-OTEC plant performance and cost models performed during the present study have reduced the estimated cost of a 10 MW baseline plant from 99 to 72M$. Further cost reduction of 5 to 10M$ is anticipated from the revised structure cost model and the implementation of barometric leg deaeration and hydraulic compression. Therefore, the results from this study reinforce the earlier conclusion that small-scale OC-OTEC plants are competitive at present for the production of electricity and fresh water in the Caribbean and Pacific Islands. OC-OTEC represents a technology with significant potential. We recommend that it be aggressively pursued. 33 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. [Plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and transmission to other trophic levels]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, D.E.

    1995-10-01

    This program investigated how host plant responses to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide may be transmitted to other trophic levels, especially leaf eating insects, and alter consumption of leaves and impare their function. Study results included the following findings: increased carbon dioxide to plants alters feeding by insect herbivores; leaves produced under higher carbon conditions contain proportionally less nitrogen; insect herbivores may have decreased reproduction under elevated carbon dioxide.

  16. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  17. Site-specific earthquake response analysis for Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sykora, D.W.; Davis, J.J.

    1993-08-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated under contract by Martin Marietta Energy systems, Inc., is located southwest of Paducah, Kentucky. An aerial photograph and an oblique sketch of the plant are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. The fenced portion of the plant consists of 748 acres. This plant was constructed in the 1950`s and is one of only two gaseous diffusion plants in operation in the United States; the other is located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The facilities at PGDP are currently being evaluated for safety in response to natural seismic hazards. Design and evaluation guidelines to evaluate the effects of earthquakes and other natural hazards on DOE facilities follow probabilistic hazard models that have been outlined by Kennedy et al. (1990). Criteria also established by Kennedy et al. (1990) classify diffusion plants as ``moderate hazard`` facilities. The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) was tasked to calculate the site response using site-specific design earthquake records developed by others and the results of previous geotechnical investigations. In all, six earthquake records at three hazard levels and four individual and one average soil columns were used.

  18. Dynamic interaction between an OTEC power plant and a power grid. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-31

    The objectives of the research reported are: to identify and resolve potential technical problems that may arise from the incorporation of an OTEC power plant in the existing generation mix of Puerto Rico and to develop the tools and to identify the technical resources needed for dynamic analysis of island power systems to which OTEC power plants provide a substantial portion of the load demand. The issues addressed are system modelling and data gathering, network simplification, selection of OTEC plant site and power system, stability analysis, and economic dispatch when OTEC power plants contribute substantially to the island's load. The slow dynamics of the OTEC plant make it a reference for the rest of the power system during a transient, but this slowness is a drawback in terms of system recovery from fault-induced transients. It is found that simple dynamic models can, in most instances, describe the transient behavior of both the OTEC plant and the island's power system, but it was not possible to reduce the non-OTEC portion of the power system to a single generation point and a single load. (LEW)

  19. Evaluation of a superheater enhanced geothermal steam power plant in the Geysers area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Janes, J.

    1984-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attainable generation increase and to evaluate the economic merits of superheating the steam that could be used in future geothermal steam power plants in the Geyser-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). It was determined that using a direct gas-fired superheater offers no economic advantages over the existing geothermal power plants. If the geothermal steam is heated to 900/sup 0/F by using the exhaust energy from a gas turbine of currently available performance, the net reference plant output would increase from 65 MW to 159 MW (net). Such hybrid plants are cost effective under certain conditions identified in this document. The power output from the residual Geyser area steam resource, now equivalent to 1437 MW, would be more than doubled by employing in the future gas turbine enhancement. The fossil fuel consumed in these plants would be used more efficiently than in any other fossil-fueled power plant in California. Due to an increase in evaporative losses in the cooling towers, the viability of the superheating concept is contingent on development of some of the water resources in the Geysers-Calistoga area to provide the necessary makeup water.

  20. Demonstration of membrane aeration panels: City of Geneva Wastewater Treatment Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and testing of membrane aeration panels at the Marsh Creek wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Geneva, NY. The operators at the Geneva plant have undertaken a long-term program to upgrade wastewater treatment processes and lower operating costs. The aging mechanical surface aerators at the Marsh Creek treatment plant were replaced by a state-of-the-art membrane panel system. This fine-bubble diffused air system offers higher oxygen transfer efficiency than surface aerators or other types of fine-bubble diffused-air systems. The project had four objectives: to decrease the amount of electricity used at the plant for aeration; to enable the plant`s existing aeration basins to accommodate higher organic loads and/or nitrify the wastewater should the need arise; to provide an even distribution of dissolved oxygen within the aeration basins to enhance biological wastewater treatment activity; and to provide technical data to assess the performance of the membrane panel system versus other forms of wastewater aeration.

  1. Conversion of Army heating plants to coal: three case studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.; Collishaw, A.

    1982-03-01

    This study reports the results of three site-specific engineering studies to convert main heating plants to coal as a fuel. The Army installations examined were Redstone Arsenal, AL; Picatinny Arsenal, NJ; and the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) in New York. Each of these installations formerly fired coal and was converted to fuel oil about two decades ago. Researchers considered application of both current and advanced coal systems, which included direct combustion (either in suspension or on a grate), production and firing of low- and high-Btu coal-derived gas, and production and use of coal-derived liquid fuel. Both rehabilitation and replacement of plants were considered. Capital investment and annual operating costs are reported for alternative conversions. The report concludes that all three installations should change from fuel oil to coal based on the economics presented. The report recommends: that Redstone Arsenal rehabilitate and reconvert its boilers to fire coal; that Picatinny Arsenal build a new fluid bed boiler plant to replace the existing oil-fired plant; and that West Point build at a new location a coal-fired plant to replace the existing plant.

  2. Geothermal Risk Reduction via Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Daniel; Mines, Greg; Turchi, Craig; Zhu, Guangdong

    2015-11-01

    There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant concept. The performance of air-cooled binary plants is lowest when ambient temperatures are high due to the decrease in air-cooled binary plant performance that occurs when the working fluid condensing temperature, and consequently the turbine exhaust pressure, increases. Electrical power demand is generally at peak levels during periods of elevated ambient temperature and it is therefore especially important to utilities to be able to provide electrical power during these periods. The time periods in which air-cooled binary geothermal power plant performance is lowest generally correspond to periods of high solar insolation. Use of solar heat to increase air-cooled geothermal power plant performance during these periods can improve the correlation between power plant output and utility load curves. While solar energy is a renewable energy source with long term performance that can be accurately characterized, on shorter time scales of hours or days it can be highly intermittent. Concentrating solar power (CSP), aka solar-thermal, plants often incorporate thermal energy storage to ensure continued operation during cloud events or after sunset. Hybridization with a geothermal power plant can eliminate the need for thermal storage due to the constant availability of geothermal heat. In addition to the elimination of the requirement for solar thermal storage, the ability of a geothermal/solar-thermal hybrid plant to share a common power block can reduce capital costs relative to separate, stand-alone geothermal and solar-thermal power plant installations. The common occurrence of long-term geothermal resource productivity decline provides additional motivation to consider the use of hybrid power plants in geothermal power production. Geothermal resource productivity decline is a source of significant risk in geothermal power generation. Many, if not all, geothermal resources

  3. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  4. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  5. Advanced Power Ultra-Uprates of Existing Plants (APPU) Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubiolo, Pablo R.; Conway, Lawarence E.; Oriani, Luca; Lahoda, Edward J.; DeSilva, Greg; Hu, Min H.; Hartz, Josh; Bachrach, Uriel; Smith, Larry; Dudek, Daniel F.; Gary J. Toman; Feng, Dandong; Hejzlar, Pavel; Kazimi, Mujid S.

    2006-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of a Power Ultra-Uprate on an existing nuclear plant. The study determined the technical and design limitations of the current components, both inside and outside the containment. Based on the identified plant bottlenecks, the design changes for major pieces of equipment required to meet the Power Ultra-Uprate throughput were determined. Costs for modified pieces of equipment and for change-out and disposal of the replaced equipment were evaluated. These costs were then used to develop capital, fuel and operating and maintenance cost estimates for the Power Ultra-Uprate plant. The cost evaluation indicates that the largest cost components are the replacement of power (during the outage required for the uprate) and the new fuel loading. Based on these results, the study concluded that, for a standard 4-loop plant, the proposed Power Ultra-Uprate is technically feasible. However, the power uprate is likely to be more expensive than the cost (per Kw electric installed) of a new plant when large capacity uprates are considered (>25%). Nevertheless, the concept of the Power Ultra-Uprate may be an attractive option for specific nuclear power plants where a large margin exists in the steam and power conversion system or where medium power increases (~600 MWe) are needed. The results of the study suggest that development efforts on fuel technologies for current nuclear power plants should be oriented towards improving the fuel performance (fretting-wear, corrosion, uranium load, manufacturing, safety) required to achieve higher burnup rather focusing on potential increases in the fuel thermal output.

  6. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  7. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  8. The impact of environmental constraints on productivity improvement and energy efficiency in integrated paper and steel plants

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; McClelland, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a methodology and results for assessing the impact of production and energy efficiency, environmental regulation, and abatement capital expenditure constraints (e.g. capital rationing) on the productivity of energy and pollution intensive sectors. Energy is treated like any other production input when examining evidence of inefficiency. We find that capital rationing and environmental regulations do contribute to productivity and energy efficiency losses, but do not explain all of the production and energy inefficiencies observed in the paper industry. A summary of the energy source of production inefficiency found in the paper industry, is presented.. Each source is derived as the incremental contribution., i.e. the first is constraints on capital, the second in environmental regulation not accounted for by the first, and the final component is production inefficiency that is not accounted for my any of the- environmental analysis. While the methods are very data intensive, they reveal much more that analysis of aggregate data, 1835 since the only plant level data can provide the estimates of inefficiency that this methodology employs.

  9. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  10. Legionnaires' Disease Bacterium in power-plant cooling systems: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, S.W.; Solomon, J.A.; Gough, S.B.; Tyndall, R.L.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1983-06-01

    A survey was undertaken of the distribution, density, viability, and infectivity of Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) in power plant cooling systems. Water samples were collected during each of the four seasons at various locations within each of nine power plants and from ambient waters at each site. Measurements of a number of physical and chemical characteristics were made, and Legionella profiles (density, viability, and infectivity for guinea pigs) were obtained. Legionella were detected in nearly all samples. Water from closed-cycle cooling systems frequently had lower densities of Legionella than the ambient water. Nonetheless, infectious Legionella, as defined by their isolation from inoculated guinea pigs, were significantly more likely to be found in samples from the plant-exposed water of closed-cycle plants than in samples from once-through plants or in ambient samples. A new species (L. oakridgensis) was initially isolated from two of the sites, and it has since been found to have a widespread distribution. Two other organisms found to cause illness in guinea pigs may also be new species. Phase II of the project involves investigating possible cause/effect relationships between physicochemical variables and Legionella. This work may contribute toward eventual control techniques for this pathogen.

  11. 2nd Pan American Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology: Final Report for DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschi, Kendal D.

    2006-05-15

    The entire DOE funds were used to provide funds for students, postdoctoral fellows and faculty to attend the Plant Membrane Plant Biology meeting from May 17-21, 2006 in South Padre Texas. The meeting had an attendance of approximately 130 people from approximately 10 different countries. The location was selected for its proximity to the US-Mexico border. This was the second Pan American Plant Membrane Biology meeting (2003 for the first one) and it was a great success as we forged research relationships between South America and the United States. We provided an opportunity for researchers from the Western Hemisphere to exchange the most recent information and ideas relating to the biology of plant membranes in a workshop environment. The conference addressed such topics as Hormone Responses, Environmental Signal Perception, Nutrient Acquisition, Membranes and Development, Source/Sink Transport, Water Relations,Genomics, Evolution of Transporters, Structure/Function Relationships and Practical Applications of Membrane Research. Oral and poster presentations were thematically grouped and sessions included a representative mixture of experimental and intellectual approaches to important topics in plant membrane biology. Sections were led by prominent researchers in the specific focus area with talks presented by postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduate researchers. In keeping with the workshop format, provisions were made for extended discussion following talks. PIs and faculty advisors of speakers attended and contributed to the discussion of presentations. The lineup included forty speakers. This document also includes a list of participants funded by DOE and the amount of money spent.

  12. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  13. Controls over nutrient flow through plants and microbes in Arctic tundra. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schimel, J.

    1994-02-01

    Ecosystem productivity in the Arctic is strongly controlled by N availability to plants. Thus, disturbances to the Arctic system are likely to have their greatest impacts by altering the supply of nutrients to plants. Thus, to understand the dynamics of Arctic tundra, a complete understanding of the controls on N cycling in tundra soils is necessary. This project focused on understanding nutrient dynamics in arctic tussock tundra, specifically evaluating the role of microbial uptake and competition for nutrients as a control on plant N-uptake. The project consisted of several major components: Short- and long-term partitioning of NH{sub 4}{sup +} in tussock tundra (1990--1991); Measurement of NH{sub 4}{sup +} uptake rates by Eriophorum vaginatum and by soil microbes; Determination of microbial NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{minus} uptake kinetics; and Determination of the partitioning of NH{sub 4}{sup +} and amino acids between E. vaginatum and soil microbes.

  14. Engineering and economic evaluation of central-station photovoltaic power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report describes the conceptual design, design optimization, and estimated cost and performance of three 50 MW photovoltaic power plants. The first design uses Fresnel lens/glass silo modules mounted on two-axis tracking arrays. The second design has all of the cells mounted on a central receiver on top of a single tower, with heliostats concentrating sunlight onto the receiver. Both designs are based on a similar advanced back-contact silicon concentrator cell developed under EPRI sponsorship. The third design uses thin-film copper indium diselenide flat-plate modules mounted on fixed-tilt array structures. The design and manufacture of the photovoltaic cells and modules are described, along with selection of the photovoltaic technologies, generating and cell manufacturing plant sites. Power system simulation and revenue requirement analyses are included for all of the plant designs.

  15. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Motor control centers; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; O`Hearn, E.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) commercial nuclear power plant motor control centers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  16. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Electrical switchgear. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toman, G.; Gazdzinski, R.; Schuler, K.

    1993-07-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) provides recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant electrical switchgear important to license renewal. The latent of this AMG to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner which allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance, to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  17. Maryland power plant siting program radioecology database management system: format for coding radioecology data. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Domotor, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Radioecology Laboratory of the State of Maryland Power Plant Siting Program (PPSP) conducts routine radiological monitoring programs designed to assess the environmental impact of radionuclides released by nuclear power plants affecting Maryland. The PPSP radioecology database management system was initiated to store existing and future monitoring data collected by PPSP and its subcontractors in a computer file format. From these files, SAS (Statistical Analysis System) datasets are created for qualitative and quantitative analysis of monitoring data, for modeling studies through incorporation of this data, or for predicting environmental impact. The system was designed to accommodate both gamma and beta radionuclide analyses from water, sediment, soil, air, foodstuff, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna sample types. Plant releases of radionuclides and physical and chemical environmental parameters can also be stored.

  18. Neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear plants. Final report of Subtask B: dosimeter response

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.; Endres, G.W.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1983-03-01

    As part of a larger program to evaluate personnel neutron dosimetry at commercial nuclear power plants, this study was designed to characterize neutron dosimeter responses inside the containment structure of commercial nuclear plants. In order to characterize those responses, dosimeters were irradiated inside containment at 2 pressurized water reactors and at pipe penetrations outside the biological shield at two boiling water reactors. The reactors were operating at full power during the irradiations. Measurements were also performed with electronic instruments, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), and portable remmeters, SNOOPY, RASCAL and PNR-4.

  19. Plant training grant: DE-FG02-94ER20162. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, Anthony R.

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this training grant was to educate students of Plant Science in the disciplines of Biochemistry and Chemistry, in addition to the more traditional courses in Plant Biology. Annual retreats were held which involved a day-long meeting and included lectures from Penn faculty as well as famous national and international scientists. Programs for two of these retreats are included. In addition to lecture courses, students performed research within the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, and Biochemistry and Biophysics; a publications list is given.

  20. Life after Steel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Bobby Curran grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Baltimore, finished high school, and followed his grandfather's steel-toed bootprints straight to Sparrows Point, a 3,000-acre sprawl of industry on the Chesapeake Bay. College was not part of the plan. A gritty but well-paying job at the RG Steel plant was Mr. Curran's ticket to a secure…

  1. Waterfowl of the Savannah River Plant: Comprehensive cooling water study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.J.; Kennamer, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.

    1986-06-01

    Thirty-one species of waterfowl have been documented on the Savannah River Plant (SPR). The Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) has been conducting waterfowl research on the site for the past 15 years. This research has included work on waterfowl utilization of the SRP, wood duck reproductive biology, and waterfowl wintering ecology. Results are described.

  2. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... tsunami-induced events at the Fukushima (Japan) Daiichi Nuclear Plant on March 11, 2011, TVA performed a.... Based upon TVA's post-Fukushima review, TVA concludes that the severe accident analysis in the FSEIS... Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...

  3. Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.

    1983-08-01

    This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  4. Evaluation of 450-MWe BGL GCC power plants fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pechtl, P.A.; Chen, T.P.; Thompson, B.H.; Greil, C.F.; Niermann, S.E.; Jandrisevits, M.; Attlefellner, H.

    1992-11-01

    In this study, a conceptual design and cost estimate were developed for a nominal 450 MW integrated gasification combined cycle plant using the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasification process. The present study is a design update of a previous study (EPRI Report AP-6011). The major design improvements incorporated include use of the latest GE 7F gas turbine rating, integrating the air separation plant with gas turbine, use of fuel gas saturation for NO{sub x} control, use of treated gasifier waste water as makeup water for the fuel gas saturation, and several process changes in the acid gas removal and sulfur recovery areas. Alternate design options for feeding the excess coal fines to the gasifier, treating the gasifier waste water, and the use of conventional air separation without integration with gas turbine were evaluated. The design improvements incorporated were found to increase significantly the overall plant efficiency and reduce the cost reported in the previous study. The various design options evaluated were found to have significant impacts on the plant efficiency but negligible impacts on the cost of electricity.

  5. Final environmental impact assessment of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This document considers: the need for uranium enrichment facilities; site location; plant description; and describes the power generating facilities in light of its existing environment. The impacts from continuing operations are compared with alternatives of shutdown, relocation, and alternative power systems. (PSB)

  6. Role of HSP100 proteins in plant stress tolerance. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vierling, E.

    1998-08-01

    This research focused on the following areas: characterization of HSP100 genes and their expression during stress and development; requirement of HSP101 for thermotolerance; thermotolerance of plants over-expressing HSP100; and identifying interacting proteins that functionally interact with HSP104.

  7. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  8. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  9. D-erythroascorbic acid: Its preparations, chemistry, and metabolism (fungi and plants). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loewus, F.A.; Seib, P.A.

    1991-12-31

    The origin of oxalate in plants has received considerable attention and glycolate metabolism has been generally regarded as a prime precursor candidate although studies on the metabolism of L-ascorbic acid single out that plant constituent as well. Experiments with oxalate-accumulating plants that contain little or no tartaric acid revealed the presence of a comparable L-ascorbic acid metabolism with the exception that the cleavage products were oxalic acid and L-threonic acid or products of L-threonic acid metabolism. A reasonable mechanism for cleavage of L-ascorbic acid at the endiolic bond is found in studies on the photooxygenation of L-ascorbic acid. Presumably, analogs of L-ascorbic acid that differ only in the substituent at C4 also form a hydroperoxide in the presence of alkaline hydrogen peroxide and subsequently yield oxalic acid and the corresponding aldonic acid or its lactone. We became interested in such a possibility when we discovered that L-ascorbic acid was rare or absent in certain yeasts and fungi whereas a L-ascorbic acid analog, D-glycero-pent-2-enono- 1,4-lactone (D-erythroascorbic acid), was present. It has long been known that oxalate occurs in yeasts and fungi and its production plays a role in plant pathogenesis. As to the biosynthetic origin of fungal oxalic acid there is little information although it is generally assumed that oxaloacetate or possibly, glycolate, might be that precursor.

  10. Neural network recognition of nuclear power plant transients. Final report, April 15, 1992--April 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.

    1995-05-15

    The objective of this report is to describe results obtained during the second year of funding that will lead to the development of an artificial neural network (A.N.N) fault diagnostic system for the real-time classification of operational transients at nuclear power plants. The ultimate goal of this three-year project is to design, build, and test a prototype diagnostic adviser for use in the control room or technical support center at Duane Arnold Energy Center (DAEC); such a prototype could be integrated into the plant process computer or safety-parameter display system. The adviser could then warn and inform plant operators and engineers of plant component failures in a timely manner. This report describes the work accomplished in the second of three scheduled years for the project. Included herein is a summary of the second year`s results as well as descriptions of each of the major topics undertaken by the researchers. Also included are reprints of the articles written under this funding as well as those that were published during the funded period.

  11. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  12. 75 FR 54961 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    .... These groups preferred the No Action Alternative due to their perception of the high cost and safety... and operation of a nuclear plant. The in-depth analysis of the impacts on low-income or minority... related to the construction workforce and the need for mitigation. TVA has undertaken an in-depth...

  13. Final Report: Plant Physiological Aspects of Silicon, July 20, 1994 - July 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, Emanuel

    2000-01-21

    The object of the research of the project was to demonstrate that Si-replete plants prefer Si-deprived ones that the latter are defined to an extent ''experimental artifacts.'' The research was to ''concentrate on describing mechanical and biochemical features.

  14. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... for Black Abalone; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 208 / Thursday, October 27, 2011... Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), hereby designate critical habitat for the endangered black abalone...

  15. Sewage Treatment Plants: Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 1977 Final Rule (42 FR 58520)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document includes a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 10, 1977 Final Rule for the Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources for 40 CFR 60 Subparts O. This document is provided curtesy of HeinOnline.

  16. Energy integrated farm, including a solar methane digestor and alcohol plant. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, O.

    1982-01-01

    This final progress report summarizes the authors success in running an alcohol still. The still was to produce over 20,000 gallons of alcohol per year, the waste hot water would be used to heat a methane digestion system and for domestic space and water heating. Many problems were encountered and solutions were noted.

  17. Precipitate design for creep strengthening of 9% Cr tempered martensitic steel for ultra-supercritical power plants

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Fujio

    2008-01-01

    It is crucial for the carbon concentration of 9% Cr steel to be reduced to a very low level, so as to promote the formation of MX nitrides rich in vanadium as very fine and thermally stable particles to enable prolonged periods of exposure at elevated temperatures and also to eliminate Cr-rich carbides M23C6. Sub-boundary hardening, which is inversely proportional to the width of laths and blocks, is shown to be the most important strengthening mechanism for creep and is enhanced by the fine dispersion of precipitates along boundaries. The suppression of particle coarsening during creep and the maintenance of a homogeneous distribution of M23C6 carbides near prior austenite grain boundaries, which precipitate during tempering and are less fine, are effective for preventing the long-term degradation of creep strength and for improving long-term creep strength. This can be achieved by the addition of boron. The steels considered in this paper exhibit higher creep strength at 650 °C than existing high-strength steels used for thick section boiler components. PMID:27877920

  18. Precipitate design for creep strengthening of 9% Cr tempered martensitic steel for ultra-supercritical power plants.

    PubMed

    Abe, Fujio

    2008-01-01

    It is crucial for the carbon concentration of 9% Cr steel to be reduced to a very low level, so as to promote the formation of MX nitrides rich in vanadium as very fine and thermally stable particles to enable prolonged periods of exposure at elevated temperatures and also to eliminate Cr-rich carbides M23C6. Sub-boundary hardening, which is inversely proportional to the width of laths and blocks, is shown to be the most important strengthening mechanism for creep and is enhanced by the fine dispersion of precipitates along boundaries. The suppression of particle coarsening during creep and the maintenance of a homogeneous distribution of M23C6 carbides near prior austenite grain boundaries, which precipitate during tempering and are less fine, are effective for preventing the long-term degradation of creep strength and for improving long-term creep strength. This can be achieved by the addition of boron. The steels considered in this paper exhibit higher creep strength at 650 °C than existing high-strength steels used for thick section boiler components.

  19. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  20. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  1. Improving planting stock quality: The humboldt experience. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkinson, J.L.; Nelson, J.A.; Huddleston, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    A seedling testing program was developed to improve the survival and growth potential of planting stock produced in the USDA Forest Service Humboldt Nursery, situated on the Pacific Coast in northern California. Coastal and inland seed sources of Douglas-fir and eight other conifers in the Pacific Slope forests of western Oregon and northern California were assessed in both nursery and field studies. Seedling top and root growth capacities were evaluated just after lifting and after cold storage, and stored seedlings were tested for suvival and growth on cleared planting sites in the seed zones of origin. Safe lifting and cold storage schedules were defined, and seedling cultural regimes were formulated to produce successful 1-0, 1-1, and 2-0 stock types. Testing deomonstrated the critical elements of reforestation and proved that rapid establishment is attainable on diverse sites. Accomplishments of the Humboldt program recommended similar programs for other forest nurseries and their service regions.

  2. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  3. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  4. Controls over nutrient flow through plants and microbes in Arctic tundra. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapin, F.S. III

    1995-01-01

    We successfully developed a series of models to explore the importance of species differences in phenologies of growth and nitrogen uptake to competitive interactions in upland tussock tundra. We developed growth models for 4 major tussock tundra species, based on observed growth rates and phenologies. We found that differences in phenology and nutrient use strategy could permit coexistence of some, but not all of the tundra plants modeled. The plant that was the best competitor, because of its rapid growth rate and superior ability to retranslocate nitrogen, may be naturally limited in its competitive ability by its tussock growth form. The mechanisms behind this limitation, and the contributions of patterns of mortality to observed production, will be explored in future modeling and experimental studies. In addition, our models point out that our understanding of the dynamics of nitrogen supply is still inadequate.

  5. Handbook of human-reliability analysis with emphasis on nuclear power plant applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, A D; Guttmann, H E

    1983-08-01

    The primary purpose of the Handbook is to present methods, models, and estimated human error probabilities (HEPs) to enable qualified analysts to make quantitative or qualitative assessments of occurrences of human errors in nuclear power plants (NPPs) that affect the availability or operational reliability of engineered safety features and components. The Handbook is intended to provide much of the modeling and information necessary for the performance of human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of NPPs. Although not a design guide, a second purpose of the Handbook is to enable the user to recognize error-likely equipment design, plant policies and practices, written procedures, and other human factors problems so that improvements can be considered. The Handbook provides the methodology to identify and quantify the potential for human error in NPP tasks.

  6. Z-inertial fusion energy: power plant final report FY 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Mark; Kulcinski, Gerald; Zhao, Haihua; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Sierra, Dannelle P.; Meier, Wayne; McConnell, Paul E.; Ghiaasiaan, M. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Kern, Brian (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Tajima, Yu (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Campen, Chistopher (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Sketchley, Tomas (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Moir, R (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories); Bardet, Philippe M. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Durbin, Samuel; Morrow, Charles W.; Vigil, Virginia L (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Modesto-Beato, Marcos A.; Franklin, James Kenneth; Smith, James Dean; Ying, Alice; Cook, Jason T.; Schmitz, Lothar (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Abdel-Khalik, S. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Abdou, Mohamed A.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Sridharan, Kumar (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Gudmundson, Jesse; Peterson, Per F.; Marriott, Ed; Oakley, Jason

    2006-10-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted for the Z-inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) late start Laboratory Directed Research Project. A major area of focus was on creating a roadmap to a z-pinch driven fusion power plant. The roadmap ties ZIFE into the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative through the use of high energy fusion neutrons to burn the actinides of spent fuel waste. Transmutation presents a near term use for Z-IFE technology and will aid in paving the path to fusion energy. The work this year continued to develop the science and engineering needed to support the Z-IFE roadmap. This included plant system and driver cost estimates, recyclable transmission line studies, flibe characterization, reaction chamber design, and shock mitigation techniques.

  7. Sacramento Municipal Utility District Geothermal Power Plant, SMUDGEO No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed construction of 72-MW geothermal power plant is discussed. The following aspects are covered: the project as proposed by the utility; the environmental setting; the adverse consequences of the project, any significant environmental effects which cannot be avoided, and any mitigation measures to minimize significant effects; the potential feasible alternatives to the proposed project; the significant unavoidable, irreversible, and long-term environmental impacts; and the Growth Inducing Impacts. (MHR)

  8. Response of plants and ecosystems to CO{sub 2} and climate change. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1993-12-31

    In recognition of the important role of vegetation in the bio-geosphere carbon cycle, the Carbon Dioxide Research Program of the US Department of Energy established the research program: Direct Effects of increasing Carbon Dioxide on Vegetation. The ultimate goal is to develop a general ecosystem model to investigate, via hypothesis testing, the potential responses of different terrestrial ecosystems to changes in the global environment over the next century. The approach involves the parallel development of models at several hierarchical levels, from the leaf to the ecosystem. At the plant level, mechanism and the direct effects of CO{sub 2} in the development of a general plant growth model, GEPSI - GEneral Plant SImulator has been stressed. At the ecosystem level, we have stressed the translation Of CO{sub 2} effects and other aspects of climate change throughout the ecosystem, including feedbacks and constraints to system response, in the development of a mechanistic, general ecosystem model SERECO - Simulation of Ecosystem Response to Elevated CO{sub 2} and Climate Change has been stressed.

  9. Tung FDG Test Facility. Phase 2, Pilot plant demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Tung FGD Process is a regenerative process which extracts SO{sub 2} from a scrubbing liquor into an organic medium using mixer-settlers followed by steam-stripping the SO{sub 2} off from the organic medium. For the process to operate satisfactorily, (1) the organic must be stable, (2) phase separation must be relatively fast, (3) crud (i.e. solids in-between two phases) must not form and (4) SO{sub 2} must be able to be stripped off from the organic medium readily. The demonstration confirmed that the first three conditions can be met satisfactorily. Much lower stripping efficiency was attained in the pilot plant demonstration than what was previously attained in a bench-scale demonstration. Engineering analysis showed that the pilot plant stripping column was scaled up from the bench-scale column incorrectly. A new scale-up criterion for stripping a relatively viscous liquid medium is proposed based upon pilot plant data.

  10. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  11. Properties of colloidal corrosion products and their effects on nuclear plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, E.

    1986-12-01

    A number of different solid particles found in nuclear reactor coolant have been produced in the laboratory. Such particles result from corrosion processes at metal piping and component surfaces. The particles produced and studied in this work differ from those observed in power plant water in two respects: (1) they are all of one narrowly controlled particle diameter and particle shape; (2) they are all of one simple composition - such as magnetite or hematite. The methods for making new supplies of these particles are provided for use by those wishing to study, for example, how best to dissolve surface oxides during a decontamination of plant piping surfaces. The model oxides aid in sorting out the proper dissolution procedures by providing a well-defined simulation of each separate constituent of plant surfaces in a form where dissolution rates are easily measured. Measurements of the properties of magnetite, hematite, and nickel-iron-cobalt ferrites relevant to radioactive cobalt-60 transport have been made and are reported in summary form. Some of these properties studied are (1) cobalt adsorption as a function of temperature and pH; (2) magnetic properties to assess the ease of magnetic filtration; (3) dissolution rates by the commonly employed decontamination chemicals. Copies of 41 separate scientific journal publications resulting from this work are reproduced in microfiche in the back cover pocket.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  13. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  14. Characterization and environmental studies on anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes: Pompano Beach plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Wong, K.F.V.; Nemerow, N.; Strietfeld, M.; Narasimhan, R.; Tilles, A.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this program is to evaluate and verify the technical and economical feasibiilty of the solid waste to methane fermentation process. Since anaerobic fermentation of solid waste materials has not been demonstrated on a large scale, there is a definite risk factor that the system will not perform as current research suggests. The proof of concept plant was built on an existing shredding and landfill site at Pompano Beach, Florida. Two digesters were built with a total capacity of 90 Mg/day of solid waste. Municipal solid wastes contain numerous substances of potential environmental concern. While some understanding of the composition of raw municipal waste and its leachate products is available, no information regarding characteristics of solid, liquid and gaseous outputs from anaerobic digestion exists. The areas of environmental concerns identified were: output gas quality, leachate (filter cake and filtrate) to groundwater system, wash water streams, filter cake, and filtrate. In order to characterize the effluent streams, the following sampling sites were chosen: air classified heavy fraction, air classified light fraction, digested slurry, output gas, filter cake, filtrate, wash water input, and wash water effluent. The technical approach consisted of physical, chemical, and biological characterization of all outputs at the plant. Analyses for major, minor and trace compounds of potential environmental concern were conducted. Relevant regulatory standards were recognized and searches for compounds on EPA priority pollutant list and carciongen list were conducted. The ultimate aim was to quantitatively relate contaminant potential with plant operating parameters. Some mutagenic studies were conducted. A significant part of the technical approach relates to the development of predictive criterion for pollutant migration by leaching and modeling studies.

  15. On-line mechanical tube cleaning for steam electric power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-18

    In July 1991, Superior I.D. Tube Cleaners, Inc. (SIDTEC{trademark}) received a grant through the Department of Energy and the Energy Related Invention Program to conduct a long term demonstration of a proprietary technology for on-line mechanical condenser tube cleaning in thermal Power plants on open or once-through cooling water systems where the warmed condenser cooling water is discharged through a canal. The purpose of the demonstration was to confirm and establish the use of this mechanical method as an alternative to the application of chemical biocides in condenser cooling water for the control of biofouling, the growth of micro-organisms which can reduce a unit`s operating efficiency. The SIDTEC on-line mechanical tube cleaner, the Rocket{trademark}, is used to physically remove accumulated deposits on the water side of the main steam condenser, and the non-intrusive tube cleaner recovery system, the Skimmer{trademark}, is used to recover and recirculate tube cleaners. The periodic circulation of tube cleaners can maintain optimum condenser cleanliness and improve unit heat rate. Thermal power plants which discharge condenser cooling water through a canal now have a viable alternative to the chemical treatment of condenser cooling water, whether the principal foulant is biofouling, chemical scaling, silting, or a combination of the three. At prices competitive with scale inhibitors, and a fraction of competing mechanical systems, this technology is provided as a service requiring no capital investment; minimal retrofit modifications to plant structures or equipment; can be installed and maintained without a unit shutdown; does not add any restrictions in the cooling water system; and is environmentally benign.

  16. Ferritic steel melt and FLiBe/steel experiment : melting ferritic steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Smith, Brandon M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan

    2004-11-01

    In preparation for developing a Z-pinch IFE power plant, the interaction of ferritic steel with the coolant, FLiBe, must be explored. Sandia National Laboratories Fusion Technology Department was asked to drop molten ferritic steel and FLiBe in a vacuum system and determine the gas byproducts and ability to recycle the steel. We tried various methods of resistive heating of ferritic steel using available power supplies and easily obtained heaters. Although we could melt the steel, we could not cause a drop to fall. This report describes the various experiments that were performed and includes some suggestions and materials needed to be successful. Although the steel was easily melted, it was not possible to drip the molten steel into a FLiBe pool Levitation melting of the drop is likely to be more successful.

  17. Application of Entry-Time Processes in Asset Management for Nuclear Power Plants (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Nelson

    2008-01-23

    A mathematical model of entry-time processes was developed, and a computational method for solving that model was verified. This methodology was demonstrated via application to a succession of increasingly more complex subsystems of nuclear power plants. The effort culminated in the application to main generators that constituted the PhD dissertation of Shuwen (“Eric”) Wang. Dr. Wang is now employed by ABS Consulting, in Anaheim, CA. ABS is a principal provider to the nuclear industry of technical services related to reliability and safety.

  18. Restriction of virus infection by plants. Final report, July 1, 1987--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bruening, G.

    1992-12-31

    The basis of genotypic resistance of the Arlington line of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) against cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has been attributed, to an inhibitor of the processing of CPMV polyproteins. We sought to purify the protein that is postulated to be the inhibitor of polyprotein processing and to characterize the inhibitor and its gene. Such information can be the basis for engineering resistance to specific viruses in plants. In studies with cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) we sought understanding of the biochemical basis of the resistance.

  19. Procedure for conducting a human-reliability analysis for nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, B.J.; Swain, A.D.

    1983-05-01

    This document describes in detail a procedure to be followed in conducting a human reliability analysis as part of a probabilistic risk assessment when such an analysis is performed according to the methods described in NUREG/CR-1278, Handbook for Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications. An overview of the procedure describing the major elements of a human reliability analysis is presented along with a detailed description of each element and an example of an actual analysis. An appendix consists of some sample human reliability analysis problems for further study.

  20. Performance assessment of OTEC power systems and thermal power plants. Final report. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Leidenfrost, W.; Liley, P.E.; McDonald, A.T.; Mudawwar, I.; Pearson, J.T.

    1985-05-01

    The focus of this report is on closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power systems under research at Purdue University. The working operations of an OTEC power plant are briefly discussed. Methods of improving the performance of OTEC power systems are presented. Brief discussions on the methods of heat exchanger analysis and design are provided, as are the thermophysical properties of the working fluids and seawater. An interactive code capable of analyzing OTEC power system performance is included for use with an IBM personal computer.

  1. Correlation and reassessment of the OTEC plant power cycle. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G.T.; Leidenfrost, W.; McDonald, A.T.; Ogborn, L.L.

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this effort is to investigate alternative system concepts and component configurations to improve performance of the OTEC power system. Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM) characteristics were examined along with various methods of converting energy into utility-grade energy. A research program consisting of five tasks was developed: development of engineering guidelines for OTEC systems; thermal and mechanical evaluation of components; evaluation of electrical system requirements; evaluation of operating strategies for OTEC plants; and application of modern technology to OTEC design choices. These studies are discussed in detail along with recommendations and conclusions.

  2. Properties of colloidal corrosion products and their effects on nuclear plants. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, E.

    1982-09-01

    Detailed results from the first two years of work on the properties of corrosion product oxides common to light water nuclear reactor systems are presented. A smaller companion volume describes the results in overview fashion. Numerous methods are described for producing these model oxides in forms making their study simpler, i.e., particles with uniform diameter and composition. A number of studies of particle adhesion to simulated power plant surfaces are described. The magnetic properties of hematite of various particle sizes are described - a property important to the use of electromagnetic filtration in LWRs.

  3. SRC-I demonstration plant analytical laboratory methods manual. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Klusaritz, M.L.; Tewari, K.C.; Tiedge, W.F.; Skinner, R.W.; Znaimer, S.

    1983-03-01

    This manual is a compilation of analytical procedures required for operation of a Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) demonstration or commercial plant. Each method reproduced in full includes a detailed procedure, a list of equipment and reagents, safety precautions, and, where possible, a precision statement. Procedures for the laboratory's environmental and industrial hygiene modules are not included. Required American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods are cited, and ICRC's suggested modifications to these methods for handling coal-derived products are provided.

  4. Spatial mapping of lead, arsenic, iron, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: community impact from the coke ovens and steel plant.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy W; Boehmer, Jennifer; Feltham, Jason; Guyn, Lindsay; Shahid, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spatial maps of the arsenic, lead, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. The spatial maps were designed to create exposure cohorts to help understand the observed increase in health effects. To assess whether contamination can be a proxy for exposures, the following hypothesis was tested: residential soils were impacted by the coke oven and steel plant industrial complex. The spatial map showed contaminants are centered on the industrial facility, significantly correlated, and exceed Canadian health risk-based soil quality guidelines. Core samples taken at 5-cm intervals suggest a consistent deposition over time. The concentrations in Sydney significantly exceed background Sydney soil concentrations, and are significantly elevated compared with North Sydney, an adjacent industrial community. The contaminant spatial maps will also be useful for developing cohorts of exposure and guiding risk management decisions.

  5. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G.

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  6. Legionnaires' disease bacteria in power plant cooling systems: downtime report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Solomon, J.A.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-11-01

    Legionnaires' disease bacteria (Legionella) are a normal part of the aquatic community that, when aerosolized, can be pathogenic to man. The downtime study was designed to determine the degree to which Legionella populations are aerosolized during cleaning and maintenance operations in a closed-cycle steam-electric power plant. Both high-volume and impinger air samples were collected prior to and during downtime operations. Emphasis was placed on sampling inside or adjacent to water boxes, condensers, and cooling towers. Control air samples were taken upwind from the plant site. Water and sludge samples were also collected at various locations. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Legionella were determined using the direct fluorescent antibody method. All positive air samples, and other selected air samples, were injected into guinea pigs to detect infectious Legionella. Legionella could be detected in only 12 of the 127 air samples collected. These were predominantly L. pneumophila, serogroups 1-6. In contrast to the air samples, most of the water and sludge samples were positive for Legionella, again predominantly L. pneumophila, serogroups 1-6. The highest Legionella concentrations were found in sludge samples associated with condenser tube cleaning. Among the water samples, the highest Legionella concentrations were found in cooling towers, immediately after the tower basins were cleaned and refilled, and in condenser tubes. Two of the three cooling tower water samples collected prior to downtime operations were infectious for guinea pigs. 16 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria in power plant cooling systems: downtime report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Solomon, J.A.; Christensen, S.W.

    1985-04-01

    Legionnaires' Disease Bacteria (Legionella) are a normal part of the aquatic community that, when aerosolized, can be pathogenic to man. The downtime study was designed to determine the degree to which Legionella populations are aerosolized during cleaning and maintenance operations in a closed-cycle steam-electric power plant. Both high-volume and impinger air samples were collected prior to and during downtime operations. Emphasis was placed on sampling inside or adjacent to water boxes, condensers, and cooling towers. Control air samples were taken upwind from the plant site. Water and sludge samples were also collected at various locations. In the laboratory, the concentrations of Groups A, B, and C Legionella were determined using the direct fluorescent antibody method. All positive air samples, and other selected air samples, were injected into guinea pigs to detect infectious Legionella. Legionella could be detected in only 12 of the 126 air samples collected. These were predominantly Group A Legionella (L. pneumophila, serogroups 1 to 6). All 12 positive samples had been collected in the vicinity of water boxes, condensers, detention ponds, and cooling towers during downtime operations where aerosolization of Legionella populations would be expected. None of the air samples yielded infectious Legionella when injected into guinea pigs. Detection of Legionella in air samples taken during downtime was significantly more likely than detection during normal operating conditions (p <0.01). 13 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Plant cell wall architecture. Final report, 1 June 1994--30 October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The authors have successfully finished the DOE-supported project entitled ``Plant cell wall architecture.`` During the funding period (June 1, 1994--October 30, 1996), they have published 6 research papers and 2 review articles. A brief description of these accomplishments is outlined as follows: (1) Improved and extended tissue printing techniques to reveal different surface and wall architectures, and to localized proteins and RNA. (2) Identification of an auxin- and cytokinin-regulated gene from Zinnia which is mainly expressed in cambium. (3) It was found that caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase is involved in an alternative methylation pathway of lignin biosynthesis. (4) It was found that two different O-methyltransferases involved in lignification are differentially regulated in different lignifying tissues during development. They propose a scheme of monolignol biosynthesis combining both methylation pathways. (5) Identification of cysteine and serine proteases which are preferentially expressed during xylogenesis. This is the first report to identify an autolysis-associated cDNA in plants. (6) Characterization of two ribonuclease genes which are induced during xylogenesis and by wounding. (7) Isolation of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase gene and analysis of its expression patterns during lignification.

  10. Mechanisms of plant resistance to increased solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Teramura, A.H.; Sullivan, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    Since the major conclusions of the project are being disseminated via the scientific literature, the final report consists of a compilation of 11 articles and manuscripts on the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) on soybean growth and yield, stress interactions with UVB, and effects of UVB on seedling growth in conifers (the Pinaceae). The effects of UVB on soybeans under field and greenhouse conditions, and under water stress, drought stress and phosphorus deficiency were studied. Soybean yields, seed quality, and physiology, including seed fatty acid and sterol composition, were determined.

  11. New industrial heat pump applications to a synthetic rubber plant. Final report, Phase IIA

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Phase IIA of the DOE sponsored study titled, Advanced Industrial Heat Pump Application and Evaluation. The scope of this phase of the study was to finalize the process design of the heat pump scheme, develop a process and instrumentation diagram, and a detailed cost estimate for the project. This information is essential for the site management to evaluate the economic viability and operability of the proposed heat pump design, prior to the next phase of installation and testing.

  12. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  13. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  14. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beauheim, Richard L.; Domski, Paul S.; Roberts, Randall M.

    1999-07-01

    This report presents interpretations of hydraulic tests conducted in bedded evaporates of the Salado Formation from May 1992 through May 1995 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a US Department of Energy research and development facility designed to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic wastes from the nation's defense programs. The WIPP disposal horizon is located in the lower portion of the Permian Salado Formation. The hydraulic tests discussed in this report were performed in the WIPP underground facility by INTERA inc. (now Duke Engineering and Services, Inc.), Austin, Texas, following the Field Operations Plan and Addendum prepared by Saulnier (1988, 1991 ) under the technical direction of Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  15. Microbial Gas Generation Under Expected Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Repository Conditions: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillow, J.B.; Francis, A.

    2011-07-01

    Gas generation from the microbial degradation of the organic constituents of transuranic (TRU) waste under conditions expected in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was investigated. The biodegradation of mixed cellulosic materials and electron-beam irradiated plastic and rubber materials (polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, leaded hypalon, and neoprene) was examined. We evaluated the effects of environmental variables such as initial atmosphere (air or nitrogen), water content (humid ({approx}70% relative humidity, RH) and brine inundated), and nutrient amendments (nitogen phosphate, yeast extract, and excess nitrate) on microbial gas generation. Total gas production was determined by pressure measurement and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) were analyzed by gas chromatography; cellulose degradation products in solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microbial populations in the samples were determined by direct microscopy and molecular analysis. The results of this work are summarized.

  16. Plutonium burdens in people living around the Rocky Flats plant. Final report 1976-79

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.C.; Eversole, B.C.; Archer, P.G.; Taggart, R.; Efurd, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the tissues of people who lived near to or downwind from the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons facility in Colorado contained more plutonium than the tissues from people who lived farther away. Information was collected on the age, sex, smoking history, residence history, presence of disease, and plutonium level in selected tissues from individuals autopsied in various Eastern Colorado hospitals. The 236, 238, 239 and 240 isotopes of plutonium were determined. Plutonium levels in lung and liver tissues were affected by age and smoking history more than by distance from the Rocky Flats Plant. Though the measured 240/239 isotope ratio indicated a small contribution from Rocky Flats, the total amount of plutonium in the samples was no different than in similar samples collected from other areas of the U.S.

  17. 1997 Gordon Research Conference on Plant Cell Walls. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Staehelin, A.

    1999-08-25

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Plant Cell Walls was held at Tilton School, Tilton, New Hampshire, July 18-22, 1997. The conference was well attended with 106 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. In addition to these formal interactions, free time was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  18. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Title I operator dose calculations. Final report, LATA report No. 90

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.S.; Rigdon, L.D.

    1980-02-01

    The radiation exposure dose was estimated for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) operating personnel who do the unloading and transporting of the transuranic contact-handled waste. Estimates of the radiation source terms for typical TRU contact-handled waste were based on known composition and properties of the waste. The operations sequence for waste movement and storage in the repository was based upon the WIPP Title I data package. Previous calculations had been based on Conceptual Design Report data. A time and motion sequence was developed for personnel performing the waste handling operations both above and below ground. Radiation exposure calculations were then performed in several fixed geometries and folded with the time and motion studies for individual workers in order to determine worker exposure on an annual basis.

  19. High-temperature filtration measurements at the Isar BWR plant. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henzel, N.; Meier, M.; Greger, G.U.

    1983-03-01

    This report details results of an analytical program used to assess the performance of an electromagnetic filter at the Isar Nuclear Power Station (KKI) in the Federal Republic of Germany. This installation is the first full-scale (6100 gpm) high-temperature filtration system operating at a nuclear power plant. Performance was characterized for the application of processing high-pressure drains at a BWR. Effects of magnetic field variations and startup/shutdown transients also were tested. Characteristics of the corrosion products were investigated, e.g., particle size, species, isotopic and chemical composition. The study shows that with proper operating conditions and careful selection of the point of application reasonable crud removal efficiencies can be achieved.

  20. High-temperature filtration measurements at the Isar BWR Plant. Volume 1. Summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Henzel, N.; Meier, M.; Greger, G.U.

    1983-03-01

    This report details results of an analytical program used to assess the performance of an electromagnetic filter at the Isar Nuclear Power Station (KKI) in the Federal Republic of Germany. This installation is the first full-scale (6100 gpm) high-temperature filtration system operating at a nuclear power plant. Performance was characterized for the application of processing high-pressure drains at a BWR. Effects of magnetic field variations and startup/shutdown transients also were tested. Characteristics of the corrosion products were investigated, e.g., particle size, species, isotopic and chemical composition. The study shows that with proper operating conditions and careful selection of the point of application reasonable crud removal efficiencies can be achieved.

  1. Fuel cell balance of plant cost analysis. Final report, June 1994-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.; Senetar, J.J.

    1995-05-01

    M-C Power Corporation currently plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. However, the balance of plant (BOP) facilities, such as fuel processing, waste heat recovery, inverter, and air supply system, have not received equal attention even though their combined cost may surpass the stack cost by a ratio of 2 to 1. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit to ensure M-C Power`s current development program will lead to a competitive product.

  2. TVA commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 2. Basis of study assessments and project selection. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is considering the design, construction, and operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility to produce a clean, medium Btu fuel gas (MBG). The project includes all process and support systems required to convert approximately 20,000 tons per day of Kentucky No. 9 bituminous coal, as fed to the gasifiers, into MBG equivalent to about 300 billion Btu per day. The first phase of the proposed project involves conceptual design, environmental and siting studies and economic analyses of commercial plants emphasizing the following gasification technologies: Babcock and Wilcox entrained flow gasifier, Lurgi dry ash gasifier, BGC/Lurgi slagging gasifier, Texaco entrained flow gasifier, and Koppers Totzek entrained flow gasifier. Foster Wheeler's study and assessments/process selection is summarized in this volume.

  3. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  4. Security Hardened Cyber Components for Nuclear Power Plants: Phase I SBIR Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franusich, Michael D.

    2016-03-18

    SpiralGen, Inc. built a proof-of-concept toolkit for enhancing the cyber security of nuclear power plants and other critical infrastructure with high-assurance instrumentation and control code. The toolkit is based on technology from the DARPA High-Assurance Cyber Military Systems (HACMS) program, which has focused on applying the science of formal methods to the formidable set of problems involved in securing cyber physical systems. The primary challenges beyond HACMS in developing this toolkit were to make the new technology usable by control system engineers and compatible with the regulatory and commercial constraints of the nuclear power industry. The toolkit, packaged as a Simulink add-on, allows a system designer to assemble a high-assurance component from formally specified and proven blocks and generate provably correct control and monitor code for that subsystem.

  5. High efficiency thermal storage system for solar plants (HELSOLAR). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroel, Eduardo; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Lenartz, Jeff; Parysek, Karen

    2013-02-27

    The project objective was to develop a high temperature Thermal Storage System (TES) based on graphite and able to provide both economical and technical advantages with respect to existing solutions contributing to increase the share of Concentrated Solar Plants (CSP). One of the main disadvantages of most of the renewable energy systems is their dependence to instantaneous irradiation and, thus, lack of predictability. CSP plants with thermal storage have proved to offer a good solution to this problem although still at an elevated price. The identification of alternative concepts able to work more efficiently would help to speed up the convergence of CSP towards grid parity. One way to reduce costs is to work in a range of temperatures higher than those allowed by the actual molten salt systems, currently the benchmark for TES in CSP. This requires the use of alternative energy storage materials such as graphite, as well as the utilization of Heat Transfer Fluids (HTF) other than molten salts or organic oils. The main technical challenges identified are derived from the high temperatures and significant high pressures, which pose risks such as potential graphite and insulation oxidation, creep, fatigue, corrosion and stress-corrosion in the pipes, leakages in the joints, high blower drivers’ electrical power consumption, thermal compatibility or relative deformations of the different materials. At the end, the main challenge of the project, is to identify a technical solution able to overcome all these problems but still at a competitive cost when compared to already existing thermal storage solutions. Special attention is given to all these issues during this project.

  6. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, an d analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: (1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, (2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and (3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  7. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Nucleic Acid-Based Detection and Identification of Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, Mark T.

    2001-03-13

    The threat to American interests from terrorists is not limited to attacks against humans. Terrorists might seek to inflict damage to the U.S. economy by attacking our agricultural sector. Infection of commodity crops by bacterial or fungal crop pathogens could adversely impact U.S. agriculture, either directly from damage to crops or indirectly from damage to our ability to export crops suspected of contamination. Recognizing a terrorist attack against U.S. agriculture, to be able to prosecute the terrorists, is among the responsibilities of the members of Hazardous Material Response Unit (HMRU) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Nucleic acid analysis of plant pathogen strains by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques is a powerful method for determining the exact identity of pathogens, as well as their possible region of origin. This type of analysis, however, requires that PCR assays be developed specific to each particular pathogen strain, and analysis protocols developed that are specific to the particular instrument used for detection. The objectives of the work described here were threefold: 1) to assess the potential terrorist threat to U.S. agricultural crops, 2) to determine whether suitable assays exist to monitor that threat, and 3) where assays are needed for priority plant pathogen threats, to modify or develop those assays for use by specialists at the HMRU. The assessment of potential threat to U.S. commodity crops and the availability of assays for those threats were described in detail in the Technical Requirements Document (9) and will be summarized in this report. This report addresses development of specific assays identified in the Technical Requirements Document, and offers recommendations for future development to ensure that HMRU specialists will be prepared with the PCR assays they need to protect against the threat of economic terrorism.

  9. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Automotive Advanced High-Strength Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovicu, Gianfranco; Bottazzi, Mauro; D'Aiuto, Fabio; De Sanctis, Massimo; Dimatteo, Antonella; Santus, Ciro; Valentini, Renzo

    2012-11-01

    Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) have a better combination between strength and ductility than conventional HSS, and higher crash resistances are obtained in concomitance with weight reduction of car structural components. These steels have been developed in the last few decades, and their use is rapidly increasing. Notwithstanding, some of their important features have to be still understood and studied in order to completely characterize their service behavior. In particular, the high mechanical resistance of AHSS makes hydrogen-related problems a great concern for this steel grade. This article investigates the hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of four AHSS steels. The behavior of one transformation induced plasticity (TRIP), two martensitic with different strength levels, and one hot-stamping steels has been studied using slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests on electrochemically hydrogenated notched samples. The embrittlement susceptibility of these AHSS steels has been correlated mainly to their strength level and to their microstructural features. Finally, the hydrogen critical concentrations for HE, established by SSRT tests, have been compared to hydrogen contents absorbed during the painting process of a body in white (BIW) structure, experimentally determined during a real cycle in an industrial plant.

  10. Quasi-static compression and tensile stress-strain curves, tantalum - 10% tungsten and 300 grade maraging steel. Final memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Benck, R.F.; Silsby, G.F.

    1986-05-01

    The results of quasi-static compression and tension tests of tantalum -10% tungsten alloy and Vascomax 300 CVM 300 trade maraging steel are presented. Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield strength and ultimate strength were determined at test temperatures of 23.9 C. Results provide engineering properties documentation for materials used in several terminal ballistic tests.

  11. 76 FR 25670 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Final Results of the Full Five-Year (“Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... (``SSSS'') in coils from Italy would be likely to lead to a continuation of dumping. DATES: Effective Date... order on SSSS in coils from Italy. See Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Italy: Preliminary... Results of Review We determine that revocation of the antidumping duty order on SSSS in coils from...

  12. Sampling of power plant stacks for air toxic emissions: Final report for Phases 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    A test program to collect and analyze size-fractionated stack gas particulate samples for selected inorganic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) was conducted . Specific goals of the program are (1) the collection of one-gram quantities of size-fractionated stack gas particulate matter for bulk (total) and surface chemical characterization, and (2) the determination of the relationship between particle size, bulk and surface (leachable) composition, and unit load. The information obtained from this program identifies the effects of unit load, particle size, and wet FGD system operation on the relative toxicological effects of exposure to particulate emissions. Field testing was conducted in two phases. The Phase I field program was performed over the period of August 24 through September 20, 1992, at the Tennessee Valley Authority Widows Creek Unit 8 Power Station, located near Stevenson (Jackson County), Alabama, on the Tennessee River. Sampling activities for Phase II were conducted from September 11 through October 14, 1993. Widows Creek Unit 8 is a 575-megawatt plant that uses bituminous coal averaging 3.7% sulfur and 13% ash. Downstream of the boiler, a venture wet scrubbing system is used for control of both sulfur dioxide and particulate emissions. There is no electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in this system. This system is atypical and represents only about 5% of the US utility industry. However, this site was chosen for this study because of the lack of information available for this particulate emission control system.

  13. Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant proposed pilot pump-and-treat project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodenstein, G.W.; Bonczek, R.R.; Early, T.O.; Huff, D.D.; Jones, K.S.; Nickelson, M.D.; Rightmire, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    On March 23, 1992, R.C. Sleeman of the Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Operations Office requested that a Groundwater Corrective Actions Team be assembled to evaluate the technical merit of and the need to implement a proposed groundwater pump-and-treat demonstration project for the Northwest contaminant plume at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. In addition to other suggestions, the Team recommended that further characterization data be obtained for the plume. In the Fall of 1993 additional, temporary well points were installed so that groundwater samples from the shallow groundwater system and the Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA) could be obtained to provide a three-dimensional view of groundwater contamination in the region of the plume. The results indicate that pure-phase DNAPL (trichloroethylene [TCE]) probably are present in the source area of the plume and extend in depth to the base of the RGA. Because the DNAPL likely will represent a source of a dissolved phase plume for decades it is essential that source containment take place. The Team recommends that although effective hydraulic containment can be achieved, other alternatives should be considered. For example, recent advances in emplacing low permeability barrier walls to depths of 100 to 150 ft make it possible to consider encirclement of the source of the Northwest plume.

  14. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Raiji, A.M.; Renfroe, D.A.; Lalk, T.R.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC), a new concept in power generation, was investigated. Power is generated by exploiting the natural atmosheric temperature gradient. A low grade energy source is used to vaporize a fluid which rises in a pipe to a higher elevation where it is condensed. The cycle is completed by passing the condensed liquid through a turbine as it returns to the lower elevation. A digital computer model was developed and used to simulate the operation of the cycle and to conduct a parameteric study. Life cycle cost analysis and energy analyses were conducted for the specific case of a TGUC using the ambient air at the lower elevation as an energy source. Although the cycle has a low thermal efficiency and is site specific, it is technically feasible. Variations in mass flow rate of the working fluid and elevation were found to affect the cycle power output to a large extent. The investment cost of a hypothetical 10 megawatt TGUC power plant was determined to be $3,080 per kilowatt, with life cycle busbar costs of electricity ranging from 47 to 55 Mills per kilowatt-hour depending on the method of financing. Results of the energy analyses showed that a TGUC system would have a positive net energy and a second law efficiency of 23% for the case of a TGUC system using the atmosphere as an energy source.

  15. Material considerations for HRSGs in gas turbine combined cycle plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgeois, H.S.

    1996-08-01

    The primary objectives of this project are to investigate and identify the limitations of current heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) materials, identify potential materials that could be used in future high temperature HRSGs, and develop a research and development plan to address the deficiencies and the future requirements. The project team developed a comprehensive survey which was forwarded to many HRSG manufacturers worldwide. The manufacturers were questioned about cycle experience, failure experience, design practices, materials, research and development, and future designs. The team assembled the responses and other in-house data to identify the key problem areas, probably future operating parameters, and possible material issues. The draft report was circulated to the manufacturers surveyed for comments before the final report was issued. The predominant current problem area for HRSGs relates to insulation; however, it is anticipated that in future designs, tube failures and welds will become most important. Poor water chemistry has already resulted in numerous failure mechanisms. By 2005, HSRGs are expected to operated with the following average conditions: unfired gas temperatures of 1125 F, steam temperatures of 950 F, steam pressures of 1500 psi, and exhaust temperatures of 170 F.

  16. The response of plants to interacting stresses: PGSM Version 1.3 model documentation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    1993-04-01

    This report describes the principles and application procedures of the Plant-Growth-Stress model (PGSM) Version 1.3 as of December 1992. The PGSM model simulates a tree growing in soil, subject to the real time stimulation of CO{sub 2} and stresses of ozone, acid deposition, drought, and nutrient deficiency. The model is coded with instructions for how a tree grows and reacts to air and soil environments. It is also coded with information about biogeochemical processes occurring in the soil. The model begins with initial conditions of tree and soil characteristics. Each day, the model updates the meteorological and air quality conditions from input files. According to the coded instructions, the model simulates hydrological, geochemical, and physiological processes to generate the daily output of tree parameters (sugar production, nutrient uptake, growth and mortality of canopy, roots, and stem) and soil parameters (moisture, temperature, and ion concentrations). The model also keeps track of water deficit, ozone damage, nutrient deficiency, and aluminum toxicity. The model uses an hourly time step for photosynthesis and a daily time step for all other processes. It can be set up to run for as many years as desired, to show growth from a small seedling to a large mature tree. Menus are provided for the on-screen changes of input data and on-screen review of graphical outputs. Model application requires a step by step procedure of data acquisition, calibration to seedlings data from fumigation experiments, extension to mature trees in forest plots, sensitivity analysis, hypothesis testing, scenario evaluation, and uncertainty analysis. Real time climate conditions (temperature and precipitation) and air pollution levels (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 4}, etc.) can be altered for scenario evaluations.

  17. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  18. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    industry, and final steel product mix in both countries. The share of lower energy intensity electric arc furnace production in each country was a key determinant of total steel sector energy efficiency. Overall steel sector structure, in terms of average plant vintage and production capacity, is also an important variable though data were not available to quantify this in a scenario. The methodology developed in this report, along with the accompanying quantitative and qualitative analyses, provides a foundation for comparative international assessment of steel sector energy intensity.

  19. Comparison of the contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and other unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants to the total toxic equivalents in air of steel plant areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Mei; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.01-0.69 pg WHO-TEQN m(-3), 0.001-0.089 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.002-0.011 pg TEQ Nm(-3), 0.004-0.02 pg TEQ Nm(-3), and 0.02-0.12 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas.

  20. North façade of crucible steel building; looking southwest Bethlehem ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade of crucible steel building; looking southwest - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  1. In-plant demonstration of energy optimization in beck dyeing of carpet. Final report, June 1, 1979-January 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tincher, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Several energy-conservative technologies have been successfully combined and transferred to a commercial carpet finishing plant to optimize beck dyeing. The technology of bump-and-run, in which the dyebath temperature was allowed to drift for the last 85% of the hold time instead of being maintained by active steam sparging, reduced the energy consumption by 38% with negligible capital investment required. Merging of dyebath reuse with bump-and-run only marginally increased the energy consumption (to 39%), but substantially lowered the plant's finishing costs further by directly recycling dyes, auxiliary chemicals, and water. Final optimization, which merged a technique whereby the carpet was pulled directly from the hot bath with bump-and-run and dyebath reuse, further improved the economics by drastically reducing water/sewer requirements by 90% and eliminating the holding tank/pumping assembly as a reuse requirement. From a carpet industry viewpoint, the demonstrated modifications have a direct energy conservation potential of 2.4 x 10/sup 5/ barrels of oil equivalent per year assuming the technology is directly transferable to similar atmospheric dyeing processes, e.g., beck dyeing of nylon and polyester fabrics, the potential to the entire textile industry is 2.6 x 10/sup 6/ BOE/year. Economically, total potential savings for the carpet industry on reuse incorporation was $1.2 x 10/sup 7//year, based on a 2.3 cents/lb. savings figure. When the allied fabric industry was included, the national potential was raised to $1.0 x 10/sup 8//year. These figures include cost savings due to materials recycled (water, auxiliary chemicals and dyes) as well as energy conservation.

  2. Solar production of intermediate temperature process heat. Phase I design. Final report. [For sugarcane processing plant in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    This report is the final effort in the Phase I design of a solar industrial process heat system for the Hilo Coast Processing Company (HCPC) in Pepeekeo, Hawaii. The facility is used to wash, grind and extract sugar from the locally grown sugarcane and it operates 24 hours a day, 305 days per year. The major steam requirements in the industrial process are for the prime movers (mill turbines) in the milling process and heat for evaporating water from the extracted juices. Bagasse (the fibrous residue of milled sugarcane) supplied 84% of the fuel requirement for steam generation in 1979, while 65,000 barrels of No. 6 industrial fuel oil made up the remaining 16%. These fuels are burned in the power plant complex which produces 825/sup 0/F, 1,250 psi superheated steam to power a turbogenerator set which, in addition to serving the factory, generates from 7 to 16 megawatts of electricity that is exported to the local utility company. Extracted steam from the turbo-generator set supplies the plant's process steam needs. The system consists of 42,420 ft./sup 2/ of parabolic trough, single axis tracking, concentrating solar collectors. The collectors will be oriented in a North-South configuration and will track East-West. A heat transfer fluid (Gulf Synfluid 4cs) will be circulated in a closed loop fashion through the solar collectors and a series of heat exchangers. The inlet and outlet fluid temperatures for the collectors are 370/sup 0/F and 450/sup 0/F respectively. It is estimated that the net useable energy delivered to the industrial process will be 7.2 x 10/sup 9/ Btu's per year. With an HCPC boiler efficiency of 78% and 6.2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu's per barrel of oil, the solar energy system will displace 1489 barrels of oil per year. (WHK)

  3. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  4. FASEB summer research conference on signal transduction in plants. Final report, June 16, 1996--June 21, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, T.L.; Quatrano, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This is the program from the second FASEB conference on Signal Transduction in Plants. Topic areas included the following: environmental signaling; perception and transduction of light signals; signaling in plant microbe interactions; signaling in plant pathogen interactions; cell, cell communication; cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cellwall continuum; signaling molecules in plant growth and development I and II. A list of participants is included.

  5. 19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. 1500 CUBIC FEET CAPACITY SCRAP STEEL CHARGING BOX ON THE CHARGING AISLE OF THE BOP SHOP LOOKING NORTHWEST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. Bacterial community compositions of coking wastewater treatment plants in steel industry revealed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiao; Qu, Yuanyuan; Shen, Wenli; Zhang, Zhaojing; Wang, Jingwei; Liu, Ziyan; Li, Duanxing; Li, Huijie; Zhou, Jiti

    2015-03-01

    In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to reveal the community structures of nine coking wastewater treatment plants (CWWTPs) in China for the first time. The sludge systems exhibited a similar community composition at each taxonomic level. Compared to previous studies, some of the core genera in municipal wastewater treatment plants such as Zoogloea, Prosthecobacter and Gp6 were detected as minor species. Thiobacillus (20.83%), Comamonas (6.58%), Thauera (4.02%), Azoarcus (7.78%) and Rhodoplanes (1.42%) were the dominant genera shared by at least six CWWTPs. The percentages of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were unexpectedly low, which were verified by both real-time PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. Hierarchical clustering and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that operation mode, flow rate and temperature might be the key factors in community formation. This study provides new insights into our understanding of microbial community compositions and structures of CWWTPs.

  7. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Plants; Final Report of Sandia R&D Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2015-04-01

    This final report is a compilation of resear ch efforts - funded by the US Department of Energy Wind and Water Power Technolog ies Office over a four-year period from FY11 through FY14. The goals of this re search program were to develop and evaluate technical innovati ons with promise for maxi mizing revenues and reducing levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for offs hore wind plants - more specifically the goals of the Structural H ealth and Prognostics Management (SHPM) program were to reduce O&M costs and increase energy capture through use of SHPM-based technologies. A technology roadmap was deve loped at the start of the project to guide the research efforts. This roadmap identified and outlined six major research thrust areas each having five stages of ma turity. Research was conducted in each of these thrust areas, as documented throughout this report, although a major focus was on development of damage detection strategi es for the most frequent blade damage conditions and damage mitigation and life-exte nsion strategies via changes in turbine operations (smart loads management). Th e work summarized in this compilation report is the product of the work of many researchers. A summary of the major findings, status of the SHPM Technology Ro admap and recommendations for future work are also provided.

  8. Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (estimated from job category) with concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in urine from workers at a steel plant.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, D; Rothman, N; Cho, S H; Lim, H S; Kwon, H J; Kim, S M; Schwartz, B; Strickland, P T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Increased risk of lung cancer has been associated with employment in the steel industry. This association is thought to be due in part to increased concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air found in this work environment. Measurement of PAH metabolites in human urine provides a means of assessing individual internal dose of PAHs. This study examined the relative contribution of occupation and smoking to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG) among a group of workers at a steel plant. METHODS--Concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine from 44 workers with jobs associated with increased air concentrations of PAHs and 40 workers with jobs with low or no exposure to PAHs were measured. 20 workers in each group were not current smokers. Urinary 1-OHPG was measured by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy after immunoaffinity chromatography specific for PAH metabolites. RESULTS--Mean (SEM) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.16 (0.42) pmol/ml urine among the 44 occupationally exposed workers compared with 0.38 (0.05) among the 40 workers with no or low exposure (P < 0.0001). Mean urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 1.82 (0.41) pmol/ml urine among the 44 current smokers compared with 0.75 (0.20) among the 40 non-smokers (P < 0.005). Mean 1-OHPG concentrations in non-smokers were 0.26 (n = 20), 0.70 (n = 15), and 2.84 pmol/ml urine (n = 5) for strata of exposure to PAHs (no or low, mid, and high) based on job category; the corresponding values in smokers were 0.55 (n = 20), 0.94 (n = 12), and 4.91 pmol/ml (n = 12), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed significant differences between subjects in different PAH exposure with increased concentrations of 1-OHPG in urine. Amounts of foods containing PAHs ingested by this group of workers were relatively low and did not contribute significantly to urinary 1-OHPG concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--These results indicate that 1-OHPG is a common urinary metabolite in people with

  9. [The Waste Package Project. Final report, July 1, 1995--February 27, 1996]: Volume 2, Experimental verification of structural response of a flexible three-link hydraulic steel robot

    SciTech Connect

    Channarayapatna, Shashidhar S.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents experimental techniques for determining the static and dynamic response, in three dimensional space, of a flexible three-link hydraulic steel robot. The flexible robot was originally built under a grant from the Army Research Office (ARO) and has been the subject of a six year research project involving 12 graduate students and four faculty members. The research was continued under grant from the U.S. Department of Energy which is considering the use of robot in remote handling, placement and retrievability of H.L.N.W. canisters in geological formations. A series of static and dynamic experiments was conducted under two different loads at various angular positions of the robot links.

  10. Effects of fabrication flaws on crack initiation and arrest properties of 9% nickel steel used in LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks. Final report, March 1982-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.R.; Marschall, C.; Nakagaki, M.; Wilkowski, G.; Smith, R.

    1986-03-01

    During LNG tank construction, weld discontinuities (flaws) are sometimes unintentionally produced within welded joints. The project was part of an international effort to assess the effects of these discontinuities upon crack-initiation propagation, and arrest in 9 percent nickel steel. This was undertaken because doubt persists regarding whether sufficient testing of 9% nickel has been carried out to assure LNG tank safety. In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the research included (1) the preparation of a bibliography detailing the discontinuities commonly associated with welding, (2) conducting parent plate characterization tests, (3) development of methods for the laboratory production of weld flaws, (4) performance of crack arrest tests, and (5) an assessment of the effect of different weld heat inputs on the fracture energy of standard Charpy V-notch specimens.

  11. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 1, Executive summary and overview, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe.

  12. Heavy Metal Resistances and Chromium Removal of a Novel Cr(VI)-Reducing Pseudomonad Strain Isolated from Circulating Cooling Water of Iron and Steel Plant.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Kun; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Ye, Yun

    2016-12-01

    Three bacterial isolates, GT2, GT3, and GT7, were isolated from the sludge and water of a circulating cooling system of iron and steel plant by screening on Cr(VI)-containing plates. Three isolates were characterized as the members of the genus Pseudomonas on the basis of phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All isolates were capable of resisting multiple antibiotics and heavy metals. GT7 was most resistant to Cr(VI), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 6.5 mmol L(-1). GT7 displayed varied rates of Cr(VI) reduction in M2 broth, which was dependent on pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and inoculating dose. Total chromium analysis revealed that GT7 could remove a part of chromium from the media, and the maximum rate of chromium removal was up to 40.8 %. The Cr(VI) reductase activity of GT7 was mainly associated with the soluble fraction of cell-free extracts and reached optimum at pH 6.0∼8.0. The reductase activity was apparently enhanced by external electron donors and Cu(II), whereas it was seriously inhibited by Hg(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II). The reductase showed a K m of 74 μmol L(-1) of Cr(VI) and a V max of 0.86 μmol of Cr(VI) min(-1) mg(-1) of protein. The results suggested that GT7 could be a promising candidate for in situ bioremediation of Cr(VI).

  13. Characterization and environmental risk assessment of heavy metals found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a Chinese steel plant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Ning, Xun-an; Liao, Xikai; Lin, Meiqing; Liu, Jingyong; Wang, Jianghui

    2013-09-01

    The environmental risk of exposure to six heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Cd) found in fly ashes from waste filter bags obtained from a steel plant was estimated based on the mineralogical compositions, total concentrations and speciation of the metals in the fly ashes. The results indicated that the fly ashes mainly consisted of hematite, magnetite, cyanite, spinel, coesite and amorphous materials. The concentrations of Zn and Pb were much higher than that of other materials. After Zn and Pb, Ni was present in the highest concentration, followed by Cu, Cr and Cd. Each heavy metal was distributed differently in fly ashes. The levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in the active fraction were very high, and ranged from 64.83 to 81.96%, 34.48 to 82.4% and 6.92 to 79.65% respectively, while Cu, Cr and Ni were mainly present in the residual fraction. The risk assessment code (RAC) values of fly ashes showed that the Zn and Cd present in the H3 sample presented a very high risk, with RAC values greater than 50%. The Cu present in the H3 sample, Cd in the H2 sample and Zn in the H4 and H5 samples presented a high risk. The Pb present in the H2 sample, Cd in the H4 sample, Ni in the H1 and H5 samples, and Zn in the H1 sample presented a medium risk. A low risk was presented by the Cu present in the H1, H2, H4 and H5 samples, the Pb in the H1, H3 and H5 samples, the Cd in the H1 and H5 samples, and the Ni in the H2 sample. No risk was presented by Cr in any sample.

  14. Recycling steel automatically - through resource recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, W.J.

    1997-12-01

    Last year, more than 55 percent of all steel cans were recycled. But no matter how effective the local recycling programs may be, some steel cans and other steel products are overlooked and appear in MSW. This missed steel fraction is automatically recycled by resource recovery facilities through magnetic separation. More than three-fourths of the operating resource recovery plants magnetically separate steel cans and other discarded steel items either pre- or post-combustion. Recovering ferrous scrap clearly reduces the post-combustion material that is landfilled and heightens the facilities` environmental performance. Both the resource recovery and steel industries must heighten public awareness of the benefits of automatic steel recycling. Magnetic separation at resource recovery facilities is a simple method of diverting what would otherwise be relegated as solid waste to the landfill. It should be recognized as an increasingly important and valued part of the resource recovery and steel industries` overall recycling efforts. This paper will discuss the status of steel can recycling in the United States, describe how recovered ferrous is beneficiated before recycling by the steel industry, and make recommendations for heightening awareness of the steel recycling contribution made by resource recovery facilities.

  15. Correlation of acoustic emission generated during uniform biaxial loading to microstructural sources in 7075-T651 aluminum and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, E.; Mukherjee, A.K.

    1981-12-01

    This paper reports on the effect on acoustic emission (AE) of uniform biaxial loading of a thin-walled tube designed by Hamstad, Patterson and Mukherjee. The AE generated during biaxial loading of 7075-T651 aluminum and 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn stainless steel had several anomalous features relative to tensile generated AE. The biaxial AE data was of a much higher level and peaked at a lower strain than the uniaxial AE response. A particle cracking model was proposed in which inclusions with the largest projected surface area perpendicular to the principal axis of applied loading will crack before smaller inclusions, and the resulting energy released per AE will be proportional to the crack surface area. The inclusion contents were studied with respect to size, shape, density, hardness, and fracture/decohesion behavior. The inclusions in both 7075-T651 and 21-6-9 display the preferred cracking orientation predicted in the Hamstad, et al. model and are shown to be associated with the generated AE. However, other factors appear to contribute to the total AE responses. There is evidence that for 7075-T651 subjected to biaxial loading, a grain boundary-related mechanism becomes a significant source of AE in the latter stages of strain hardening. Also, for both materials, the complex applied load during biaxial loading appears to amplify the level of AE.

  16. Advanced zinc phosphate conversion and pre-ceramic polymetallosiloxane coatings for corrosion protection of steel and aluminum, and characteristics of polyphenyletheretherketone-based materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R.

    1992-07-01

    Anhydrous zinc phosphate (Zn{center_dot}Ph) coatings deposited by immersing the steel in transition Co, Ni, and Mn cation-incorporated phosphating solutions were investigated. Two features for the anhydrous 340C-heated (Zn{center_dot}Ph) were addressed; one was to determine if electron trapping of adsorbed CO{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} ions acts to inhibit the cathodic reaction on the (Zn{center_dot}Ph), and the second was to determine the less susceptibility of the {alpha}-Zn{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} phase to alkali-induced dissolution. The factors governing film-forming of pre-ceramic polymetallosiloxane (PMS) coatings for Al substrates were investigated. Four factors were important in obtaining a good film: (1) formation of organopolymetallosiloxane at sintering temperatures of 150C; (2) pyrolytic conversion at 350C into an amorphous PMS network structure in which the Si-O-M linkage were moderately enhanced; (3) noncrystalline phases; and (4) formation of interfacial oxane bond between PMS and Al oxide. Formation of well-crystallized polyphenyletheretherketone (PEEK) in vicinity of silica aggregates was found in the molted body made in N{sub 2}. Crystalline PEEK contributed to thermal and hydrothermal stabilities of mortar specimens at temperatures up to 200C, and resistance in 5 wt % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution at 80C.

  17. Feasibility study for alternate fuels production: unconventional natural gas from wastewater treatment plants. Volume II, Appendix D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Overly, P.; Tawiah, K.

    1981-12-01

    Data are presented from a study performed to determined the feasibility of recovering methane from sewage at a typical biological secondary wastewater treatment plant. Three tasks are involved: optimization of digester gas; digester gas scrubbing; and application to the East Bay Municipal Utility District water pollution control plant. Results indicate that excess digester gas can be used economically at the wastewater treatment plant and that distribution and scrubbing can be complex and costly. (DMC) 193 references, 93 figures, 26 tables.

  18. Final report on the power production phase of the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Radosevich, L.G.

    1988-03-01

    This report describes the evaluations of the power production testing of Solar One, the 10 MW/sub e/ Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant near Barstow, California. The Pilot Plant, a cooperative project of the US Department of Energy and utility firms led by the Southern California Edison Company, began a three year period of power production operation in August 1984. During this period, plant performance indicators, such as capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability, were studied to assess the operational capability of the Pilot Plant to reliably supply electrical power. Also studied was the long-term performance of such key plant components as the heliostats and the receiver. During the three years of power production, the Pilot Plant showed an improvement in performance. Considerable increases in capacity factor, system efficiency, and availability were achieved. Heliostat operation was reliable, and only small amounts of mirror corrosion were observed. Receiver tube leaks did occur, however, and were the main cause of the plant's unscheduled outages. The Pilot Plant provided valuable lessons which will aid in the design of future solar central receiver plants. 53 refs., 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Microstructural engineering applied to the controlled cooling of steel wire rod: Part III. Mathematical model-formulation and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, P. C.; Hawbolt, E. B.; Brimacombe, J. K.

    1991-11-01

    In this final part of the study, a mathematical model incorporating heat flow, microstructural phenomena, and structure-composition-mechanical property relationships has been developed to compute the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of steel rod control cooled on a Stelmor line. The predictive capability of the model, in terms of temperature response, microstructural evolution, and strength of the rods, has been tested by comparison to measurements from an extensive set of laboratory and plant trials. Thus, the model has been shown to simulate the complex heat flow and microstructural phenomena in the steel rod very well, although improvements need to be sought in the characterization of the austenite-ferrite transformation kinetics and of pearlite interlamellar spacing. The latter variable has a significant influence on the strength of eutectoid steels. Nonetheless, the model consistently is capable of predicting the strengths of plain-carbon steel rods ranging from 1020 to 1080 to within ± 10 pet.

  20. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin

    PubMed Central

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm2. Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study. PMID:26130860