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Sample records for plant technology avis

  1. Initial performance of the advanced inventory verification sample system (AVIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, Johnna B; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design and initial performance of the Advanced Inventory Verification Sample System (AVIS) a non-destructive assay (NDA) system to measure small samples of bulk mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) materials (powders and pellets). The AVIS design has evolved from previously developed conceptual physics and engineering designs for the Inventory Sample Verification System (INVS), a safeguards system for nondestructive assay of small samples. The AVIS is an integrated gamma-neutron system. Jointly designed by the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron ({sup 240}Pu{sub effective}) measurement. This will allow the AVIS to replace destructive chemical analysis for many samples, with concomitant cost, exposure and waste generation savings for the facility. Data taken to date confirming the performance of the AVIS is presented.

  2. 78 FR 48043 - Safety Zone; AVI Resort and Casino Labor Day Fireworks Display; Colorado River

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; AVI Resort and Casino Labor Day Fireworks Display... Guard will enforce a Safety Zone for the AVI Resort and Casino Labor Day Fireworks Display located on... on navigable waters during the AVI Resort and Casino Fireworks. During the enforcement period,...

  3. Academic Visual Identity (AVI): An Act of Symbolic Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masiki, Trent

    2011-01-01

    Extensive scholarship exists on both symbolic leadership and corporate visual identity (CVI), yet little scholarly attention has been focused on the intersection of these two bodies of knowledge. In the field of education, that intersection is known as academic visual identity (AVI). The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that AVI…

  4. Influence and discrimination of clouds in the detection of dust and sandstorms using AVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshinobu

    2012-11-01

    The AVI method can detect the dust and sandstorms (DSS) in satellite images both at daytime and night. The aerosol vapor index (AVI) is defined as AVI=T12-T11, where T12 and T11 are the brightness temperatures at 12μm and 11μm wave lengths, respectively. The fault of AVI method is to mistake thick clouds for DSS rarely. Iino et al. (2002, 2004) proposed the composite color images for discriminating DSS from clouds in daytime NOAA-AVHRR images. In this paper, Terra/Aqua-MODIS data are used. First, it is explained that usual clouds bring the effect of AVI<0, and the clouds with very large optical thickness and very large particle size may bring the effect of AVI<0, by using the BTD vs. T11 charts of Inoue (2006), where BTD=-AVI. Examples of the cloud images of AVI<0 are shown and interpreted using the AVI vs. T11 scatter chart. Next, the views of objects (DSS, usual ice-cloud, usual water-cloud, ice-cloud with large optical thickness, water-cloud with large optical thickness, snow field and ice, land, sea) in the single-band images (bands 1, 3, 4, 6, 7 and T11(band31), T12(band32)) and the band-difference images (band1-band3, band4-band3, band6- band1, band7-band1, AVI) are examined. The good composite color images which can discriminate DSS from clouds etc. are {R,G,B=AVI, band7-band1, T11} and {R,G,B=AVI, band4-band3, T11} for daytime images, and {R,G,B=T11, AVI, none} for nighttime images.

  5. Detection properties of dust and sandstorms by using AVI of MODIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yoshinobu

    2010-10-01

    The detection properties of dust and sandstorms (DSS) by using AVI are examined. The aerosol vapor index (AVI) is defined as AVI=T12-T11, where T12 and T11 are the brightness temperatures respectively at 12μm and 11μm wave lengths. MODIS data of Terra/Aqua satellites from China to Japan in April 2006 are used. The AVI vs. T11 scatter charts in narrow regions are made. The narrow region means the region which is smaller than about 100km × 100km. Gu et al. (2003) gave a BTD vs. T11 chart which was based on the radiative transfer calculation in the case of the existence of DSS layer between the ground and the satellite, where BTD=-AVI. The AVI vs. T11 scatter charts are compared with the true-color images, the T11 images, the AVI images and the result by Gu et al. The results are as follows: (1) The larger the AVI value is, the larger the optical thickness of DSS is, in the case of narrow region on land and sea with DSS that does not include cloud. The AVI value decreases, in the case of narrow region with DSS that includes cloud. (2) When the DSS is consecutive on land and sea, the AVI value on the land near the boundary of land and sea is about 0.2-2.3K higher than that on the sea, because of the radiative characteristics of land and sea. The AVI value of a pixel (1km2) on the boundary of land and sea is changed by the ratio of land area and sea area.

  6. Plant stress analysis technology deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    Monitoring vegetation is an active area of laser-induced fluorescence imaging (LIFI) research. The Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU) is assisting in the transfer of the LIFI technology to the agricultural private sector through a market survey. The market survey will help identify the key eco-agricultural issues of the nations that could benefit from the use of sensor technologies developed by the Office of Science and Technology (OST). The principal region of interest is the Western Hemisphere, particularly, the rapidly growing countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. The analysis of needs will assure that the focus of present and future research will center on economically important issues facing both hemispheres. The application of the technology will be useful to the agriculture industry for airborne crop analysis as well as in the detection and characterization of contaminated sites by monitoring vegetation. LIFI airborne and close-proximity systems will be evaluated as stand-alone technologies and additions to existing sensor technologies that have been used to monitor crops in the field and in storage.

  7. 75 FR 9370 - Safety Zone; AVI May Fireworks Display, Colorado River, Laughlin, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; AVI May Fireworks Display, Colorado River... fireworks display near the AVI Resort and Casino. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety...

  8. 75 FR 51180 - Safety Zone; AVI September Fireworks Display, Laughlin, Nevada, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Register (75 FR 23206). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; AVI September Fireworks Display, Laughlin... fireworks display near the AVI Resort and Casino. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety...

  9. 75 FR 29427 - Safety Zone; AVI May Fireworks Display, Laughlin, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Zone; AVI May Fireworks Display; Laughlin, Nevada, NV in the Federal Register (75 FR 9370). We received... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; AVI May Fireworks Display, Laughlin, NV... zone, on the navigable waters of the lower Colorado River, Laughlin, NV, in support of a...

  10. 75 FR 23206 - Safety Zone; AVI September Fireworks Display, Laughlin, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; AVI September Fireworks Display, Laughlin... fireworks display near the AVI Resort and Casino. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety...

  11. 75 FR 20799 - Safety Zone; AVI July Fireworks Display, Laughlin, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... fireworks display near the AVI Resort and Casino. This safety zone is necessary to provide for the safety of... Lower Colorado River, Laughlin, NV. The fireworks show is being sponsored by AVI Resort and Casino....

  12. Thirty years of plant transformation technology development.

    PubMed

    Vain, Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Technology development is seminal to many aspects of basic and applied plant transgenic science. Through the development and commercialization of genetically modified crops, the evolution of plant transgenic technologies is also relevant to society as a whole. In this study, literature statistics were used to uncover trends in the development of these technologies. Publication volume and impact (citation) over the past 30 years were analysed with respect to economic zones, countries, species and DNA delivery method. This revealed that, following a dramatic expansion in the 1980s, publications focusing on the development of transgenic technology have been slowing down worldwide since the early mid-1990s, except in a few leading Asian countries. The implications of these trends on the future of plant transgenic science as a whole are discussed.

  13. Safety pharmacology and genotoxicity evaluation of AVI-4658.

    PubMed

    Sazani, Peter; Weller, Doreen L; Shrewsbury, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by dystrophin gene mutations. Restoration of dystrophin by exon skipping was demonstrated with the phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMO) class of splice-switching oligomers, in both mouse and dog disease models. The authors report the results of Good Laboratory Practice-compliant safety pharmacology and genotoxicity evaluations of AVI-4658, a PMO under clinical evaluation for DMD. In cynomolgus monkeys, no test article-related effects were seen on cardiovascular, respiratory, global neurological, renal, or liver parameters at the maximum feasible dose (320 mg/kg). Genotoxicity battery showed that AVI-4658 has no genotoxic potential at up to 5000 microg/mL in an in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test and a bacterial reverse mutation assay. In the mouse bone marrow erythrocyte micronucleus test, a single intravenous injection up to 2000 mg/kg was generally well tolerated and resulted in no mutagenic potential. These results allowed initiation of systemic clinical trials in DMD patients in the United Kingdom.

  14. rAvis: an R-package for downloading information stored in Proyecto AVIS, a citizen science bird project.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; González-Hernández, Javier; Casabella, Eduardo; Barrientos, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects store an enormous amount of information about species distribution, diversity and characteristics. Researchers are now beginning to make use of this rich collection of data. However, access to these databases is not always straightforward. Apart from the largest and international projects, citizen science repositories often lack specific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to connect them to the scientific environments. Thus, it is necessary to develop simple routines to allow researchers to take advantage of the information collected by smaller citizen science projects, for instance, programming specific packages to connect them to popular scientific environments (like R). Here, we present rAvis, an R-package to connect R-users with Proyecto AVIS (http://proyectoavis.com), a Spanish citizen science project with more than 82,000 bird observation records. We develop several functions to explore the database, to plot the geographic distribution of the species occurrences, and to generate personal queries to the database about species occurrences (number of individuals, distribution, etc.) and birdwatcher observations (number of species recorded by each collaborator, UTMs visited, etc.). This new R-package will allow scientists to access this database and to exploit the information generated by Spanish birdwatchers over the last 40 years. PMID:24626233

  15. rAvis: an R-package for downloading information stored in Proyecto AVIS, a citizen science bird project.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; González-Hernández, Javier; Casabella, Eduardo; Barrientos, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science projects store an enormous amount of information about species distribution, diversity and characteristics. Researchers are now beginning to make use of this rich collection of data. However, access to these databases is not always straightforward. Apart from the largest and international projects, citizen science repositories often lack specific Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to connect them to the scientific environments. Thus, it is necessary to develop simple routines to allow researchers to take advantage of the information collected by smaller citizen science projects, for instance, programming specific packages to connect them to popular scientific environments (like R). Here, we present rAvis, an R-package to connect R-users with Proyecto AVIS (http://proyectoavis.com), a Spanish citizen science project with more than 82,000 bird observation records. We develop several functions to explore the database, to plot the geographic distribution of the species occurrences, and to generate personal queries to the database about species occurrences (number of individuals, distribution, etc.) and birdwatcher observations (number of species recorded by each collaborator, UTMs visited, etc.). This new R-package will allow scientists to access this database and to exploit the information generated by Spanish birdwatchers over the last 40 years.

  16. Water Treatment Technology - General Plant Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on general plant operations provides instructional materials for seven competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: water supply regulations, water plant…

  17. The Puertollano IGCC plant with Prenflo technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schellberg, W.; Hooper, M.

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the Prenflo coal gasification process for integration in combined cycle power plants. This coal gasification process is based on entrained-flow principle using dry fuel dust feeding. The development of the Prenflo process was founded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology and the Commission of the European Union. The status of the world`s largest IGCC plant at Puertollano/Spain with a capacity of 300 MWe (net) will be presented. The plant is being built by ELCOGAS S.A., a consortium consisting of leading European utility companies from Spain, France, Portugal, England and Italy. The plant location, Puertollano, is a city approx. 200 km south of Madrid, at an elevation of approx. 700 m above sea level. Start-up of the IGCC plant at Puertollano is underway and the gas turbine has completed initial test runs with natural gas. The gasification section will begin commissioning in 1997. Stringent environmental regulations can be fulfilled by the new IGCC technology which at the same time achieves high efficiencies. Development trends in IGCC power plants will be discussed.

  18. Molecular marker technologies for plant improvement.

    PubMed

    Winter, P; Kahl, G

    1995-07-01

    The exploitation of DNA polymorphisms by an ever-increasing number of molecular marker technologies has begun to have an impact on plant genome research and breeding. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms, micro- and mini-satellites and PCR-based approaches are used to determine inter- and intra-specific genetic diversity and construct molecular maps of crops using specially designed mapping populations. Resistance genes and other agronomically important loci are tagged with tightly linked DNA markers and the genes isolated by magabase DNA technology and cloning into yeast artificial chromosomes (YAC). This review discusses some recent developments and results in this field.

  19. Modularization Technology in Power Plant Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kenji Akagi; Kouichi Murayama; Miki Yoshida; Junichi Kawahata

    2002-07-01

    Since the early 1980's, Hitachi has been developing and applying modularization technology to domestic nuclear power plant construction, and has achieved great rationalization. Modularization is one of the plant construction techniques which enables us to reduce site labor by pre-assembling components like equipment, pipes, valves and platforms in congested areas and installing them using large capacity cranes for cost reduction, better quality, safety improvement and shortening of construction time. In this paper, Hitachi's modularization technologies are described especially from with respect to their sophisticated design capabilities. The application of 3D-CAD at the detailed layout design stage, concurrent design environment achieved by the computer network, module design quantity control and the management system are described. (authors)

  20. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant applied technology plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, O.L.

    1990-09-01

    This Applied Technology Plan describes the process development, verification testing, equipment adaptation, and waste form qualification technical issues and plans for resolution to support the design, permitting, and operation of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. The scope of this Plan includes work to be performed by the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, other organizations within Westinghouse Hanford Company, universities and companies with glass technology expertise, and other US Department of Energy sites. All work described in this Plan is funded by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project and the relationship of this Plan to other waste management documents and issues is provided for background information. Work to performed under this Plan is divided into major areas that establish a reference process, develop an acceptable glass composition envelope, and demonstrate feed processing and glass production for the range of Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feeds. Included in this work is the evaluation and verification testing of equipment and technology obtained from the Defense Waste Processing Facility, the West Valley Demonstration Project, foreign countries, and the Hanford Site. Development and verification of product and process models and other data needed for waste form qualification documentation are also included in this Plan. 21 refs., 4 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. Phaeomelanin synthesis and obesity in mice. Interaction of the viable yellow (Avy) and sombre (eso) mutations.

    PubMed

    Wolff, G L; Galbraith, D B; Domon, O E; Row, J M

    1978-01-01

    Is abnormal regulation of phaeomelanin synthesis, which results in yellow coat color, inextricably linked to the development of obesity in viable yellow (Avy) house mice? To answer this question, black male mice of genotypes Avy/A eso/e+ and A/ae eso/e+ were produced from (DFT/Wf X C3H-1 vyfB/HeWf X SO/LeWf matings. The sombre (eso) mutation prevents phaeomelanin synthesis; therefore, all mice carrying this dominant allele are black regardless of the alleles present at the agouti locus. These black males were weighed weekly to 18 weeks of age. Simultaneously the agouti locus genotype of each male was determined by test matings to a/a e+/e+ females. The results of these test matings indicated that the two genotypes could be classified rather accurately by the intensity of pigmentation of the belly hair. Black Avy mice tended to have more dilute belly pigmentation that black A/ae mice. These gross observations were confirmed by microscopic examination of several hair types. Black Avy males reached a mean body weight of 44.2 +/- 0.6 g at 18 weeks, while black A males had a mean weight of 30.7 +/- 0.4 g at the same age. It is concluded that excessive weight gain resulting in obesity is induced by the Avy gene even when phaeomelanin synthesis is completely inhibited.

  2. TrAVis to Enhance Online Tutoring and Learning Activities: Real-Time Visualization of Students Tracking Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Madeth; George, Sebastien; Prevot, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a part of our research work that places an emphasis on Tracking Data Analysis and Visualization (TrAVis) tools, a web-based system, designed to enhance online tutoring and learning activities, supported by computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools. TrAVis is particularly dedicated to assist both tutors and students…

  3. Plant cell technologies in space: Background, strategies and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkorian, A. D.; Scheld, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to summarize work in plant cell technologies in space. The evolution of concepts and the general principles of plant tissue culture are discussed. The potential for production of high value secondary products by plant cells and differentiated tissue in automated, precisely controlled bioreactors is discussed. The general course of the development of the literature on plant tissue culture is highlighted.

  4. Soy protein isolate reduces hepatosteatosis in yellow Avy/a mice without altering coat color phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agouti (Avy/a) mice fed an AIN-93G diet containing the soy isoflavone genistein (GEN) prior to and during pregnancy were reported to shift coat color and body composition phenotypes from obese-yellow towards lean pseudoagouti, suggesting epigenetic programming. Human consumption of purified GEN is r...

  5. Innovative applications of technology for nuclear power plant productivity improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Naser, J. A.

    2012-07-01

    The nuclear power industry in several countries is concerned about the ability to maintain high plant performance levels due to aging and obsolescence, knowledge drain, fewer plant staff, and new requirements and commitments. Current plant operations are labor-intensive due to the vast number of operational and support activities required by commonly used technology in most plants. These concerns increase as plants extend their operating life. In addition, there is the goal to further improve performance while reducing human errors and increasingly focus on reducing operations and maintenance costs. New plants are expected to perform more productively than current plants. In order to achieve and increase high productivity, it is necessary to look at innovative applications of modern technologies and new concepts of operation. The Electric Power Research Inst. is exploring and demonstrating modern technologies that enable cost-effectively maintaining current performance levels and shifts to even higher performance levels, as well as provide tools for high performance in new plants. Several modern technologies being explored can provide multiple benefits for a wide range of applications. Examples of these technologies include simulation, visualization, automation, human cognitive engineering, and information and communications technologies. Some applications using modern technologies are described. (authors)

  6. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  7. Quantification of risks from technology for improved plant reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Rode, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    One of the least understood and therefore appreciated threats to profitability are risks from power plant technologies such as steam generators, turbines, and electrical systems. To effectively manage technological risks, business decisions need to be based on knowledge. The scope of the paper describes a quantification or risk process that combines technical knowledge and judgments with commercial consequences. The three principle alternatives to manage risks as well as risk mitigation techniques for significant equipment within a power plant are reported. The result is to equip the decision maker with a comprehensive picture of the risk exposures enabling cost effective activities to be undertaken to improve a plant`s reliability.

  8. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  9. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions - Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Emission control system development includes: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on. power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO. to N02 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology

  10. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions-Commercialization Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Chung, Landy

    2004-01-01

    Overview of emission control system development: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO to NO2 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology.

  11. Plant growth chamber based on space proven controlled environment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatius, Ronald W.; Ignatius, Matt H.; Imberti, Henry J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum Devices, Inc., in conjunction with Percival Scientific, Inc., and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) have developed a controlled environment plant growth chamber for terrestrial agricultural and scientific applications. This chamber incorporates controlled environment technology used in the WCSAR ASTROCULTURE™ flight unit for conducting plant research on the Space Shuttle. The new chamber, termed CERES 2010, features air humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide control, an atmospheric contaminant removal unit, an LED lighting system, and a water and nutrient delivery system. The advanced environment control technology used in this chamber will increase the reliability and repeatability of environmental physiology data derived from plant experiments conducted in this chamber.

  12. Development of Plant Control Diagnosis Technology and Increasing Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugemoto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Satoshi; Hashizume, Satoru; Kageyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Toru

    A plant control diagnosis technology was developed to improve the performance of plant-wide control and maintain high productivity of plants. The control performance diagnosis system containing this technology picks out the poor performance loop, analyzes the cause, and outputs the result on the Web page. Meanwhile, the PID tuning tool is used to tune extracted loops from the control performance diagnosis system. It has an advantage of tuning safely without process changes. These systems are powerful tools to do Kaizen (continuous improvement efforts) step by step, coordinating with the operator. This paper describes a practical technique regarding the diagnosis system and its industrial applications.

  13. Technology for subsystems of space-based plant growth facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Morrow, R. C.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Corey, R. B.

    1990-01-01

    Technologies for different subsystems of space-based plant growth facilities are being developed at the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space. The technologies include concepts for water and nutrient delivery, for nutrient composition control, and for irradiation. Effort is being concentrated on these subsystems because available technologies cannot be effectively utilized for space applications.

  14. Signature Optical Cues: Emerging Technologies for Monitoring Plant Health

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Oi Wah; Chong, Pek Ching Jenny; Li, Bingqing; Asundi, Anand K.

    2008-01-01

    Optical technologies can be developed as practical tools for monitoring plant health by providing unique spectral signatures that can be related to specific plant stresses. Signatures from thermal and fluorescence imaging have been used successfully to track pathogen invasion before visual symptoms are observed. Another approach for non-invasive plant health monitoring involves elucidating the manner with which light interacts with the plant leaf and being able to identify changes in spectral characteristics in response to specific stresses. To achieve this, an important step is to understand the biochemical and anatomical features governing leaf reflectance, transmission and absorption. Many studies have opened up possibilities that subtle changes in leaf reflectance spectra can be analyzed in a plethora of ways for discriminating nutrient and water stress, but with limited success. There has also been interest in developing transgenic phytosensors to elucidate plant status in relation to environmental conditions. This approach involves unambiguous signal creation whereby genetic modification to generate reporter plants has resulted in distinct optical signals emitted in response to specific stressors. Most of these studies are limited to laboratory or controlled greenhouse environments at leaf level. The practical translation of spectral cues for application under field conditions at canopy and regional levels by remote aerial sensing remains a challenge. The movement towards technology development is well exemplified by the Controlled Ecological Life Support System under development by NASA which brings together technologies for monitoring plant status concomitantly with instrumentation for environmental monitoring and feedback control.

  15. Plant Methods: putting the spotlight on technological innovation in the plant sciences.

    PubMed

    Forde, Brian G; Roberts, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    Plant Methods is a new journal for plant biologists, specialising in the rapid publication of peer-reviewed articles with a focus on technological innovation in the plant sciences. The aim of Plant Methods is to stimulate the development and adoption of new and improved techniques and research tools in plant biology. We hope to promote more consistent standards in the plant sciences, and make readily accessible laboratory and computer-based research tools available to the whole community. This will be achieved by publishing Research articles, Methodology papers and Reviews using the BioMed Central Open Access publishing model. The journal is supported by a prestigious editorial board, whose members all recognise the importance of technological innovation as a driver for basic science.

  16. Application of AI technology to nuclear plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Technology to nuclear-power plant operation are reviewed. AI Technology is advancing rapidly and in the next five years is expected to enjoy widespread application to operation, maintenance, management and safety. Near term emphasis on a sensor validation, scheduling, alarm handling, and expert systems for procedural assistance. Ultimate applications are envisioned to culminate in autonomous control such as would be necessary for a power system in space, where automatic control actions are taken based upon reasoned conclusions regarding plant conditions, capability and control objectives.

  17. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  18. Fieldbus technology passes beta tests at Texas plant

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-20

    Fieldbus technology has completed beta plant testing at Monsanto Co.`s Chocolate Bayou petrochemical complex at Alvin, Texas. The trial took place in a steam condensate recovery section of the Chocolate Bayou plant, which produces acrylonitrile, linear alkylbenzene, and a number of other petrochemical derivatives. Fieldbus is a plant communications network, or bus, that enables digital instruments to communicate with one another and with supervisory control systems. The fieldbus specification, written by the nonprofit organization Fieldbus Foundation, Austin, Texas, is called Foundation fieldbus. The beta tests at Chocolate Bayou successfully demonstrated fieldbus performance in a process control application.

  19. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    PubMed

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research. PMID:27294983

  20. Are Wave and Tidal Energy Plants New Green Technologies?

    PubMed

    Douziech, Mélanie; Hellweg, Stefanie; Verones, Francesca

    2016-07-19

    Wave and tidal energy plants are upcoming, potentially green technologies. This study aims at quantifying their various potential environmental impacts. Three tidal stream devices, one tidal range plant and one wave energy harnessing device are analyzed over their entire life cycles, using the ReCiPe 2008 methodology at midpoint level. The impacts of the tidal range plant were on average 1.6 times higher than the ones of hydro-power plants (without considering natural land transformation). A similar ratio was found when comparing the results of the three tidal stream devices to offshore wind power plants (without considering water depletion). The wave energy harnessing device had on average 3.5 times higher impacts than offshore wind power. On the contrary, the considered plants have on average 8 (wave energy) to 20 (tidal stream), or even 115 times (tidal range) lower impact than electricity generated from coal power. Further, testing the sensitivity of the results highlighted the advantage of long lifetimes and small material requirements. Overall, this study supports the potential of wave and tidal energy plants as alternative green technologies. However, potential unknown effects, such as the impact of turbulence or noise on marine ecosystems, should be further explored in future research.

  1. New technologies for 21st century plant science.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, David W; Frommer, Wolf B

    2012-02-01

    Plants are one of the most fascinating and important groups of organisms living on Earth. They serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food, and shape our environment. If we want to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a more sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life. In 2009, a committee of the National Academy highlighted the "understanding of plant growth" as one of the big challenges for society and part of a new era which they termed "new biology." The aim of this article is to identify how new technologies can and will transform plant science to address the challenges of new biology. We assess where we stand today regarding current technologies, with an emphasis on molecular and imaging technologies, and we try to address questions about where we may go in the future and whether we can get an idea of what is at and beyond the horizon.

  2. New Technologies for 21st Century Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, David W.; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2012-01-01

    Plants are one of the most fascinating and important groups of organisms living on Earth. They serve as the conduit of energy into the biosphere, provide food, and shape our environment. If we want to make headway in understanding how these essential organisms function and build the foundation for a more sustainable future, then we need to apply the most advanced technologies available to the study of plant life. In 2009, a committee of the National Academy highlighted the “understanding of plant growth” as one of the big challenges for society and part of a new era which they termed “new biology.” The aim of this article is to identify how new technologies can and will transform plant science to address the challenges of new biology. We assess where we stand today regarding current technologies, with an emphasis on molecular and imaging technologies, and we try to address questions about where we may go in the future and whether we can get an idea of what is at and beyond the horizon. PMID:22366161

  3. The application of NERVA technology to Martian power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farbman, G. H.; Pierce, B. L.

    1991-09-01

    A Martian Nuclear Power Plant is described, based on the nuclear technologies developed and demonstrated in the NERVA nuclear propulsion program. The reactor is in a closed-cycle system, employing an inert gas coolant, while the power-turbine generator system is an open-cycle gas turbine which uses the Martian atmosphere as a working fluid. The two systems are connected by a double-walled heat exchanger which transfers energy from the reactor to the power turbine system. The plant is rated at 3 MWe and is capable of three years of power operation, at a capacity factor of 90 percent, before the fuel is depleted. The plant is arranged in modules, which are fully constructed on earth and then interconnected on the surface of Mars. A preliminary estimate of the module contents and masses leads to a total plant specific mass of 25.3 kg/kWe.

  4. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kross, Brian J.; Lee, Seung Joo; McKisson, John E.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, A.S.; Reid, C.D.; Smith, Mark

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  5. The economic valuation of improved process plant decision support technology.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas C

    2007-06-01

    How can investments that would potentially improve a manufacturing plant's decision process be economically justified? What is the value of "better information," "more flexibility," or "improved integration" and the technologies that provide these effects? Technology investments such as improved process modelling, new real time historians and other databases, "smart" instrumentation, better data analysis and visualization software, and/or improved user interfaces often include these benefits as part of their valuation. How are these "soft" benefits to be converted to a quantitative economic return? Quantification is important if rational management decisions are to be made about the correct amount of money to invest in the technologies, and which technologies to choose among the many available ones. Modelling the plant operational decision cycle-detect, analyse, forecast, choose and implement--provides a basis for this economic quantification. In this paper a new economic model is proposed for estimation of the value of decision support investments based on their effect upon the uncertainty in forecasting plant financial performance. This model leads to quantitative benefit estimates that have a realistic financial basis. An example is presented demonstrating the application of the method.

  6. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-01

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting.

  7. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-01

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting. PMID:26551220

  8. Marriage and Family Therapists Working with Family Violence: Strained Bedfellows or Compatible Partners?: A Commentary on Avis, Kaufman, and Bograd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meth, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous articles by Avis, Kaufman, and Bograd on role of marital and family therapists in dealing with family violence among clients. Comments on presentation style of earlier articles and then discusses points of agreement and disagreement with each of the three authors. Concludes by urging therapists to learn more so they can…

  9. The Zwilag interim storage plasma plant technology to handle operational waste from nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Heep, Walter

    2007-07-01

    The first processing of low level radioactive wastes from Swiss nuclear power plants marks the successful completion of commissioning in March 2004 of a treatment facility for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, which is operated with the help of plasma technology. The theoretical principles of this metallurgy-derived process technology are based on plasma technology, which has already been used for a considerable period outside of nuclear technology for the production of highly pure metal alloys and for the plasma synthesis of acetylene. The commercial operation of the Plasma Plant owned by Zwischenlager Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) has also enabled this technology to be used successfully for the first time in the nuclear field, especially in compliance with radiation protection aspects. In addition to a brief presentation of the technology used in the plant, the melting process under operating conditions will be explained in more detail. The separation factors attained and volume reductions achieved open interesting perspectives for the further optimisation of the entire process in the future. (author)

  10. ETV REPORT - EVALUATION OF DAVIS TECHNOLOGIES INTERNATIONAL CORP. - INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Evaluation of Davis Technologies International Corp. Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant

    The Davis Technologies International Corp. (DTIC) Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant (IWTP) was tested, under actual production conditions, processing metalworking and ...

  11. Fieldbus: technology application in a 60Co sterilization plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karam, D.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.

    2000-03-01

    Process instrumentation was made by pressure signals in the 1940s. In the 1960s, 4-20 mA analogue signals were introduced. The development of digital processors in the 1970s sparked the use of computers to monitor and control instruments from a central point. In the 1980s smart sensors were developed and implemented in digital control, microprocessor environments. Fieldbus is a generic-term that describes a new digital communications network. The network is a digital, bi-directional, multidrop, serial-bus, and communications network used to link isolated field devices, such as controllers, transducers, actuators and sensors. Fieldbus technology may improve quality, reduce costs and increase efficiency because information is transmitted digitally without analog to digital or digital to analog converters, which also minimizes hardware errors. Fieldbus communication is based on two-wire communication, interconnecting all the components in the system. This paper introduces Fieldbus technology in a 60Co sterilization plant.

  12. Dynamic gas bearing turbine technology in hydrogen plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlig, Klaus; Bischoff, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbines - although applied for helium refrigerators and liquefiers for decades - experienced limitations for hydrogen applications due to restrictions in axial bearing capacity. With a new design concept for gas bearing turbines developed in 2004, axial bearing capacity was significantly improved enabling the transfer of this technology to hydrogen liquefiers. Prior to roll-out of the technology to industrial plants, the turbine bearing technology passed numerous tests in R&D test benches and subsequently proved industrial scale demonstration at Linde Gas' hydrogen liquefier in Leuna, Germany. Since its installation, this turbine has gathered more than 16,000 successful operating hours and has outperformed its oil bearing brother in terms of performance, maintainability as well as reliability. The present paper is based on Linde Kryotechnik AG's paper published in the proceedings of the CEC 2009 concerning the application of Dynamic Gas Bearing Turbines in hydrogen applications. In contrast to the former paper, this publication focuses on the steps towards final market launch and more specifically on the financial benefits of this turbine technology, both in terms of capital investment as well as operating expenses.

  13. Engineering control technology in polyvinyl chloride polymerization plants.

    PubMed

    Gideon, J A

    1979-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering has initiated a research program in control technology. The objective of this program is to facilitate the implementation of effective preventative measures in order to prevent occupational illness. The plastics and resins industry control technology assessment has recently been completed. The objectives of this study were to document and evaluate effective control technology for plastics and resins polymerization plants. Particular emphasis was given to PVC polymerization processes, since the relatively recent lowering in the personal exposure limit for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) to an 8-hour 1-ppm time-weighted average has required the application of state-of-the-art controls. The present paper contains a summary of the control technology that was found to be effective in controlling VCM in processes manufacturing PVC by suspension, bulk, and dispersion polymerization. Controls necessary for VCM include process and equipment modification, isolation, local and general ventilation, work practices, personal protective equipment, workplace monitoring systems, employee/employer education, and on-going effort by both workers and management. All of these components must function together as an integrated coordinated system in order to assure worker protection under normal operating conditions or under conditions of process upset or maintenance.

  14. Energy efficiency in municipal wastewater treatment plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) estimates that municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in New York State consume about 1.5 billion kWh of electricity each year for sewage treatment and sludge management based on the predominant types of treatment plants, the results of an energy use survey, and recent trends in the amounts of electricity WWTPs use nationwide. Electric utilities in New York State have encouraged demand-side management (DSM) to help control or lower energy costs and make energy available for new customers without constructing additional facilities. This report describes DSM opportunities for WWTPs in New York State; discusses the costs and benefits of several DSM measures; projects energy impact statewide of the DSM technologies; identifies the barrier to implementing DSM at WWTPs; and outlines one possible incentive that could stimulate widespread adoption of DSM by WWTP operators. The DSM technologies discussed are outfall hydropower, on-site generation, aeration efficiency, time-of-day electricity pricing, and storing wastewater.

  15. Implementation of Autonomous Control Technology for Plant Growth Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Thomas A.; Sager, John C.; Krumins, Valdis; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2002-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center has significant infrastructure for research using controlled environment plant growth chambers. Such research supports development of bioregenerative life support technology for long-term space missions. Most of the existing chambers in Hangar L and Little L will be moved to the new Space Experiment Research and Processing Laboratory (SERPL) in the summer of 2003. The impending move has created an opportunity to update the control system technologies to allow for greater flexibility, less labor for set-up and maintenance, better diagnostics, better reliability and easier data retrieval. Part of these improvements can be realized using hardware which communicates through an ethernet connection to a central computer for supervisory control but can be operated independently of the computer during routine run-time. Both the hardware and software functionality of an envisioned system were tested on a prototype plant growth chamber (CEC-4) in Hangar L. Based upon these tests, recommendations for hardware and software selection and system design for implementation in SERPL are included.

  16. Integrating New Technology Solutions to Improve Plant Operations

    SciTech Connect

    HEAVIN, ERIC

    2004-06-29

    Continuing advancements in software and hardware technology are providing facilities the opportunity for improvements in the areas of safety, regulatory compliance, administrative control, data collection, and reporting. Implementing these changes to improve plant operating efficiency can also create many challenges which include but are not limited to: justifying cost, planning for scalability, implementing applications across varied platforms, integrating multitudes of proprietary vendor applications, and creating a common vision for diverse process improvement projects. The Defense Programs (DP) facility at the Savannah River Site meets these challenges on a daily basis. Like many other plants, DP, has room for improvement when it comes to effective and clear communication, data entry, data storage, and system integration. Specific examples of areas targeted for improvement include: shift turnover meetings using system status data one to two hours old, lockouts and alarm inhibits performed on points on the Distributed Control System (DCS) and tracked in a paper logbook, disconnected systems preventing preemptive correction of regulatory compliance issues, and countless examples of additional task and data duplication on independent systems. Investment of time, money, and careful planning addressing these issues are already providing returns in the form of increased efficiency, improved plant tracking and reduced cost of implementing the next process improvement. Specific examples of improving plant operations through thoroughly planned Rapid Application Development of new applications are discussed. Integration of dissimilar and independent data sources (NovaTech D/3 DCS, SQL Server, Access, Filemaker Pro, etc.) is also explored. The tangible benefits of the implementation of the different programs to solve the operational problems previously described are analyzed in an in-depth and comparative manner.

  17. Applying velocity profiling technology to flow measurement at the Orinda water treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalf, M.A.; Kachur, S.; Lackenbauer, S.

    1998-07-01

    A new type of flow measurement technology, velocity profiling, was tested in the South Channel of the Orinda Water Treatment Plant. This new technology allowed installation in the difficult hydraulic conditions of the South Channel, without interrupting plant operation. The advanced technology of velocity profiling enables flow measurements to be obtained in sites normally unusable by more traditional methods of flow rate measurement.

  18. A plant-wide energy model for wastewater treatment plants: application to anaerobic membrane bioreactor technology.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a detailed and comprehensive plant-wide model for assessing the energy demand of different wastewater treatment systems (beyond the traditional activated sludge) in both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The proposed model makes it possible to calculate power and heat requirements (W and Q, respectively), and to recover both power and heat from methane and hydrogen capture. In order to account for the effect of biological processes on heat requirements, the model has been coupled to the extended version of the BNRM2 plant-wide mathematical model, which is implemented in DESSAS simulation software. Two case studies have been evaluated to assess the model's performance: (1) modelling the energy demand of two urban wastewater treatment plants based on conventional activated sludge and submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technologies in steady-state conditions and (2) modelling the dynamics of reactor temperature and heat requirements in an AnMBR plant in unsteady-state conditions. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to assess the energy performance of different wastewater treatment processes and would thus be useful, for example, WWTP design or upgrading or the development of new control strategies for energy savings.

  19. A plant-wide energy model for wastewater treatment plants: application to anaerobic membrane bioreactor technology.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a detailed and comprehensive plant-wide model for assessing the energy demand of different wastewater treatment systems (beyond the traditional activated sludge) in both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The proposed model makes it possible to calculate power and heat requirements (W and Q, respectively), and to recover both power and heat from methane and hydrogen capture. In order to account for the effect of biological processes on heat requirements, the model has been coupled to the extended version of the BNRM2 plant-wide mathematical model, which is implemented in DESSAS simulation software. Two case studies have been evaluated to assess the model's performance: (1) modelling the energy demand of two urban wastewater treatment plants based on conventional activated sludge and submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technologies in steady-state conditions and (2) modelling the dynamics of reactor temperature and heat requirements in an AnMBR plant in unsteady-state conditions. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to assess the energy performance of different wastewater treatment processes and would thus be useful, for example, WWTP design or upgrading or the development of new control strategies for energy savings. PMID:26829316

  20. Tabas coal preparation plant wastewater treatment with membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Ahmad; Abbaspour, Vahid Reza; Mojallali Rostami, Seyed Majid

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present work is the Tabas coal preparation plant wastewater treatment using membrane technology. Polyacrylonitrile membrane was prepared through phase inversion method and then developed by annealing process. Also, high fouling resistance membranes were prepared by the embedding of TiO2 nanoparticles using self-assembling and blending methods. The effect of immersion time and TiO2 nanoparticles concentration was investigated using two techniques. The chemical structure, morphology, hydrophilicity, molecular weight cut-off and antifouling properties of membranes were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, polyethylene glycol tracers, and cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) filtration, respectively. The optimized self-assembled membrane was shown to have more than 31.2% higher water flux with the best antifouling properties. Improving hydrophilicity leads to excellent antifouling properties for composite membranes and illustrates a promising method for fabrication of high performance membrane for C-PAM separation. PMID:27438237

  1. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A 30-cell, full area short stack containing advanced cell features was tested for 2900 hours. A stack acid addition approach was selected and will be evaluated on the stack at 5000 hours test time. A brassboard inverter was designed and fabrication was initiated. Evaluation of this brassboard inverter will take place in 1984. A Teflon coated commercial heat exchanger was selected as the preferred approach for the acid condenser. A reformer catalyst with significantly less pressure drop and equivalent performance relative to the 40-K baseline catalyst was selected for the development reformer. The early 40-kW field power plant history was reviewed and adjustments were made to the On-Site Technology Development Program to address critical component issues.

  2. Advanced on-site power plant development technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of the technical effort was to establish a technology base for 200-kW on-site fuel cell power plants. It was conducted in two phases: (1) Component evaluation; and (2) Full-scale system verification. This contract was supplemented by a Gas Research Institute (GRI) contract which was conducted in the 1981 to 1986 time period. This GRI contract concentrated on 200-kW scale component design, thermal management/water treatment system analysis and redesign and advanced DC/AC inverter development. The component evaluation phase generally included subscale component tests, scale-up to full-size 200-kW hardware and full-size hardware tests of the cell stack (in Tasks 1 and 2), the power conditioner (in Task 3), the heat exchangers and ancillary components (in Task 4), and the fuel processor (in Task 5). The full-size cell stack, fuel processor, heat exchangers, and ancillary components from the component development tasks were integrated into a dc system called the Verification Test Article (VTA). The VTA which was fabricated and tested under Task 7 allowed for system integration issues associated with the cell stack, fuel processor, thermal management, and water treatment subsystems to be explored under conditions similar to an actual fuel cell power plant. Key accomplishments of this contract are described.

  3. Y-12 Plant Remedial Action technology logic diagram. Volume I: Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Program addresses remediation of the contaminated groundwater, surface water and soil in the following areas located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Chestnut Ridge, Bear Creek Valley, the Upper and Lower East Fork Popular Creek Watersheds, CAPCA 1, which includes several areas in which remediation has been completed, and CAPCA 2, which includes dense nonaqueous phase liquid wells and a storage facility. There are many facilities within these areas that are contaminated by uranium, mercury, organics, and other materials. This Technology Logic Diagram identifies possible remediation technologies that can be applied to the soil, water, and contaminants for characterization, treatment, and waste management technology options are supplemented by identification of possible robotics or automation technologies. These would facilitate the cleanup effort by improving safety, of remediation, improving the final remediation product, or decreasing the remediation cost. The Technology Logic Diagram was prepared by a diverse group of more than 35 scientists and engineers from across the Oak Ridge Reservation. Most are specialists in the areas of their contributions. 22 refs., 25 tabs.

  4. Modern air protection technologies at thermal power plants (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.

    2016-07-01

    Realization of the ecologically safe technologies for fuel combustion in the steam boiler furnaces and the effective ways for treatment of flue gases at modern thermal power plants have been analyzed. The administrative and legal measures to stimulate introduction of the technologies for air protection at TPPs have been considered. It has been shown that both the primary intrafurnace measures for nitrogen oxide suppression and the secondary flue gas treatment methods are needed to meet the modern ecological standards. Examples of the environmentally safe methods for flame combustion of gas-oil and solid fuels in the boiler furnaces have been provided. The effective methods and units to treat flue gases from nitrogen and sulfur oxides and flue ash have been considered. It has been demonstrated that realization of the measures for air protection should be accompanied by introduction of the systems for continuous instrumentation control of the composition of combustion products in the gas path of boiler units and for monitoring of atmospheric emissions.

  5. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  6. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part B, Characterization; robotics/automation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate theses problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part B of Volume 3 and contains the Characterization and Robotics/Automation sections.

  7. New generation enrichment monitoring technology for gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril D; Alexandrov, Boian S.; Boyer, Brian D.; Hill, Thomas R.; Macarthur, Duncan W.; Marks, Thomas; Moss, Calvin E.; Sheppard, Gregory A.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2008-06-13

    The continuous enrichment monitor, developed and fielded in the 1990s by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provided a go-no-go capability to distinguish between UF{sub 6} containing low enriched (approximately 4% {sup 235}U) and highly enriched (above 20% {sup 235}U) uranium. This instrument used the 22-keV line from a {sup 109}Cd source as a transmission source to achieve a high sensitivity to the UF{sub 6} gas absorption. The 1.27-yr half-life required that the source be periodically replaced and the instrument recalibrated. The instrument's functionality and accuracy were limited by the fact that measured gas density and gas pressure were treated as confidential facility information. The modern safeguarding of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant producing low-enriched UF{sub 6} product aims toward a more quantitative flow and enrichment monitoring concept that sets new standards for accuracy stability, and confidence. An instrument must be accurate enough to detect the diversion of a significant quantity of material, have virtually zero false alarms, and protect the operator's proprietary process information. We discuss a new concept for advanced gas enrichment assay measurement technology. This design concept eliminates the need for the periodic replacement of a radioactive source as well as the need for maintenance by experts. Some initial experimental results will be presented.

  8. Innovative Decontamination Technology for Use in Gaseous Diffusion Plant Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, M.J.; Norton, C.J.; Fraikor, G.B.; Potter, G.L.; Chang, K.C.

    2006-07-01

    The results of bench scale tests demonstrated that TechXtract{sup R} RadPro{sup TM} technology (hereinafter referred to as RadPro{sup R}) can provide 100% coverage of complex mockup gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) equipment and can decontaminate uranium (U) deposits with 98% to 99.99% efficiency. Deployment tests demonstrated RadPro{sup R} can be applied as foam, mist/fog, or steam, and fully cover the internal surfaces of complex mockup equipment, including large piping. Decontamination tests demonstrated that two formulations of RadPro{sup R}, one with neutron attenuators and one without neutron attenuators, could remove up to 99.99% of uranyl fluoride deposits, one of the most difficult to remove deposits in GDP equipment. These results were supplemented by results from previous tests conducted in 1994 that showed RadPro{sup R} could remove >97% of U and Tc-99 contamination from actual GDP components. Operational use of RadPro{sup R} at other DOE and commercial facilities also support these data. (authors)

  9. Plant-centered biosystems in space environments: technological concepts for developing a plant genetic assessment and control system.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Terri L; Findlay, Kirk A; White, T J; Winner, William E

    2003-06-01

    Plants will play an essential role in providing life support for any long-term space exploration or habitation. We are evaluating the feasibility of an adaptable system for measuring the response of plants to any unique space condition and optimizing plant performance under those conditions. The proposed system is based on a unique combination of systems including the rapid advances in the field of plant genomics, microarray technology for measuring gene expression, bioinformatics, gene pathways and networks, physiological measurements in controlled environments, and advances in automation and robotics. The resulting flexible module for monitoring and optimizing plant responses will be able to be inserted as a cassette into a variety of platforms and missions for either experimental or life support purposes. The results from future plant functional genomics projects have great potential to be applied to those plant species most likely to be used in space environments. Eventually, it will be possible to use the plant genetic assessment and control system to optimize the performance of any plant in any space environment. In addition to allowing the effective control of environmental parameters for enhanced plant productivity and other life support functions, the proposed module will also allow the selection or engineering of plants to thrive in specific space environments. The proposed project will advance human exploration of space in the near- and mid-term future on the International Space Station and free-flying satellites and in the far-term for longer duration missions and eventual space habitation.

  10. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Capture-ready power plants - options, technologies and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, M.C.

    2006-06-15

    A plant can be considered to be capture-ready if at some point in the future it can be retrofitted for carbon capture and sequestration and still be economical to operate. The first part of the thesis outlines the two major designs that are being considered for construction in the near-term - pulverized coal (PC) and integrated gasification/combined cycle (IGCC). It details the steps that are necessary to retrofit each of these plants for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration and assesses the steps that can be taken to reduce the costs and output de-rating of the plant after a retrofit. The second part of the thesis evaluates the lifetime (40 year) net present value (NPV) costs of plants with differing levels of pre-investment for CO{sub 2} capture. Three scenarios are evaluated - a baseline supercritical PC plant, a baseline IGCC plant and an IGCC plant with pre-investment for capture. The results of this thesis show that a baseline PC plant is the most economical choice under low CO{sub 2} tax rates, and IGCC plants are preferable at higher tax rates. The third part of this thesis evaluates the concept of CO{sub 2} 'lock-in'. CO{sub 2} lock-in occurs when a newly built plant is so prohibitively expensive to retrofit for CO{sub 2} capture that it will never be retrofitted for capture, and offers no economic opportunity to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the plant, besides shutting down or rebuilding. The results show that IGCC plants are expected to have lower lifetime CO{sub 2} emissions than a PC plant, given moderate (10-35 $/ton CO{sub 2}) initial tax rates. Higher 4 (above $40) or lower (below $7) initial tax rates do not result in significant differences in lifetime CO{sub 2} emissions from these plants. Little difference is seen in the lifetime CO{sub 2} emissions between the IGCC plants with and without pre-investment for CO{sub 2} capture. 32 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs., 1 app.

  12. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to…

  13. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-09-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials.

  14. Plant-based vaccines for animals and humans: recent advances in technology and clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Takeyama, Natsumi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-01

    It has been about 30 years since the first plant engineering technology was established. Although the concept of plant-based pharmaceuticals or vaccines motivates us to develop practicable commercial products using plant engineering, there are some difficulties in reaching the final goal: to manufacture an approved product. At present, the only plant-made vaccine approved by the United States Department of Agriculture is a Newcastle disease vaccine for poultry that is produced in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. The progress toward commercialization of plant-based vaccines takes much effort and time, but several candidate vaccines for use in humans and animals are in clinical trials. This review discusses plant engineering technologies and regulations relevant to the development of plant-based vaccines and provides an overview of human and animal vaccines currently under clinical trials. PMID:26668752

  15. Repeat-dose toxicology evaluation in cynomolgus monkeys of AVI-4658, a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) drug for the treatment of duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sazani, Peter; Ness, Kirk P Van; Weller, Doreen L; Poage, Duane W; Palyada, Kiran; Shrewsbury, Stephen B

    2011-05-01

    AVI-4658 is a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PMO) drug designed to restore dystrophin expression in a subset of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Previous reports demonstrated this clinical proof-of-principle in patients with DMD following intramuscular injection of AVI-4658. This preclinical study evaluated the toxicity and toxicokinetic profile of AVI-4658 when administered either intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to cynomolgus monkeys once weekly over 12 weeks, at doses up to the maximum feasible dose of 320 mg/kg per injection. No drug-related effects were noted on survival, clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, opthalmoscopic or electrocardiographic evaluations, hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, and macroscopic evaluations. Drug-related microscopic renal effects were dose-dependent, apparently reversible, and included basophilic granules (minimal), basophilic tubules (minimal to moderate), and tubular vacuolation (minimal to mild). These data establish the tolerability of AVI-4658 at doses up to and including the maximum feasible dose of 320 mg/kg by IV bolus or SC injection.

  16. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Systems, Subsystems, and Components, establishes a baseline for the current technology readiness status, and provides a path forward to achieve increasing levels of technical maturity.

  17. Novel enabling technologies of gene isolation and plant transformation for improved crop protection

    SciTech Connect

    Torok, Tamas

    2013-02-04

    Meeting the needs of agricultural producers requires the continued development of improved transgenic crop protection products. The completed project focused on developing novel enabling technologies of gene discovery and plant transformation to facilitate the generation of such products.

  18. Effects of Post Weaning Diet on Metabolic Parameters and DNA Methylation Status of the Cryptic Promoter in the Avy Allele of Viable Yellow Mice

    PubMed Central

    Warzak, Denise A.; Johnson, Sarah A.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Roberts, R. Michael; Zhang, Xiang; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2015-01-01

    Mice carrying the Avy allele are epigenetic mosaics. If the majority of cells have an active (demethylated) intracisternal A particle (IAP), mice have a yellow coat color and develop adult-onset obesity and diabetes, while mice whose mosaicism predominantly reflects an inactive (methylated) IAP are pseudoagouti (brown) and less prone to metabolic disease. Brown and yellow coat color Avy/a post-weaning mice were placed on one of three diets (AIN, and two lower calorie diets NIH and methyl-supplemented, NIHMe) to determine whether coat color, weight gain, blood glucose, and methylation of hepatic IAP became altered. None of the diets altered Avy/a mice coat color. NIHMe did not protect against increasing obesity or the usual onset of hyperglycemia in males. Nor did it promote increased methylation of Avy IAP in liver tissue. By contrast, AIN, despite its higher content of fat and carbohydrate and ability to promote greater weight gains than the NIH and NIHMe diets, protected males better against hyperglycemia than either the NIH or NIHMe diets. This diet led to a significantly reduced (~ 50 %; P = 0.003) average methylation state of all CpG sites within the hepatic IAP for the pseudoagouti mice. On AIN, but not on the other diets, extent of hepatic IAP methylation was negatively correlated (R = 0.97, P ≤ 0.001) with body weight of pseudoagouti mice. The findings indicate that post-weaning diet might influence interpretation of studies with Avy/a mice because IAP methylation patterns may be malleable in certain organs and influenced by post-weaning diet. PMID:25818200

  19. Technology-Enhanced Formative Assessment of Plant Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conejo, Ricardo; Garcia-Viñas, Juan Ignacio; Gastón, Aitor; Barros, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Developing plant identification skills is an important part of the curriculum of any botany course in higher education. Frequent practice with dried and fresh plants is necessary to recognize the diversity of forms, states, and details that a species can present. We have developed a web-based assessment system for mobile devices that is able to pose appropriate questions according to the location of the student. A student's location can be obtained using the device position or by scanning a QR code attached to a dried plant sheet in a herbarium or to a fresh plant in an arboretum. The assessment questions are complemented with elaborated feedback that, according to the students' responses, provides indications of possible mistakes and correct answers. Three experiments were designed to measure the effectiveness of the formative assessment using dried and fresh plants. Three questionnaires were used to evaluate the system performance from the students' perspective. The results clearly indicate that formative assessment is objectively effective compared to traditional methods and that the students' attitudes towards the system were very positive.

  20. Gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different technologies.

    PubMed

    Athar, Makshoof; Ali, Mahboob; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the assessment of gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different combustion technologies. Four thermal power plants operating on heavy furnace oil were selected for the study, among which three were based on diesel engine technology, while the fourth plant was based on oil-fired steam turbine technology. The stack emissions were monitored for critical air pollutants carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, lead, and mercury. The pollutant emissions were measured at optimum load conditions for a period of 6 months with an interval of 1 month. The results of stack emissions were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan and World Bank guidelines for thermal power plants, and few parameters were found higher than the permissible limits of emissions. It was observed that the emissions carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matters from diesel engine-based power plants were comparatively higher than the turbine-based power plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide were high in all the plants, even the plants with different technologies, which was mainly due to high sulfur contents in fuel. PMID:19533397

  1. Gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different technologies.

    PubMed

    Athar, Makshoof; Ali, Mahboob; Khan, Misbahul Ain

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the assessment of gaseous and particulate emissions from thermal power plants operating on different combustion technologies. Four thermal power plants operating on heavy furnace oil were selected for the study, among which three were based on diesel engine technology, while the fourth plant was based on oil-fired steam turbine technology. The stack emissions were monitored for critical air pollutants carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, lead, and mercury. The pollutant emissions were measured at optimum load conditions for a period of 6 months with an interval of 1 month. The results of stack emissions were compared with National Environmental Quality Standards of Pakistan and World Bank guidelines for thermal power plants, and few parameters were found higher than the permissible limits of emissions. It was observed that the emissions carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matters from diesel engine-based power plants were comparatively higher than the turbine-based power plants. The emissions of sulfur dioxide were high in all the plants, even the plants with different technologies, which was mainly due to high sulfur contents in fuel.

  2. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 2: Technology logic diagram

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 2 has been divided into five sections: Characterization, Decontamination, Dismantlement, Robotics/Automation, and Waste Management. Each section contains logical breakdowns of the Y-12 D and D problems by subject area and identifies technologies that can be reasonably applied to each D and D challenge.

  3. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  4. Application of NASA-developed technology to the automatic control of municipal sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, L. L.; Herrera, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A search was made of NASA developed technology and commercial technology for process control sensors and instrumentation which would be applicable to the operation of municipal sewage treatment plants. Several notable items were found from which process control concepts were formulated that incorporated these items into systems to automatically operate municipal sewage treatment plants. A preliminary design of the most promising concept was developed into a process control scheme for an activated sludge treatment plant. This design included process control mechanisms for maintaining constant food to sludge mass (F/M) ratio, and for such unit processes as primary sedimentation, sludge wastage, and underflow control from the final clarifier.

  5. New coal technology to flourish at Kentucky plant

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-08-15

    Within four years a 76 MW (net) advanced supercritical coal unit, TC2, will go into service at the Trimble County power plant on the Ohio River near Louiseville, KY, USA. The unit is designed to burn a blend of eastern bituminous and western sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coals. TC2 is one of four US power plants to receive a $125 m tax credit under the 2005 EPACT Qualifying Advanced Coal Program for high efficiency and low emission generating units. Trimble County is owned and operated by E.ON US subsidiaries Kentucky Utilities and Louiseville Gas & Electric. It was originally designed to accommodate four 500 MW coal-fired units fired by bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin. 1 photo.

  6. Research on animation design of growing plant based on 3D MAX technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yineng; Fang, Kui; Bu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lei, Menglong

    In view of virtual plant has practical demands on quality, image and degree of realism animation in growing process of plant, this thesis design the animation based on mechanism and regularity of plant growth, and propose the design method based on 3D MAX technology. After repeated analysis and testing, it is concluded that there are modeling, rendering, animation fabrication and other key technologies in the animation design process. Based on this, designers can subdivid the animation into seed germination animation, plant growth prophase animation, catagen animation, later animation and blossom animation. This paper compounds the animation of these five stages by VP window to realize the completed 3D animation. Experimental result shows that the animation can realized rapid, visual and realistic simulatation the plant growth process.

  7. Applying laser technology to decommissioning for nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saishu, Sadanori; Abe, Seiji; Inoue, T.

    2000-01-01

    Laser technology has much possibility to accomplish nuclear facility decommissioning effective and the laser application to cutting technique and decontamination technique is considered in Japan. Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation had developed CO laser for cutting technique, and had developed YAG laser for decontamination.

  8. Improving plant competitiveness through conveyor dust control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Goldbeck, L.J.

    1997-09-01

    In the past, three different approaches--containment, suppression, and collection--have been used to control dust arising at conveyor load zones. Dust containment consists of those mechanical systems employed to keep material inside the transfer point with the main material body. Dust suppression systems increase the mass of suspended dust particles, allowing them to fall from the airstream. Dust collection is the mechanical capture and return of airborne material after it becomes airborne from the main material body. Previously, these three approaches have always been seen as separate entities, offered by separate organizations competing in the marketplace. Each system claimed its own technology was the best solution, providing the most effective, most cost-efficient, most maintenance-free answer to fugitive material. These three technologies are evaluated.

  9. Energy-efficient air pollution controls for fossil-fueled plants: Technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require most fossil-fuel fired power plants to reduce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate emissions. While emission-control equipment is available to help most of New York State`s 91 utility units in 31 power plants comply with the new regulations, technologies currently available consume energy, increase carbon dioxide emissions, reduce operating efficiency, and may produce large amounts of solid and/or semisolid byproducts that use additional energy for processing and disposal. This report discribes several pollution-control technologies that are more energy efficient compared to traditional technologies for controlling sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulates, that may have application in New York State. These technologies are either in commercial use, under development, or in the demonstration phase; This report also presents operating characteristics for these technologies and discusses solutions to dispose of pollution-control system byproducts. Estimated energy consumption for emission-control systems relative to a plant`s gross generating capacity is 3 to 5 for reducing up to 90% sulfur dioxide emissions from coal-fired plants. 0.5 to 2.5% for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions by up to 80% from all fossil-fuel fired plants; and 0.5 to 1.5 % for controlling particulate emissions from oil- and coal-fired plants. While fuel switching and/or cofiring with natural gas are options to reduce emissions, these techniques are not considered in this report; the discussion is limited to fossil-fueled steam-generating plants.

  10. Gametic embryogenesis and haploid technology as valuable support to plant breeding.

    PubMed

    Germanà, Maria Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Plant breeding is focused on continuously increasing crop production to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population, improving food quality to ensure a long and healthy life and address the problems of global warming and environment pollution, together with the challenges of developing novel sources of biofuels. The breeders' search for novel genetic combinations, with which to select plants with improved traits to satisfy both farmers and consumers, is endless. About half of the dramatic increase in crop yield obtained in the second half of the last century has been achieved thanks to the results of genetic improvement, while the residual advance has been due to the enhanced management techniques (pest and disease control, fertilization, and irrigation). Biotechnologies provide powerful tools for plant breeding, and among these ones, tissue culture, particularly haploid and doubled haploid technology, can effectively help to select superior plants. In fact, haploids (Hs), which are plants with gametophytic chromosome number, and doubled haploids (DHs), which are haploids that have undergone chromosome duplication, represent a particularly attractive biotechnological method to accelerate plant breeding. Currently, haploid technology, making possible through gametic embryogenesis the single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, has already had a huge impact on agricultural systems of many agronomically important crops, representing an integral part in their improvement programmes. The aim of this review was to provide some background, recent advances, and future prospective on the employment of haploid technology through gametic embryogenesis as a powerful tool to support plant breeding.

  11. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 1: Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    During World War 11, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was built as part of the Manhattan Project to supply enriched uranium for weapons production. In 1945, Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) was originally used to house a uranium isotope separation process based on electromagnetic separation technology. With the startup of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site gaseous diffusion plant In 1947, Alpha-4 was placed on standby. In 1953, the uranium enrichment process was removed, and installation of equipment for the Colex process began. The Colex process--which uses a mercury solvent and lithium hydroxide as the lithium feed material-was shut down in 1962 and drained of process materials. Residual Quantities of mercury and lithium hydroxide have remained in the process equipment. Alpha-4 contains more than one-half million ft{sup 2} of floor area; 15,000 tons of process and electrical equipment; and 23,000 tons of insulation, mortar, brick, flooring, handrails, ducts, utilities, burnables, and sludge. Because much of this equipment and construction material is contaminated with elemental mercury, cleanup is necessary. The goal of the Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 is to provide a planning document that relates decontamination and decommissioning and waste management problems at the Alpha-4 building to the technologies that can be used to remediate these problems. The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 builds on the methodology transferred by the U.S. Air Force to the Environmental Management organization with DOE and draws from previous technology logic diagram-efforts: logic diagrams for Hanford, the K-25 Site, and ORNL.

  12. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, J. L., Jr.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.

    1980-08-01

    During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: system studies to define the reference power plant design; cell and stack design, development and verification; preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. Preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization was completed. Design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping were defined. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication was made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated. Theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects.

  13. A possible novel black aphid control approach using plant growth regulators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), elicits localized chlorotic injury to pecan foliage in order to feed, thereby accelerating leaf senescence and defoliation. The action of certain plant growth regulators (i.e., forchlorfenuron, gibberellic acid and avi...

  14. Targeted plant genome editing via the CRISPR/Cas9 technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Dandan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Targeted modification of plant genome is key for elucidating and manipulating gene functions in basic and applied plant research. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in diverse organisms. This technology utilizes an easily reprogrammable guide RNA (gRNA) to guide Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 endonuclease to generate a DNA double-strand break (DSB) within an intended genomic sequence and subsequently stimulate chromosomal mutagenesis or homologous recombination near the DSB site through cellular DNA repair machineries. In this chapter, we describe the detailed procedure to design, construct, and evaluate dual gRNAs for plant codon-optimized Cas9 (pcoCas9)-mediated genome editing using Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana benthamiana protoplasts as model cellular systems. We also discuss strategies to apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generating targeted genome modifications in whole plants.

  15. Emerging technologies for non-invasive quantification of physiological oxygen transport in plants.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Taguchi, M; Burrs, S L; Hauser, B A; Salim, W W A W; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2013-09-01

    Oxygen plays a critical role in plant metabolism, stress response/signaling, and adaptation to environmental changes (Lambers and Colmer, Plant Soil 274:7-15, 2005; Pitzschke et al., Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1757-1764, 2006; Van Breusegem et al., Plant Sci 161:405-414, 2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of various metabolic pathways in which oxygen is a key molecule, are produced during adaptation responses to environmental stress. While much is known about plant adaptation to stress (e.g., detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant production), the link between ROS metabolism, O2 transport, and stress response mechanisms is unknown. Thus, non-invasive technologies for measuring O2 are critical for understanding the link between physiological O2 transport and ROS signaling. New non-invasive technologies allow real-time measurement of O2 at the single cell and even organelle levels. This review briefly summarizes currently available (i.e., mainstream) technologies for measuring O2 and then introduces emerging technologies for measuring O2. Advanced techniques that provide the ability to non-invasively (i.e., non-destructively) measure O2 are highlighted. In the near future, these non-invasive sensors will facilitate novel experimentation that will allow plant physiologists to ask new hypothesis-driven research questions aimed at improving our understanding of physiological O2 transport.

  16. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushnell, C. L.; Davis, C. L.; Dayton, J. E.; Johnson, C. K.; Katz, M.; Krasij, M.; Kunz, H. R.; Maricle, D. L.; Meyer, A. P.; Pivar, J. C.

    1984-09-01

    A prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive, coal-fired electrical utility central station, or industrial cogeneration power plant was developed. Compressive creep testing of the present anode is continuedl the samples and support the earlier data showing improved creep resistance. Testing to define the operating limits that are suitable for extending the life of nickel oxide cathodes to an acceptable level is continuing. The mechanical characteristics of several one-piece cathode current collector candidates are measured for suitability. Metallographic evaluation of stack separators was initiated. Posttest characterization of surface treated INCO 825 was completed, retort corrosion testing of this material is continuing, potentiostatic immersion testing of alternative single piece cathode current collector materials is initiated. The 20-cell Stack No. 3 progressed from completion and delivery of the Test Plan through Design Review, assembly, and initial heat-up for the start of testing. Manufacture of separator plates for the upcoming 20-cell Stack No. 4 has begun. The primary objective of this follow-on test is stack cost reduction.

  17. Essential RNA-Based Technologies and Their Applications in Plant Functional Genomics.

    PubMed

    Teotia, Sachin; Singh, Deepali; Tang, Xiaoqing; Tang, Guiliang

    2016-02-01

    Genome sequencing has not only extended our understanding of the blueprints of many plant species but has also revealed the secrets of coding and non-coding genes. We present here a brief introduction to and personal account of key RNA-based technologies, as well as their development and applications for functional genomics of plant coding and non-coding genes, with a focus on short tandem target mimics (STTMs), artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs), and CRISPR/Cas9. In addition, their use in multiplex technologies for the functional dissection of gene networks is discussed. PMID:26774589

  18. Developing a Hierarchical Decision Model to Evaluate Nuclear Power Plant Alternative Siting Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingga, Marwan Mossa

    A strong trend of returning to nuclear power is evident in different places in the world. Forty-five countries are planning to add nuclear power to their grids and more than 66 nuclear power plants are under construction. Nuclear power plants that generate electricity and steam need to improve safety to become more acceptable to governments and the public. One novel practical solution to increase nuclear power plants' safety factor is to build them away from urban areas, such as offshore or underground. To date, Land-Based siting is the dominant option for siting all commercial operational nuclear power plants. However, the literature reveals several options for building nuclear power plants in safer sitings than Land-Based sitings. The alternatives are several and each has advantages and disadvantages, and it is difficult to distinguish among them and choose the best for a specific project. In this research, we recall the old idea of using the alternatives of offshore and underground sitings for new nuclear power plants and propose a tool to help in choosing the best siting technology. This research involved the development of a decision model for evaluating several potential nuclear power plant siting technologies, both those that are currently available and future ones. The decision model was developed based on the Hierarchical Decision Modeling (HDM) methodology. The model considers five major dimensions, social, technical, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP), and their related criteria and sub-criteria. The model was designed and developed by the author, and its elements' validation and evaluation were done by a large number of experts in the field of nuclear energy. The decision model was applied in evaluating five potential siting technologies and ranked the Natural Island as the best in comparison to Land-Based, Floating Plant, Artificial Island, and Semi-Embedded plant.

  19. Success Continues: NASA-Developed Plant Health Measurement Technology is Becoming Big Business for Illinois Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Originally produced in 2001, sales of Spectrum Technologies' CM 1000 chlorophyll meter have now topped $290,000 on 140 units. Up-to-date sales figures for 2003 have shown an almost 50% increase over the combined sales totals of 2001 and 2002. The CM 1000 chlorophyll meter identifies the failing health of a plant based on the chlorophyll content of the plant up to 16 days before it is physically detectable by the human eye. Poor health, 'stress' in a plant, is a result of unfavorable growing conditions; lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease or insect damage.

  20. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITS of 950 K and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITS ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo -generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  1. High Efficiency Nuclear Power Plants Using Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Rarick, Richard A.; Rangarajan, Rajmohan

    2009-01-01

    An overall system analysis approach is used to propose potential conceptual designs of advanced terrestrial nuclear power plants based on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) experience and utilizing Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) thermal-to-electric energy conversion technology. In particular conceptual designs for an advanced 1 GWe power plant with turbine reheat and compressor intercooling at a 950 K turbine inlet temperature (TIT), as well as near term 100 MWe demonstration plants with TITs of 950 and 1200 K are presented. Power plant performance data were obtained for TITs ranging from 650 to 1300 K by use of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems code which considered the interaction between major sub-systems, including the Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR), heat source and heat sink heat exchangers, turbo-generator machinery, and an electric power generation and transmission system. Optional off-shore submarine installation of the power plant is a major consideration.

  2. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation. PMID:24625241

  3. Geographic, technologic, and economic analysis of using reclaimed water for thermoelectric power plant cooling.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Webber, Michael E

    2014-04-15

    Use of reclaimed water-municipal wastewater treatment plant effluent-in nonpotable applications can be a sustainable and efficient water management strategy. One such nonpotable application is at thermoelectric power plants since these facilities require cooling, often using large volumes of freshwater. To evaluate the geographic, technologic, and economic feasibility of using reclaimed water to cool thermoelectric power plants, we developed a spatially resolved model of existing power plants. Our model integrates data on power plant and municipal wastewater treatment plant operations into a combined geographic information systems and optimization approach to evaluate the feasibility of cooling system retrofits. We applied this broadly applicable methodology to 125 power plants in Texas as a test case. Results show that sufficient reclaimed water resources exist within 25 miles of 92 power plants (representing 61% of capacity and 50% of generation in our sample), with most of these facilities meeting both short-term and long-term water conservation cost goals. This retrofit analysis indicates that reclaimed water could be a suitable cooling water source for thermoelectric power plants, thereby mitigating some of the freshwater impacts of electricity generation.

  4. Technology assessment for an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Siman-Tov, M; Jones, Jr, J E

    1980-01-01

    This study assesses the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) technology with respect to design, construction, and operation of a demonstration power plant in the range of 150 to 250 MW(e) capacity and identifies the most critical research and development needs for the plant project. The general conclusion of these studies is that AFBC is feasible for large power plants and that it has a generally good potential for providing an economically and environmentally acceptable alternative to conventional coal-fired power plants. Several areas of technical uncertainty must, however, be resolved in order to ensure success of an AFBC demonstration plant project. Much of the existing data base for AFBC comes from small-scale test units, and much of it is still inconclusive. A number of operational and design problems exist that do not yet have conclusive answers. A focused research and development program aimed at the early resolution of these problems should be carried out to ensure successful construction and operation of the proposed AFBC demonstration plant and early commercialization of the technology. A large flexible feeding test facility designed to investigate the feeding problems and possibilities should be constructed. A materials-test facility is also needed for testing, evaluating and selecting materials, as well as demonstrating their long-term compatibility. An intermediate-size pilot plant with sufficient flexibility to test alternate solutions to the above-mentioned problems will considerably strengthen the demonstration program.

  5. Trends in plant virus epidemiology: opportunities from new or improved technologies.

    PubMed

    Jones, R A C

    2014-06-24

    This review focuses on new or improved technologies currently being applied, or likely to be applied in the future, to worldwide research on plant virus epidemiology. Recent technological advances and innovations provide many opportunities to improve understanding of the way diverse types of plant virus epidemics develop and how to manage them. The review starts at the macro level by considering how recent innovations in remote sensing and precision agriculture can provide valuable information about (i) virus epidemics occurring at continental, regional or district scales (via satellites) and within individual crops (mostly via lightweight unmanned aerial vehicles), and (ii) exactly where to target control measures. It then considers recent improvements in information systems and innovations in modelling that improve (i) understanding of virus epidemics and ability to predict them, and (ii) delivery to end-users of critical advice on control measures, such as Internet-based Decision Support Systems. The review goes on to discuss how advances in analysis of spatiotemporal virus spread patterns within crops can help to enhance understanding of how virus epidemics develop and validate potentially useful virus control measures. At the micro level, the review then considers the many insights that advances in molecular epidemiology can provide about genetic variation within plant virus populations involved in epidemics, and how this variation drives what occurs at the macro level. Next, it describes how recent innovations in virus detection technologies are providing many opportunities to collect and analyse new types, and ever increasing amounts, of data about virus epidemics, and the genetic variability of the virus populations involved. Finally, the implications for plant virus epidemiology of technologies likely to be important in the future are considered. To address looming world food insecurity and threats to plant biodiversity resulting from climate change and

  6. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.

    2013-09-11

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a technique to repair aging cables that have been subjected to degradation associated with long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. The physical degradation of the aging cables manifests itself primarily as cracking and increased brittleness of the polymeric electrical insulation. Therefore, the proposed cable-repair concept comprises development of techniques to impart a softening agent within the deteriorated polymer insulation jacket so as to regain the ability of the insulation to stretch without failing and possibly to heal existing cracks in the insulation. Our approach is to use commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, demonstrate the adsorption of chemical treatments in the EPR and quantify changes in resulting physical and mechanical properties. EPR cable samples have been thermally treated in air to produce specimens corresponding to the full range of cable age-performance points from new (>350% elongation at break) to end-of-life (<50% elongation at break). The current focus is on two chemical treatments selected as candidates for restoring age-related cable elasticity loss: a rubber plasticizer and a reactive silane molecule. EPR specimens of 200, 150, 100, and 50% elongation at break have been soaked in the candidate chemical treatments and the kinetics of chemical uptake, measured by change in mass of the samples, has been determined. Mechanical properties as a function of aging and chemical treatment have been measured including ultimate tensile strength, tensile modulus at 50% strain, elongation at break, and storage modulus. Dimensional changes with treatment and changes in glass transition temperature were also investigated. These ongoing experiments are expected to provide insight into the physical-chemical nature of the effect of thermal degradation on EPR rejuvenation limits and to advance novel methods for

  7. Virtual pilot plants: What is the goal and what technology development is needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Bryden, K.M.; O'Brien, T.J.

    2000-07-01

    Within the coal utilization industry, moving virtual reality from a visualization tool to a design tool has the potential to reduce design time and cost, improve plant design and operation, and reduce the risk associated with new technologies. The goal of developing this technology is to enable an engineering design team based in disparate geographical locations to interact simultaneously with the virtual pilot plant and to see immediately the effect on performance of their design changes. In order to promote this capability, the US Department of Energy has identified virtual demonstrations as one of the key supporting technologies needed for the development of Vision 21 plants. This will require that many computational intensive technologies be enhanced and closely integrated: computer aided design/engineering (CAD/CAE), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element analysis, intelligent process control, systems analysis, information management, and advanced visualization. Virtual pilot plants will create a design environment that will be a low-cost alternative to a physical pilot plant, allowing changes in plant operation and design to be rapidly and inexpensively tested. Following construction, the virtual environment will be used as the front-end of a total information system containing all of the design, construction, operation, research scale, pilot scale, and economic information available on the system. The information will be intuitively accessible by going to the place of interest in the virtual plant and entering the dimension of interest. The goal of the virtual demonstration will be to provide easily accessible information at any level of detail to anyone who needs it from policy maker to operating engineer.

  8. Preinvestigation evaluation of corrective measure technologies for the Badger Army Ammunition Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.A.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1989-02-01

    This report briefly describes and evaluates the suitability of corrective measure technologies for possible use at the solid waste management units (SWMUs) at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant (BAAP), near Baraboo, Wisconsin. Corrective measure technologies considered for contaminated soils include excavation plus on- or off-site disposal in landfills or by incineration, use of solidification or stabilization methods, and in-situ methods such as bioreclamation and chemical or physical methods. Technologies considered for treatment of contaminated groundwater include groundwater pumping followed by discharge or treatment by air stripping and use of subsurface barriers. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Commercial involvement in the development of space-based plant growing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bula, R. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Morrow, R. C.; Dinauer, W. R.

    1992-07-01

    Considerable technological progress has been made in the development of controlled environment facilities for plant growth. Although not all of the technology used for terrestrial facilities is applicable to space-based plant growth facilities, the information resident in the commercial organizations that market these facilities can provide a significant resource for the development of the plant growing component of a CELSS. In 1985, NASA initiated an effort termed the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This program endeavors to develop cooperative research and technology development programs with industrial companies that capitalize on the strengths of industry-university working relationships. One of the these CCDSs, the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), deals with developing automated plant growth facilities for space, in cooperation with several industrial partners. Concepts have been developed with industrial partners for the irradiation, water and nutrient delivery, nutrient composition control and automation and robotics subsystems of plant growing units. Space flight experiments are planned for validation of the concepts in a space environment.

  10. Commercial involvement in the development of space-based plant growing technology.

    PubMed

    Bula, R J; Tibbitts, T W; Morrow, R C; Dinauer, W R

    1992-01-01

    Considerable technological progress has been made in the development of controlled environment facilities for plant growth. Although not all of the technology used for terrestrial facilities is applicable to space-based plant growth facilities, the information resident in the commercial organizations that market these facilities can provide a significant resource for the development of the plant growing component of a CELSS. In 1985, NASA initiated an effort termed the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). This program endeavors to develop cooperative research and technology development programs with industrial companies that capitalize on the strengths of industry-university working relationships. One of the these CCDSs, the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), deals with developing automated plant growth facilities for space, in cooperation with several industrial partners. Concepts have been developed with industrial partners for the irradiation, water and nutrient delivery, nutrient composition control and automation and robotics subsystems of plant growing units. Space flight experiments are planned for validation of the concepts in a space environment.

  11. Nuclear Technology Series. Nuclear Reactor (Plant) Operator Trainee. A Suggested Program Planning Guide. Revised June 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This program planning guide for a two-year postsecondary nuclear reactor (plant) operator trainee program is designed for use with courses 1-16 of thirty-five in the Nuclear Technology Series. The purpose of the guide is to describe the nuclear power field and its job categories for specialists, technicians and operators; and to assist planners,…

  12. Development of Advanced Technologies to Reduce Design, Fabrication and Construction Costs for Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    DiNunzio, Camillo A.; Gupta, Abhinav; Golay, Michael; Luk, Vincent; Turk, Rich; Morrow, Charles; Jin, Geum-Taek

    2002-11-30

    This report presents a summation of the third and final year of a three-year investigation into methods and technologies for substantially reducing the capital costs and total schedule for future nuclear plants. In addition, this is the final technical report for the three-year period of studies.

  13. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1989-06-20

    This report discusses the following topics on a Nuclear Power Plant operator advisor based on artificial Intelligence Technology; Workstation conversion; Software Conversion; V V Program Development Development; Simulator Interface Development; Knowledge Base Expansion; Dynamic Testing; Database Conversion; Installation at the Perry Simulator; Evaluation of Operator Interaction; Design of Man-Machine Interface; and Design of Maintenance Facility.

  14. Cancer Inhibitors Isolated from an African Plant | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's Molecular Targets Development Program is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize cancer inhibitors isolated from the African plant Phyllanthus englerii. The technology is also available for exclusive or non-exclusive licensing.

  15. Assessing the Impact of Heat Rejection Technology on CSP Plant Revenue: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of cooling technology on revenue for hybrid-cooled plants with varying wet cooling penetration for four representative locations in the American Southwest. The impact of ACC design-point initial temperature difference (ITD - the difference between the condensing steam temperature and ambient dry-bulb) is also included in the analysis.

  16. The pipeline oil pumping engineering based on the Plant Wide Control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starikov, D. P.; Rybakov, E. A.; Gromakov, E. I.

    2015-04-01

    This article provides recommendations for the use technology Plant Wide Control to control the pumping of oil through the pipeline. The proposed engineering using pipeline management in general (Pipe Wide Control) will reduce the loss of electric power at the expense of the balance of pumping stations located along the pipeline route.

  17. Aqueous mercury treatment technology review for NPDES Outfall 49 Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    During 1950 to 1955, Building 9201-2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was used to house development facilities for processes that employed elemental mercury to separate lithium isotopes as part of the thermonuclear weapons production operations. As a result of several spills, this building area and several other areas associated with the separation process were contaminated with mercury and became a source of continuing contamination of the Y-12 Plant discharge water to East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). Mercury concentrations in the outfalls south of Building 9201-2 have ranged up to 80 ppb, with the highest concentrations being experienced at Outfall 49. As a result, this outfall was chosen as a test site for future mercury treatment technology evaluation and development at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. A literature review and vendor survey has identified several promising materials and technologies that may be applicable to mercury removal at the Outfall 49 site. This document summarizes those findings.

  18. Non-Contact Plant Growth Measurement Method and System Based on Ubiquitous Sensor Network Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Jinweon; Kim, Seokhoon; Ryoo, Intae

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a non-contact plant growth measurement system using infrared sensors based on the ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology. The proposed system measures plant growth parameters such as the stem radius of plants using real-time non-contact methods, and generates diameter, cross-sectional area and thickening form of plant stems using this measured data. Non-contact sensors have been used not to cause any damage to plants during measurement of the growth parameters. Once the growth parameters are measured, they are transmitted to a remote server using the sensor network technology and analyzed in the application program server. The analyzed data are then provided for administrators and a group of interested users. The proposed plant growth measurement system has been designed and implemented using fixed-type and rotary-type infrared sensor based measurement methods and devices. Finally, the system performance is compared and verified with the measurement data that have been obtained by practical field experiments. PMID:22163849

  19. Simulation tools for evaluating optical plant sensors for variable-rate application technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, George E.; Hindman, Timothy W.; Schultz, Mark

    1996-12-01

    A significant reduction in the amount of pesticides applied in agricultural and biological systems could be achieved using spot spray technology. To accomplish this, advanced plant sensor systems must be developed that can accurately locate and identify weeds from crop plants in the field. Currently, both public and commercial efforts have concentrated on single element optical sensors based on key reflective elements of the plant and soil system. Machine vision or image analysis is being investigated as another possible tool in plant sensing. It may provide valuable optical design information for less expensive single-element sensors. Moreover, shape features and textural analysis already provides simple broadleaf-grass classification based on staged plant images. These have not been thoroughly field tested. Another approach is to test image analysis algorithms, using three-dimensional rendering of weed and plant canopy architecture under complex lighting regimes. What was essentially done was to extract plant shape and textural information, along with essential physiological data from actual photographic images and then reassemble them as a virtual plant in the computer. A dissection program was written in C and efficiently extracts and stores irregular leaf shape and texture data. A canopy architecture program was written in C and Media Cybernetics HALOR graphics routines under DOS Expanded Memory on a personal computer. The plant simulation model consists of a three dimensional space where simulated light rays are generated as diffuse or speculative illumination. Plant surfaces are simulated with actual textural maps. The virtual plant is then manipulated to generate images that would be seen with machine vision. Computer simulated weed images were used to generate and test different fields of view sizes for evaluating how single element optical sensors would respond to composite leaf-soil reflectance.

  20. Modern plant metabolomics: Advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, Lloyd W.; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J.; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-10-24

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This study highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR for metabolite identifications, and x-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.

  1. Modern plant metabolomics: advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Lloyd W; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-02-01

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This review covers the approximate period of 2000 to 2014, and highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR for metabolite identifications, and X-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.

  2. Modern plant metabolomics: Advanced natural product gene discoveries, improved technologies, and future prospects

    DOE PAGES

    Sumner, Lloyd W.; Lei, Zhentian; Nikolau, Basil J.; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-10-24

    Plant metabolomics has matured and modern plant metabolomics has accelerated gene discoveries and the elucidation of a variety of plant natural product biosynthetic pathways. This study highlights specific examples of the discovery and characterization of novel genes and enzymes associated with the biosynthesis of natural products such as flavonoids, glucosinolates, terpenoids, and alkaloids. Additional examples of the integration of metabolomics with genome-based functional characterizations of plant natural products that are important to modern pharmaceutical technology are also reviewed. This article also provides a substantial review of recent technical advances in mass spectrometry imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, integrated LC-MS-SPE-NMR formore » metabolite identifications, and x-ray crystallography of microgram quantities for structural determinations. The review closes with a discussion on the future prospects of metabolomics related to crop species and herbal medicine.« less

  3. Particle tower technology applied to metallurgic plants and peak-time boosting of steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsbeck, Lars; Buck, Reiner; Prosin, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Using solar tower technology with ceramic particles as heat transfer and storage medium to preheat scrap for induction furnaces in foundries provides solar generated heat to save electricity. With such a system an unsubsidized payback time of only 4 years is achieved for a 70000t/a foundry in Brazil. The same system can be also used for heat treatment of metals. If electricity is used to heat inert atmospheres a favorable economic performance is also achievable for the particle system. The storage in a particle system enables solar boosting to be restricted to only peak times, enabling an interesting business case opportunity.

  4. Metal-accumulating plants: The biological resource and its commercial exploitation is soil clean-up technology

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a broad overview of metal hyperaccumulator plants and biological accumulation technology. Plants that have been identified as having the greatest potentials for development as phytoremediator crops for metal-contaminated soils are very briefly discussed. Phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, and phytostabilization are briefly defined. Issues pertinent to large scale phytoremediation of soils are discussed, including biological and technological constraints.

  5. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants.

    PubMed

    Judd, Lesley A; Jackson, Brian E; Fonteno, William C

    2015-07-03

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain.

  6. Advancements in Root Growth Measurement Technologies and Observation Capabilities for Container-Grown Plants

    PubMed Central

    Judd, Lesley A.; Jackson, Brian E.; Fonteno, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The study, characterization, observation, and quantification of plant root growth and root systems (Rhizometrics) has been and remains an important area of research in all disciplines of plant science. In the horticultural industry, a large portion of the crops grown annually are grown in pot culture. Root growth is a critical component in overall plant performance during production in containers, and therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence and/or possible enhance it. Quantifying root growth has varied over the last several decades with each method of quantification changing in its reliability of measurement and variation among the results. Methods such as root drawings, pin boards, rhizotrons, and minirhizotrons initiated the aptitude to measure roots with field crops, and have been expanded to container-grown plants. However, many of the published research methods are monotonous and time-consuming. More recently, computer programs have increased in use as technology advances and measuring characteristics of root growth becomes easier. These programs are instrumental in analyzing various root growth characteristics, from root diameter and length of individual roots to branching angle and topological depth of the root architecture. This review delves into the expanding technologies involved with expertly measuring root growth of plants in containers, and the advantages and disadvantages that remain. PMID:27135334

  7. Prognostics and Health Management in Nuclear Power Plants: A Review of Technologies and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hines, Wes; Upadhyaya, Belle

    2012-07-17

    This report reviews the current state of the art of prognostics and health management (PHM) for nuclear power systems and related technology currently applied in field or under development in other technological application areas, as well as key research needs and technical gaps for increased use of PHM in nuclear power systems. The historical approach to monitoring and maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), including the Maintenance Rule for active components and Aging Management Plans for passive components, are reviewed. An outline is given for the technical and economic challenges that make PHM attractive for both legacy plants through Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) and new plant designs. There is a general introduction to PHM systems for monitoring, fault detection and diagnostics, and prognostics in other, non-nuclear fields. The state of the art for health monitoring in nuclear power systems is reviewed. A discussion of related technologies that support the application of PHM systems in NPPs, including digital instrumentation and control systems, wired and wireless sensor technology, and PHM software architectures is provided. Appropriate codes and standards for PHM are discussed, along with a description of the ongoing work in developing additional necessary standards. Finally, an outline of key research needs and opportunities that must be addressed in order to support the application of PHM in legacy and new NPPs is presented.

  8. Application of Digital Technology for the Plant Protection System in Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6

    SciTech Connect

    Deucksoo, Lee; Insik, Kim

    2006-07-01

    Since the completion of construction of Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4 (UCN 3 and 4), the first units of the OPR (Optimized Power Reactor) series, various advanced design features have been incorporated to the following OPRs. The Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant Units 5 and 6(UCN 5 and 6) which started commercial operation in Korea from 2004 and 2005 respectively, are designed to provide improvements in safety, reliability and costs by applying both advanced proven technology and experiences gained from the construction and operation of the previous OPRs. Among those improvements, the digital plant protection system (DPPS) and the digital engineered safety feature actuation system (DESFAS) are the key elements to the UCN 5 and 6 designs. The DPPS and DESFAS utilizing the digital computer technology offer a solution to the obsolescence problem of analog system. These features also provide the potential for additional benefits such as ease of maintenance, increased performance, reduction of internal and external cross channel wiring, improvement of the surveillance testability and flexibility of control logic programming change. During the initial design stage, the Korean regulatory body had evaluated these design concepts intensively and concluded it to be acceptable for the safety point of view. Also, in-depth review on the detailed design and the special evaluation/audit for the software design process has been performed to secure the quality of the software. As a result, every issue raised during licensing review has been clarified and the operating licenses for the UCN 5 and 6 were issued in October, 2003 and October, 2004 respectively, by the government. In this paper, design characteristics of the UCN 5 and 6 are introduced, and advanced design features and implementation process are presented focused on the DPPS/DESFAS with some benefit analysis results. (authors)

  9. Guidance for Deployment of Mobile Technologies for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Heather D. Medema; Ronald K. Farris

    2012-09-01

    This report is a guidance document prepared for the benefit of commercial nuclear power plants’ (NPPs) supporting organizations and personnel who are considering or undertaking deployment of mobile technology for the purpose of improving human performance and plant status control (PSC) for field workers in an NPP setting. This document especially is directed at NPP business managers, Electric Power Research Institute, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, and other non-Information Technology personnel. This information is not intended to replace basic project management practices or reiterate these processes, but is to support decision-making, planning, and preparation of a business case.

  10. Analytical technologies for identification and characterization of the plant N-glycoproteome

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-May, Eliel; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Zhang, Sheng; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    N-glycosylation is one of the most common and complex post-translational modifications of eukaryotic proteins and one that has numerous roles, such as modulating protein stability, sorting, folding, enzyme activity, and ligand interactions. In plants, the functional significance of N-glycosylation is typically obscure, although it is a feature of most secreted proteins and so is potentially of considerable interest to plant cell wall biologists. While analytical pipelines have been established to characterize yeast, mammalian, and bacterial N-glycoproteomes, such large-scale approaches for the study of plant glycoproteins have yet to be reported. Indeed, the N-glycans that decorate plant and mammalian or yeast proteins are structurally distinct and so modification of existing analytical approaches are needed to tackle plant N-glycoproteomes. In this review, we summarize a range of existing technologies for large-scale N-glycoprotein analysis and highlight promising future approaches that may provide a better understanding of the plant N-glycoproteome, and therefore the cell wall proteome and other proteins associated with the secretory pathway. PMID:22783270

  11. Global trends in plant transgenic science and technology (1973-2003).

    PubMed

    Vain, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Transgenic science and technology are fundamental to state-of-the-art plant molecular genetics and GM crop improvement. Monitoring the scale and growth of this area of science is important to scientists, national and international research organizations, funding bodies, policy makers and, because of the GM debate, to society as a whole. Literature statistics covering the past 30 years reveal a dramatic increase in plant transgenic science in Asia during the past decade, a sustained expansion in North America and, recently, a slow down in the rest of the world. With the exception of the output of China and India, publications focusing on the development of transgenic technology have been slowing down, worldwide, since the early mid-1990s, a trend that contrasts with the increase in GM crop-related studies.

  12. DNA fingerprinting, DNA barcoding, and next generation sequencing technology in plants.

    PubMed

    Sucher, Nikolaus J; Hennell, James R; Carles, Maria C

    2012-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting of plants has become an invaluable tool in forensic, scientific, and industrial laboratories all over the world. PCR has become part of virtually every variation of the plethora of approaches used for DNA fingerprinting today. DNA sequencing is increasingly used either in combination with or as a replacement for traditional DNA fingerprinting techniques. A prime example is the use of short, standardized regions of the genome as taxon barcodes for biological identification of plants. Rapid advances in "next generation sequencing" (NGS) technology are driving down the cost of sequencing and bringing large-scale sequencing projects into the reach of individual investigators. We present an overview of recent publications that demonstrate the use of "NGS" technology for DNA fingerprinting and DNA barcoding applications.

  13. Using game technologies to improve the safety of construction plant operations.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongling; Li, Heng; Chan, Greg; Skitmore, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Many accidents occur world-wide in the use of construction plant and equipment, and safety training is considered by many to be one of the best approaches to their prevention. However, current safety training methods/tools are unable to provide trainees with the hands-on practice needed. Game technology-based safety training platforms have the potential to overcome this problem in a virtual environment. One such platform is described in this paper - its characteristics are analysed and its possible contribution to safety training identified. This is developed and tested by means of a case study involving three major pieces of construction plant, which successfully demonstrates that the platform can improve the process and performance of the safety training involved in their operation. This research not only presents a new and useful solution to the safety training of construction operations, but illustrates the potential use of advanced technologies in solving construction industry problems in general.

  14. [Effects of gravel mulch technology on soil erosion resistance and plant growth of river flinty slope].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xie, San-Tao; Ruan, Ai-Dong; Bian, Xun-Wen

    2008-03-01

    Aiming at the technical difficulties such as the stability and water balance in the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope, a gravel mulch technology was proposed, with the effects of different gravel mulch treatments on the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property, and plant growth investigated by anti-erosion and pot experiments. The results showed that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size could obviously enhance the soil anti-erosion capacity, soil water retention property and plant biomass, but no obvious differences were observed between the mulch thickness of 5 cm and 8 cm. It was indicated that mulching with the gravels 1.5-2 cm in size and 5 cm in thickness was an effective and economical technology for the ecological rehabilitation of river flinty slope.

  15. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  16. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  17. Design solutions for water treatment plants constructed on the basis of membrane technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panteleev, A. A.; Ryabchikov, B. E.; Zhadan, A. V.; Khoruzhii, O. V.

    2012-07-01

    Two process circuits for demineralizing makeup water for power units at thermal power stations are considered. One of them is constructed on the basis of a combined plant comprising reverse-osmosis and ion-exchange apparatuses and the other comprises reverse-osmosis and electric deionization apparatuses. The considered circuits are analyzed by way of comparing them with the traditional chemical water demineralization system. Advantages and drawbacks of the new technologies for treating natural water are pointed out.

  18. Design of Plant Eco-physiology Monitoring System Based on Embedded Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunbing; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Xiaojun; Liu, Yanfei; Zhang, Xinlu

    A real time system has been developed to collect plant's growth information comprehensively. Plant eco-physiological signals can be collected and analyzed effectively. The system adopted embedded technology: wireless sensors network collect the eco-physiological information. Touch screen and ARM microprocessor make the system work independently without PC. The system is versatile and all parameters can be set by the touch screen. Sensors' intelligent compensation can be realized in this system. Information can be displayed by either graphically or in table mode. The ARM microprocessor provides the interface to connect with the internet, so the system support remote monitoring and controlling. The system has advantages of friendly interface, flexible construction and extension. It's a good tool for plant's management.

  19. Rapid real-time PCR methods to distinguish Salmonella Enteritidis wildtype field isolates from vaccine strains Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE and AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E.

    PubMed

    Maurischat, Sven; Szabo, Istvan; Baumann, Beatrice; Malorny, Burkhard

    2015-05-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major non-typhoid Salmonella serovar causing human salmonellosis mainly associated with the consumption of poultry and products thereof. To reduce infections in poultry, S. Enteritidis live vaccine strains AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E and Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE have been licensed and used in several countries worldwide. To definitively diagnose a S. Enteritidis contamination in vaccinated herds a reliable and fast method for the differentiation between vaccine and wildtype field isolates is required. In this study, we developed and validated real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to distinguish those variants genetically. Suitable target sequences were identified by whole genome sequencing (WGS) using the Illumina MiSeq system. SNP regions in kdpA and nhaA proved to be most useful for differentiation of AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E and Salmovac SE/Gallivac SE, respectively, from wildtype strains. For each vaccine strain one TaqMan-qPCR assay and one alternative approach using High Resolution Melting (HRM) analysis was designed. All 30 Salmovac SE and 7 AviPro SALMONELLA VAC E vaccine strain reisolates tested were correctly identified by both approaches (100% inclusivity). Furthermore, all 137 (TaqMan) and 97 (HRM) Salmonella non-vaccine and related Enterobacteriaceae strains tested were excluded (100% exclusivity). The analytical detection limits were determined to be approx. 10(2) genome copies/reaction for the TaqMan and 10(4) genome copies/reaction for the HRM approach. The real-time PCR assays proved to be a reliable and fast alternative to the cultural vaccine strain identification tests helping decision makers in control measurements to take action within a shorter period of time. PMID:25794902

  20. Analysis of plant microbe interactions in the era of next generation sequencing technologies

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have impressively accelerated research in biological science during the last years by enabling the production of large volumes of sequence data to a drastically lower price per base, compared to traditional sequencing methods. The recent and ongoing developments in the field allow addressing research questions in plant-microbe biology that were not conceivable just a few years ago. The present review provides an overview of NGS technologies and their usefulness for the analysis of microorganisms that live in association with plants. Possible limitations of the different sequencing systems, in particular sources of errors and bias, are critically discussed and methods are disclosed that help to overcome these shortcomings. A focus will be on the application of NGS methods in metagenomic studies, including the analysis of microbial communities by amplicon sequencing, which can be considered as a targeted metagenomic approach. Different applications of NGS technologies are exemplified by selected research articles that address the biology of the plant associated microbiota to demonstrate the worth of the new methods. PMID:24904612

  1. Local restoration of dystrophin expression with the morpholino oligomer AVI-4658 in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    Kinali, Maria; Arechavala-Gomeza, Virginia; Feng, Lucy; Cirak, Sebahattin; Hunt, David; Adkin, Carl; Guglieri, Michela; Ashton, Emma; Abbs, Stephen; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Garralda, Maria Elena; Rutherford, Mary; Mcculley, Caroline; Popplewell, Linda; Graham, Ian R; Dickson, George; Wood, Matthew JA; Wells, Dominic J; Wilton, Steve D; Kole, Ryszard; Straub, Volker; Bushby, Kate; Sewry, Caroline; Morgan, Jennifer E; Muntoni, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Mutations that disrupt the open reading frame and prevent full translation of DMD, the gene that encodes dystrophin, underlie the fatal X-linked disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Oligonucleotides targeted to splicing elements (splice switching oligonucleotides) in DMD pre-mRNA can lead to exon skipping, restoration of the open reading frame, and the production of functional dystrophin in vitro and in vivo, which could benefit patients with this disorder. Methods We did a single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study in patients with DMD recruited nationally, to assess the safety and biochemical efficacy of an intramuscular morpholino splice-switching oligonucleotide (AVI-4658) that skips exon 51 in dystrophin mRNA. Seven patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy with deletions in the open reading frame of DMD that are responsive to exon 51 skipping were selected on the basis of the preservation of their extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) muscle seen on MRI and the response of cultured fibroblasts from a skin biopsy to AVI-4658. AVI-4658 was injected into the EDB muscle; the contralateral muscle received saline. Muscles were biopsied between 3 and 4 weeks after injection. The primary endpoint was the safety of AVI-4658 and the secondary endpoint was its biochemical efficacy. This trial is registered, number NCT00159250. Findings Two patients received 0·09 mg AVI-4658 in 900 μL (0·9%) saline and five patients received 0·9 mg AVI-4658 in 900 μL saline. No adverse events related to AVI-4658 administration were reported. Intramuscular injection of the higher-dose of AVI-4658 resulted in increased dystrophin expression in all treated EDB muscles, although the results of the immunostaining of EDB-treated muscle for dystrophin were not uniform. In the areas of the immunostained sections that were adjacent to the needle track through which AVI-4658 was given, 44–79% of myofibres had increased expression of dystrophin. In randomly chosen

  2. Adjustment and validation of a simulation tool for CSP plants based on parabolic trough technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Ubani, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The present work presents the validation process carried out for a simulation tool especially designed for the energy yield assessment of concentrating solar plants based on parabolic through (PT) technology. The validation has been carried out by comparing the model estimations with real data collected from a commercial CSP plant. In order to adjust the model parameters used for the simulation, 12 different days were selected among one-year of operational data measured at the real plant. The 12 days were simulated and the estimations compared with the measured data, focusing on the most important variables from the simulation point of view: temperatures, pressures and mass flow of the solar field, gross power, parasitic power, and net power delivered by the plant. Based on these 12 days, the key parameters for simulating the model were properly fixed and the simulation of a whole year performed. The results obtained for a complete year simulation showed very good agreement for the gross and net electric total production. The estimations for these magnitudes show a 1.47% and 2.02% BIAS respectively. The results proved that the simulation software describes with great accuracy the real operation of the power plant and correctly reproduces its transient behavior.

  3. Technology diffusion and environmental regulation: Evidence from electric power plants under the Clean Air Act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Elaine F.

    Even though environmental policy can greatly affect the path of technology diffusion, the economics literature contains limited empirical evidence of this relationship. My research will contribute to the available evidence by providing insight into the technology adoption decisions of electric generating firms. Since policies are often evaluated based on the incentives they provide to promote adoption of new technologies, it is important that policy makers understand the relationship between technological diffusion and regulation structure to make informed decisions. Lessons learned from this study can be used to guide future policies such as those directed to mitigate climate change. I first explore the diffusion of scrubbers, a sulfur dioxide (SO 2) abatement technology, in response to federal market-based regulations and state command-and-control regulations. I develop a simple theoretical model to describe the adoption decisions of scrubbers and use a survival model to empirically test the theoretical model. I find that power plants with strict command-and-control regulations have a high probability of installing a scrubber. These findings suggest that although market-based regulations have encouraged diffusion, many scrubbers have been installed because of state regulatory pressure. Although tradable permit systems are thought to give firms more flexibility in choosing abatement technologies, I show that interactions between a permit system and pre-existing command-and-control regulations can limit that flexibility. In a separate analysis, I explore the diffusion of combined cycle (CC) generating units, which are natural gas-fired generating units that are cleaner and more efficient than alternative generating units. I model the decision to consider adoption of a CC generating unit and the extent to which the technology is adopted in response to environmental regulations imposed on new sources of pollutants. To accomplish this, I use a zero-inflated Poisson

  4. Comprehensive multiphase NMR: a promising technology to study plants in their native state.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Heather L; Soong, Ronald; Courtier-Murias, Denis; Botana, Adolfo; Fortier-Mcgill, Blythe; Maas, Werner E; Fey, Michael; Hutchins, Howard; Krishnamurthy, Sridevi; Kumar, Rajeev; Monette, Martine; Stronks, Henry J; Campbell, Malcolm M; Simpson, Andre

    2015-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is arguably one the most powerful tools to study the interactions and molecular structure within plants. Traditionally, however, NMR has developed as two separate fields, one dealing with liquids and the other dealing with solids. Plants in their native state contain components that are soluble, swollen, and true solids. Here, a new form of NMR spectroscopy, developed in 2012, termed comprehensive multiphase (CMP)-NMR is applied for plant analysis. The technology composes all aspects of solution, gel, and solid-state NMR into a single NMR probe such that all components in all phases in native unaltered samples can be studied and differentiated in situ. The technology is evaluated using wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and the cellulose-deficient mutant ectopic lignification1 (eli1) as examples. Using CMP-NMR to study intact samples eliminated the bias introduced by extraction methods and enabled the acquisition of a more complete structural and metabolic profile; thus, CMP-NMR revealed molecular differences between wild type (WT) and eli1 that could be overlooked by conventional methods. Methanol, fatty acids and/or lipids, glutamine, phenylalanine, starch, and nucleic acids were more abundant in eli1 than in WT. Pentaglycine was present in A. thaliana seedlings and more abundant in eli1 than in WT. PMID:25855560

  5. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  6. Next biotech plants: new traits, crops, developers and technologies for addressing global challenges.

    PubMed

    Ricroch, Agnès E; Hénard-Damave, Marie-Cécile

    2016-08-01

    Most of the genetically modified (GM) plants currently commercialized encompass a handful of crop species (soybean, corn, cotton and canola) with agronomic characters (traits) directed against some biotic stresses (pest resistance, herbicide tolerance or both) and created by multinational companies. The same crops with agronomic traits already on the market today will continue to be commercialized, but there will be also a wider range of species with combined traits. The timeframe anticipated for market release of the next biotech plants will not only depend on science progress in research and development (R&D) in laboratories and fields, but also primarily on how demanding regulatory requirements are in countries where marketing approvals are pending. Regulatory constraints, including environmental and health impact assessments, have increased significantly in the past decades, delaying approvals and increasing their costs. This has sometimes discouraged public research entities and small and medium size plant breeding companies from using biotechnology and given preference to other technologies, not as stringently regulated. Nevertheless, R&D programs are flourishing in developing countries, boosted by the necessity to meet the global challenges that are food security of a booming world population while mitigating climate change impacts. Biotechnology is an instrument at the service of these imperatives and a wide variety of plants are currently tested for their high yield despite biotic and abiotic stresses. Many plants with higher water or nitrogen use efficiency, tolerant to cold, salinity or water submergence are being developed. Food security is not only a question of quantity but also of quality of agricultural and food products, to be available and accessible for the ones who need it the most. Many biotech plants (especially staple food) are therefore being developed with nutritional traits, such as biofortification in vitamins and metals. The main

  7. Kodak: MotorMaster+ is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  8. Kodak: MotorMaster+ Is the Foundation for Energy Efficiency at a Chemical and Imaging Technologies Plant (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program spotlight describes how Kodak is saving 5.8 million kWh and $664,000 annually after upgrading or replacing inefficient motors in its Rochester, New York, plant.

  9. A comparative analysis of odour treatment technologies in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Estrada, José M; Kraakman, N J R Bart; Muñoz, Raúl; Lebrero, Raquel

    2011-02-01

    Biofiltration, activated sludge diffusion, biotrickling filtration, chemical scrubbing, activated carbon adsorption, regenerative incineration, and a hybrid technology (biotrickling filtration coupled with carbon adsorption) are comparatively evaluated in terms of environmental performance, process economics, and social impact by using the IChemE Sustainability Metrics in the context of odor treatment from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This comparative analysis showed that physical/chemical technologies presented higher environmental impacts than their biological counterparts in terms of energy, material and reagents consumption, and hazardous-waste production. Among biological techniques, the main impact was caused by the high water consumption to maintain biological activity (although the use of secondary effluent water can reduce both this environmental impact and operating costs), biofiltration additionally exhibiting high land and material requirements. From a process economics viewpoint, technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration), which suggested that the Net Present Value should be used as selection criterion. In addition, a significant effect of the economy of scale on the investment costs and odorant concentration on operating cost was observed. The social benefits derived from odor abatement were linked to nuisance reductions in the nearby population and improvements in occupational health within the WWTP, with the hybrid technology exhibiting the highest benefits. On the basis of their low environmental impact, high deodorization performance, and low Net Present Value, biotrickling filtration and AS diffusion emerged as the most promising technologies for odor treatment in WWTP.

  10. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kolpin, Dana W

    2009-08-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  11. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S; Kolpin, Dana W

    2009-08-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon. PMID:19657534

  12. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutically active compounds in sewage treatment plants with different technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S.; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2009-01-01

    Occurrence of eight selected pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs; caffeine, carbamazepine, triclosan, gemfibrozil, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen) were investigated in effluents from fifteen sewage treatment plants (STPs) across South Australia. In addition, a detailed investigation into the removal of these compounds was also carried out in four STPs with different technologies (Plant A: conventional activated sludge; plant B: two oxidation ditches; plant C: three bioreactors; and plant D: ten lagoons in series). The concentrations of these compounds in the effluents from the fifteen STPs showed substantial variations among the STPs, with their median concentrations ranging from 26 ng/L for caffeine to 710 ng/L for carbamazepine. Risk assessment based on the "worst case scenario" of the monitoring data from the present study suggested potential toxic risks to aquatic organisms posed by carbamazepine, triclosan and diclofenac associated with such effluent discharge. With the exception of carbamazepine and gemfibrozil, significant concentration decreases between influent and effluent were observed in the four STPs studied in more detail. Biodegradation was found to be the main mechanism for removing concentrations from the liquid waste stream for the PhACs within the four STPs, while adsorption onto sludge appeared to be a minor process for all target PhACs except for triclosan. Some compounds (e.g. gemfibrozil) exhibited variable removal efficiencies within the four STPs. Plant D (10 lagoons in series) was least efficient in the removal of the target PhACs; significant biodegradation of these compounds only occurred from the sixth or seventh lagoon.

  13. Assessment of fiber optic sensors and other advanced sensing technologies for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1996-03-01

    As a result of problems such as calibration drift in nuclear plant pressure sensors and the recent oil loss syndrome in some models of Rosemount pressure transmitters, the nuclear industry has become interested in fiber optic pressure sensors. Fiber optic sensing technologies have been considered for the development of advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) systems for the next generation of reactors and in older plants which are retrofitted with new I&C systems. This paper presents the results of a six-month Phase I study to establish the state-of-the-art in fiber optic pressure sensing. This study involved a literature review, contact with experts in the field, an industrial survey, a site visit to a fiber optic sensor manufacturer, and laboratory testing of a fiber optic pressure sensor. The laboratory work involved both static and dynamic performance tests. This initial Phase I study has recently been granted a two-year extension by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The next phase will evaluate fiber optic pressure sensors in specific nuclear plant applications in addition to other advanced methods for monitoring critical nuclear plant equipment.

  14. Potential applications of cryogenic technologies to plant genetic improvement and pathogen eradication.

    PubMed

    Wang, Biao; Wang, Ren-Rui; Cui, Zhen-Hua; Bi, Wen-Lu; Li, Jing-Wei; Li, Bai-Quan; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Volk, Gayle M; Wang, Qiao-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Rapid increases in human populations provide a great challenge to ensure that adequate quantities of food are available. Sustainable development of agricultural production by breeding more productive cultivars and by increasing the productive potential of existing cultivars can help meet this demand. The present paper provides information on the potential uses of cryogenic techniques in ensuring food security, including: (1) long-term conservation of a diverse germplasm and successful establishment of cryo-banks; (2) maintenance of the regenerative ability of embryogenic tissues that are frequently the target for genetic transformation; (3) enhancement of genetic transformation and plant regeneration of transformed cells, and safe, long-term conservation for transgenic materials; (4) production and maintenance of viable protoplasts for transformation and somatic hybridization; and (5) efficient production of pathogen-free plants. These roles demonstrate that cryogenic technologies offer opportunities to ensure food security. PMID:24681087

  15. Direct Air Capture of CO2 - an Overview of Carbon Engineering's Technology and Pilot Plant Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, G.; Corless, A.

    2014-12-01

    At Carbon Engineering, we are developing and commercializing technology to scrub CO2 directly from atmospheric air at industrial scale. By providing atmospheric CO2 for use in fuel production, we can enable production of transportation fuels with ultra-low carbon intensities, which command price premiums in the growing set of constrained fuels markets such as California's LCFS. We are a Calgary based startup founded in 2009 with 10 employees, and we are considered a global leader in the direct air capture (DAC) field. We will review CE's DAC technology, based on a wet-scrubbing "air contactor" which absorbs CO2 into aqueous solution, and a chemical looping "regeneration" component, which liberates pure CO2 from this aqueous solution while re-making the original absorption chemical. CE's DAC tecnology exports purified atmospheric CO2, combined with the combustion CO2 from plant energy usage, as the end product. We will also discuss CE's 2014-2015 end-to-end Pilot Demonstration Unit. This is a $7M technology demonstration plant that CE is building with the help of key industrial partners and equipment vendors. Vendor design and engineering requirements have been used to specify the pilot air contactor, pellet reactor, calciner, and slaker modules, as well as auxiliary systems. These modules will be run for several months to obtain the engineering and performance data needed for subsequent commercial plant design, as well as to test the residual integration risks associated with CE's process. By the time of the AGU conference, the pilot is expected to be in late stages of fabrication or early stages of site installation.

  16. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    SciTech Connect

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-22

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  17. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  18. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. )

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Power conditioning subsystems for photovoltaic central-station power plants - Technology and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bulawka, A.

    1985-01-01

    Central-Station (CS) Photovoltaic (PV) systems have the potential of economically displacing significant amounts of centrally generated electricity. However, the technical viability and, to some extent, the economic viability of central-station PV generation technology will depend upon the availability of large power conditioners that are efficient, safe, reliable, and economical. This paper is an overview of the technical and cost requirements that must be met to develop economically viable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) for central-station power plants. The paper also examines various already commercially available PCS hardware that may be suitable for use in today's central PV power stations.

  20. Evaluation of Effectiveness Technological Process of Water Purification Exemplified on Modernized Water Treatment Plant at Otoczna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanowska, Joanna; Jakubus, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the work of the Water Treatment Plant in the town of Otoczna, located in the Wielkopolska province, before and after the modernization of the technological line. It includes the quality characteristics of the raw water and treated water with particular emphasis on changes in the quality indicators in the period 2002 -2012 in relation to the physicochemical parameters: the content of total iron and total manganese, the ammonium ion as well as organoleptic parameters(colour and turbidity). The efficiency of technological processes was analysed, including the processes of bed start up with chalcedonic sand to remove total iron and manganese and ammonium ion. Based on the survey, it was found that the applied modernization helped solve the problem of water quality, especially the removal of excessive concentrations of iron, manganese and ammonium nitrogen from groundwater. It has been shown that one year after modernization of the technological line there was a high reduction degree of most parameters, respectively for the general iron content -99%, general manganese - 93% ammonia - 93%, turbidity - 94%. It has been proved, that chalcedonic turned out to be better filter material than quartz sand previously used till 2008. The studies have confirmed that the stage of modernization was soon followed by bed start-up for removing general iron from the groundwater. The stage of manganese removal required more time, about eight months for bed start-up. Furthermore, the technological modernization contributed to the improvement of the efficiency of the nitrification process.

  1. Subtask 5.10 - Testing of an Advanced Dry Cooling Technology for Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Christopher; Pavlish, John

    2013-09-30

    The University of North Dakota’s Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is developing a market-focused dry cooling technology that is intended to address the key shortcomings of conventional dry cooling technologies: high capital cost and degraded cooling performance during daytime temperature peaks. The unique aspect of desiccant dry cooling (DDC) is the use of a hygroscopic working fluid—a liquid desiccant—as a heat-transfer medium between a power plant’s steam condenser and the atmosphere. This configuration enables a number of beneficial features for large-scale heat dissipation to the atmosphere, without the consumptive use of cooling water. The overall goal of this project was to accurately define the performance and cost characteristics of DDC to determine if further development of the concept is warranted. A balanced approach of modeling grounded in applied experimentation was pursued to substantiate DDC-modeling efforts and outline the potential for this technology to cool full-scale power plants. The resulting analysis shows that DDC can be a lower-cost dry cooling alternative to an air-cooled condenser (ACC) and can even be competitive with conventional wet recirculating cooling under certain circumstances. This project has also highlighted the key technological steps that must be taken in order to transfer DDC into the marketplace. To address these issues and to offer an extended demonstration of DDC technology, a next-stage project should include the opportunity for outdoor ambient testing of a small DDC cooling cell. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Wyoming State Legislature under an award made through the Wyoming Clean Coal Technologies Research Program.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: UTC FUEL CELLS' PC25C POWER PLANT - GAS PROCESSING UNIT PERFORMANCE FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system based on the UTC Fuel Cell's PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant was evaluated. The...

  3. Exposure to Soy Protein Isolate From Conception Fails to Induce Epigenetic Changes in Viable Yellow Agouti (Avy/a) Mice, But Partially Blocks Hepatosteatosis and Altered Body Composition in Mice and Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both beneficial and adverse health effects have been attributed to soy food consumption. Epigenetic programming through hypermethlylation of CpG sites on promoter regions may be a potential mechanism. Virgin a/a female and Avy/a male mice were fed AIN-93G diets made with either casein or soy protein...

  4. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions.

  5. Transition Plan for the K-1203 Sewage Treatment Plant, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmeister J.

    2008-10-05

    The K-1203 Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) was previously used to treat and process all sanitary sewage waste from the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). The plant was shut down on May 29, 2008 as a result of the transition of sewage treatment for ETTP to the City of Oak Ridge. The City of Oak Ridge expanded the Rarity Ridge Sewage Treatment Plant (RRSTP) to include capacity to treat the waste from the ETTP and the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) constructed a new ETTP lift station and force main to RRSTP. In preparation for the shutdown of K-1203, the US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with Operation Management International (OMI) developed a shut down plan to outline actions that need to occur prior to the transition of the facility to Bechtel Jacob Company, LLC (BJC) for decontamination and demolition (D and D). This plan outlines the actions, roles, and responsibilities for BJC in order to support the transition of the K-1203 STP from OMI to the BJC Surveillance and Maintenance (S and M) and D and D programs. The D and D of the K-1203 Facilities is planned under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Remaining Facilities D and D Action Memorandum in the Balance of Site-Utilities D and D Subproject in fiscal year (FY) 2014.

  6. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions. PMID:26683583

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen Richards, Ph.D.; David Sloan, Ph.D.; Woodrow Fiveland, Ph.D.

    2002-08-31

    The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope is to develop an integrated suite of software tools that can be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software does not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which is needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE is to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that will link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remains to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software will be based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge is to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{trademark} CFD code (provided by Fluent Inc). ALSTOM Power has a task responsibility to select and run a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2) to demonstrate the feasibility of the linkage concept. This report summarizes and documents the unit selected to represent Case 2, a 250 MW, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. An analogous document for Demonstration Case 1 was previously submitted on April 30, 2001. Sufficient information is available from the plant to adequately benchmark the model. Hence, the proposed unit is deemed to be well suited as a demonstration case. However, as the combined cycle plant selected for this study contains recent technology, sensitivity to the commercial implications of this study prevents the release of the plant name and limits the quantity of operating/design information that can be presented. These

  8. Considerations Associated with Reactor Technology Selection for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Demick

    2010-09-01

    At the inception of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and during predecessor activities, alternative reactor technologies have been evaluated to determine the technology that best fulfills the functional and performance requirements of the targeted energy applications and market. Unlike the case of electric power generation where the reactor performance is primarily expressed in terms of economics, the targeted energy applications involve industrial applications that have specific needs in terms of acceptable heat transport fluids and the associated thermodynamic conditions. Hence, to be of interest to these industrial energy applications, the alternative reactor technologies are weighed in terms of the reactor coolant/heat transport fluid, achievable reactor outlet temperature, and practicality of operations to achieve the very high reliability demands associated with the petrochemical, petroleum, metals and related industries. These evaluations have concluded that the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) can uniquely provide the required ranges of energy needs for these target applications, do so with promising economics, and can be commercialized with reasonable development risk in the time frames of current industry interest – i.e., within the next 10-15 years.

  9. Advances in RNA interference technology and its impact on nutritional improvement, disease and insect control in plants.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Rajan; Thakur, Neelam

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the advances in the knowledge of RNA interference (RNAi) and discusses recent progress on the functionality of different components RNAi machinery operating in the organisms. The silencing of genes by RNA interference has become the technology of choice for investigation of gene functions in different organisms. The refinement in the knowledge of the endogenous RNAi pathways in plants along with the development of new strategies and applications for the improvement of nutritional value of important agricultural crops through suppression of genes in different plants have opened new vistas for nutritional security. The improvement in the nutritional status of the plants and reduction in the level of toxins or antinutrients was desired for long, but the available technology was not completely successful in achieving the tissue specific regulation of some genes. In the recent years, a number of economically important crop plants have been tested successfully for improving plant nutritional value through metabolic engineering using RNAi. The implications of this technology for crop improvement programs, including nutritional enrichment, reduction of antinutrients, disease, and insect control have been successfully tested in variety of crops with commercial considerations. The enhancement of the nutraceutical traits for the desired health benefits in common crop plants through manipulation of gene expression has been elaborated in this article. The tremendous potential with RNAi technology is expected to revolutionize the modern agriculture for meeting the growing challenges is discussed.

  10. Comparison of the AVI, modified SINTACS and GALDIT vulnerability methods under future climate-change scenarios for a shallow low-lying coastal aquifer in southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Samrit; Okkonen, Jarkko; Korkka-Niemi, Kirsti

    2016-09-01

    A shallow unconfined low-lying coastal aquifer in southern Finland surrounded by the Baltic Sea is vulnerable to changes in groundwater recharge, sea-level rise and human activities. Assessment of the intrinsic vulnerability of groundwater under climate scenarios was performed for the aquifer area by utilising the results of a published study on the impacts of climate change on groundwater recharge and sea-level rise on groundwater-seawater interaction. Three intrinsic vulnerability mapping methods, the aquifer vulnerability index (AVI), a modified SINTACS and GALDIT, were applied and compared. According to the results, the degree of groundwater vulnerability is greatly impacted by seasonal variations in groundwater recharge during the year, and also varies depending on the climate-change variability in the long term. The groundwater is potentially highly vulnerable to contamination from sources on the ground surface during high groundwater recharge rates after snowmelt, while a high vulnerability to seawater intrusion could exist when there is a low groundwater recharge rate in dry season. The AVI results suggest that a change in the sea level will have an insignificant impact on groundwater vulnerability compared with the results from the modified SINTACS and GALDIT. The modified SINTACS method could be used as a guideline for the groundwater vulnerability assessment of glacial and deglacial deposits in inland aquifers, and in combination with GALDIT, it could provide a useful tool for assessing groundwater vulnerability to both contamination from sources on the ground surface and to seawater intrusion for shallow unconfined low-lying coastal aquifers under future climate-change conditions.

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of technological, design and sanitary-technical solutions for large-scale chemical plants].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭluts, A P

    1990-01-01

    Complexes of technologic solution for the construction of large-scale plants producing ammonia, nitric and sulfuric acids, ammonium nitrate, carbomide and caprolactam , are characterized by both positive and negative hygienic features. The hygienic shortcomings reveal themselves in sporadic increases of hazardous ingredients in concentrations up to the MAC and higher levels, as well as in unfavorable labour conditions when dealing with catalysts, storage operations, inter-enterprise transportation, dispatching of raw materials and finished products, in the contamination of the in-going ventilation air, and in the compound influence of low temperatures and toxic substances. The concentration of several large-capacity enterprises in the same area entails large-scale discharges in the atmosphere with subsequent contamination of the surrounding protection areas. The author proposes a set of major preventive measures.

  12. A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Technologies: Methods and Qualitative Results

    SciTech Connect

    BLanc, Katya Le; Powers, David; Joe, Jeffrey; Spielman, Zachary; Rice, Brandon; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2015-08-01

    Control room modernization is an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. None of the 99 currently operating commercial nuclear power plants in the U.S. has completed a full-scale control room modernization to date. Nuclear power plant main control rooms for the existing commercial reactor fleet remain significantly analog, with only limited digital modernizations. Upgrades in the U.S. do not achieve the full potential of newer technologies that might otherwise enhance plant and operator performance. The goal of the control room upgrade benefits research is to identify previously overlooked benefits of modernization, identify candidate technologies that may facilitate such benefits, and demonstrate these technologies through human factors research. This report describes a pilot study to test upgrades to the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL.

  13. U.S. program on materials technology for ultra-supercritical coal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Henry, J. F.; Tanzosh, J.; Stanko, G.; Shingledecker, J.; Vitalis, B.; Purgert, R.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of conventional fossil power plants is a strong function of the steam temperature and pressure. Research to increase both has been pursued worldwide, since the energy crisis in the 1970s. The need to reduce CO2 emissions has recently provided an additional incentive to increase efficiency. More recently, interest has been evinced in advanced combustion technologies utilizing oxygen instead of air for combustion. The main enabling technology in achieving the above goals is the development of stronger high temperature materials. Extensive research-and-development programs have resulted in numerous high-strength alloys for heavy section piping and for tubing needed to build boilers. The study reported on here is aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers that are capable of operating with steam at temperatures of 760 °C (1400 °F) and pressures of 35 MPa (5000 psi). The economic viability of such a plant has been explored. Candidate alloys applicable to various ranges of temperatures have been identified. Stress rupture tests have been completed on the base metal and on welds to a number of alloys. Steamside oxidation tests in an autoclave at 650 °C (1200 °F) and 800 °C (1475 °F) have been completed. Fireside corrosion tests have been conducted under conditions simulating those of waterwalls and superheater/reheater tubes. The weldability and fabricability of the alloys have been investigated. The capabilities of various overlay coatings and diffusion coatings have been examined. This article provides a status report on the progress achieved to date on this project.

  14. Assessment of H/sub 2/S control technologies for geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    Techniques for controlling hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) from geothermal development are analyzed. Several technologies for controlling H/sub 2/S emissions from power plants are examined. The Hydrogen Peroxide Combination System, Stretford System and possibly EIC or Coury upstream controls appear capable of compliance with the emission limitations of 100 grams per hour per gross megawatt in 1980 (and 50 q/hr/(g) MW in 1985 or 1990) at the Geysers Dry stream field in Northern California. Unresolved problems still plague all these options. Well field operations result in H/sub 2/S releases from well drilling, well venting and steam stacking. Hydrogen peroxide reduces H/sub 2/S emissions during drilling and venting can be controlled with vent gathering (condensation/reinjection) systems. Steam stacking during power plant outages emit more H/sub 2/S over shorter periods than other field operations. Potential controls for stacking are: (1) upstream abatement, (2) automated well operation, (3) computerized wellfield operation (as of PG and E's Geysers Unit No. 15), and (4) further steamfield interconnection (cross-overs).

  15. Research and Development Technology Development Roadmaps for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project

    SciTech Connect

    Ian McKirdy

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for process heat, hydrogen and electricity production. The reactor will be graphite moderated with helium as the primary coolant and may be either prismatic or pebble-bed. Although, final design features have not yet been determined. Research and Development (R&D) activities are proceeding on those known plant systems to mature the technology, codify the materials for specific applications, and demonstrate the component and system viability in NGNP relevant and integrated environments. Collectively these R&D activities serve to reduce the project risk and enhance the probability of on-budget, on-schedule completion and NRC licensing. As the design progresses, in more detail, toward final design and approval for construction, selected components, which have not been used in a similar application, in a relevant environment nor integrated with other components and systems, must be tested to demonstrate viability at reduced scales and simulations prior to full scale operation. This report and its R&D TDRMs present the path forward and its significance in assuring technical readiness to perform the desired function by: Choreographing the integration between design and R&D activities; and proving selected design components in relevant applications.

  16. Preliminary definition and characterization of a solar industrial process heat technology and manufacturing plant for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Prythero, T.; Meyer, R. T.

    1980-09-01

    A solar industrial process heat technology and an associated solar systems manufacturing plant for the year 2000 has been projected, defined, and qualitatively characterized. The technology has been defined for process heat applications requiring temperatures of 300/sup 0/C or lower, with emphasis on the 150/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/C range. The selected solar collector technology is a parabolic trough collector of the line-focusing class. The design, structure, and material components are based upon existing and anticipated future technological developments in the solar industry. The solar system to be manufactured and assembled within a dedicated manufacturing plant is projected to consist of the collector and the major collector components, including reflector, absorber, parabolic trough structure, support stand, tracking drive mechanism, sun-sensing device and control system, couplings, etc. Major manufacturing processes to be introduced into the year 2000 plant operations are glassmaking, silvering, electroplating and plastic-forming. These operations will generate significant environmental residuals not encountered in present-day solar manufacturing plants. Important residuals include chemical vapors, acids, toxic elements (e.g. arsenic), metallic and chemical sludges, fumes from plastics, etc. The location, design, and operations of these sophisticated solar manufacturing plants will have to provide for the management of the environmental residuals.

  17. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  18. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal; Maxwell Osawe; Stephen Zitney; Lewis Collins; David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland; Frank Joop; Philip Simon; K. Joseph Cleetus

    2005-04-01

    To accelerate the development of advanced power plants, DOE's Vision 21 program identified the need for an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize new plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet this objective of virtual-plant simulation. Sophisticated models of many individual equipment items are available; however, a seamless coupling capability that would integrate the advanced equipment (component) models to the process (system) simulation software remained to be developed. The inability to use models in an integrated manner causes knowledge loss (e.g., knowledge captured in detailed equipment models is usually not available in process simulation) and modeling inconsistencies (e.g., physical properties and reaction kinetics data in different models are not the same). A team consisting of Fluent Inc., ALSTOM Power Inc., Aspen Technology Inc., Intergraph Corporation, and West Virginia University, in collaboration with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), addressed this challenge in a project performed over the period from October 2000 through December 2004. In this project the integration of the cycle analysis software was based on widely used commercial software: Aspen Plus{reg_sign} for process simulation and FLUENT{reg_sign} for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of equipment items. The integration software was designed to also include custom (in-house, proprietary, legacy) equipment models that often encapsulate the experience from the many years of designing and operating the equipment. The team adopted CAPE-OPEN (CO) interfaces, the de facto international standard for communication among process models, for exchanging information between software. The software developed in this project is the first demonstration of the use of CO interfaces to link CFD and custom equipment models with process simulators. New interface requirements identified during this project were

  20. Applied studies of plant meridian system: I. The effect of agri-wave technology on yield and quality of tomato.

    PubMed

    Hou, T Z; Mooneyham, R E

    1999-01-01

    Agri-wave technology is a new agricultural technology based on the plant meridian system, that focuses on measurement of plant sound characteristics. The basic principle of agri-wave technology is to improve the yield and quality of plants such as vegetables, flowers, and fruit trees by broadcasting sound waves of certain frequencies and spraying a compound microelement fertilizer on the leaves. The application of agri-wave technology on tomatoes remarkably stimulates growth of their seedlings. Fresh weight of the branch, stems, and leaves of the treated tomatoes is significantly (59.53%, P < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Sampling survey results indicate that agri-wave technology accelerates the ripeness of tomatoes. The fresh weight of ripe tomatoes treated with this technique is 30.73% higher than that of the untreated (P = 0.0018), while the fresh weight of the treated unripe tomatoes is 27.29% lower than that of the untreated unripe group (P = 0.0020). Yield surveys show that the yield of treated plants is 13.89% (p < 0.0001) higher than that of the control group. Moreover, with agri-wave technology treatment the storage period of tomatoes is almost doubled. Analysis of tomato nutrition shows that agri-wave technology has increased their sugar content by 26.19%, vitamin A and niacin (an antifavours vitamin) by 55.39% and 92.31% respectively. There is no difference concerning vitamin B1, B2, and D content between the two groups, and vitamin C and E contents decreased by 2.10% and 12.69%, respectively. Among the analyzed 33 minerals of tomatoes, 26 increased in content, while 7 decreased. In conclusion, agri-wave technology has promoted the growth of the tomato, increased its yield, and improved its quality.

  1. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  2. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, H. K.

    1981-10-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of a commercial uranium hexafluoride conversion (UF{sub 6}) plant. Two basic decommissioning alternatives are studied to obtain comparisons between cost and safety impacts: DECON, and passive SAFSTOR. A third alternative, DECON of the plant and equipment with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes. is also examined. DECON includes the immediate removal (following plant shutdown) of all radioactivity in excess of unrestricted release levels, with subsequent release of the site for public use. Passive SAFSTOR requires decontamination, preparation, maintenance, and surveillance for a period of time after shutdown, followed by deferred decontamination and unrestricted release. DECON with stabilization and long-term care of lagoon wastes (process wastes generated at the reference plant and stored onsite during plant operation} is also considered as a decommissioning method, although its acceptability has not yet been determined by the NRC. The decommissioning methods assumed for use in each decommissioning alternative are based on state-of-the-art technology. The elapsed time following plant shutdown required to perform the decommissioning work in each alternative is estimated to be: for DECON, 8 months; for passive SAFSTOR, 3 months to prepare the plant for safe storage and 8 months to accomplish deferred decontamination. Planning and preparation for decommissioning prior to plant shutdown is estimated to require about 6 months for either DECON or passive SAFSTOR. Planning and preparation prior to starting deferred decontamination is estimated to require an additional 6 months. OECON with lagoon waste stabilization is estimated to take 6 months for planning and about 8 months to perform the decommissioning work. Decommissioning cost, in 1981 dollars, is estimated to be $5.91 million for OECON. For passive SAFSTOR, preparing the facility for safe storage is estimated to cost $0

  3. Y-12 Plant decontamination and decommissioning technology logic diagram for Building 9201-4. Volume 3: Technology evaluation data sheets; Part A: Characterization, dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Technology Logic Diagram for Building 9201-4 (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) problems at Bldg. 9201-4 to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD uses information from the Strategic Roadmap for the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram, and a previous Hanford logic diagram. This TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to D and D and waste management (WM) activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and by finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk. This report consists of the characterization and dismantlement data sheets.

  4. Advanced technological components enhance the performance of coal and oil gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, H.J.; Buxel, M.; Kaiser, V.; Jass, K.H.; Liu, C.; Hanke, H.; Poloszyk, K.

    1997-12-31

    The gasification of coal has been carried out on an industrial scale for a long time. During the past two decades, gasification processes of the so-called second generation were developed to produce synthesis gas or fuel gas from solid and viscous feedstocks at an elevated pressure. These processes offer a wide variety of applications. The preferred feedstocks are coal of different types and heavy hydrocarbons including heavy fuel oil and heavy residues from oil refining as well as natural bitumen. The main components of the crude gas are CO and H{sub 2} in a molar ratio between 1 and 2, depending on the type of feedstock and the gasification principle applied. In downstream facilities, the crude gas is conditioned so as to meet the requirements of the final products: pure hydrogen, the group of synthesis products and fuel gas for power and heat generation, preferably by the combined cycle principle (IGCC). The second-generation gasification processes have furnished proof of their technical feasibility, but have to compete against alternative gas generation technologies such as steam reforming using natural gas as the feedstock. In view of this situation, operational aspects such as plant reliability, efficient energy utilization and optimum reduction of emission levels are gaining increasing importance. Based on practical experience, several key components have been developed, continuously improved and optimized for coal and oil gasification units, with the result of a very positive plant performance. The technical background and the results of this development work will be explained in more detail. Process configuration and special process elements of the Texaco Gasification process are described.

  5. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  6. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and waste management technology development program plan: 1994 Update

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until April 1992, the major activity of the ICPP was the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium and the management of the resulting high-level wastes (HLW). In 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the continued safe management and disposition of SNF and radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3,800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons heavy metal of SNF are in inventory at the ICPP. Disposal of SNF and high-level waste (HLW) is planned for a repository. Preparation of SNF, HLW, and other radioactive wastes for disposal may include mechanical, physical, and/or chemical processes. This plan outlines the program strategy of the ICPP spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development Program (SF&WMTDP) to develop and demonstrate the technology required to ensure that SNF and radioactive waste will be properly stored and prepared for final disposal in accordance with regulatory drivers. This Plan presents a brief summary of each of the major elements of the SF&WMTDP; identifies key program assumptions and their bases; and outlines the key activities and decisions that must be completed to identify, develop, demonstrate, and implement a process(es) that will properly prepare the SNF and radioactive wastes stored at the ICPP for safe and efficient interim storage and final disposal.

  7. The content of macro- and microelements and the phosphatase activity of soils under a varied plant cultivation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowiak, A.; Lemanowicz, J.; Kobierski, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of the analyses of selected physicochemical properties and the activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the soils which differed in terms of plant cultivation technology. Profile sI represented arable land in the crop rotation with cereals dominating (medium intensive technology), without irrigation, while profile sII—represented arable land with vegetable crops cultivation (intensive technology), intensively fertilized and irrigated. The content of available phosphorus in the two soil profiles investigated ranged from 6.6 to 69.1 mg/kg. The highest contents of phosphorus available to plants were reported in the plough horizon of both soils, while the abundance of potassium and magnesium was highest in the illuvial horizon of both soils. The soil profiles investigated showed a significant variation in terms of the cultivation technologies applied. The contents of plant-available Cu and Zn in soil were low and they resulted in the inhibition of neither alkaline nor acid phosphatase. The intensive vegetable crops cultivation technology decreased the content of organic matter and increased the content of the nutrients in soil. Using the Ward method, it was found that relatively similar physicochemical and chemical properties were reported for the genetic horizons of both soil profiles, especially Ap horizon of the soil representing arable land with intensive cultivation of vegetable crops.

  8. Next Generation Sequencing Technologies: The Doorway to the Unexplored Genomics of Non-Model Plants

    PubMed Central

    Unamba, Chibuikem I. N.; Nag, Akshay; Sharma, Ram K.

    2015-01-01

    Non-model plants i.e., the species which have one or all of the characters such as long life cycle, difficulty to grow in the laboratory or poor fecundity, have been schemed out of sequencing projects earlier, due to high running cost of Sanger sequencing. Consequently, the information about their genomics and key biological processes are inadequate. However, the advent of fast and cost effective next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in the recent past has enabled the unearthing of certain characteristic gene structures unique to these species. It has also aided in gaining insight about mechanisms underlying processes of gene expression and secondary metabolism as well as facilitated development of genomic resources for diversity characterization, evolutionary analysis and marker assisted breeding even without prior availability of genomic sequence information. In this review we explore how different Next Gen Sequencing platforms, as well as recent advances in NGS based high throughput genotyping technologies are rewarding efforts on de-novo whole genome/transcriptome sequencing, development of genome wide sequence based markers resources for improvement of non-model crops that are less costly than phenotyping. PMID:26734016

  9. Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A

    2016-05-01

    Genetic engineering with just a few genes has changed agriculture in the last 20 years. The most frequently used transgenes are the herbicide resistance genes for efficient weed control and the Bt toxin genes for insect resistance. The adoption of the first-generation genetically engineered crops has been very successful in improving farming practices, reducing the application of pesticides that are harmful to both human health and the environment, and producing more profit for farmers. However, there is more potential for genetic engineering to be realized by technical advances. The recent development of plant artificial chromosome technology provides a super vector platform, which allows the management of a large number of genes for the next generation of genetic engineering. With the development of other tools such as gene assembly, genome editing, gene targeting and chromosome delivery systems, it should become possible to engineer crops with multiple genes to produce more agricultural products with less input of natural resources to meet future demands.

  10. Plant artificial chromosome technology and its potential application in genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weichang; Yau, Yuan-Yeu; Birchler, James A

    2016-05-01

    Genetic engineering with just a few genes has changed agriculture in the last 20 years. The most frequently used transgenes are the herbicide resistance genes for efficient weed control and the Bt toxin genes for insect resistance. The adoption of the first-generation genetically engineered crops has been very successful in improving farming practices, reducing the application of pesticides that are harmful to both human health and the environment, and producing more profit for farmers. However, there is more potential for genetic engineering to be realized by technical advances. The recent development of plant artificial chromosome technology provides a super vector platform, which allows the management of a large number of genes for the next generation of genetic engineering. With the development of other tools such as gene assembly, genome editing, gene targeting and chromosome delivery systems, it should become possible to engineer crops with multiple genes to produce more agricultural products with less input of natural resources to meet future demands. PMID:26369910

  11. Invariant Control of the Technological Plants to Compensate an Impact of Main Disturbances Preemptively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sniders, A.; Laizans, A.; Komass, T.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers a survey of the research procedures and results due to invariant control method application perspective for operation quality advancement in several technological plants (wastewater biological treatment tanks and water steam production boilers), which operate under influence of organised and random disturbances. A specified subject of research is the simulation model of the multi-link invariant control system for steam pressure stabilisation in a steam boiler by preemptive compensation of steam load and feed water flow impact on output parameter (steam pressure), developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Simulation block-diagram of the steam boiler invariant control system, containing closed loop PID control circuit and open loop DPC circuit, has been composed on the basis of the designed mathematical model of the system components, disturbance compensation algorithms, and operational equation of the invariant control system. Comparative response of the steam boiler, operating under influence of fluctuating disturbances, with conventional PID control and using PID-DPC control with disturbance compensation controller DPC, has been investigated. Simulation results of invariant PID - DPC control system show that output parameter of the steam boiler - pressure remains practically constant under fluctuating disturbances due to a high-speed response of DPC controller.

  12. Quantitative risk assessment integrated with process simulator for a new technology of methanol production plant using recycled CO₂.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Julia; Vaz, Carlos André; de Souza, Maurício Bezerra

    2014-06-15

    The use of process simulators can contribute with quantitative risk assessment (QRA) by minimizing expert time and large volume of data, being mandatory in the case of a future plant. This work illustrates the advantages of this association by integrating UNISIM DESIGN simulation and QRA to investigate the acceptability of a new technology of a Methanol Production Plant in a region. The simulated process was based on the hydrogenation of chemically sequestered carbon dioxide, demanding stringent operational conditions (high pressures and temperatures) and involving the production of hazardous materials. The estimation of the consequences was performed using the PHAST software, version 6.51. QRA results were expressed in terms of individual and social risks. Compared to existing tolerance levels, the risks were considered tolerable in nominal conditions of operation of the plant. The use of the simulator in association with the QRA also allowed testing the risk in new operating conditions in order to delimit safe regions for the plant.

  13. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 4: Heat Sources, balance of plant and auxiliary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information established for heat sources balance of plant items, thermal energy storage, and heat pumps are presented. Design case descriptions are given along with projected performance values. Capital cost estimates for representative cogeneration plants are also presented.

  14. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted mutagenesis, gene replacement and stacking of genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mutagenesis continues to play an essential role for understanding plant gene function and, in some instances, provides an opportunity for plant improvement. The development of gene editing technologies such as TALENs and zinc fingers has revolutionised the targeted mutation specificity that can now be achieved. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is the most recent addition to gene editing technologies and arguably the simplest requiring only two components; a small guide RNA molecule (sgRNA) and Cas9 endonuclease protein which complex to recognise and cleave a specific 20 bp target site present in a genome. Target specificity is determined by complementary base pairing between the sgRNA and target site sequence enabling highly specific, targeted mutation to be readily engineered. Upon target site cleavage, error-prone endogenous repair mechanisms produce small insertion/deletions at the target site usually resulting in loss of gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has been rapidly adopted in plants and successfully undertaken in numerous species including major crop species. Its applications are not restricted to mutagenesis and target site cleavage can be exploited to promote sequence insertion or replacement by recombination. The multiple applications of this technology in plants are described. PMID:27146973

  15. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for targeted mutagenesis, gene replacement and stacking of genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ming; Gilbert, Brian; Ayliffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Mutagenesis continues to play an essential role for understanding plant gene function and, in some instances, provides an opportunity for plant improvement. The development of gene editing technologies such as TALENs and zinc fingers has revolutionised the targeted mutation specificity that can now be achieved. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is the most recent addition to gene editing technologies and arguably the simplest requiring only two components; a small guide RNA molecule (sgRNA) and Cas9 endonuclease protein which complex to recognise and cleave a specific 20 bp target site present in a genome. Target specificity is determined by complementary base pairing between the sgRNA and target site sequence enabling highly specific, targeted mutation to be readily engineered. Upon target site cleavage, error-prone endogenous repair mechanisms produce small insertion/deletions at the target site usually resulting in loss of gene function. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing has been rapidly adopted in plants and successfully undertaken in numerous species including major crop species. Its applications are not restricted to mutagenesis and target site cleavage can be exploited to promote sequence insertion or replacement by recombination. The multiple applications of this technology in plants are described.

  16. A technical, economic, and environmental assessment of amine-based CO2 capture technology for power plant greenhouse gas control.

    PubMed

    Rao, Anand B; Rubin, Edward S

    2002-10-15

    Capture and sequestration of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO2 absorption system for postcombustion flue gas applications have been developed and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multipollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO2 capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO2 storage. The CO2 avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO2 capture cost was afforded by the SO2 emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multipollutant environmental management.

  17. A TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AMINE-BASED CO2 CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY FOR POWER PLANT GREENHOUSE GAS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Edward S. Rubin; Anand B. Rao

    2002-10-01

    Capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel power plants is gaining widespread interest as a potential method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. Performance and cost models of an amine (MEA)-based CO{sub 2} absorption system for post-combustion flue gas applications have been developed, and integrated with an existing power plant modeling framework that includes multi-pollutant control technologies for other regulated emissions. The integrated model has been applied to study the feasibility and cost of carbon capture and sequestration at both new and existing coal-burning power plants. The cost of carbon avoidance was shown to depend strongly on assumptions about the reference plant design, details of the CO{sub 2} capture system design, interactions with other pollution control systems, and method of CO{sub 2} storage. The CO{sub 2} avoidance cost for retrofit systems was found to be generally higher than for new plants, mainly because of the higher energy penalty resulting from less efficient heat integration, as well as site-specific difficulties typically encountered in retrofit applications. For all cases, a small reduction in CO{sub 2} capture cost was afforded by the SO{sub 2} emission trading credits generated by amine-based capture systems. Efforts are underway to model a broader suite of carbon capture and sequestration technologies for more comprehensive assessments in the context of multi-pollutant environmental management.

  18. Improved Performance of an Air Cooled Condenser (ACC) Using SPX Wind Guide Technology at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2010-12-31

    This project added a new airflow enhancement technology to an existing ACC cooling process at a selected coal power plant. Airflow parameters and efficiency improvement for the main plant cooling process using the applied technology were determined and compared with the capabilities of existing systems. The project required significant planning and pre-test execution in order to reach the required Air Cooled Condenser system configuration for evaluation. A host Power Plant ACC system had to be identified, agreement finalized, and addition of the SPX ACC Wind Guide Technology completed on that site. Design of the modification, along with procurement, fabrication, instrumentation, and installation of the new airflow enhancement technology were executed. Baseline and post-modification cooling system data was collected and evaluated. The improvement of ACC thermal performance after SPX wind guide installation was clear. Testing of the improvement indicates there is a 5% improvement in heat transfer coefficient in high wind conditions and 1% improvement at low wind speed. The benefit increased with increasing wind speed. This project was completed on schedule and within budget.

  19. APPLICATION OF THE LASAGNA{trademark} SOIL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGY AT THE DOE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, Barry D.; Tarantino, Joseph J., P. E.

    2003-02-27

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), owned by the Department of Energy (DOE), has been enriching uranium since the early 1950s. The enrichment process involves electrical and mechanical components that require periodic cleaning. The primary cleaning agent was trichloroethene (TCE) until the late 1980s. Historical documentation indicates that a mixture of TCE and dry ice were used at PGDP for testing the integrity of steel cylinders, which stored depleted uranium. TCE and dry ice were contained in a below-ground pit and used during the integrity testing. TCE seeped from the pit and contaminated the surrounding soil. The Lasagna{trademark} technology was identified in the Record of Decision (ROD) as the selected alternative for remediation of the cylinder testing site. A public-private consortium formed in 1992 (including DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Kentucky Department for Environmental Protection, Monsanto, DuPont, and General Electric) developed the Lasagna{trademark} technology. This innovative technology employs electrokinetics to remediate soil contaminated with organics and is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils. This technology uses direct current to move water through the soil faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods. Electrokinetics moves contaminants in soil pore water through treatment zones comprised of iron filings, where the contaminants are decomposed to basic chemical compounds such as ethane. After three years of development in the laboratory, the consortium field tested the Lasagna{trademark} process in several phases. CDM installed and operated Phase I, the trial installation and field test of a 150-square-foot area selected for a 120-day run in 1995. Approximately 98 percent of the TCE was removed. CDM then installed and operated the next phase (IIa), a year-long test on a 600-square-foot site. Completed in July 1997, this test removed 75 percent of the total volume of TCE down to a

  20. Nitrogen removal by recycle water nitritation as an attractive alternative for retrofit technologies in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gil, K I; Choi, E

    2004-01-01

    The recycle water from sludge processing in municipal wastewater treatment plants causes many serious problems in the efficiency and stability of the mainstream process. Thus, the design approach for recycle water is an important part of any biological nutrient removal system design when a retrofit technology is required for upgrading an existing plant. Moreover, the application of nitrogen removal from recycle water using the nitritation process has recently increased due to economic reasons associated with an effective carbon allocation as well as the minimization of aeration costs. However, for the actual application of recycle water nitritation, it has not been fully examined whether or not additional volume would be required in an existing plant. In this paper, the addition of recycle water nitritation to an existing plant was evaluated based on a volume analysis and estimation of final effluent quality. It was expected that using the reserve volume of the aeration tank in existing plants, recycle water nitritation could be applied to a plant without any enlargement. With the addition of recycle water nitritation, it was estimated that the final effluent quality would be improved and stabilized, especially in the winter season.

  1. U.S. DOE Industrial Technologies Program – Technology Delivery Plant-Wide Assessment at PPG Industries, Natrium, WV

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, Stephen R.; Wiethe, Jeff; Green, Russell; Guice, Christina; Gopalakrishnan, Bhaskaran; Turton, Richard

    2007-09-28

    PPG and West Virginia University performed a plantwide energy assessment at the PPG’s Natrium, WV chemical plant, an energy-intensive manufacturing facility producing chlor-alkali and related products. Implementation of all the assessment recommendations contained in this report could reduce plant energy consumption by 8.7%, saving an estimated 10,023,192 kWh/yr in electricity, 6,113 MM Btu/yr in Natural Gas, 401,156 M lb/yr in steam and 23,494 tons/yr in coal and reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 241 mm lb/yr. The total cost savings would amount to approximately $2.9 mm/yr. Projects being actively implemented will save $1.7 mm/yr; the remainder are undergoing more detailed engineering study.

  2. Control of SO{sub 2} emissions from power plants: A case of induced technological innovation in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.R.; Rubin, E.S.; Hounshell, D.A.

    2005-07-01

    This paper investigates how the details of government actions induce innovation-the overlapping activities of invention, adoption and diffusion, and learning by doing-in 'environmental technology,' products and processes that either control pollutant emissions or prevent emissions altogether. It applies multiple quantitative and qualitative measures of innovation to a case subject to several 'technology - push' and 'demand-pull', instruments: sulfur dioxide control technology for power plants. The study employs analyses of public R&D funding, patents, expert interviews, learning curves, conference proceedings, and experience curves. Results indicate that: regulation and the anticipation of regulation stimulate invention; technology-push instruments appear to be less effective at prompting invention than demand-pull instruments; and regulatory stringency focuses inventive activity along certain technology pathways. Increased diffusion of the technology results in significant and predictable operating cost reductions in existing systems, as well as notable efficiency improvements and capital cost reductions in new systems. Government plays an important role in fostering knowledge transfer via technical conferences, as well as affecting the pattern of collaborative relationships within the technical research community via regulatory changes that affect the market for the technology. Finally, the case provides little evidence for the claim that cap-and-trade instruments induce innovation more effectively than other instruments.

  3. Amplicon-plus targeting technology (APTT) for rapid production of a highly unstable vaccine protein in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Azhakanandam, Kasi; Weissinger, Sandra M; Nicholson, Jennifer S; Qu, Rongda; Weissinger, Arthur K

    2007-02-01

    High-level expression of transgenes is essential for cost-effective production of valuable pharmaceutical proteins in plants. However, transgenic proteins often accumulate in plants at low levels. Low levels of protein accumulation can be caused by many factors including post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and/or rapid turnover of the transgenic proteins. We have developed an Amplicon-plus Targeting Technology (APTT), by using novel combination of known techniques that appears to overcome both of these factors. By using this technology, we have successfully expressed the highly-labile L1 protein of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV L1) by infecting transgenic tobacco plants expressing a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) with a PVX amplicon carrying a gene encoding L1, and targeting the vaccine protein into the chloroplasts. Further, a scalable "wound-and-agrospray" inoculation method has been developed that will permit high-throughput Agrobacterium inoculation of Nicotiana tabacum, and a spray-only method (named "agrospray") for use with N. benthamiana to allow large-scale application of this technology. The good yield and short interval from inoculation to harvest characteristic of APTT, combined with the potential for high-throughput achieved by use of the agrospray inoculation protocol, make this system a very promising technology for producing high value recombinant proteins, especially those known to be highly labile, in plants for a wide range of applications including producing vaccines against rapidly evolving pathogens and for the rapid response needed to meet bio-defense emergencies. PMID:17221361

  4. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  5. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  6. MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents and analyzes various existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and mercury (Hg)] emission reductions. Summary descriptions are included of 23 multipollutant control technologies that...

  7. THE USE OF CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS, THIS MODULE IS SPECIFICALLY CONCERNED WITH CHEMICALS AS PLANT REGULATORS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF DATA FROM STATE STUDIES. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1) CHEMICALS AS MODIFIERS OF PLANT GROWTH, (2)…

  8. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the trichloroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were inst...

  9. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants - Public Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Dylan C. P.

    2013-08-15

    Executive Summary This Final Report for the "Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants” describes the overall project accomplishments, results and conclusions. Phase 1 analyzed the feasibility, cost and performance of a parabolic trough solar power plant with a molten salt heat transfer fluid (HTF); researched and/or developed feasible component options, detailed cost estimates and workable operating procedures; and developed hourly performance models. As a result, a molten salt plant with 6 hours of storage was shown to reduce Thermal Energy Storage (TES) cost by 43.2%, solar field cost by 14.8%, and levelized cost of energy (LCOE) by 9.8% - 14.5% relative to a similar state-of-the-art baseline plant. The LCOE savings range met the project’s Go/No Go criteria of 10% LCOE reduction. Another primary focus of Phase 1 and 2 was risk mitigation. The large risk areas associated with a molten salt parabolic trough plant were addressed in both Phases, such as; HTF freeze prevention and recovery, collector components and piping connections, and complex component interactions. Phase 2 analyzed in more detail the technical and economic feasibility of a 140 MWe,gross molten-salt CSP plant with 6 hours of TES. Phase 2 accomplishments included developing technical solutions to the above mentioned risk areas, such as freeze protection/recovery, corrosion effects of applicable molten salts, collector design improvements for molten salt, and developing plant operating strategies for maximized plant performance and freeze risk mitigation. Phase 2 accomplishments also included developing and thoroughly analyzing a molten salt, Parabolic Trough power plant performance model, in order to achieve the project cost and performance targets. The plant performance model and an extensive basic Engineering, Procurement, and Construction (EPC) quote were used to calculate a real levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of 11.50

  10. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP

  11. Production of novel biopolymers in plants: recent technological advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Snell, Kristi D; Singh, Vijay; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2015-04-01

    The production of novel biopolymers in plants has the potential to provide renewable sources of industrial materials through agriculture. In this review we will highlight recent progress with plant-based production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), silk, elastin, collagen, and cyanophycin with an emphasis on the synthesis of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB), a renewable biodegradable PHA polymer with potential commercial applications in plastics, chemicals, and feed markets. Improved production of PHB has required manipulation of promoters driving expression of transgenes, reduction in activity of endogenous enzymes in competing metabolic pathways, insertion of genes to increase carbon flow to polymer, and basic plant biochemistry to understand metabolic limitations. These experiments have increased our understanding of carbon availability and partitioning in different plant organelles, cell types, and organs, information that is useful for the production of other novel molecules in plants.

  12. Production of novel biopolymers in plants: recent technological advances and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Snell, Kristi D; Singh, Vijay; Brumbley, Stevens M

    2015-04-01

    The production of novel biopolymers in plants has the potential to provide renewable sources of industrial materials through agriculture. In this review we will highlight recent progress with plant-based production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), silk, elastin, collagen, and cyanophycin with an emphasis on the synthesis of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB), a renewable biodegradable PHA polymer with potential commercial applications in plastics, chemicals, and feed markets. Improved production of PHB has required manipulation of promoters driving expression of transgenes, reduction in activity of endogenous enzymes in competing metabolic pathways, insertion of genes to increase carbon flow to polymer, and basic plant biochemistry to understand metabolic limitations. These experiments have increased our understanding of carbon availability and partitioning in different plant organelles, cell types, and organs, information that is useful for the production of other novel molecules in plants. PMID:25437636

  13. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes.

  14. Steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment refining technology of plant biomass to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Pretreatment is a key unit operation affecting the refinery efficiency of plant biomass. However, the poor efficiency of pretreatment and the lack of basic theory are the main challenges to the industrial implementation of the plant biomass refinery. The purpose of this work is to review steam explosion and its combinatorial pretreatment as a means of overcoming the intrinsic characteristics of plant biomass, including recalcitrance, heterogeneity, multi-composition, and diversity. The main advantages of the selective use of steam explosion and other combinatorial pretreatments across the diversity of raw materials are introduced. Combinatorial pretreatment integrated with other unit operations is proposed as a means to exploit the high-efficiency production of bio-based products from plant biomass. Finally, several pilot- and demonstration-scale operations of the plant biomass refinery are described. Based on the principle of selective function and structure fractionation, and multi-level and directional composition conversion, an integrated process with the combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments as the core should be feasible and conform to the plant biomass refinery concept. Combinatorial pretreatments of steam explosion and other pretreatments should be further exploited based on the type and intrinsic characteristics of the plant biomass used, the bio-based products to be made, and the complementarity of the processes. PMID:25904087

  15. Biosecurity Implications of New Technology and Discovery in Plant Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    MacDiarmid, Robin; Rodoni, Brendan; Melcher, Ulrich; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco; Roossinck, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Human activity is causing new encounters between viruses and plants. Anthropogenic interventions include changing land use, decreasing biodiversity, trade, the introduction of new plant and vector species to native landscapes, and changing atmospheric and climatic conditions. The discovery of thousands of new viruses, especially those associated with healthy-appearing native plants, is shifting the paradigm for their role within the ecosystem from foe to friend. The cost of new plant virus incursions can be high and result in the loss of trade and/or production for short or extended periods. We present and justify three recommendations for plant biosecurity to improve communication about plant viruses, assist with the identification of viruses and their impacts, and protect the high economic, social, environmental, and cultural value of our respective nations' unique flora: 1) As part of the burden of proof, countries and jurisdictions should identify what pests already exist in, and which pests pose a risk to, their native flora; 2) Plant virus sequences not associated with a recognized virus infection are designated as “uncultured virus” and tentatively named using the host plant species of greatest known prevalence, the word “virus,” a general location identifier, and a serial number; and 3) Invest in basic research to determine the ecology of known and new viruses with existing and potential new plant hosts and vectors and develop host-virus pathogenicity prediction tools. These recommendations have implications for researchers, risk analysts, biosecurity authorities, and policy makers at both a national and an international level. PMID:23950706

  16. Technology Issues and Benefits of a Fast Ignition Power Plant with Cone Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, W J; Meier, W R

    2003-08-29

    The use of cone focus, fast ignition targets, either for direct or indirect drive, promises to lower the required driver size and relax the symmetry requirements in IFE power plants. It may also allow use of chamber concepts previously thought infeasible with a laser driver. These benefits will lower the COE and make IFE plants more competitive at smaller size. Their use also raises unique issues that will impact the design and development of power plant subsystems. Cone targets have a significant mass of high Z material whether or not they have a hohlraum and they are not spherically symmetric. This has implications for target injection, tracking and chamber background gas allowable.

  17. Dual roles of infrared imaging on a university campus: serving the physical plant while enhancing a technology-based curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jonathan J.

    2001-03-01

    The campus of a comprehensive, residential university is in many respects a small city unto itself. All the amenities and services one would expect in a typical community are readily available on a college campus, including residences, athletic and dining facilities, libraries, and stores. A large campus, therefore, requires a reliable energy plant to provide steam, hot water, chilled water, and electricity. James Madison University supports two power plants: a vintage steam plant and a modern resource recovery facility comprising two solid-waste incinerators and two gas-fired units for steam generation, three steam-driven absorption- chilling units, and a single steam-driven generator for peak electricity production. Infrared imaging, as a teaching tool, was introduced in the Program of Integrated Science and Technology at James Madison University in 1997. The Infrared Development and Thermal Testing Laboratory was established at the university later in 1997 with government and industry support, and it is presently equipped with infrared imagers and scanners, single-point detectors, and data-acquisition systems. A study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 to test the economic feasibility of implementing an IR-based predictive maintenance program in the university steam plant. This paper describes the opportunities created at James Madison University to develop IR-based predictive maintenance programs that enhance the operation of the university energy plants; to establish IR-related research and development activities that support government and industry activities; and to enhance a science- and technology-based curriculum by way of unique, IR-based laboratory experiences and demonstrations.

  18. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology (OTEC) with nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, M.K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The prospects of utilizing an OTEC Related Bottoming Cycle to recover waste heat generated by a large nuclear (or fossil) power plant are examined. With such improvements, OTEC can become a major energy contributor. 12 refs.

  19. Strategies for altering plant traits using virus-induced gene silencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lacomme, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis in model and crop plants has made possible the identification of a vast number of genes potentially associated with economically important complex traits. The ultimate goal is to assign functions to these genes by using forward and reverse genetic screens. Plant viruses have been developed for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate rapid gene knockdown phenotypes in numerous plant species. To fulfill its potential for high-throughput phenomics, it is of prime importance to ensure that parameters conditioning the VIGS response, i.e., plant-virus interactions and associated loss-of-function screens, are "fit for purpose" and optimized to unequivocally conclude the role of a gene of interest in relation to a given trait. This chapter will review and discuss the different strategies used for the development of VIGS-based phenomics in model and crop species. PMID:25740354

  20. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology /OTEC/ with nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C. S.

    The use of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Related Bottoming Cycle (ORBC) to recover the waste heat generated by a large nuclear or fossil power plant is considered. To take advantage of an ORBC, a plant must be located close to cold, deep ocean water, either open-ocean or shore-based. The ORBC can also be retrofitted to existing shore-based nuclear plants or it can be a part of the design of future plants. The increased efficiency of a nuclear floating system due to the ammonia bottoming cycle and ORBC systems is shown for the example of the proposed facility in Murata, Japan. It is noted that the size of the heat exchangers and the diameter of the cold water pipe would be relatively smaller for an ORBC than for a conventional ocean thermal energy conversion system.

  1. Strategies for altering plant traits using virus-induced gene silencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lacomme, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The rapid progress in genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis in model and crop plants has made possible the identification of a vast number of genes potentially associated with economically important complex traits. The ultimate goal is to assign functions to these genes by using forward and reverse genetic screens. Plant viruses have been developed for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate rapid gene knockdown phenotypes in numerous plant species. To fulfill its potential for high-throughput phenomics, it is of prime importance to ensure that parameters conditioning the VIGS response, i.e., plant-virus interactions and associated loss-of-function screens, are "fit for purpose" and optimized to unequivocally conclude the role of a gene of interest in relation to a given trait. This chapter will review and discuss the different strategies used for the development of VIGS-based phenomics in model and crop species.

  2. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  3. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on "New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  4. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  5. Evaluating odour control technologies using reliability and sustainability criteria--a case study for water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kraakman, N J R; Estrada, J M; Lebrero, R; Cesca, J; Muñoz, R

    2014-01-01

    Technologies for odour control have been widely reviewed and their optimal range of application and performance has been clearly established. Selection criteria, mainly driven by process economics, are usually based on the air flow volume, the inlet concentrations and the required removal efficiency. However, these criteria are shifting with social and environmental issues becoming as important as process economics. A methodology is illustrated to quantify sustainability and robustness of odour control technology in the context of odour control at wastewater treatment or water recycling plants. The most commonly used odour abatement techniques (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling filtration coupled with activated carbon adsorption) are evaluated in terms of: (1) sustainability, with quantification of process economics, environmental performance and social impact using the sustainability metrics of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; (2) sensitivity towards design and operating parameters like utility prices (energy and labour), inlet odour concentration (H2S) and design safety (gas contact time); (3) robustness, quantifications of operating reliability, with recommendations to improve reliability during their lifespan of operations. The results show that the odour treatment technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs, which means that the net present value (NPV) should be used as a selection criterion rather than investment costs. Economies of scale are more important in biotechniques (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration) as, at increased airflows, their reduction in overall costs over 20 years (NPV20) is more extreme when compared to the physical/chemical technologies (chemical scrubbing and activated carbon filtration). Due to their low NPV and their low environmental impact, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling

  6. Evaluating odour control technologies using reliability and sustainability criteria--a case study for water treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kraakman, N J R; Estrada, J M; Lebrero, R; Cesca, J; Muñoz, R

    2014-01-01

    Technologies for odour control have been widely reviewed and their optimal range of application and performance has been clearly established. Selection criteria, mainly driven by process economics, are usually based on the air flow volume, the inlet concentrations and the required removal efficiency. However, these criteria are shifting with social and environmental issues becoming as important as process economics. A methodology is illustrated to quantify sustainability and robustness of odour control technology in the context of odour control at wastewater treatment or water recycling plants. The most commonly used odour abatement techniques (biofiltration, biotrickling filtration, activated carbon adsorption, chemical scrubbing, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling filtration coupled with activated carbon adsorption) are evaluated in terms of: (1) sustainability, with quantification of process economics, environmental performance and social impact using the sustainability metrics of the Institution of Chemical Engineers; (2) sensitivity towards design and operating parameters like utility prices (energy and labour), inlet odour concentration (H2S) and design safety (gas contact time); (3) robustness, quantifications of operating reliability, with recommendations to improve reliability during their lifespan of operations. The results show that the odour treatment technologies with the highest investments presented the lowest operating costs, which means that the net present value (NPV) should be used as a selection criterion rather than investment costs. Economies of scale are more important in biotechniques (biofiltration and biotrickling filtration) as, at increased airflows, their reduction in overall costs over 20 years (NPV20) is more extreme when compared to the physical/chemical technologies (chemical scrubbing and activated carbon filtration). Due to their low NPV and their low environmental impact, activated sludge diffusion and biotrickling

  7. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant Operator Advisor based on artificial intelligence technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Group in the Nuclear Engineering Program has designed and built an Operator Advisor (OA), an AI system to monitor nuclear power plant parameters, detect component and system malfunctions, dispose their causes, and provide the plant operators with the correct procedures for mitigating the consequences of the malfunctions. It then monitors performance of the procedures, and provides backup steps when specific operator actions fail. The OA has been implemented on Sun 4 workstations in Common Lisp, and has been interfaced to run in real time on the Perry Nuclear Power Plant full-function simulator in the plant training department. The eventual goal for a fully functioning Operator Advisor would be to have reactor operators receive direction for all plant operations. Such a goal requires considerable testing of the system within limited malfunction boundaries, an extensive Verification Validation (V V) effort, a large knowledge base development effort, and development of tools as part of the system to automate its maintenance. Clearly, these efforts are beyond the scope of the feasibility effort expended during this project period. However, as a result of this project, we have an AI based platform upon which a complete system can be built.

  8. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  9. Human Resource Development and New Technology in the Automobile Industry: A Case Study of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant. The Development and Utilization of Human Resources in the Context of Technological Change and Industrial Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Kan; And Others

    This report centers around a plant-level study of the development and utilization of human resources in the context of technological change and industrial restructuring in the crankshaft production area of Ford Motor Company's Dearborn Engine Plant (DEP). The introductory chapter describes how the study was conducted, provides an introduction to…

  10. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part A. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  11. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part E. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  12. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part D. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  13. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part B. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  14. Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, Vol. II, Part C. An Instructor's Guide for Use of Instructional Material in Wastewater Technology Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoakes, K. C.; And Others

    This instructor's guide, designed for use with the curriculum, Plant Operations for Wastewater Facilities, represents a two-year wastewater technology instructional program based on performance objectives designed to prepare undergraduate students to enter occupations in water and wastewater treatment plant operations and maintenance. This…

  15. Plant stress biomarkers from biosimulations: the Transcriptome-To-Metabolome (TTM) technology - effects of drought stress on rice.

    PubMed

    Phelix, C F; Feltus, F A

    2015-01-01

    Measuring biomarkers from plant tissue samples is challenging and expensive when the desire is to integrate transcriptomics, fluxomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, proteomics, physiomics and phenomics. We present a computational biology method where only the transcriptome needs to be measured and is used to derive a set of parameters for deterministic kinetic models of metabolic pathways. The technology is called Transcriptome-To-Metabolome (TTM) biosimulations, currently under commercial development, but available for non-commercial use by researchers. The simulated results on metabolites of 30 primary and secondary metabolic pathways in rice (Oryza sativa) were used as the biomarkers to predict whether the transcriptome was from a plant that had been under drought conditions. The rice transcriptomes were accessed from public archives and each individual plant was simulated. This unique quality of the TTM technology allows standard analyses on biomarker assessments, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve and area under the ROC curve (AUC). Two validation methods were also used, the holdout and 10-fold cross validations. Initially 17 metabolites were identified as candidate biomarkers based on either statistical significance on binary phenotype when compared with control samples or recognition from the literature. The top three biomarkers based on AUC were gibberellic acid 12 (0.89), trehalose (0.80) and sn1-palmitate-sn2-oleic-phosphatidylglycerol (0.70). Neither heat map analyses of transcriptomes nor all 300 metabolites clustered the stressed and control groups effectively. The TTM technology allows the emergent properties of the integrated system to generate unique and useful 'Omics' information.

  16. High-pressure processing as emergent technology for the extraction of bioactive ingredients from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Jun, Xi

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure processing is a food processing technique that has shown great potentials in the food industry. Recently, it was developed to extract bioactive ingredients from plant materials, known as ultrahigh pressure extraction (UPE), taking advantages of time saving, higher extraction yields, fewer impurities in the extraction solution, minimal heat and can avoid thermal degradation on the activity and structure of bioactive components, and so on. This review provides an overview of the developments in the UPE of bioactive ingredients from plant material. Apart from a brief presentation of the theories of UPE and extraction equipment systems, the principal parameters that influence the extraction efficiency to be optimized in the UPE (e.g., solvent, pressure, temperature, extraction time, and the number of cycle) were discussed in detail, and finally the more recent applications of UPE for the extraction of active compounds from plant materials were summarized.

  17. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  18. The Weatherby Processing plant reaps big benefits from state-of-the-art technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, R.C.; Raines, J.

    2006-10-15

    In the fall of 2003, the Weatherby Processing plant in Kanawha County, WV, USA launched a program to evaluate the overall operation and efficiency of its two heavy-medium cyclones circuits processing 2-inch x 0 raw coal with the intention of reducing coal losses misplaced to refuse. A plant sampling program was developed and conducted that provided the basis for the plant upgrade, which included the installation of a raw coal sizing screen, the establishment of coarse and fine heavy-medium cyclones circuits, a compound spirals circuit, and a column flotation circuit. The upgraded flowsheet resulted in a major improvement in separation efficiency as well as a significant reduction in magnetite consumption. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Row Spacing, Tillage System, and Herbicide Technology Affects Cotton Plant Growth and Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) producers are faced with numerous production choices including cotton varieties, herbicide technology, tillage systems, and row spacing. A study was conducted to compare cotton production across conventional, glyphosate tolerant, and glufosinate tolerant varieties in ...

  20. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns.

    PubMed

    Rupesinghe, Emmanuel Janaka Rochana; Jones, Andrew; Shalliker, Ross Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan

    2016-01-20

    Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF) columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS), and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract.

  1. Gas Turbine Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Applicable to LiFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    This panel plans to cover thermal energy and electric power production issues facing our nation and the world over the next decades, with relevant technologies ranging from near term to mid-and far term.Although the main focus will be on ground based plants to provide baseload electric power, energy conversion systems (ECS) for space are also included, with solar- or nuclear energy sources for output power levels ranging tens of Watts to kilo-Watts for unmanned spacecraft, and eventual mega-Watts for lunar outposts and planetary surface colonies. Implications of these technologies on future terrestrial energy systems, combined with advanced fracking, are touched upon.Thorium based reactors, and nuclear fusion along with suitable gas turbine energy conversion systems (ECS) will also be considered by the panelists. The characteristics of the above mentioned ECS will be described, both in terms of their overall energy utilization effectiveness and also with regard to climactic effects due to exhaust emissions.

  2. The impact of advanced wastewater treatment technologies and wastewater strength on the energy consumption of large wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Timothy

    Wastewater treatment is an energy intensive process often requiring the use of advanced treatment technologies. Stricter effluent standards have resulted in an increase in the number of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with advanced treatment over time. Accordingly, associated energy consumption has also increased. Concerns about lowering operating costs for WWTPs and reducing associated greenhouse gas generation present an incentive to investigate energy use in WWTPs. This research investigated the impact of wastewater strength and the introduction of advanced treatment technologies, to replace traditional technologies on energy use to treat wastewater in WWTPs. Major unit processes were designed for a 100 MGD plant and variables controlling energy were identified and used to compute energy consumption. Except for primary clarification and plate and frame press dewatering, energy consumption computed using fundamental equations are within values in the literature. Results show that energy consumption for dissolved air flotation thickeners, centrifuges, gravity thickeners, and aeration basins are heavily influence by wastewater strength. Secondary treatment and tertiary treatment require a significant amount of energy. Secondary treatment requires 104 times the energy of preliminary treatment, 17 times the energy of solids processing, and 2.5 times the energy of tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment requires 41 times the energy of preliminary treatment, and 7 times the energy of solids processing. The results of this research provide a means of estimating energy consumption in the design and operation phase of a WWTP. By using the fundamental equations and methodology presented, alternative technologies can be compared or targeted for future energy savings implementation. Limitations of the methodology include design assumptions having to be made carefully, as well as assumptions of motor and equipment efficiencies.

  3. The Impact of Wireless Technology Feedback on Inventory Management at a Dairy Manufacturing Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    Replacing the method of counting inventory from paper count sheets to that of wireless reliably reduced the elapsed time to complete a daily inventory of the storage cooler in a dairy manufacturing plant. The handheld computers delivered immediate prompts as well as auditory and visual feedback. Reducing the time to complete the daily inventory…

  4. New technology for purging the steam generators of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Budko, I. O.; Kutdjusov, Yu. F.; Gorburov, V. I.; Rjasnyj, S. I.

    2011-07-15

    A technology for removal of undissolved impurities from a horizontal steam generator using purge water is developed on the basis of a theoretical analysis. A purge with a maximal flow rate is drawn off from the zone with the highest accumulation of sludge in the lower part of the steam generator after the main circulation pump of the corresponding loop is shut off and the temperatures of the heat transfer medium at the inlet and outlet of the steam generator have equilibrated. An improved purge configuration is used for this technology; it employs shutoff and regulator valves, periodic purge lines separated by a cutoff fixture, and a D{sub y} 100 drain union as a connector for the periodic purge. Field tests show that the efficiency of this technology for sludge removal by purge water is several times that for the standard method.

  5. Field test of manufactured gas plant remediation technologies: Thermal desorption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nakles, D.V.

    1995-11-01

    Thermal desorption uses heat to remove organic contaminants from surfaces (or pores) of solid materials. Desorption occurs when the materials are heated sufficiently to cause the organic fraction to volatilize. Effective temperatures will vary with each compound. High-molecular-weight compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) usually require more heat for desorption than low-molecular-weight compounds such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the United States, thermal desorption technologies have been applied at relatively low temperatures (300-400{degrees}F) to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils. At high temperatures (1100-1400{degrees}F), thermal desorption technology will remediate polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticide-contaminated soils.

  6. Moving forward in plant food safety and security through NanoBioSensors: Adopt or adapt biomedical technologies?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Tarun K; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Rakwal, Randeep; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Bansal, Vipul

    2015-05-01

    Plant-based foods are integral part of our day-to-day diet. Increasing world population has put forth an ever increasing demand for plant-based foods, and food security remains a major concern. Similarly, biological, chemical, and physical threats to our food and increasing regulatory demands to control the presence of foreign species in food products have made food safety a growing issue. Nanotechnology has already established its roots in diverse disciplines. However, the food industry is yet to harness the full potential of the unique capabilities offered by this next-generation technology. While there might be safety concerns in regards to integration of nanoproducts with our food products, an aspect of nanotechnology that can make remarkable contribution to different elements of the food chain is the use of nanobiosensors and diagnostic platforms for monitoring food traceability, quality, safety, and nutritional value. This brings us to an important question that whether existing diagnostic platforms that have already been well developed for biomedical and clinical application are suitable for food industry or whether the demands of the food industry are altogether different that may not allow adoption/adaptation of the existing technology. This review is an effort to raise this important "uncomfortable" yet "timely" question.

  7. Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed.

  8. Building dismantlement and site remediation at the Apollo Fuel Plant: When is technology the answer?

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo fuel plant was located in Pennsylvania on a site known to have been used continuously for stell production from before the Civil War until after World War II. Then the site became a nuclear fuel chemical processing plants. Finally it was used to convert uranium hexafluoride to various oxide fuel forms. After the fuel manufacturing operations were teminated, the processing equipment was partially decontaminated, removed, packaged and shipped to a licensed low-level radioactive waste burial site. The work was completed in 1984. In 1990 a detailed site characterization was initiated to establishe the extent of contamination and to plan the building dismantlement and soil remediation efforts. This article discusses the site characterization and remedial action at the site in the following subsections: characterization; criticality control; mobile containment; soil washing; in-process measurements; and the final outcome of the project.

  9. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for toxics best available control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    This document provides information on toxic air pollutant emissions to support the Notice of Construction for the proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) to be built at the the Department of Energy Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Because approval must be received prior to initiating construction of the facility, state and federal Clean Air Act Notices of construction are being prepared along with necessary support documentation.

  10. Solar Ethanol Demonstration Plant: report of Phase I, technology assessment and Phase II, concept selection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The solar ethanol demonstration plant is a most versatile facility for demonstrating the feasibility of on-farm, small scale ethanol production using solar energy as the primary heat source. This facility will be capable of processing the full range of feed stocks - not only the sugar and starch crops but also the cellulose feedstocks on which little data have been collected. This plant is unique in that it will be designed to permit the addition of modules (needed for the processing of cellulose and/or the demonstration of the continuous cycle) and the interchange of components such as fermenters, distillation columns, and molecular sieves which will enable comparative performance data among specific components. The feasibility of solar energy in ethanol production and the utilization of cascaded waste heat for other on-farm uses are also major design features. Engineering and cost analysis was performed to formulate a preliminary design for a unique solar ethanol demonstration plant for on-farm use. Energy requirements were calculated for a variety of starches, simple sugars, and cellulose. These requirements, in increasing order of Btu's required per gallon of ethanol produced, were simple sugars (low), grains (moderate), and cellulose (high). A complete listing of all feedstocks examined is presented. Chapter II provides the design requirements and the detailed process plant design information with flow, layout and performance information. Chapter III provides the results of the ethanol feedstock energy requirements study and chapter IV contains supporting details of the solar collector selection process. The three appendixes which follow address the ethanol fermentation process, the range of cellulose-ethanol production processes, and a detailed description of the Solar Collector performance model.

  11. Harnessing microbial gene pools to remediate persistent organic pollutants using genetically modified plants--a viable technology?

    PubMed

    Rylott, Elizabeth L; Johnston, Emily J; Bruce, Neil C

    2015-11-01

    It has been 14 years since the international community came together to legislate the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), restricting the production and use of specific chemicals that were found to be environmentally stable, often bioaccumulating, with long-term toxic effects. Efforts are continuing to remove these pollutants from the environment. While incineration and chemical treatment can be successful, these methods require the removal of tonnes of soil, at high cost, and are damaging to soil structure and microbial communities. The engineering of plants for in situ POP remediation has had highly promising results, and could be a more environmentally-friendly alternative. This review discusses the characterization of POP-degrading bacterial pathways, and how the genes responsible have been harnessed using genetic modification (GM) to introduce these same abilities into plants. Recent advances in multi-gene cloning, genome editing technologies and expression in monocot species are accelerating progress with remediation-applicable species. Examples include plants developed to degrade 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), trichloroethylene (TCE), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). However, the costs and timescales needed to gain regulatory approval, along with continued public opposition, are considerable. The benefits and challenges in this rapidly developing and promising field are discussed. PMID:26283045

  12. Cost update: Technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

    1994-06-01

    The cost estimates originally developed in NUREG/CR-1266 for commissioning a reference low-enrichment uranium fuel fabrication plant are updated from 1978 to early 1993 dollars. During this time, the costs for labor and materials increased approximately at the rate of inflation, the cost of energy increased more slowly than the rate of inflation, and the cost of low-level radioactive waste disposal increased much more rapidly than the rate of inflation. The results of the analysis indicate that the estimated costs for the immediate dismantlement and decontamination for unrestricted facility release (DECON) of the reference plant have increased from the mid-1978 value of $3.57 million to $8.08 million in 1993 with in-compact low-level radioactive waste disposal at the US Ecoloay facility near Richland, Washington. The cost estimate rises to $19.62 million with out-of-compact radioactive waste disposal at the Chem-Nuclear facility near Barnwell, South Carolina. A methodology and a formula are presented for estimating the cost of decommissioning the reference uranium fuel fabrication plant at some future time, based on these early 1993 cost estimates. The formula contains essentially the same elements as the formula given in 10 CFR 50.75 for escalating the decommissioning costs for nuclear power reactors to some future time.

  13. Recent Advances in Utilizing Transcription Factors to Improve Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Transgenic Technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Honglei; Shao, Hongbo; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs) are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions. PMID:26904044

  14. The astrocultureTM flight experiment series, validating technologies for growing plants in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Bula, R. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.; Dinauer, W. R.

    1994-11-01

    A flight experiment, ASTROCULTURETM-1 (ASC-1), to evaluate the operational characteristics and hardware performance of a porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) was flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, 25 June to 9 July, 1992. This experiment is the first in a series of planned ASTROCULTURETM flights to validate the performance of subsystems required to grow plants in microgravity environments. Results indicated that the PTNDS was capable of supplying water and nutrients to plants in microgravity and that its performance was similar in microgravity to that in 1g on Earth. The data demonstrated that water transfer rates through a rooting matrix are a function of pore size of the tubes, the degree of negative pressure on the `supply' fluid, and the pressure differential between the `supply' and `recovery' fluid loops. A slightly greater transfer rate was seem in microgravity than in 1g, but differences were likely related to the presence of hydrostatic pressure effects at 1g. Thus, this system can be used to support plant growth in microgravity or in partial gravity as on a lunar or Mars base. Additional subsystems to be evaluated in the ASTROCULTURETM flight series of experiments include lighting, humidity control and condensate recovery, temperature control, nutrient composition control, CO2 and O2 control, and gaseous contaminant control.

  15. The ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight experiment series, validating technologies for growing plants in space.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Bula, R J; Tibbitts, T W; Dinauer, W R

    1994-11-01

    A flight experiment, ASTROCULTURE(TM)-1 (ASC-1), to evaluate the operational characteristics and hardware performance of a porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) was flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, 25 June to 9 July, 1992. This experiment is the first in a series of planned ASTROCULTURE(TM) flights to validate the performance of subsystems required to grow plants in microgravity environments. Results indicated that the PTNDS was capable of supplying water and nutrients to plants in microgravity and that its performance was similar in microgravity to that in 1g on Earth. The data demonstrated that water transfer rates through a rooting matrix are a function of pore size of the tubes, the degree of negative pressure on the 'supply' fluid, and the pressure differential between the 'supply' and 'recovery' fluid loops. A slightly greater transfer rate was seen in microgravity than in 1g, but differences were likely related to the presence of hydrostatic pressure effects at 1g. Thus, this system can be used to support plant growth in microgravity or in partial gravity as on a lunar or Mars base. Additional subsystems to be evaluated in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight series of experiments include lighting, humidity control and condensate recovery, temperature control, nutrient composition control, CO2 and O2 control, and gaseous contaminant control. PMID:11540195

  16. Recent Advances in Utilizing Transcription Factors to Improve Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance by Transgenic Technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Honglei; Shao, Hongbo; Tang, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production and quality are adversely affected by various abiotic stresses worldwide and this will be exacerbated by the deterioration of global climate. To feed a growing world population, it is very urgent to breed stress-tolerant crops with higher yields and improved qualities against multiple environmental stresses. Since conventional breeding approaches had marginal success due to the complexity of stress tolerance traits, the transgenic approach is now being popularly used to breed stress-tolerant crops. So identifying and characterizing the critical genes involved in plant stress responses is an essential prerequisite for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Far beyond the manipulation of single functional gene, engineering certain regulatory genes has emerged as an effective strategy now for controlling the expression of many stress-responsive genes. Transcription factors (TFs) are good candidates for genetic engineering to breed stress-tolerant crop because of their role as master regulators of many stress-responsive genes. Many TFs belonging to families AP2/EREBP, MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP have been found to be involved in various abiotic stresses and some TF genes have also been engineered to improve stress tolerance in model and crop plants. In this review, we take five large families of TFs as examples and review the recent progress of TFs involved in plant abiotic stress responses and their potential utilization to improve multiple stress tolerance of crops in the field conditions.

  17. The ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight experiment series, validating technologies for growing plants in space.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Bula, R J; Tibbitts, T W; Dinauer, W R

    1994-11-01

    A flight experiment, ASTROCULTURE(TM)-1 (ASC-1), to evaluate the operational characteristics and hardware performance of a porous tube nutrient delivery system (PTNDS) was flown on STS-50 as part of the U.S. Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission, 25 June to 9 July, 1992. This experiment is the first in a series of planned ASTROCULTURE(TM) flights to validate the performance of subsystems required to grow plants in microgravity environments. Results indicated that the PTNDS was capable of supplying water and nutrients to plants in microgravity and that its performance was similar in microgravity to that in 1g on Earth. The data demonstrated that water transfer rates through a rooting matrix are a function of pore size of the tubes, the degree of negative pressure on the 'supply' fluid, and the pressure differential between the 'supply' and 'recovery' fluid loops. A slightly greater transfer rate was seen in microgravity than in 1g, but differences were likely related to the presence of hydrostatic pressure effects at 1g. Thus, this system can be used to support plant growth in microgravity or in partial gravity as on a lunar or Mars base. Additional subsystems to be evaluated in the ASTROCULTURE(TM) flight series of experiments include lighting, humidity control and condensate recovery, temperature control, nutrient composition control, CO2 and O2 control, and gaseous contaminant control.

  18. Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants with Advanced Technology

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    This analysis responds to a request of Senators James M. Jeffords and Joseph I. Lieberman. This report describes the impacts of technology improvements and other market-based opportunities on the costs of emissions reductions from electricity generators, including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide.

  19. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible

  20. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of 30 works of children's literature that support the topic of technology and its influences on readers' daily lives. Notes some stories tell about a time when simple tools enabled individuals to accomplish tasks, and others feature visionaries who used technology to create buildings, bridges, roads, and inventions. Considers…

  1. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

    2011-07-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  2. A Novel, Safe, and Environmentally Friendly Technology for Water Production Through Recovery of Rejected Thermal Energy From Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Yehia F.; Elimelech, Menachem

    2006-07-01

    In this work, we describe a novel design that utilizes seawater and a portion of rejected heat from a nuclear plant's steam cycle to operate a water desalination system using forward osmosis technology. Water produced from this process is of sufficient quality to be readily used to supply plant demands for continuous makeup water. The proposed process minimizes the environmental concerns associated with thermal pollution of public waters and the resulting adverse impact on marine ecology. To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this conceptual design of a water treatment process, we discuss a case study as an example to describe how the proposed design can be implemented in a nuclear power station with a once--through cooling system that discharges rejected heat to an open sound seawater as its ultimate heat sink. In this case study, the station uses a leased (vendor owned and operated) onsite water treatment system that demineralizes and polishes up to 500-gpm of city water (at 100 ppm TDS) to supply high-quality makeup water (< 0.01 ppm TDS) to the plant steam system. The objectives of implementing the new design are three fold: 1) forego current practice of using city water as the source of plant makeup water, thereby reducing the nuclear station's impact on the region's potable water supply by roughly 100 million gallons/year, 2) minimize the adverse impact of discharging rejected heat into the open sound seawater and, hence, protect the marine ecology, and 3) eliminate the reliance on external vendor that owns and operates the onsite water treatment system, thereby saving an annual fixed cost of $600 K plus 6 cents per 1,000 gallons of pure water. The design will also eliminate the need for using two double-path reverse osmosis (RO) units that consume 425 kW/h of electric power to operate two RO pumps (480 V, 281.6 HP, and 317.4 amps). (authors)

  3. An Exploration of Mercury Soils Treatment Technologies for the Y-12 Plant - 13217

    SciTech Connect

    Wrapp, John; Julius, Jonathon; Browning, Debbie; Kane, Michael; Whaley, Katherine; Estes, Chuck; Witzeman, John

    2013-07-01

    There are a number of areas at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that have been contaminated with mercury due to historical mercury use and storage. Remediation of these areas is expected to generate large volumes of waste that are Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristically hazardous. These soils will require treatment to meet RCRA Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) prior to disposal. URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) performed a feasibility assessment to evaluate on-site and off-site options for the treatment and disposal of mercury-contaminated soil from the Y-12 Site. The focus of the feasibility assessment was on treatment for disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located on the Oak Ridge Reservation. A two-phase approach was used in the evaluation process of treatment technologies. Phase 1 involved the selection of three vendors to perform treatability studies using their stabilization treatment technology on actual Y-12 soil. Phase II involved a team of waste management specialists performing an in-depth literature review of all available treatment technologies for treating mercury contaminated soil using the following evaluation criteria: effectiveness, feasibility of implementation, and cost. The result of the treatability study and the literature review revealed several viable on-site and off-site treatment options. This paper presents the methodology used by the team in the evaluation of technologies especially as related to EMWMF waste acceptance criteria, the results of the physical treatability studies, and a regulatory analysis for obtaining regulator approval for the treatment/disposal at the EMWMF. (authors)

  4. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.`

    2001-04-20

    The project management plan was finalized during a project kick off meeting held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which was attended by all project participants. The project management plan was submitted to DOE and was revised based on comments from DOE (Task 1.0). A survey of the potential users of the integrated software was conducted. A web-based survey form was developed and was announced in the ProcessCity discussion forum and in AspenTech's e-mail digest Aspen e-Flash. Several Fluent clients were individually contacted. A user requirements document was written (Task 2.2). As a prototype of AspenPlus-Fluent integration, the flowsheet for allyl alcohol production via the isomerization of propylene oxide was developed. A stirred tank reactor in the flowsheet for converting the byproduct acetone into n-propyl propionate was modeled with Fluent, version 5.4. The convergence of the AspenPlus-Fluent integrated model was demonstrated, and a list of data exchanges required between AspenPlus and Fluent was developed (Task 2.6). As the first demonstration case, the RP and L power plant was selected. A planning meeting was held on February 13, 2001 in Cambridge, MA to discuss this demonstration case. It was decided that the steam-side of the power plant would be modeled with AspenPlus and the gas-side, with the ALSTOM Power in-house code INDVU. A flowsheet model of the power plant was developed (Task 3.1). Three positive responses were received for the invitation to join the project Advisory Board. It was decided to expand the membership on the Advisory Board to include other industrial users interested in integrating AspenPlus and Fluent. Additional invitations were sent out (Task 5.0). Integraph's role in the project was restructured based on discussions among the project participants. Fluent hired Dr. Maxwell Osawe to work on the project. Dr. Osawe brings to the project a unique combination of skills (expertise in CFD and object-oriented design and programming

  6. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-07-31

    County-average hydrogen values are calculated for the part 2, 1999 Information Collection Request (ICR) coal-quality data, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data are used together with estimated, county-average moisture values to calculate average net heating values for coal produced in U.S. counties. Finally, 10 draft maps of the contiguous U.S. showing the potential uncontrolled sulfur, chlorine and mercury emissions of coal by U.S. county-of-origin, as well as expected mercury emissions calculated for existing emission control technologies, are presented and discussed.

  7. Framework for information technology integration in process plant and related industries

    SciTech Connect

    Beazley, W.G.; Chapman, J.B.

    1994-07-01

    Initially, the report presents a constraint framework that can identify all the root constraints and their associated activities for the engineering, construction, and operation of a petrochemical plant. Second, it demonstrates how the constraint framework leads to functional models of design that can be traced directly to the constraints they address. This avoids some of the problems in basing models on design tasks assigned within phases. Third, it demonstrates how external constraints do, in fact, influence design and how to analyze their influence. Fourth, it discusses some of the data that is produced to document that the constraints have been satisfied. It provides a list of some of the tools that support the creation and maintenance of these data sets. Last, it discusses the business case for 3D design and for digital Piping and Instrumentation Drawings (P ID) delivery.

  8. Taliglucerase alfa: an enzyme replacement therapy using plant cell expression technology.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Gregory A; Golembo, Myriam; Shaaltiel, Yoseph

    2014-05-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is a rare, genetic lysosomal storage disorder caused by functional defects of acid β-glucosidase that results in multiple organ dysfunction. Glycosylation of recombinant acid human β-glucosidase and exposure of terminal mannose residues are critical to the success of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for the treatment of visceral and hematologic manifestations in GD. Three commercially available ERT products for treatment of GD type 1 (GD1) include imiglucerase, velaglucerase alfa, and taliglucerase alfa. Imiglucerase and velaglucerase alfa are produced in different mammalian cell systems and require production glycosylation modifications to expose terminal α-mannose residues, which are needed for mannose receptor-mediated uptake by target macrophages. Such modifications add to production costs. Taliglucerase alfa is a plant cell-expressed acid β-glucosidase approved in the United States and other countries for ERT in adults with GD1. A plant-based expression system, using carrot root cell cultures, was developed for production of taliglucerase alfa and does not require additional processing for postproduction glycosidic modifications. Clinical trials have demonstrated that taliglucerase alfa is efficacious, with a well-established safety profile in adult, ERT-naïve patients with symptomatic GD1, and for such patients previously treated with imiglucerase. These included significant improvements in organomegaly and hematologic parameters as early as 6months, and maintenance of achieved therapeutic values in previously treated patients. Ongoing clinical trials will further characterize the long-term efficacy and safety of taliglucerase alfa in more diverse patient populations, and may help to guide clinical decisions for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with GD1. PMID:24630271

  9. Pinch technology/process optimization. Volume 1, Case studies---multiple plants: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Improved process efficiency is of great importance to electric utilities and their industrial customers. It enhances company profitability, thereby fostering load retention and strategic load growth. Moreover, the technical means of achieving improved efficiency can significantly impact utility load shapes. By understanding the energy use patterns and options in an industrial facility, the utility and industrial user can work together to define mutually beneficial investment and operating decisions and to clarify how the decisions might be impacted by existing or alternative energy prices. Efforts to achieve such understanding are facilitated by using pinch technology, an innovative and highly effective methodology for systematically analyzing total industrial sites. This report documents a series of twelve industrial process optimization case studies. The studies were carried out using ``pinch technology. `` Each study was cosponsored by the industrial site`s local electric utility. The twelve studies are follows: (1) pulp and paper, (2) refinery, (3) refinery, (4) yeast, (5) soups/sauces, (6) cellulose- acetate, (7) refinery, (8) chemicals, (9) gelatin-capsules, (10) refinery, (11) brewery, (12) cereal grains.

  10. Developing Effective Continuous On-Line Monitoring Technologies to Manage Service Degradation of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2011-09-30

    Recently, there has been increased interest in using prognostics (i.e, remaining useful life (RUL) prediction) for managing and mitigating aging effects in service-degraded passive nuclear power reactor components. A vital part of this philosophy is the development of tools for detecting and monitoring service-induced degradation. Experience with in-service degradation has shown that rapidly-growing cracks, including several varieties of stress corrosion cracks (SCCs), can grow through a pipe in less than one fuel outage cycle after they initiate. Periodic inspection has limited effectiveness at detecting and managing such degradation requiring a more versatile monitoring philosophy. Acoustic emission testing (AET) and guided wave ultrasonic testing (GUT) are related technologies with potential for on-line monitoring applications. However, harsh operating conditions within NPPs inhibit the widespread implementation of both technologies. For AET, another hurdle is the attenuation of passive degradation signals as they travel though large components, relegating AET to targeted applications. GUT is further hindered by the complexity of GUT signatures limiting its application to the inspection of simple components. The development of sensors that are robust and inexpensive is key to expanding the use of AET and GUT for degradation monitoring in NPPs and improving overall effectiveness. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of AET and GUT in NPPs can be enhanced through thoughtful application of tandem AET-GUT techniques.

  11. Airborne waste management technology applicable for use in reprocessing plants for control of iodine and other off-gas constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.

    1988-02-01

    Extensive work in the area of iodine removal from reprocessing plant off-gas streams using various types of solid sorbent materials has been conducted worldwide over the past two decades. This work has focused on the use of carbon filters, primarily for power plant applications. More recently, the use of silver-containing sorbents has been the subject of considerable research. The most recent work in the United States has addressed the use of silver-exchanged faujasites and mordenites. The chemical reactions of iodine with silver on the sorbent are not well defined, but it is generally believed that chemisorbed iodides and iodates are formed. The process for iodine recovery generally involves passage of the iodine-laden gas stream through a packed bed of the adsorbent material preheated to a temperature of about 150/degree/C. Most iodine removal system designs utilizing silver-containing solid sorbents assume only a 30 to 50% silver utilization. Based on laboratory tests, potentially 60 to 70% of the silver contained in the sorbents can be reacted with iodine. To overcome the high cost of silver associated with these materials, various approaches have been explored. Among these are the regeneration of the silver-containing sorbent by stripping the iodine and trapping the iodine on a sorbent that has undergone only partial silver exchange and is capable of attaining a much higher silver utilization. This summary report describes the US work in regeneration of iodine-loaded solid sorbent material. In addition, the report discusses the broader subject of plant off-gas treatment including system design. The off-gas technologies to recovery No/sub x/ and to recover and dispose of Kr, /sup 14/C, and I are described as to their impacts on the design of an integrated off-gas system. The effect of ventilation philosophy for the reprocessing plant is discussed as an integral part of the overall treatment philosophy of the plant off-gas. 103 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Analyzing the Technology of Using Ash and Slag Waste from Thermal Power Plants in the Production of Building Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malchik, A. G.; Litovkin, S. V.; Rodionov, P. V.; Kozik, V. V.; Gaydamak, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    The work describes the problem of impounding and storing ash and slag waste at coal thermal power plants in Russia. Recovery and recycling of ash and slag waste are analyzed. Activity of radionuclides, the chemical composition and particle sizes of ash and slag waste were determined; the acidity index, the basicity and the class of material were defined. The technology for making ceramic products with the addition of ash and slag waste was proposed. The dependencies relative to the percentage of ash and slag waste and the optimal parameters for baking were established. The obtained materials were tested for physical and mechanical properties, namely for water absorption, thermal conductivity and compression strength. Based on the findings, future prospects for use of ash and slag waste were identified.

  13. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns.

    PubMed

    Rupesinghe, Emmanuel Janaka Rochana; Jones, Andrew; Shalliker, Ross Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF) columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora) leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS), and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract. PMID:26805792

  14. Mandate a Man to Fish?: Technological advance in cooling systems at U.S. thermal electric plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peredo-Alvarez, Victor M.; Bellas, Allen S.; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney J.; Lange, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Steam-based electrical generating plants use large quantities of water for cooling. The potential environmental impacts of water cooling systems have resulted in their inclusion in the Clean Water Act's (CWA) Sections 316(a), related to thermal discharges and 316(b), related to cooling water intake. The CWA mandates a technological standard for water cooling systems. This analysis examines how the performance-adjusted rates of thermal emissions and water withdrawals for cooling units have changed over their vintage and how these rates of change were impacted by imposition of the CWA. Results show that the rate of progress increased for cooling systems installed after the CWA whilethere was no progress previous to it.

  15. [Pilot study on PAHs of the atmosphere around the refuse incineration plant based on the technology of passive sampling].

    PubMed

    Sun, Shao-Ai; Li, Yang; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Hai-Jiao; Sun, Ying

    2012-11-01

    Waste incineration is the main source of PAHs pollution of the atmosphere. In order to monitor the PAHs produced during the process of incineration, methods of quantitatively analysis for the PAHs of the atmosphere around the refuse incineration plant has been used on the basis of passive sampling technology. The result shows that the quantum of PAHs ranged 146.29-396.30 ng x d(-1), among which gaseous phase ranged 128.03-377.05 ng x d(-1), particulate phase ranged 10.698-19.251 ng x d(-1). Low ring compounds like phenanthrene, fluoranthene, fluorene make up the most of PAHs of gaseous phase in the atmosphere, in which phenanthrene reaches up to 55.1%. Pine needles are picked as passive plant samples, and the result shows that the concentration of PAHs in pine needles ranged 651.88-1 044.43 ng x g(-1). The distribution characteristics of PAHs in the soil reveals that the concentration of PAHs in the soil ranged 35.04-998.89 ng x g(-1). The PAHs distributions in passive sampling, pines and soil are extremely similar, which indicates that the passive samplings can reflect the real PAHs accumulation conditions in the environment. Besides, the results of passive sampling were compared with active sampling, and both accumulation abilities work almost the same.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2002-04-01

    A software review meeting was held at Fluent Inc. in Lebanon, NH on January 31-February 1, 2002. The team reviewed the current status of the software and its compliance with the software requirements (Task 2). Work on a fuel cell based power-plant flow sheet that incorporates a reformer CFD model was started. This test case includes more features (multiple ports, temperature dependent properties) than the mixing tank test case developed earlier and will be used for the further testing of the software (Task 2). The software development plan was finalized (Task 2.7). The design and implementation of a CFD database was commenced. The CFD database would store various models that a process analyst can use in the flowsheet model (Task 2.8). The COM-CORBA Bridge was upgraded to use the recently published version 0.9.3 CAPE-OPEN specifications. Work on transferring reaction kinetics data from Aspen Plus to Fluent was started (Task 2.11). The requirements for extending CAPE-OPEN interfaces in Aspen Plus to transfer temperature dependent properties to Fluent was written and communicated to the Aspen Tech developer of CAPE-OPEN interfaces (Task 2.12). A prototype of low-order model based on the Multiple Regression technique was written. A low-order model is required to speed up the calculations with the integrated model (Task 2.19). The Berkshire Power (Agawam, MA) combined-cycle power plant was selected as the Demonstration Case 2 (Task 3.2). A CFD model of the furnace in Demonstration Case 1 was developed. The furnace model will be incorporated into the flowsheet model already developed for this case (Task 4.1). A new hire joined the Fluent development team for this project. The project management plan was revised based on the software development plan. A presentation on the project status was made at the Clearwater Conference, March 4-7, 2002. The final manuscript for ESCAPE-12 conference was submitted (Task 7.0).

  17. Development of NF3 Deposit Removal Technology for the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; McNamara, B.K.; Rapko, B.M.; Edwards, M.K.; Kozelisky, A.E.; Daniel, R.C.; McSweeney, T.I.; Maharas, S.J.; Weaver, P.J.; Iwamasa, K.J.; Kefgen, R.B.

    2006-07-01

    This paper summarizes the Battelle, Stoller, and WASTREN (BSW) team's efforts, to date, in support of the United States Department of Energy's plans to remove uranium and technetium deposits before decommissioning the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The BSW team investigated nitrogen trifluoride (NF{sub 3}) as a safer yet effective alternative gaseous treatment to the chlorine trifluoride (ClF{sub 3})-elemental fluorine (F{sub 2}) treatment currently used to remove uranium and technetium deposits from the uranium enrichment cascade. Both ClF{sub 3} and F{sub 2} are highly reactive, toxic, and hazardous gases, while NF{sub 3}, although toxic [1], is no more harmful than moth balls [2]. BSW's laboratory thermo-analytical and laboratory-scale prototype studies with NF{sub 3} established that thermal NF{sub 3} can effectively remove likely and potential uranium (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} and UF{sub 4}) and technetium deposits (a surrogate deposit material, TcO{sub 2}, and pertechnetates) by conversion to volatile compounds. Our engineering evaluations suggest that NF{sub 3}'s effectiveness could be enhanced by combining with a lesser concentration of ClF{sub 3}. BSW's and other's studies indicate compatibility with Portsmouth materials of construction (aluminum, copper, and nickel). (authors)

  18. Thorium-Fueled Underground Power Plant Based on Molten Salt Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, Ralph W.; Teller, Edward

    2005-09-15

    This paper addresses the problems posed by running out of oil and gas supplies and the environmental problems that are due to greenhouse gases by suggesting the use of the energy available in the resource thorium, which is much more plentiful than the conventional nuclear fuel uranium. We propose the burning of this thorium dissolved as a fluoride in molten salt in the minimum viscosity mixture of LiF and BeF{sub 2} together with a small amount of {sup 235}U or plutonium fluoride to initiate the process to be located at least 10 m underground. The fission products could be stored at the same underground location. With graphite replacement or new cores and with the liquid fuel transferred to the new cores periodically, the power plant could operate for up to 200 yr with no transport of fissile material to the reactor or of wastes from the reactor during this period. Advantages that include utilization of an abundant fuel, inaccessibility of that fuel to terrorists or for diversion to weapons use, together with good economics and safety features such as an underground location will diminish public concerns. We call for the construction of a small prototype thorium-burning reactor.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-10-30

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter the software development was completed and the testing of the integrated software was completed. A user manual was written to complete software documentation. An installation CD-ROM including the following items was written: software installer, controller source code, proprietary CORBA wrapper templates for building local and remote servers, publicly available source code of the ACE/TAO CORBA library that needs to be built before compiling the controller source code, pre-built binaries of the publicly available XERCES XML library, and a PDF version of the software user's manual. The software was delivered to DOE. During the last quarter software demonstration tasks were completed. A few additional load points of Demo Case 1 were solved. Integrated simulations of Demo Case 2 with the proprietary HRSGSIM code and FLUENT CFD model were completed. The final task report describing Demo Case1 and Demo Case 2 simulation results was written and delivered to DOE.

  20. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - An International Center of Excellence for ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies''

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Mark L.; Eriksson, Leif G.

    2003-02-25

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site, which is managed and operated by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (USDOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and located in the State of New Mexico, presently hosts an underground research laboratory (URL) and the world's first certified and operating deep geological repository for safe disposition of long-lived radioactive materials (LLRMs). Both the URL and the repository are situated approximately 650 meters (m) below the ground surface in a 250-million-year-old, 600-m-thick, undisturbed, bedded salt formation, and they have been in operation since 1982 and 1999, respectively. Founded on long-standing CBFO collaborations with international and national radioactive waste management organizations, since 2001, WIPP serves as the Center of Excellence in Rock Salt for the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) International Network of Centers on ''Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities'' (the IAEA Network). The primary objective for the IAEA Network is to foster collaborative projects among IAEA Member States that: supplement national efforts and promote public confidence in waste disposal schemes; contribute to the resolution of key technical issues; and encourage the transfer and preservation of knowledge and technologies.

  1. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  2. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  3. A "Proof-of-Concept" Demonstration of RF-Based Technologies for UF6 Cylinder Tracking at Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Kovacic, Donald N; Dixon, E. T.; Martinez, B.

    2007-01-01

    This effort describes how radio-frequency (RF) technology can be integrated into a uranium enrichment facility's nuclear materials accounting and control program to enhance uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinder tracking and thus provide benefits to both domestic and international safeguards. Approved industry-standard cylinders are used to handle and store UF6 feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. In the international arena, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming manual cylinder inventory and tracking techniques to verify operator declarations and to detect potential diversion of UF6. Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant process for tracking and monitoring UF6 cylinders would greatly reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a "proof-of concept" system that was designed show the feasibility of using RF based technologies to track individual UF6 cylinders throughout their entire life cycle, and thus ensure both increased domestic accountability of materials and a more effective and efficient method for application of IAEA international safeguards at the site level. The proposed system incorporates RF-based identification devices, which provide a mechanism for a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant tracking network. We explore how securely attached RF tags can be integrated with other safeguards technologies to better detect diversion of cylinders. The tracking system could also provide a foundation for integration of other types of safeguards that would further enhance detection of undeclared activities.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhave Symlal; Krishna Thotapalli; and Stephen Zitney

    2003-04-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper template was developed for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU. The session management tasks were completed. The multithreading capability was made functional so that user of the integrated simulation may directly interact with the CFD software. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO v.1.0. The testing and debugging of the upgraded software is ongoing. Testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested GUI enhancements was made. Remote simulation capability was successfully tested using two networked Windows machines. Work on preparing the release version progressed: CFD database was enhanced, a convergence detection capability was implemented, a Configuration Wizard for low-order models was developed, and the Configuration Wizard for Fluent was enhanced. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Various simplified versions of Demo Case 1 were used to debug Configuration Wizard and V21-Controller. The heat exchanger model in FLUENT was calibrated and the energy balance was verified. The INDVU code was integrated into the V21-Controller, and the integrated model is being debugged. A sensitivity loop was inserted into Demo Case 2 to check whether the simulation converges over the desired load range. Work on converting HRSGSIM code to run in batch mode was started. Work on calibrating Demo Case 2 was started.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-10-20

    DOE Vision 21 project requirements for the support of Global CAPE-OPEN Reaction Kinetics interfaces in Aspen Plus 12 was written (Task 2.4). The software design document was written and posted on the project web site. Intergraph started work on a proof of concept demo of the physical domain software (Task 2.6). The COM-side (Aspen Plus) and CORBA-side (Fluent) pieces of the Vision 21 controller code were written and independently verified. The two pieces of the code were then combined. Debugging of the combined code is underway (Task 2.7). Papers on fuel cell processes were read in preparation for developing an example based on a fuel cell process (Task 2.8). The INDVU code has been used to replace the boiler component in the Aspen Plus flowsheet of the RP&L power plant. The INDVU code receives information from Aspen Plus and iterates on the split backpass LTSH bypass and excess air quantities until the stipulated superheat outlet temperature is satisfied. The combined INDVU-Aspen Plus model has been run for several load conditions (Task 2.14). Work on identifying a second demonstration case involving an advanced power cycle has been started (Task 3.2). Plans for the second Advisory Board meeting in November were made (Task 5.0). Intergraph subcontract was signed and work on a physical domain software demo was started. A second teleconference with Norsk Hydro was conducted to discuss Global CAPE-OPEN standards and issues related to COM-CORBA Bridge (Task 7.0).

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell Osawe; Madhava Syamlal; Krishna Thotapalli; Stephen Zitney

    2003-07-30

    This is the eleventh Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40954. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a software framework to enable virtual simulation of Vision 21 plants. During the last quarter much progress was made in software development. The CO wrapper for the integration of Alstom Power proprietary code INDVU was upgraded to CO V1.0.0 and was successfully integrated with an Aspen Plus flowsheet. The V21-Controller and the Fluent CO wrapper were upgraded to CO V.1.0.0, and the testing and debugging of the upgraded V21-Controller was completed. Two Aspen Plus analysis tools (sensitivity analysis and optimization) were successfully tested in an integrated simulation. Extensive testing of the integrated software was continued. A list of suggested enhancements was given to the software development team. Work on software documentation was started. Work on preparing the release version progressed: Several enhancements were made in the V21-Controller and the Fluent Configuration Wizard GUIs. Work to add persistence functionality to the V21-Controller was started. During the last quarter good progress was made in software demonstration. Demo Case 1 simulations were completed. This case, a conventional steam cycle with a CFD model representing the boiler module, was successfully demonstrated at 9 distinct load points from 33 MW to 19 MW. Much progress was made with Demo Case 2. Work on adding a CO wrapper to the HRSGSIM code was completed, and integrated simulations with the HRSGSIM code were conducted. The CFD heat exchanger model for Demo Case 2 was calibrated with HRSGSIM results. An Advisory Board meeting was held in Manchester, NH on May 6 during the Fluent Users Group Meeting. The preparation of the project final report was started.

  7. Kentucky Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection permit application for air contaminant source: SRC-I Demonstruation Plant, Newman, Kentucky. Appendix B. Best available control technology (BACT) proposals. [Demonstration plant at Newman, KY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-21

    The best available control technology (BACT) proposals for the following areas of the SRC-I demonstration plant are described: coal preparation and handling, SRC process and deashing, coke and liquid fuels (control of particles and hydrocarbon vapors), cryogenic systems and fuel gas purification (including sulfur recovery system and venting of gaseous wastes). (LTN)

  8. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant operator advisor based on artificial intelligence technology. Interim progress report and second year development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1989-06-20

    This report discusses the following topics on a Nuclear Power Plant operator advisor based on artificial Intelligence Technology; Workstation conversion; Software Conversion; V&V Program Development Development; Simulator Interface Development; Knowledge Base Expansion; Dynamic Testing; Database Conversion; Installation at the Perry Simulator; Evaluation of Operator Interaction; Design of Man-Machine Interface; and Design of Maintenance Facility.

  9. [Transgenic plants].

    PubMed

    Blum, H E

    2002-12-01

    Advances in molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology have revolutionized our understanding of the pathogenesis as well as the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of human diseases. Similar developments characterize plant biotechnology with the production of plant derived biomedical as well as health products. Apart from the fundamentals of molecular plant genetics, the production of transgenic plants as well as the clinical relevance, benefits, limitations and potential problems of plant biotechnology will be reviewed in some detail. It is a particular challenge to physicians in an increasingly informed environment to be informed about the new developments in molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology and to have a qualified opinion about their clinical relevance.

  10. Reduced emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2 from U.S. power plants owing to switch from coal to natural gas with combined cycle technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gouw, J. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Frost, G. J.; Trainer, M.

    2014-02-01

    Since 1997, an increasing fraction of electric power has been generated from natural gas in the United States. Here we use data from continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), which measure emissions at the stack of most U.S. electric power generation units, to investigate how this switch affected the emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2. Per unit of energy produced, natural gas power plants equipped with combined cycle technology emit on an average 44% of the CO2 compared with coal power plants. As a result of the increased use of natural gas, CO2 emissions from U.S. fossil-fuel power plants were 23% lower in 2012 than they would have been if coal had continued to provide the same fraction of electric power as in 1997. In addition, natural gas power plants with combined cycle technology emit less NOx and far less SO2 per unit of energy produced than coal power plants. Therefore, the increased use of natural gas has led to emission reductions of NOx (40%) and SO2 (44%), in addition to those obtained from the implementation of emission control systems on coal power plants. These benefits to air quality and climate should be weighed against the increase in emissions of methane, volatile organic compounds, and other trace gases that are associated with the production, processing, storage, and transport of natural gas.

  11. Design of a Prototype of Water Purification by Plasma Technology as the Foundation for an Industrial Wastewater Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barillas, L.

    2015-03-01

    In order to mitigate the contamination of water sources due to the spill of sewage without any kind of treatment, mainly generated by the industrial sector; a prototype of water purification by plasma technology has been designed. The prototype will transform liquid water into plasma to eliminate the pathogens from the water, due to their exposure to ultraviolet radiation, electric fields and shock waves, which aid in the destruction of pollutants. The sewage will be accelerated at high speed to convert it into a liquid-gas mixture in order to transform it into plasma, which is achieved when the electrical discharge (of the type dielectric barrier discharge or DBD) is applied to the water by means of high voltage electrodes, from a source of alternating current (AC). Subsequently, the mixture slows down to be return into liquid phase and obtain clean water, all of these without a significantly rise of temperature. The device also has an automatic power control system. Finally, a short feasibility study was conducted in order to use this type of water cleaner in the future as a basis for a treatment plant of industrial waste water, so it comes to replace the current secondary and tertiary treatments used among the industry. It is intended that this new system will be more efficient and cheaper than the current waste water treatments.

  12. The Physics of Basis For A Conservative Physics And Conservative Technology Tokamak Power Plant, ARIES-ACT2

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.

    2014-03-04

    The conservative physics and conservative technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT2 has a major radius of 9.75 m at aspect ratio of 4.0, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The no wall {beta}N reaches {approximately} 2.4, limited by n=1 external kink mode, and can be extended to 3.2 with a stabilizing shell behind the ring structure shield. The bootstrap current fraction is 77% with a q95 of 8.0, requiring about {approximately} 4.0 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 30 MW of ICRF/FW and 80 MW of negative ion NB. Up to 1.0 MA can be driven with LH with no wall, and 1.5 or more MA can be driven with a stabilizing shell. EC was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over {rho} {approximately} 0.2-0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is {approximately} 0.65x10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} and the temperature is {approximately} 9.0 keV. The H98 factor is 1.25, n/n{sub Gr} = 1.3, and the net power to LH threshold power is 1.3-1.4 in the flattop. Due to the high toroidal field and high central temperature the cyclotron radiation loss was found to be high depending on the first wall reflectivity.

  13. Statement of work for applied technology tasks to be performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Project; Fiscal year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, O.L.

    1991-02-01

    Detailed Design for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project was initiated during fiscal year (FY) 1990. The Project requires technology development and design support from the research and development contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), while this work is in progress. This Statement of Work (SOW) addresses the PNL work funded by the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) during FY 1991 to accomplish applied technology, PNL project management, and quality assurance (QA) tasks in support of HWVP Project requirements. Under the HWVP integrated management scheme, PNL is responsible for performing vitrification technology development. The PNL technical responsibilities include, but are not limited to, the following activities: provide process technology development and vitrification testing; evaluate equipment adaptation for the HWVP processes; provide glass formulation development; develop waste and glass characterization technology; provide waste form qualification (WFQ) models and data development; issue and maintain the HWVP Applied Technology Handbook (to be written); and prepare preliminary cost estimates, schedules, and scope definition covering the above technology activities. Pacific Northwest Laboratory will also participate with the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in technology exchanges and design reviews related to vitrification technology with the DOE-RL and Fluor Daniel, Inc. (Fluor). 15 refs., 4 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of Solid Sorbents As A Retrofit Technology for CO{sub 2} Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-07-31

    conceptual sorbent-based capture options yielded significant energy penalty and cost savings versus an aqueous amine system. Specifically, the estimated levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for final concept design without a CO{sub 2} laden/lean sorbent heat exchanger or any other integration, was over 30% lower than that of the MEA capture process. However, this cost savings was not enough to meet the DOE’s target of ≤35% increase in LCOE. In order to reach this target, the incremental LCOE due to the CO{sub 2} capture can be no higher than 2.10 ¢/kWh above the LCOE of the non-capture equivalent power plant (6.0 ¢/kWh). Although results of the 1 kWe pilot evaluations suggest that the initial full-scale concept design must be revisited to address the technical targets, the cost assessment still provides a valuable high-level estimate of the potential costs of a solids-based system. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the cost drivers and the results of the sensitivity analysis will be used to direct future technology development efforts. The overall project objective was to assess the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. This objective was successfully completed during the project along with several specific budget period goals. Based on sorbent screening and a full-scale equipment evaluation, it was determined that solid sorbents for post-combustion capture is promising and warrants continued development efforts. Specifically, the lower sensible heat could result in a significant reduction in the energy penalty versus solvent based capture systems, if the sorbents can be paired with a process and equipment that takes advantage of the beneficial sorbent properties. It was also determined that a design using a circulating fluidized bed adsorber with rotary kilns for heating during regeneration, cooling, and conveying

  15. Physics basis for an advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant configuration: ARIES-ACT1

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Here, the advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2, and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall-stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n = 3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and/or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reaches βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle magnetohydrodynamic stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling shows that 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while >95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring ~1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 40 MW of lower hybrid current drive. Electron cyclotron is most effective for safety factor control over ρ~0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~0.9×1020/m3, and the temperature is ~4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the ratio of net power to threshold power is 2.8 to 3.0 in the flattop.

  16. The Physics Basis For An Advanced Physics And Advanced Technology Tokamak Power Plant Configuration, ARIES-ACT1

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Kessel, et al

    2014-03-05

    The advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n=3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, and requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reached βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle MHD stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling show that about 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while over 95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring about ~ 1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ICRF/FW and 40 MW of LHCD. EC was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over ρ ~ 0.2-0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~ 0.9x1020 /m3 and the temperature is ~ 4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the net power to LH threshold power is 2.8- 3.0 in the flattop.

  17. Physics basis for an advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant configuration: ARIES-ACT1

    DOE PAGES

    Kessel, C. E.; Poli, F. M.; Ghantous, K.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Snyder, P. B.; St. John, H.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Here, the advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at an aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2, and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall-stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n = 3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and/or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reaches βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle magnetohydrodynamic stability shows that themore » alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling shows that 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while >95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring ~1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ion cyclotron radio frequency/fast wave and 40 MW of lower hybrid current drive. Electron cyclotron is most effective for safety factor control over ρ~0.2 to 0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~0.9×1020/m3, and the temperature is ~4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the ratio of net power to threshold power is 2.8 to 3.0 in the flattop.« less

  18. [Development of a technology for biodegradation of plant wastes in order to resolve the life support requirements of a Martian expedition].

    PubMed

    Il'in, V K; Starkova, L V; Laurinavichius, K S

    2003-01-01

    A two-phase technology has been developed for biodegradation of plant wastes. On the first phase, wastes are subjected to anaerobic fermentation by specially selected microbial associations processing solid wastes into a liquid mixture of organic acids. On the second phase, methanogenic bacteria are used to produce biogas out of the liquid, which then can be dumped out into open space or utilized as a cold propellant. PMID:14730738

  19. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  20. The plant microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail. PMID:23805896

  1. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER AT AIR FORCE PLANT 4, CARSWELL, TEXAS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT (CD-ROM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 600 Cottonwood trees were planted over a shallow groundwater plume in an attempt to detoxify the tricWoroethylene (TCE) in a groundwater plume at a former Air Force facility. Two planting techniques were used: rooted stock about two years old, and 18 inch cuttings were insta...

  2. U.S. Department of Energy Roadmap on Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface Technologies in Current and Future Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) recently sponsored the creation of a roadmap for instrumentation, controls, and human-machine interface (ICHMI) technology development. The roadmap represents the collective efforts of a group of subject matter experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, vendors, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and utilities. It is intended to provide the underpinnings to the government sponsored ICHMI research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) performed in the United States for the next several years. A distinguishing feature of this roadmapping effort is that it is not limited to a technology progression plan but includes a detailed rationale, aimed at the nonspecialist, for the existence of a focused ICHMI RD&D program. Eight specific technology areas were identified for focused RD&D as follows: (1) sensors and electronics for harsh environments,(2) uncertainty characterization for diagnostics/prognostics applications, (3) quantification of software quality for high-integrity digital applications, (4) intelligent controls for nearly autonomous operation of advanced nuclear plants, (5) plant network architecture, (6) intelligent aiding technology for operational support, (7) human system interaction models and analysis tools, and (8) licensing and regulatory challenges and solutions.

  3. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-07-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20 year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335 and 442 % for SO2, NOx and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 % for PM2.5. Driven by the accelerated economy growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in dramatic growth in emissions. Growth trend of emissions has been effective curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination for temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  4. High-resolution inventory of technologies, activities, and emissions of coal-fired power plants in China from 1990 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Zhang, Q.; Tong, D.; Zheng, B.; Li, M.; Huo, H.; He, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    This paper, which focuses on emissions from China's coal-fired power plants during 1990-2010, is the second in a series of papers that aims to develop a high-resolution emission inventory for China. This is the first time that emissions from China's coal-fired power plants were estimated at unit level for a 20-year period. This inventory is constructed from a unit-based database compiled in this study, named the China coal-fired Power plant Emissions Database (CPED), which includes detailed information on the technologies, activity data, operation situation, emission factors, and locations of individual units and supplements with aggregated data where unit-based information is not available. Between 1990 and 2010, compared to a 479 % growth in coal consumption, emissions from China's coal-fired power plants increased by 56, 335, and 442 % for SO2, NOx, and CO2, respectively, and decreased by 23 and 27 % for PM2.5 and PM10 respectively. Driven by the accelerated economic growth, large power plants were constructed throughout the country after 2000, resulting in a dramatic growth in emissions. The growth trend of emissions has been effectively curbed since 2005 due to strengthened emission control measures including the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and the optimization of the generation fleet mix by promoting large units and decommissioning small ones. Compared to previous emission inventories, CPED significantly improved the spatial resolution and temporal profile of the power plant emission inventory in China by extensive use of underlying data at unit level. The new inventory developed in this study will enable a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and will help to improve the performances of chemical transport models by providing more accurate emission data.

  5. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments.

  6. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments. PMID:17654790

  7. Live-cell analysis of plant reproduction: live-cell imaging, optical manipulation, and advanced microscopy technologies.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Daisuke; Hamamura, Yuki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    Sexual reproduction ensures propagation of species and enhances genetic diversity within populations. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction requires complicated and multi-step cell-to-cell communications among male and female cells. However, the confined nature of plant reproduction processes, which occur in the female reproductive organs and several cell layers of the pistil, limits our ability to observe these events in vivo. In this review, we discuss recent live-cell imaging in in vitro systems and the optical manipulation techniques that are used to capture the dynamic mechanisms representing molecular and cellular communications in sexual plant reproduction. PMID:23438900

  8. Live-cell analysis of plant reproduction: live-cell imaging, optical manipulation, and advanced microscopy technologies.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Daisuke; Hamamura, Yuki; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2013-05-01

    Sexual reproduction ensures propagation of species and enhances genetic diversity within populations. In flowering plants, sexual reproduction requires complicated and multi-step cell-to-cell communications among male and female cells. However, the confined nature of plant reproduction processes, which occur in the female reproductive organs and several cell layers of the pistil, limits our ability to observe these events in vivo. In this review, we discuss recent live-cell imaging in in vitro systems and the optical manipulation techniques that are used to capture the dynamic mechanisms representing molecular and cellular communications in sexual plant reproduction.

  9. Modeling the Effects of Light and Sucrose on In Vitro Propagated Plants: A Multiscale System Analysis Using Artificial Intelligence Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gago, Jorge; Martínez-Núñez, Lourdes; Landín, Mariana; Flexas, Jaume; Gallego, Pedro P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant acclimation is a highly complex process, which cannot be fully understood by analysis at any one specific level (i.e. subcellular, cellular or whole plant scale). Various soft-computing techniques, such as neural networks or fuzzy logic, were designed to analyze complex multivariate data sets and might be used to model large such multiscale data sets in plant biology. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study we assessed the effectiveness of applying neuro-fuzzy logic to modeling the effects of light intensities and sucrose content/concentration in the in vitro culture of kiwifruit on plant acclimation, by modeling multivariate data from 14 parameters at different biological scales of organization. The model provides insights through application of 14 sets of straightforward rules and indicates that plants with lower stomatal aperture areas and higher photoinhibition and photoprotective status score best for acclimation. The model suggests the best condition for obtaining higher quality acclimatized plantlets is the combination of 2.3% sucrose and photonflux of 122–130 µmol m−2 s−1. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that artificial intelligence models are not only successful in identifying complex non-linear interactions among variables, by integrating large-scale data sets from different levels of biological organization in a holistic plant systems-biology approach, but can also be used successfully for inferring new results without further experimental work. PMID:24465829

  10. A life cycle assessment and economic analysis of the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mu, Dongyan; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study used life cycle assessment and technical economic analysis tools in evaluating a novel Scum-to-Biodiesel technology and compares the technology with scum digestion and combustion processes. The key variables that control environmental and economic performance are identified and discussed. The results show that all impacts examined for the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology are below zero indicating significant environmental benefits could be drawn from it. Of the three technologies examined, the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology has the best environmental performance in fossil fuel depletion, GHG emissions, and eutrophication, whereas combustion has the best performance on acidification. Of all process inputs assessed, process heat, glycerol, and methanol uses had the highest impacts, much more than any other inputs considered. The Scum-to-Biodiesel technology also makes higher revenue than other technologies. The diesel price is a key variable for its economic performance. The research demonstrates the feasibility and benefits in developing Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26773952

  11. DOE/Industrial Technologies Program DOE Award Number DE-FG36-05GO15099 Plant Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment Pilgrims Pride Corporation – Mt Pleasant Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Paper, Riyaz; Dooley, Bill; Turpish, William J; Symonds, Mark; Carswell, Needham

    2007-04-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supporting plant wide energy efficiency assessments that will lead to substantial improvements in industrial efficiency, waste reduction, productivity, and global competitiveness in industries identified in ITP’s Industries of the Future. The stated goal of the assessments is to develop a comprehensive strategy at manufacturing locations that will significantly increase plant productivity, profitability, and energy efficiency, and reduce environmental emissions. ITP awarded a contract to Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation to conduct a plant wide energy efficiency assessment for their Mt Pleasant Facility in Mt Pleasant, Texas. Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation is the largest poultry company in the U.S. and Mexico producing nearly 9 billion pounds of poultry per year. Pilgrim's Pride products are sold to foodservice, retail and frozen entrée customers. Pilgrim's Pride owns and operates 37 chicken processing plants (34 in the U.S. and three in Mexico), 12 prepared foods plants and one turkey processing plant. Thirty-five feed mills and 49 hatcheries support these plants. Pilgrim's Pride is ranked number 382 on 2006's FORTUNE 500 list and net sales were $7.4 billion. In Mt. Pleasant, Texas, Pilgrim's Pride operates one of the largest prepared foods plants in the United States, with the capability of producing 2,000 different products and the capacity to turn out more than 7 million pounds of finished goods per week. The facility is divided into distinct departments: East Kill, West Kill, Prepared Foods, Protein Conversion, Wastewater Treatment, and Truck Shop. Facility processes include killing, eviscerating, refrigeration, baking, frying, and protein conversion. Pilgrim’s Pride formed a team to complete the plant wide energy efficiency assessment. The scope of work for this project was to: provide the analysis of departmental energy use, identify

  12. Virtually simulating the next generation of clean energy technologies: NETL's AVESTAR Center is dedicated to the safe, reliable and efficient operation of advanced energy plants with carbon capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Imagine using a real-time virtual simulator to learn to fly a space shuttle or rebuild your car's transmission without touching a piece of equipment or getting your hands dirty. Now, apply this concept to learning how to operate and control a state-of-the-art, electricity-producing power plant capable of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture. That's what the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL) Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR) Center (www.netl.doe.gov/avestar) is designed to do. Established as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative to advance new clean energy technology for power generation, the AVESTAR Center focuses primarily on providing simulation-based training for process engineers and energy plant operators, starting with the deployment of a first-of-a-kind operator training simulator for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. The IGCC dynamic simulator builds on, and reaches beyond, conventional power plant simulators to merge, for the first time, a 'gasification with CO{sub 2} capture' process simulator with a 'combined-cycle' power simulator. Based on Invensys Operations Management's SimSci-Esscor DYNSIM software, the high-fidelity dynamic simulator provides realistic training on IGCC plant operations, including normal and faulted operations, as well as plant start-up, shutdown and power demand load changes. The highly flexible simulator also allows for testing of different types of fuel sources, such as petcoke and biomass, as well as co-firing fuel mixtures. The IGCC dynamic simulator is available at AVESTAR's two locations, NETL (Figure 1) and West Virginia University's National Research Center for Coal and Energy (www.nrcce.wvu.edu), both in Morgantown, W.Va. By offering a comprehensive IGCC training program, AVESTAR aims to develop a workforce well prepared to operate, control and manage commercial-scale gasification-based power plants with CO{sub 2

  13. Purification of the therapeutic antibody trastuzumab from genetically modified plants using safflower Protein A-oleosin oilbody technology.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michael D; Chen, Rongji; Yu, Deqiang; Mah, Kor-Zheng; Teat, John; Wang, Haifeng; Zaplachinski, Steve; Boothe, Joseph; Hall, J Christopher

    2012-12-01

    Production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies using genetically modified plants may provide low cost, high scalability and product safety; however, antibody purification from plants presents a challenge due to the large quantities of biomass that need to be processed. Protein A column chromatography is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for antibody purification, but its application is limited by cost, scalability and column fouling problems when purifying plant-derived antibodies. Protein A-oleosin oilbodies (Protein A-OB), expressed in transgenic safflower seeds, are relatively inexpensive to produce and provide a new approach for the capture of monoclonal antibodies from plants. When Protein A-OB is mixed with crude extracts from plants engineered to express therapeutic antibodies, the Protein A-OB captures the antibody in the oilbody phase while impurities remain in the aqueous phase. This is followed by repeated partitioning of oilbody phase against an aqueous phase via centrifugation to remove impurities before purified antibody is eluted from the oilbodies. We have developed this purification process to recover trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody used for therapy against specific breast-cancers that over express HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), from transiently infected Nicotiana benthamiana. Protein A-OB overcomes the fouling problem associated with traditional Protein A chromatography, allowing for the development of an inexpensive, scalable and novel high-resolution method for the capture of antibodies based on simple mixing and phase separation. PMID:22382463

  14. Installation and evaluation of a nuclear power plant Operator Advisor based on artificial intelligence technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hajek, B.K.; Miller, D.W.

    1993-02-01

    The Artificial Intelligence Group in the Nuclear Engineering Program has designed and built an Operator Advisor (OA), an AI system to monitor nuclear power plant parameters, detect component and system malfunctions, dispose their causes, and provide the plant operators with the correct procedures for mitigating the consequences of the malfunctions. It then monitors performance of the procedures, and provides backup steps when specific operator actions fail. The OA has been implemented on Sun 4 workstations in Common Lisp, and has been interfaced to run in real time on the Perry Nuclear Power Plant full-function simulator in the plant training department. The eventual goal for a fully functioning Operator Advisor would be to have reactor operators receive direction for all plant operations. Such a goal requires considerable testing of the system within limited malfunction boundaries, an extensive Verification & Validation (V&V) effort, a large knowledge base development effort, and development of tools as part of the system to automate its maintenance. Clearly, these efforts are beyond the scope of the feasibility effort expended during this project period. However, as a result of this project, we have an AI based platform upon which a complete system can be built.

  15. Use of Air2Air Technology to Recover Fresh-Water from the Normal Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2009-06-30

    This program was undertaken to build and operate the first Air2Air{trademark} Water Conservation Cooling Tower at a power plant, giving a validated basis and capability for water conservation by this method. Air2Air{trademark} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10%-25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate).

  16. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a New Technology for Extraction of Insoluble Impurities from Nuclear Power Plant Steam Generators with Purge Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bud'ko, I. O.; Zhukov, A. G.

    2013-11-15

    An experimental technology for the removal of insoluble impurities from a horizontal steam generator with purge water during planned shutdowns of the power generating unit is improved through a more representative determination of the concentration of impurities in the purge water ahead of the water cleanup facility and a more precise effective time for the duration of the purge process. Tests with the improved technique at power generating unit No. 1 of the Rostov Nuclear Power Plant show that the efficiency with which insoluble impurities are removed from the steam generator volume was more than two orders of magnitude greater than under the standard regulations.

  17. Technological renovation of thermal power plants as a long-term check factor of electricity price growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, F. V.; Novikova, T. V.; Khorshev, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper focuses on economic aspects of the Russian thermal generation sector's renovation in a competitive market environment. Capabilities of the existing competitive electricity and capacity pricing mechanisms, created during the wholesale market reform, to ensure the wide-scale modernization of thermal power plants (TPPs) are estimated. Some additional stimulating measures to focus the investment process on the renovation of the thermal generation sector are formulated, and supplementing and supporting costs are assessed. Finally, the systemic effect of decelerating wholesale electricity prices caused by efficiency improvements at thermal power plants is analyzed depending on the scales of renovation and fuel prices.

  18. Genotype-by-sequencing of the plant-pathogenic fungi Pyrenophora teres and Sphaerulina musiva utilizing Ion Torrent sequence technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of genes determining compatibility or incompatibility between plant pathogenic fungi and their hosts is important for the management of crop disease. The major focus of these interactions has typically been the identification and characterization of host genes, but it is equally...

  19. Development of Energy Efficient Technologies for Burning Coal in Modern Thermal Power Plants and Efficiency Assessment Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskiy, Vitali; Zubova, Marina; Sedelnikov, Nikolai; Dihnova, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Universal ecological energy-efficient burner was described. The burner allows to burn different types of coal and lignite without the use of fuel oil for kindling the boiler. Efficiency assessment tools of the introduction of the burner for combustion of coal in modern thermal power plants were given.

  20. Determinants and mapping of collective perceptions of technological risk: the case of the second nuclear power plant in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Nuclear power is a highly controversial and salient example of environmental risk. The siting or operating of a nuclear power plant often faces widespread public opposition. Although studies of public perceptions of nuclear power date back to 1970s, little research attempts to explain the spatial heterogeneity of risk attitude toward nuclear power among individuals or communities. This article intends to improve the knowledge about the major factors contributing to nuclear power plant risk perceptions by mapping the geographical patterns of local risk perception and examining the determinants in forming the nature and distribution of the perceived risk among potentially affected population. The analysis was conducted by a case study of the Second Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) in Taiwan by using a novel methodology that incorporates a comprehensive risk perception (CRP) model into an ethnographic approach called risk perception mapping (RPM). First, we examined the determinants of local nuclear power risk perceptions through the CRP model and multivariate regression analysis. Second, the results were integrated with the RPM approach to map and explain the spatial pattern of risk perceptions. The findings demonstrate that the respondents regard the nuclear power plant as an extremely high-risk facility, causing them to oppose the SNPP and reject the compensation payment to accept its continuing operation. Results also indicate that perceptions of nuclear power risk were mainly influenced by social trust, psychological and socioeconomic attributes, proximity, and the perceived effects of the SNPP on the quality of everyday life.

  1. Applications of carbon dioxide capture and storage technologies in reducing emissions from fossil-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.; Balat, H.; Oz, C.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the global contribution of carbon capture and storage technologies to mitigating climate change. Carbon capture and storage is a technology that comprises the separation of from carbon dioxide industrial- and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location (e.g., saline aquifers and depleted hydrocarbon fields), and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. The carbon dioxides emitted directly at the power stations are reduced by 80 to 90%. In contrast, the life cycle assessment shows substantially lower reductions of greenhouse gases in total (minus 65 to 79%).

  2. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  3. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  4. Intervention technologies for food safety on minimally processed produce:Perspectives on food-borne and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Produce contamination associated with enteric pathogens such Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and others are significant challenges to food safety. This is due to the illnesses and economic impacts resulting from the outbreaks. Innovative technologies for i...

  5. Improving Efficiency with 3-D Imaging: Technology Essential in Removing Plutonium Processing Equipment from Plutonium Finishing Plant Gloveboxes

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, Stephen H.; Kyle, Richard N.; Minette, Michael J.

    2008-09-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant at Hanford, Washington began operations in 1949 to process plutonium and plutonium products. Its primary mission was to produce plutonium metal, fabricate weapons parts, and stabilize reactive materials. These operations, and subsequent activities, were performed in remote production lines, consisting primarily of hundreds of gloveboxes. Over the years these gloveboxes and processes have been continuously modified. The plant is currently inactive and Fluor Hanford has been tasked to clean out contaminated equipment and gloveboxes from the facility so it can be demolished in the near future. Approximately 100 gloveboxes at PFP have been cleaned out in the past four years and about 90 gloveboxes remain to be cleaned out. Because specific commitment dates for this work have been established with the State of Washington and other entities, it is important to adopt work practices that increase the safety and speed of this effort. The most recent work practice to be adopted by Fluor Hanford D&D workers is the use of 3-D models to improve the efficiency of cleaning out radioactive gloveboxes at the plant. The use of 3-D models has significantly improved the work planning process by providing workers with a clear image of glovebox construction and composition, which is then used to determine cleanout methods and work sequences. The 3-D visual products enhance safety by enabling workers to more easily identify hazards and implement controls. In addition, the ability to identify and target the removal of radiological materials early in the D&D process provides substantial dose reduction for the workers.

  6. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The

  7. New Technologies for Repairing Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants: M3LW-14OR0404015 Cable Rejuvenation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Kevin L.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Westman, Matthew P.; Roberts, John A.

    2014-09-08

    The goal of this project is to conceptually demonstrate techniques to repair cables that have degraded through subjection to long-term thermal and radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. In fiscal year 2014 (FY14) we focused on commercially available ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) as the relevant test material, isolated a high surface area form of the EPR material to facilitate chemical treatment screening and charaterization, and measured chemical changes in the material due to aging and treatment using Fourier Transfrom Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

  8. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  10. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjay; Kumar, Prashant; Hosseini, Ali; Yang, Aidong; Fennell, Paul

    2014-02-20

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool "Aspen Plus". The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency.

  11. Comparative Assessment of Gasification Based Coal Power Plants with Various CO2 Capture Technologies Producing Electricity and Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Seven different types of gasification-based coal conversion processes for producing mainly electricity and in some cases hydrogen (H2), with and without carbon dioxide (CO2) capture, were compared on a consistent basis through simulation studies. The flowsheet for each process was developed in a chemical process simulation tool “Aspen Plus”. The pressure swing adsorption (PSA), physical absorption (Selexol), and chemical looping combustion (CLC) technologies were separately analyzed for processes with CO2 capture. The performances of the above three capture technologies were compared with respect to energetic and exergetic efficiencies, and the level of CO2 emission. The effect of air separation unit (ASU) and gas turbine (GT) integration on the power output of all the CO2 capture cases is assessed. Sensitivity analysis was carried out for the CLC process (electricity-only case) to examine the effect of temperature and water-cooling of the air reactor on the overall efficiency of the process. The results show that, when only electricity production in considered, the case using CLC technology has an electrical efficiency 1.3% and 2.3% higher than the PSA and Selexol based cases, respectively. The CLC based process achieves an overall CO2 capture efficiency of 99.9% in contrast to 89.9% for PSA and 93.5% for Selexol based processes. The overall efficiency of the CLC case for combined electricity and H2 production is marginally higher (by 0.3%) than Selexol and lower (by 0.6%) than PSA cases. The integration between the ASU and GT units benefits all three technologies in terms of electrical efficiency. Furthermore, our results suggest that it is favorable to operate the air reactor of the CLC process at higher temperatures with excess air supply in order to achieve higher power efficiency. PMID:24578590

  12. Recovery of iron, carbon and zinc from steel plant waste oxides using the AISI-DOE postcombustion smelting technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, B.; Downing, K.B.; Aukrust, E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a process to recover steel plant waste oxides to be used in the production of hot metal. The process flowsheet used at the pilot plant. Coal/coke breeze and iron ore pellets/waste oxides are charged into the smelting reactor. The waste oxides are either agglomerated into briquettes (1 inch) using a binder or micro-agglomerated into pellets (1/4 inch) without the use of a binder. The iron oxides dissolve in the slag and are reduced by carbon to produce molten iron. The gangue oxides present in the raw materials report to the slag. Coal charged to the smelter is both the fuel as well as the reductant. Carbon present in the waste oxides is also used as the fuel/reductant resulting in a decrease in the coal requirement. Oxygen is top blown through a central, water-cooled, dual circuit lance. Nitrogen is injected through tuyeres at the bottom of the reactor for stirring purposes. The hot metal and slag produced in the smelting reactor are tapped at regular intervals through a single taphole using a mudgun and drill system. The energy requirements of the process are provided by (i) the combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide, referred to as primary combustion and (ii) the combustion of CO and H{sub 2} to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, known as postcombustion.

  13. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, Jr., J. L.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.; Bushnell, C. L.; Nickols, R. C.; Gelting, R. L.; Katz, M.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Smith, R.; Smith, S. W.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-08-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study activity of Task 1, preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization has been completed by Bechtel National, Inc. Work under Task 2 defined design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication has been made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated under Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects. Components for the mobile test facility are being ordered.

  14. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, "nanodiscs", and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and -300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s(-1). POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products. PMID:27386958

  15. Application of nanodisc technology for direct electrochemical investigation of plant cytochrome P450s and their NADPH P450 oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Bavishi, Krutika; Laursen, Tomas; Martinez, Karen L.; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of cytochrome P450 containing systems has primarily focused on investigating enzymes from microbes and animals for bio-sensing applications. Plant P450s receive electrons from NADPH P450 oxidoreductase (POR) to orchestrate the bio-synthesis of a plethora of commercially valuable compounds. In this report, full length CYP79A1, CYP71E1 and POR of the dhurrin pathway in Sorghum bicolor were reconstituted individually in nanoscale lipid patches, “nanodiscs”, and directly immobilized on unmodified gold electrodes. Cyclic voltammograms of CYP79A1 and CYP71E1 revealed reversible redox peaks with average midpoint potentials of 80 ± 5 mV and 72 ± 5 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively. POR yielded two pairs of redox peaks with midpoint potentials of 90 ± 5 mV and −300 ± 10 mV, respectively. The average heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant was calculated to be ~1.5 s−1. POR was electro-catalytically active while the P450s generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). These nanodisc-based investigations lay the prospects and guidelines for construction of a simplified platform to perform mediator-free, direct electrochemistry of non-engineered cytochromes P450 under native-like conditions. It is also a prelude for driving plant P450 systems electronically for simplified and cost-effective screening of potential substrates/inhibitors and fabrication of nano-bioreactors for synthesis of high value natural products. PMID:27386958

  16. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food-processing technologies part 3: ultrasonic processing.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    High-power ultrasound is a versatile technology which can potentially be used in many food processing applications including food preservation. This is part 2 of a series of review articles dealing with the effectiveness of nonthermal food processing technologies in food preservation focusing on their effect on enzymes. Typically, ultrasound treatment alone does not efficiently cause microbial or enzyme inactivation sufficient for food preservation. However, combined with mild heat with or without elevated pressure (P ≤ 500 kPa), ultrasound can effectively inactivate enzymes and microorganisms. Synergistic effects between ultrasound and mild heat have been reported for the inactivation of both enzymes and microorganisms. The application of ultrasound has been shown to enhance the rate of inactivation of quality degrading enzymes including pectin methylesterase (PME), polygalacturonase (PG), peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and lipoxygenase (LOX) at mild temperature by up to 400 times. Moreover, ultrasound enables the inactivation of relatively heat-resistant enzymes such as tomato PG1 and thermostable orange PME at mild temperature conditions. The extent to which ultrasound enhances the inactivation rate depends on the type of enzyme, the medium in which the enzyme is suspended, and the processing condition including frequency, ultrasonic intensity, temperature, and pressure. The physical and chemical effects of cavitation are considered to be responsible for the ultrasound-induced inactivation of enzymes, although the dominant mechanism depends on the structure of the enzyme.

  17. Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} at the Dragon Products, Inc. Cement Plant located in Thomaston, Maine. 1990 Annual technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The background and process of the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} are described. The Scrubber was developed for Dragon Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine and facilitates a number of process improvements. The exhaust gas is scrubbed of SO{sub 2} with better than 90% efficiency. The kiln dust is cleaned of alkalines and so can be returned to kiln feed instead of dumped to landfill. Potassium sulfate in commercial quantity and purity can be recovered. Distilled water is recovered which also has commercial potential. Thus, various benefits are accrued and no waste streams remain for disposal. The process is applicable to both wet and dry process cement kilns and appears to have potential in any industry which generates acidic gaseous exhausts and/or basic solid or liquid wastes.

  18. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  19. State-of-the-art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for application to nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Naus, Dan J.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: •locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth •locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials •detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures •detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner •methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner.

  20. State-of-the-Art of Non-Destructive Testing Methods and Technologies for Application to Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Dr. Herbert; Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner

  1. A Conceptual Design Study on the Application of Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Technology to the Solar Thermal Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.; Robertson, C. S.; Ehde, C. L.; Divakaruni, S. M.; Stacy, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    Alkali metal heat transfer technology was used in the development of conceptual designs for the transport and storage of sensible and latent heat thermal energy in distributed concentrator, solar Stirling power conversion systems at a power level of 15 kWe per unit. Both liquid metal pumped loop and heat pipe thermal transport were considered; system configurations included: (1) an integrated, focal mounted sodium heat pipe solar receiver (HPSR) with latent heat thermal energy storage; (2) a liquid sodium pumped loop with the latent heat storage, Stirling engine-generator, pump and valves located on the back side of the concentrator; and (3) similar pumped loops serving several concentrators with more centralized power conversion and storage. The focus mounted HPSR was most efficient, lightest and lowest in estimated cost. Design confirmation testing indicated satisfactory performance at all angles of inclination of the primary heat pipes to be used in the solar receiver.

  2. Performance of 14 full-scale sewage treatment plants: comparison between four aerobic technologies regarding effluent quality, sludge production and energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Vera, I; Sáez, K; Vidal, G

    2013-01-01

    The performance of 14 Full-Scale Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) was evaluated. STPs were divided into four aerobic technologies: a) Aerated Lagoon (AL), and three configurations of activated sludge technologies, b) conventional (CAS), c) Extended Aeration (EA), d) Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR). Comparison between these configurations were made regarding: a) control parameters, organic loading rate (OLR), Mixed Liquor Volatile Suspended Solids (MLVSS) concentrations, Food to Microorganism ratio (F/M), sludge age (theta(c)), Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) and return sludge ratio (R); b) effluent quality, through 5-day Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorus (TP); and c) indicators related to sludge production (on a dry basis) and electrical energy consumption. Also, complementary costs analyses were made. The results show that in terms of effluent quality, for all configurations organic matter (BOD5 and COD) and TKN removal efficiency were up to 90%, while TSS and TP were up to 90% and 50%, respectively. However, CAS, EA, SBR, and AL had stability problems with effluent concentrations. The results of the electrical energy consumption and sludge production analyses show that SBRs reduce these indicators by 40%. Cost analysis showed that CAS, EA, SBR and AL had similar cost structures, with more than 50% of total operating and maintenance cost being related to electrical energy and sludge management. Therefore, SBR could be defined as the configuration with a more stable performance. PMID:24350481

  3. Genotype-by-sequencing of the plant-pathogenic fungi Pyrenophora teres and Sphaerulina musiva utilizing Ion Torrent sequence technology.

    PubMed

    Leboldus, Jared M; Kinzer, Kasia; Richards, Jonathan; Ya, Zhu; Yan, Changhui; Friesen, Timothy L; Brueggeman, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Genetic and genomics tools to characterize host-pathogen interactions are disproportionately directed to the host because of the focus on resistance. However, understanding the genetics of pathogen virulence is equally important and has been limited by the high cost of de novo genotyping of species with limited marker data. Non-resource-prohibitive methods that overcome the limitation of genotyping are now available through genotype-by-sequencing (GBS). The use of a two-enzyme restriction-associated DNA (RAD)-GBS method adapted for Ion Torrent sequencing technology provided robust and reproducible high-density genotyping of several fungal species. A total of 5783 and 2373 unique loci, 'sequence tags', containing 16,441 and 9992 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and characterized from natural populations of Pyrenophora teres f. maculata and Sphaerulina musiva, respectively. The data generated from the P. teres f. maculata natural population were used in association mapping analysis to map the mating-type gene to high resolution. To further validate the methodology, a biparental population of P. teres f. teres, previously used to develop a genetic map utilizing simple sequence repeat (SSR) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, was re-analysed using the SNP markers generated from this protocol. A robust genetic map containing 1393 SNPs on 997 sequence tags spread across 15 linkage groups with anchored reference markers was generated from the P. teres f. teres biparental population. The robust high-density markers generated using this protocol will allow positional cloning in biparental fungal populations, association mapping of natural fungal populations and population genetics studies.

  4. EVALUATION OF SOLID SORBENTS AS A RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY FOR CO2 CAPTURE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Holly Krutka; Sharon Sjostrom

    2011-07-31

    Through a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) funded cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) has begun evaluating the use of solid sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The project objective was to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based CO{sub 2} capture technology. To meet this objective, initial evaluations of sorbents and the process/equipment were completed. First the sorbents were evaluated using a temperature swing adsorption process at the laboratory scale in a fixed-bed apparatus. A slipstream reactor designed to treat flue gas produced by coal-fired generation of nominally 1 kWe was designed and constructed, which was used to evaluate the most promising materials on a more meaningful scale using actual flue gas. In a concurrent effort, commercial-scale processes and equipment options were also evaluated for their applicability to sorbent-based CO{sub 2} capture. A cost analysis was completed that can be used to direct future technology development efforts. ADA completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through this project, DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649, with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and other industry participants. Laboratory screening tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas using simulated flue gas and an automated fixed bed system. The following types and quantities of sorbents were evaluated: 87 supported amines; 31 carbon based materials; 6 zeolites; 7 supported carbonates (evaluated under separate funding); and 10 hydrotalcites. Sorbent evaluations were conducted to characterize materials and down-select promising candidates for further testing at the slipstream scale. More than half of the materials evaluated during this program were supported amines. Based on the laboratory screening four supported amine sorbents were selected for evaluation at the 1 kW scale at two different

  5. Improving Management through New Technologies. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges (73rd, Boston, Massachusetts, July 13-16, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges, Washington, DC.

    Ways to improve campus management using new technology are discussed in the proceedings of the 1986 annual meeting of the Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges. Paper titles and authors are as follows: "Things Are Going to Get Different" (Lou Volpe); "You Look Mah-velous! Perception Is Fact" (Robert H. Clawson);…

  6. The Dust at Altitude Recovery Technology (DART) System was Developed to Recover Plant, Human, and Animal Pathogens in Asian and African Dust Storms over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Tench, B.; Nehr, A.; Emmons, T.; Valbuena, F.; Palaia, J.; Sugars, C.

    2014-12-01

    Dust emanates year-round from Africa and Asia and impacts air quality in North America. Asian dust plumes deliver up to 64 million tonnes of dust over the NW of the USA, and African dust storms deliver over 50 million tonnes of dust over Florida each year. Several recent studies have demonstrated that human and plant pathogens from Asian [1] African [2] aerosols can be transported to N. America in naturally occurring dust storms. What is unknown is whether these 'presumptive pathogens' impact human, plant, or animal health in the USA. In order to initiate a long-term monitoring program of pathogens in Asian and African dust plumes, we have developed a dust collection system called DART (Dust at Altitude Recovery Technology) (figure). The DART dust sampler can be mounted on a F104 Starfighter jet (figure) and a T6 Texan propeller driven airplane (not shown), and was test flown over FL in Dec. 2013 on the F104 and on the T6 in the summer of 2014. The DART system utilizes a high-volume pump to pass air through 6 separate filtration units where both aerosols and microbial cells are captured. The filtration systems exhibit flow rates from 25-142 L/min depending on the pore size and brand of filters used. Flow rates are directly correlated to increased air speed, and are inversely correlated to increased altitude. Filtration units can be turned on and off individually as required for specific science flight objectives. The DART dust sampler has performed nominally up to 7600 m, 0.92 Mach, and 3.5 +G's. During initial test flights in Dec. 2013, 5 of 8 genera of fungi recovered from the lower atmosphere over FL contained plant pathogens including species in the genera: Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Curvularia, and Fusarium. Numbers of recovered fungi, but not bacteria, increased significantly when 5 or 10 µm filters were used in the DART system compared to filter pore sizes ≤ 1.2 µm. Future sampling programs for both Asian and African dust events will be

  7. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  8. Assessment of the water chemical quality improvement based on human health risk indexes: Application to a drinking water treatment plant incorporating membrane technologies.

    PubMed

    López-Roldán, Ramón; Rubalcaba, Alicia; Martin-Alonso, Jordi; González, Susana; Martí, Vicenç; Cortina, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    A methodology has been developed in order to evaluate the potential risk of drinking water for the health of the consumers. The methodology used for the assessment considered systemic and carcinogenic effects caused by oral ingestion of water based on the reference data developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Risk Assessment Information System (RAIS) for chemical contaminants. The exposure includes a hypothetical dose received by drinking this water according to the analysed contaminants. An assessment of the chemical quality improvement of produced water in the Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) after integration of membrane technologies was performed. Series of concentration values covering up to 261 chemical parameters over 5 years (2008-2012) of raw and treated water in the Sant Joan Despí DWTP, at the lower part of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain), were used. After the application of the methodology, the resulting global indexes were located below the thresholds except for carcinogenic risk in the output of DWTP, where the index was slightly above the threshold during 2008 and 2009 before the upgrade of the treatment works including membrane technologies was executed. The annual evolution of global indexes showed a reduction in the global values for all situations: HQ systemic index based on RAIS dropped from 0.64 to 0.42 for surface water and from 0.61 to 0.31 for drinking water; the R carcinogenic index based on RAIS was negligible for input water and varied between 4.2×10(-05) and 7.4×10(-06) for drinking water; the W systemic index based on the WHO data varied between 0.41 and 0.16 for surface water and between 0.61 and 0.31 for drinking water. A specific analysis for the indexes associated with trihalomethanes (THMs) showed the same pattern.

  9. In-plant testing of a novel coal cleaning circuit using advanced technologies. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Honaker, R.Q.; Reed, S.; Mohanty, M.K.

    1997-05-01

    A circuit comprised of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies was evaluated in an operating preparation plant to determine circuit performance and to compare the performance with current technologies used to treat -16 mesh fine coal. The circuit integrated a Floatex hydrosizer, a Falcon enhanced gravity concentrator and a Jameson flotation cell. A Packed-Column was used to provide additional reductions in the pyritic sulfur and ash contents by treatment of the Floatex-Falcon-Jameson circuit product. For a low sulfur Illinois No. 5 coal, the pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 0.67% to 0.34% at a combustible recovery of 93.2%. The ash content was decreased from 27.6% to 5.84%, which equates to an organic efficiency of 95% according to gravity-based washability data. The separation performance achieved on a high sulfur Illinois No. 5 coal resulted in the rejection of 72.7% of the pyritic sulfur and 82.3% of the ash-forming material at a recovery of 8 1 %. Subsequent pulverization of the cleaned product and retreatment in a Falcon concentrator and Packed-Column resulted in overall circuit ash and pyritic sulfur rejections of 89% and 93%, respectively, which yielded a pyritic sulfur content reduction from 2.43% to 0.30%. This separation reduced the sulfur dioxide emission rating of an Illinois No. 5 coal from 6.21 to 1.75 lbs SO{sub 2}/MBTU, which is Phase I compliance coal. A comparison of the results obtained from the Floatex-Falcon-Jameson circuit with those of the existing circuit revealed that the novel fine coal circuit provides 10% to 20% improvement in mass yield to the concentrate while rejecting greater amounts of ash and pyritic sulfur.

  10. A Synergistic Combination of Advanced Separation and Chemical Scale Inhibitor Technologies for Efficient Use of Imparied Water As Cooling Water in Coal-based Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jasbir Gill

    2010-08-30

    Nalco Company is partnering with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in this project to jointly develop advanced scale control technologies that will provide cost-effective solutions for coal-based power plants to operate recirculating cooling water systems at high cycles using impaired waters. The overall approach is to use combinations of novel membrane separations and scale inhibitor technologies that will work synergistically, with membrane separations reducing the scaling potential of the cooling water and scale inhibitors extending the safe operating range of the cooling water system. The project started on March 31, 2006 and ended in August 30, 2010. The project was a multiyear, multi-phase project with laboratory research and development as well as a small pilot-scale field demonstration. In Phase 1 (Technical Targets and Proof of Concept), the objectives were to establish quantitative technical targets and develop calcite and silica scale inhibitor chemistries for high stress conditions. Additional Phase I work included bench-scale testing to determine the feasibility of two membrane separation technologies (electrodialysis ED and electrode-ionization EDI) for scale minimization. In Phase 2 (Technology Development and Integration), the objectives were to develop additional novel scale inhibitor chemistries, develop selected separation processes, and optimize the integration of the technology components at the laboratory scale. Phase 3 (Technology Validation) validated the integrated system's performance with a pilot-scale demonstration. During Phase 1, Initial evaluations of impaired water characteristics focused on produced waters and reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents. Literature and new data were collected and evaluated. Characteristics of produced waters vary significantly from one site to another, whereas reclaimed municipal wastewater effluents have relatively more uniform characteristics. Assessment to date confirmed that calcite and silica

  11. Quality-related enzymes in plant-based products: effects of novel food processing technologies part 2: pulsed electric field processing.

    PubMed

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Buckow, Roman; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) processing is an effective technique for the preservation of pumpable food products as it inactivates vegetative microbial cells at ambient to moderate temperature without significantly affecting the nutritional and sensorial quality of the product. However, conflicting views are expressed about the effect of PEF on enzymes. In this review, which is part 2 of a series of reviews dealing with the effectiveness of novel food preservation technologies for controlling enzymes, the scientific literature over the last decade on the effect of PEF on plant enzymes is critically reviewed to shed more light on the issue. The existing evidence indicates that PEF can result in substantial inactivation of most enzymes, although a much more intense process is required compared to microbial inactivation. Depending on the processing condition and the origin of the enzyme, up to 97% inactivation of pectin methylesterase, polyphenol oxidase, and peroxidase as well as no inactivation have been reported following PEF treatment. Both electrochemical effects and Ohmic heating appear to contribute to the observed inactivation, although the relative contribution depends on a number of factors including the origin of the enzyme, the design of the PEF treatment chamber, the processing condition, and the composition of the medium.

  12. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-11-01

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage. PMID:25391229

  13. The effectiveness of using the combined-cycle technology in a nuclear power plant unit equipped with an SVBR-100 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Gospodchenkov, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    The design of a modular SVBR-100 reactor with a lead-bismuth alloy liquid-metal coolant is described. The basic thermal circuit of a power unit built around the SVBR-100 reactor is presented together with the results of its calculation. The gross electrical efficiency of the turbine unit driven by saturated steam at a pressure of 6.7 MPa is estimated at η{el/gr} = 35.5%. Ways for improving the efficiency of this power unit and increasing its power output by applying gas-turbine and combined-cycle technologies are considered. With implementing a combined-cycle power-generating system comprising two GE-6101FA gas-turbine units with a total capacity of 140 MW, it becomes possible to obtain the efficiency of the combined-cycle plant equipped with the SVBR-100 reactor η{el/gr} = 45.39% and its electrical power output equal to 328 MW. The heat-recovery boiler used as part of this power installation generates superheated steam with a temperature of 560°C, due to which there is no need to use a moisture separator/steam reheater in the turbine unit thermal circuit.

  14. Fish embryo tests with Danio rerio as a tool to evaluate surface water and sediment quality in rivers influenced by wastewater treatment plants using different treatment technologies.

    PubMed

    Thellmann, Paul; Köhler, Heinz-R; Rößler, Annette; Scheurer, Marco; Schwarz, Simon; Vogel, Hans-Joachim; Triebskorn, Rita

    2015-11-01

    In order to evaluate surface water and the sediment quality of rivers connected to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment technologies, fish embryo tests (FET) with Danio rerio were conducted using native water and sediment samples collected upstream and downstream of four WWTPs in Southern Germany. Two of these WWTPs are connected to the Schussen River, a tributary of Lake Constance, and use a sand filter with final water purification by flocculation. The two others are located on the rivers Schmiecha and Eyach in the area of the Swabian Alb and were equipped with a powdered activated carbon stage 20 years ago, which was originally aimed at reducing the release of stains from the textile industry. Several endpoints of embryo toxicity including mortality, malformations, reduced hatching rate, and heart rate were investigated at defined time points of embryonic development. Higher embryotoxic potentials were found in water and sediments collected downstream of the WWTPs equipped with sand filtration than in the sample obtained downstream of both WWTPs upgraded with a powdered activated carbon stage.

  15. Combining physico-chemical analysis with a Daphnia magna bioassay to evaluate a recycling technology for drinking water treatment plant waste residuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Zhu, Shijun; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Recycling water treatment plant (WTP) waste residuals is considered to be a feasible method to enhance the efficiency of pollutant removal. This study also evaluated the safety and water quality of a pilot-DWTP waste residuals recycling technology by combining physical-chemistry analysis with a Daphnia magna assay. The water samples taken from each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by XAD-2 resin and were then analyzed for immobilization and enzyme activity with D. magna. The measured parameters, such as the dissolve organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and THM formation potential (THMFPs) of the recycling process, did not obviously increase over 15 days of continuous operation and were even lower than typical values from a conventional process. The extract concentration ranged from 0 to 2 Leq/ml as measured on the 7th and 15th days and the immobilization of D. magna exposed to water treated by the recycling process was nearly equivalent to that of the conventional process. Both the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activity assay indicated that a lower dose of water extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 Leq/ml) could stimulate the enzyme activity of D. magna, whereas a higher dose (2 Leq/ml at the sampling point C3, R3, R4 ) inhibits the activity. Moreover, the SOD and CAT activity of D. magna with DOC and UV254 showed a strong concentration-effect relationship, where the concentration range of DOC and UV254 were 4.1-16.2 mg/L and 0.071-4.382 cm(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the conventional and recycling treatment processes and the toxicity of water samples in the recycling process did not increase during the 15-day continuous recycling trial.

  16. Combining physico-chemical analysis with a Daphnia magna bioassay to evaluate a recycling technology for drinking water treatment plant waste residuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Xu, Yongpeng; Zhu, Shijun; Cui, Fuyi

    2015-12-01

    Recycling water treatment plant (WTP) waste residuals is considered to be a feasible method to enhance the efficiency of pollutant removal. This study also evaluated the safety and water quality of a pilot-DWTP waste residuals recycling technology by combining physical-chemistry analysis with a Daphnia magna assay. The water samples taken from each treatment step were extracted and concentrated by XAD-2 resin and were then analyzed for immobilization and enzyme activity with D. magna. The measured parameters, such as the dissolve organic carbon (DOC), UV254 and THM formation potential (THMFPs) of the recycling process, did not obviously increase over 15 days of continuous operation and were even lower than typical values from a conventional process. The extract concentration ranged from 0 to 2 Leq/ml as measured on the 7th and 15th days and the immobilization of D. magna exposed to water treated by the recycling process was nearly equivalent to that of the conventional process. Both the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the catalase (CAT) activity assay indicated that a lower dose of water extract (0.5, 1, 1.5 Leq/ml) could stimulate the enzyme activity of D. magna, whereas a higher dose (2 Leq/ml at the sampling point C3, R3, R4 ) inhibits the activity. Moreover, the SOD and CAT activity of D. magna with DOC and UV254 showed a strong concentration-effect relationship, where the concentration range of DOC and UV254 were 4.1-16.2 mg/L and 0.071-4.382 cm(-1), respectively. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the conventional and recycling treatment processes and the toxicity of water samples in the recycling process did not increase during the 15-day continuous recycling trial. PMID:26318972

  17. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF TWO NUTRIENT ANALYZERS AT AN INDUSTRIAL PLANT: SCHIMADZU SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, INC. TNPC-4110(C) AND A ZAPS TECHNOLOGIES, INC. MULTI-PARAMETER (MP-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, beginning as an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1995, verifies the performance of commercially available, innovative technologies that can be used to measure environmental quality. The ETV p...

  18. Digital Sensor Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst; Ken Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The nuclear industry has been slow to incorporate digital sensor technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns with digital qualification issues. However, the benefits of digital sensor technology for nuclear plant instrumentation are substantial in terms of accuracy, reliability, availability, and maintainability. This report demonstrates these benefits in direct comparisons of digital and analog sensor applications. It also addresses the qualification issues that must be addressed in the application of digital sensor technology.

  19. Practical Maintenance of Digital Systems: Guidance to Maximize the Benefits of Digital Technology for the Maintenance of Digital Systems and Plant Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D; Scarola, K

    2004-10-30

    This report presents detailed guidance for the maintenance and testing of modern digital systems. The guidance provides practical means for plants to take advantage of the increased diagnostic and self-test capabilities of these systems. It helps plants avoid mistakes in design and installation that could lead to increased maintenance burden and decreased system reliability and availability.

  20. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Transgenic plants and animals are organisms with foreign genes inserted into their cells. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chickens, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. The Creative Application of Science, Technology and Work Force Innovations to the Decontamination and Decommissioning of the Plutonium Finishing Plant at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    SciTech Connect

    Charboneau, S.; Klos, B.; Heineman, R.; Skeels, B.; Hopkins, A.

    2006-07-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D and D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D and D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D and D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and the condition and contents of process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox clean-out. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP

  2. THE CREATIVE APPLICATION OF SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY & WORK FORCE INNOVATIONS TO THE D&D OF PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP) AT THE HANFORD NUCLEAR RESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARBONEAU, S.L.

    2006-02-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) consists of a number of process and support buildings for handling plutonium. Building construction began in the late 1940's to meet national priorities and became operational in 1950 producing refined plutonium salts and metal for the United States nuclear weapons program. The primary mission of the PFP was to provide plutonium used as special nuclear material for fabrication into a nuclear device for the war effort. Subsequent to the end of World War II, the PFP's mission expanded to support the Cold War effort through plutonium production during the nuclear arms race. PFP has now completed its mission and is fully engaged in deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). At this time the PFP buildings are planned to be reduced to ground level (slab-on-grade) and the site remediated to satisfy national, Department of Energy (DOE) and Washington state requirements. The D&D of a highly contaminated plutonium processing facility presents a plethora of challenges. PFP personnel approached the D&D mission with a can-do attitude. They went into D&D knowing they were facing a lot of challenges and unknowns. There were concerns about the configuration control associated with drawings of these old process facilities. There were unknowns regarding the location of electrical lines and process piping containing chemical residues such as strong acids and caustics. The gloveboxes were highly contaminated with plutonium and chemical residues. Most of the glovebox windows were opaque with splashed process chemicals that coated the windows or etched them, reducing visibility to near zero. Visibility into the glovebox was a serious worker concern. Additionally, all the gloves in the gloveboxes were degraded and unusable. Replacing gloves in gloveboxes was necessary to even begin glovebox cleanout. The sheer volume of breathing air needed was also an issue. These and other challenges and PFP's approach to overcome these challengers are

  3. Stress detection in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How can the status of plant stress be measured rapidly and accurately in the hundreds of trees managed within a commercial orchard? Two technologies have been developed over the past two decades that will provide useful information to detect plant stress in orchard systems: 1) Reflectance of visibl...

  4. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. July 1982-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for July 1982-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chicken, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 383 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. Upgrade of Compressed Air Control System Reduces Energy Costs at Michelin Tire Plant. Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Project Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-01-01

    This case study highlights the upgraded compressed air system at a Michelin tire manufacturing plant in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The controls upgrade project enabled multiple compressor operation without blow-off, and significantly reduced energy costs.

  6. Technology disrupted

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheodorou, Y.

    2007-02-15

    Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  8. Bumper transgenic plant crop

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1991-07-05

    Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

  9. Emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, C.O.; Williams, D.

    1996-07-01

    Among the emerging technologies for air, hazardous waste and water come new ways of looking at pollution, in both the figurative and quite literal sense. The use of microbes for remediation and pollution control is a component in many of the technologies in this report and is the focus of environmental research at many university and industry labs. Bacteria are the engines driving one featured emissions control technology: the air biofilter. Biofilters are probably more acceptable to most engineers as a soil remediation technology--such as the innovative method described in the hazardous waste section--rather than as means of cleaning off-gases, but in many cases bugs can perform the function inexpensively. The authors give the basics on this available technology. A more experimental application of microbes is being investigated as a potential quantum leap in heavy metals removal technology: bio-engineered, metal consuming plants. The effort to genetically engineer a green remediation tool is detailed in the hazardous waste section.

  10. Development of technology in the production of fertilizers in ammoniation-granulation plants. Progress report No. 12, September 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Work conducted to demonstrate procedures and equipment to conserve about 83% of fuel oil used for drying and generating steam in the ammoniation-granulation plants is reported. The general mechanism of granulation is examined. Conventional ammoniation-granulation plants are described and the new pipe-cross reactor system is described and schematics of their design are presented. Results of some demonstration tests reveal that an average of 785,000 Btu's per ton of production is eliminated with the installation of the TVA pipe-cross reactor process. It also reduces atmospheric emissions. Data on investment cost and payback period of the installation of a pipe-cross reactor in an existing TVA granulation fertilizer plant are presented.

  11. Space Technology in Support of Cooperative US-Ukraine Efforts to Mitigate the Damage at the Chornobyl Unit 4 Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, N.; Lavery, D.; Holliday, M.; Osborn, J.

    1998-01-01

    For transitional economies like Ukraine that have legacies from the Soviet era of severe environmental damage due to accidents and years of neglect, space technology-based remote systems can play an important role in evaluating and remediating hazardous sites.

  12. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project Technology Development Roadmaps: The Technical Path Forward for 750–800°C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    John Collins

    2009-08-01

    This document presents the NGNP Critical PASSCs and defines their technical maturation path through Technology Development Roadmaps (TDRMs) and their associated Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). As the critical PASSCs advance through increasing levels of technical maturity, project risk is reduced and the likelihood of within-budget and on-schedule completion is enhanced. The current supplier-generated TRLs and TDRMs for a 750–800°C reactor outlet temperature (ROT) specific to each supplier are collected in Appendix A.

  13. Orgenic plants: gene-manipulated plants compatible with organic farming.

    PubMed

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2012-11-01

    Based on recent advances in plant gene technology, I propose to develop a new category of GM plants, orgenic plants, that are compatible with organic farming. These orgenic plants do not contain herbicide resistance genes to avoid herbicide application in agriculture. Furthermore, they either contain genes that are naturally exchanged between species, or are sterile to avoid outcrossing if they received a transgene from a different species. These GM plants are likely to be acceptable to most skeptics of GM plants and facilitate the use of innovative new crops.

  14. [Genetic engineering in plants].

    PubMed

    Demarly, Y

    1992-11-01

    Until recent years, plant genetic was involved in heredity studies through the analysis of segregations in progenies after crossing. New potentiality arose as genetic tools with the use of dissociated plant elements, transforming and cultivating them in vitro. When plants are regenerated from manipulated tissues, new structures of varieties (clones) new genotypes (transgenic plants) and new regulations of genes expression (vitrovariants) open new ways for plant genetic engineering. Progressively these technological tools are integrated in the methods of plant breeding. Yet all possible consequences of these new types of heredity and of these new genetic structures must be evaluated. As first priority the analysis of possible incidences in the field of food, nutrition and health gives the basis for diagnostics and organisations aiming to avoid the release of genotypes which could have unwanted effects.

  15. Collection and conversion of silicon furnace waste gas into higher value products: Phase 3, 6 MW pilot plant dc closed furnace technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dosaj, V.D.

    1995-01-01

    The construction and operation of a 6 MW, closed dc furnace for smelting silicon was the primary focus of Phase 3. A 6 MW, dc closed furnace pilot plant was built in East Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada. The furnace is equipped with world`s most modern automatic control system used to control and monitor the process variables and operational data. This control system is suitable for commercial applications and could be used with either closed or open dc furnaces for smelting silicon or ferrosilicon. The construction was started in September 1990, and the facility was operational within 18 months. Following successful commissioning of the pilot plant in June 1992, twelve smelting test campaigns were conducted through November 1994.

  16. An integrated approach for the evaluation of technological hazard impacts on air quality: the case of the Val d'Agri oil/gas plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvello, M.; Esposito, F.; Trippetta, S.

    2014-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area (southern Italy) hosts one of the biggest onshore European reservoir and the largest oil/gas pre-treatment plant, named Centro Olio Val d'Agri (COVA), located in a rural/anthropized context. Several hazards are associated with this plant. These are mainly represented by possible impacts of the COVA atmospheric emissions on the local air quality and human health. This work uses a novel approach based on the integration of air quality measurements from the regional monitoring network, additional experimental measurements (i.e. sub-micrometre particulate matter (PM1) and black carbon (BC)) and advanced statistical analyses to provide a preliminary evaluation of the Val d'Agri air quality state and give some indication of specific areas potentially affected by COVA hazards. Results show that the COVA plant emissions have a particular impact on the air quality of the area closest to it. In this area several pollutants specifically related to the COVA combustion processes (i.e. nitrogen oxides, benzene and toluene) show the highest concentration values and significant correlations. The proposed approach represents a first step in the assessment of the risks associated with oil/gas exploration and pre-treatment activities and a starting point for the development of effective and exportable air quality monitoring strategies.

  17. Final Report - Development of New Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Technology to Recover High Valued Products from Chemical Plant and Refinery Waste Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Ludwig

    2004-06-14

    Project Objective was to extend pressure swing adsorption (PSA) technology into previously under-exploited applications such as polyolefin production vent gas recovery and H2 recovery from refinery waste gases containing significant amounts of heavy hydrocarbons, aromatics, or H2S.

  18. Training and Technology. Report of Program Activities January 1--June 30, 1973. Conducted at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commissions Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN. Manpower Development Div.

    The report is a description of the program activities carried on by Training and Technology (TAT) during the first six months of 1973. In the general category of manpower research and development, brief but detailed descriptions are given of each of the projects conducted in the development and extension of the TAT training model in Albuquerque,…

  19. PRENFLO for IGCC technology

    SciTech Connect

    Schellberg, W.

    1996-10-01

    The paper describes the PRENFLO coal gasification process for integration in combined cycle power plants. This coal gasification process is based on entrained-flow principle using dry fuel dust feeding. The development of the PRENFLO process was founded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology and the Commission of the European Union. In addition the status of the world`s largest IGCC plant at Puertollano/Spain with a capacity of 300 MWe (net) will be presented. Stringent environmental regulations can be fulfilled by the new IGCC technology which at the same time achieves high efficiencies. Development trends in IGCC power plants is discussed.

  20. Toxic proteins in plants.

    PubMed

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed.

  1. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, October 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During this quarter, activity continued in three of the four task areas: Task 2-cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - development of the capability to operate stacks on coal-derived gas. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  2. Purge gas recovery of ammonia synthesis plant by integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell as a novel technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siavashi, Fakhteh; Saidi, Majid; Rahimpour, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    The purge gas emission of ammonia synthesis plant which contains hazardous components is one of the major sources of environmental pollution. Using integrated configuration of catalytic hydrogen-permselective membrane reactor and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system is a new approach which has a great impact to reduce the pollutant emission. By application of this method, not only emission of ammonia and methane in the atmosphere is prevented, hydrogen is produced through the methane steam reforming and ammonia decomposition reactions that take place simultaneously in a catalytic membrane reactor. The pure generated hydrogen by recovery of the purge gas in the Pd-Ag membrane reactor is used as a feed of SOFC. Since water is the only byproduct of the electrochemical reaction in the SOFC, it is recycled to the reactor for providing the required water of the reforming reaction. Performance investigation of the reactor represents that the rate of hydrogen permeation increases with enhancing the reactor temperature and pressure. Also modeling results indicate that the SOFC performance improves with increasing the temperature and fuel utilization ratio. The generated power by recovery of the purging gas stream of ammonia synthesis plant in the Razi petrochemical complex is about 8 MW.

  3. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  4. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  5. Dezincing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dudek, F.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Morgan, W.A.

    1997-08-01

    Half of the steel produced in the US is derived from scrap. With zinc-coated prompt scrap increasing fivefold since 1980, steel-makers are feeling the effect of increased contaminant loads on their operations. The greatest concern is the cost of treatment before disposal of waste dusts and water that arise from remelting zinc-coated scrap. An economic process is needed to strip and recover the zinc from scrap to provide a low residual scrap for steel- and iron-making. Metal Recovery Technologies, Inc., with the assistance of Argonne National Laboratory, have been developing a caustic leach dezincing process for upgrading galvanized stamping plant scrap into clean scrap with recovery of the zinc. With further development the technology could also process galvanized scrap from obsolete automobiles. This paper will review: (1) the status of recent pilot plant operations and plans for a commercial demonstration facility with a dezincing capacity of up to 250,000 tons/year, (2) the economics of caustic dezincing, and (3) benefits of decreased cost of environmental compliance, raw material savings, and improved operations with use of dezinced scrap.

  6. eFRMAC Overview: Data Management and Enabling Technologies for Characterization of a Radiological Release A Case Study: The Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Incident

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, Daniel J.; Clark, Harvey W.; Essex, James J.; Wagner, Eric C.

    2013-07-01

    The eFRMAC enterprise is a suite of technologies and software developed by the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of Emergency Response to coordinate the rapid data collection, management, and analysis required during a radiological emergency. This enables the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center assets to evaluate a radiological or nuclear incident efficiently to facilitate protective actions to protect public health and the environment. This document identifies and describes eFRMAC methods including (1) data acquisition, (2) data management, (3) data analysis, (4) product creation, (5) quality control, and (6) dissemination.

  7. Plant genomics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Campos-de Quiroz, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have substantially expanded our ability to analyze and understand plant genomes and to reduce the gap existing between genotype and phenotype. The fast evolving field of genomics allows scientists to analyze thousand of genes in parallel, to understand the genetic architecture of plant genomes and also to isolate the genes responsible for mutations. Furthermore, whole genomes can now be sequenced. This review addresses these issues and also discusses ways to extract biological meaning from DNA data. Although genomic issuesare addressed from a plant perspective, this review provides insights into the genomic analyses of other organisms. PMID:12462991

  8. Problems and prospects connected with development of high-temperature filtration technology at nuclear power plants equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelik, S. V.; Pavlov, A. S.

    2013-07-01

    Results of work on restoring the service properties of filtering material used in the high-temperature reactor coolant purification system of a VVER-1000 reactor are presented. A quantitative assessment is given to the effect from subjecting a high-temperature sorbent to backwashing operations carried out with the use of regular capacities available in the design process circuit in the first years of operation of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power plant. Approaches to optimizing this process are suggested. A conceptual idea about comprehensively solving the problem of achieving more efficient and safe operation of the high-temperature active water treatment system (AWT-1) on a nuclear power industry-wide scale is outlined.

  9. Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.0

    1987-09-10

    Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point requirement, because of the build-up of vegetative fibers in the cyclone type separator. Therefore, we developed a new PM-10 inlet (patent applied for) to meet our needs, and especially one that is adaptable to our existing 60 surveillance air samplers at minimum cost. The inlet utilizes a modified slotted impactor design. This device is directly adaptable to existing EPA high-volume samplers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-07-01

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

  11. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, R. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Nickols, R. C.; Katz, M.; Iczkowski, R. P.; Fredley, R. R.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Smith, S. W.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During the first quarter, effort was initiated in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task-4 developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study task, a study baseline fuel cell system and module configuration were established. Studies to determine user requirements and to characterize the fuel cell power block and coal gasifier subsystems were initiated. Cell stack design was initiated with completion of preliminary design requirements for the cell cathodes. Laboratory tests were also initiated to identify alternative materials for separator plates, reactant manifold seals, and electrolyte tile fillers. A mechanical tape casting technique for producing 18 x 24 inch sheets of electrolyte matrix tape was successfully demonstrated in Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical and experimental studies were initiated to define the effects of known sulfur contaminants on cell performance. A literature survey was initiated to identify other possible contaminants. Planning and design efforts for construction of a mobile cell test unit were initiated. The mobile unit will be used to verify the molten carbonate cell's ability to operate on gasified coal by tests at a gasifier site.

  12. Biological nutrient removal by applying SBR technology in small wastewater treatment plants: carbon source and C/N/P ratio effects.

    PubMed

    Puig, S; Corominas, Ll; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2007-01-01

    SBR technology is considered an alternative to conventional processes such as Phoredox, Five-stage Bardenpho, among the others for treating nutrients in wastewaters. It is especially applicable to small communities of a just few people to a population equivalent (p.e) up to 4000. In this paper, biological nutrient removal using SBR technology in a single reactor is presented. Biological nutrient removal requires a sequence of anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic phases with multiple feeding events over one cycle. This filling strategy was adapted to enhance denitrification and phosphate release, using the easily biodegradable organic matter from the wastewater. In spite of using this feeding strategy, the organic matter concentration can be insufficient. The results show that biological nutrient removal was successfully achieved by using only one reactor, working with a low organic matter concentration in the influent (C/N/P ratio of 100:12:1.8). Nevertheless, when the C/P ratio was lower than 36 g COD x g(-1) P-P04, an accumulation of phosphate was observed. After that, the system responded quickly and returned to ideal conditions (C/P ratio of 67 g COD x g(-1) P-PO4), taking only 15 days to achieve the complete nutrient removal. Furthermore, the operational conditions and the synthetic wastewater used conferred a selective advantage to polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) over glycogen accumulating non-poly-P organisms (GAOs) as shown by the FISH analysis performed. PMID:17506430

  13. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  14. Industrial innovations for tomorrow: Advances in industrial energy-efficiency technologies. Commercial power plant tests blend of refuse-derived fuel and coal to generate electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    MSW can be converted to energy in two ways. One involves the direct burning of MSW to produce steam and electricity. The second converts MSW into refuse-derived fuel (RDF) by reducing the size of the MSW and separating metals, glass, and other inorganic materials. RDF can be densified or mixed with binders to form fuel pellets. As part of a program sponsored by DOE`s Office of Industrial Technologies, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory participated in a cooperative research and development agreement to examine combustion of binder-enhanced, densified refuse-derived fuel (b-d RDF) pellets with coal. Pelletized b-d RDF has been burned in coal combustors, but only in quantities of less than 3% in large utility systems. The DOE project involved the use of b-d RDF in quantities up to 20%. A major goal was to quantify the pollutants released during combustion and measure combustion performance.

  15. Digital Actuator Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Thomas; Ted Quinn; Jerry Mauck; Richard Bockhorst

    2014-09-01

    There are significant developments underway in new types of actuators for power plant active components. Many of these make use of digital technology to provide a wide array of benefits in performance of the actuators and in reduced burden to maintain them. These new product offerings have gained considerable acceptance in use in process plants. In addition, they have been used in conventional power generation very successfully. This technology has been proven to deliver the benefits promised and substantiate the claims of improved performance. The nuclear industry has been reluctant to incorporate digital actuator technology into nuclear plant designs due to concerns due to a number of concerns. These could be summarized as cost, regulatory uncertainty, and a certain comfort factor with legacy analog technology. The replacement opportunity for these types of components represents a decision point for whether to invest in more modern technology that would provide superior operational and maintenance benefits. Yet, the application of digital technology has been problematic for the nuclear industry, due to qualification and regulatory issues. With some notable exceptions, the result has been a continuing reluctance to undertake the risks and uncertainties of implementing digital actuator technology when replacement opportunities present themselves. Rather, utilities would typically prefer to accept the performance limitations of the legacy analog actuator technologies to avoid impacts to project costs and schedules. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that the benefits of digital actuator technology can be significant in terms of plant performance and that it is worthwhile to address the barriers currently holding back the widespread development and use of this technology. It addresses two important objectives in pursuit of the beneficial use of digital actuator technology for nuclear power plants: 1. To demonstrate the benefits of digital actuator

  16. Accuracy and uncertainty analysis of soil Bbf spatial distribution estimation at a coking plant-contaminated site based on normalization geostatistical technologies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2015-12-01

    Data distribution is usually skewed severely by the presence of hot spots in contaminated sites. This causes difficulties for accurate geostatistical data transformation. Three types of typical normal distribution transformation methods termed the normal score, Johnson, and Box-Cox transformations were applied to compare the effects of spatial interpolation with normal distribution transformation data of benzo(b)fluoranthene in a large-scale coking plant-contaminated site in north China. Three normal transformation methods decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the benzo(b)fluoranthene, and all the transformed data passed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test threshold. Cross validation showed that Johnson ordinary kriging has a minimum root-mean-square error of 1.17 and a mean error of 0.19, which was more accurate than the other two models. The area with fewer sampling points and that with high levels of contamination showed the largest prediction standard errors based on the Johnson ordinary kriging prediction map. We introduce an ideal normal transformation method prior to geostatistical estimation for severely skewed data, which enhances the reliability of risk estimation and improves the accuracy for determination of remediation boundaries. PMID:26300353

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  18. Technology Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomory, Ralph E.

    1983-01-01

    The evolutionary character and complexity of technological development is discussed, focusing on the steam engine and computer as examples. Additional topics include characteristics of science/technology, cultural factors in technological development, technology transfer, and problems in technological organization. (JN)

  19. Regulation of transgenic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, C.J. )

    1991-09-04

    Plants modified by recombinant DNA (rDNA) have been known since 1983 when three research teams independently reported the first stable integration of foreign DNA into plant cells and the regeneration of genetically modified plants. By 1987 rDNA-modified crop species were available that warranted field evaluation of traits conferred by the new genes. By the end of 1992 more than 40 species of rDNA-modified food and fiber crops will have been described and almost 600 field tests of rDNA-modified plants will be completed or in progress in more than 20 countries around the world. Many of these tests will involve plants of potential commercial value since they represent genetic improvements in disease or pest resistance, hybridization technologies, or value-added food traits such as nutritional or processing enhancements. The field tests evidence the substantial public and private commitments that have been made to agricultural biotechnology. They also provide tangible proof of very successful technology transfer from basic plant molecular biology laboratories to problem-solving research programs that should help ensure agricultural sufficiency into the next century.

  20. Molecular Analyses of Transgenic Plants.

    PubMed

    Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Arines, Felichi Mae; Oliva, Norman; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in plant molecular biology is to generate transgenic plants that express transgenes stably over generations. Here, we describe some routine methods to study transgene locus structure and to analyze transgene expression in plants: Southern hybridization using DIG chemiluminescent technology for characterization of transgenic locus, SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR to measure transgene transcript level, and protein immunoblot analysis to evaluate accumulation and stability of transgenic protein product in the target tissue. PMID:26614292

  1. SPACE-R thermionic space nuclear power system: Design and technology demonstration. Task 1.5.6, Moderator containment laboratory experiment test plant (CDRL No. 5)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The preferred moderator being considered for SPACE-R is yttrium hydride encased in beryllium tubes. The baseline beryllium performs a dual function as it acts as a moderator and provides containment for hydrogen. The permeation rate of hydrogen from the hydride through the beryllium shell at the operating temperature is an important factor for the functionality and reliability of the Be-YHx moderator. Hydrogen containment capability of beryllium is comparable to enamel which was used in SNAP and Topaz II reactors. However, limited experimental data base exists for the hydrogen permeation through fabricated beryllium enclosures at high temperature. Permeation of hydrogen in beryllium is strongly affected by surface conditions, thickness of surface oxide, surface and bulk traps, impurity content and microstructure. The objective of this experiment is to determine the permeation rate of hydrogen from yttrium hydride and zirconium hydride through beryllium in the temperature range of 773 K--973 K. In addition, Topaz II type zirconium hydride specimens with and without the proprietary oxide coating canned in stainless steel will be tested to measure the hydrogen permeation rate. The TSET SS-canned ZrHx samples currently at Phillips Laboratory will be used for the latter test with Phillips Laboratory participation at the SPI hydrogen leak test stand. A key technology demonstration of the effectiveness of transferred arc plasma spraying of a 1 mil Molybdenum coating on the Be cladding will be performed. The effectiveness of the Molybdenum coating in preventing any interaction of Be with Stainless Steel in NaK will be assessed and demonstrated.

  2. CMM Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Robert C.

    2008-10-20

    This project addressed coordinate measuring machine (CMM) technology and model-based engineering. CMM data analysis and delivery were enhanced through the addition of several machine types to the inspection summary program. CMM hardware and software improvements were made with the purchases of calibration and setup equipment and new model-based software for the creation of inspection programs. Kansas City Plant (KCP) personnel contributed to and influenced the development of dimensional metrology standards. Model-based engineering capabilities were expanded through the development of software for the tolerance analysis of piece parts and for the creation of model-based CMM inspection programs and inspection plans and through the purchase of off-the-shelf software for the tolerance analysis of mechanical assemblies. An obsolete database application used to track jobs in Precision Measurement was replaced by a web-based application with improved query and reporting capabilities. A potential project to address the transformation of the dimensional metrology enterprise at the Kansas City Plant was identified.

  3. Discharge lamp technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakin, James

    1994-01-01

    This talk is an overview of discharge lamp technology commonly employed in general lighting, with emphasis on issues pertinent to lighting for plant growth. Since the audience is primarily from the plant growth community, and this begins the light source part of the program, we will start with a brief description of the discharge lamps. Challenges of economics and of thermal management make lamp efficiency a prime concern in controlled environment agriculture, so we will emphasize science considerations relating to discharge lamp efficiency. We will then look at the spectra and ratings of some representative lighting products, and conclude with a discussion of technological advances.

  4. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  5. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing the SNOX innovative clean coal technology demonstration. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electric utilities. The report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study; Results presents the concentration data on HAPs in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data; and Special Topics report on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/solid distributions of HAPs. Volume 2: Appendices include quality assurance/quality control results, uncertainty analysis for emission factors, and data sheets. This study involved measurements of a variety of substances in solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at the Innovative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration (ICCT) of the Wet Sulfuric Acid-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SNOX) process. The SNOX demonstration is being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Niles Boiler No. 2 which uses cyclone burners to burn bituminous coal. A 35 megawatt slipstream of flue gas from the boiler is used to demonstrate SNOX. The substances measured at the SNOX process were the following: 1. Five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; 2. Acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); 3. Ammonia and cyanide; 4. Elemental carbon; 5. Radionuclides; 6. Volatile organic compounds (VOC); 7. Semi-volatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); and 8. Aldehydes.

  6. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  7. Nature plants.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    We welcome our new sister journal Nature Plants and the increased commitment to the plant science community that it represents. This is an opportunity for Nature Genetics to emphasize the use of genetic and genomic tools and resources in discovering new plant biology and solving major agricultural challenges.

  8. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Poppenga, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    A large number of plants can cause adverse effects when ingested by animals or people. Plant toxicity is due to a wide diversity of chemical toxins that include alkaloids, glycosides, proteins and amino acids. There are several notable toxic plants for which a specific chemical responsible for toxicity has not been determined. There are many examples of species differences in terms of their sensitivity to intoxication from plants. Pets, such as dogs and cats, and people, especially children, are frequently exposed to the same toxic plants due to their shared environments. On the other hand, livestock are exposed to toxic plants that are rarely involved in human intoxications due to the unique environments in which they are kept. Fortunately, adverse effects often do not occur or are generally mild following most toxic plant ingestions and no therapeutic intervention is necessary. However, some plants are extremely toxic and ingestion of small amounts can cause rapid death. The diagnosis of plant intoxication can be challenging, especially in veterinary medicine where a history of exposure to a toxic plant is often lacking. Analytical tests are available to detect some plant toxins, although their diagnostic utility is often limited by test availability and timeliness of results. With a few notable exceptions, antidotes for plant toxins are not available. However, general supportive and symptomatic care often is sufficient to successfully treat a symptomatic patient.

  9. Laser Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauger, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes lasers and indicates that learning about laser technology and creating laser technology activities are among the teacher enhancement processes needed to strengthen technology education. (JOW)

  10. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  11. Proceedings: EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum

    SciTech Connect

    2004-02-01

    The EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum covered a range of topics related to remediation and management of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, with emphasis on technological advances and current issues associated with site cleanup. In specific, the forum covered MGP coal-tar delineation, soil and groundwater remediation technologies, improvements in air monitoring, and ecological risk characterization/risk management tools.

  12. Recent advances in the transformation of plants.

    PubMed

    Hansen; Wright

    1999-06-01

    Plant transformation technology has become a versatile platform for cultivar improvement as well as for studying gene function in plants. This success represents the culmination of many years of effort in tissue culture improvement, in transformation techniques and in genetic engineering. The next challenge is to develop technology that minimizes or eliminates the tissue culture steps, and provides predictable transgene expression.

  13. Nuclear Plant/Hydrogen Plant Safety: Issues and Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its agents the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project and the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative, is working on developing the technologies to enable the large scale production of hydrogen using nuclear power. A very important consideration in the design of a co-located and connected nuclear plant/hydrogen plant facility is safety. This study provides an overview of the safety issues associated with a combined plant and discusses approaches for categorizing, quantifying, and addressing the safety risks.

  14. COSTS FOR ADVANCED COAL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the development status of advanced coal combustion technologies and discusses the preparation of performance and economic models for their application to electric utility plants. he technologies addressed were atmospheric fluidized bed...

  15. Plant nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef; Herth, Simone

    2011-11-01

    The anthropogenic release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment poses a potential hazard to human health and life. The interplay between NPs and biological processes is receiving increasing attention. Plants expose huge interfaces to the air and soil environment. Thus, NPs are adsorbed to the plant surfaces, taken up through nano- or micrometer-scale openings of plants and are translocated within the plant body. Persistent NPs associated with plants enter the human food chain. In this Opinion, we document the occurrence and character of NPs in the environment and evaluate the need for future research on toxicological effects. Plant nanotoxicology is introduced as a discipline that explores the effects and toxicity mechanisms of NPs in plants, including transport, surface interactions and material-specific responses.

  16. HTGR generic technology program plan (FY 80)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Purpose of the program is to develop base technology and to perform design and development common to the HTGR Steam Cycle, Gas Turbine, and Process Heat Plants. The generic technology program breaks into the base technology, generic component, pebble-bed study, technology transfer, and fresh fuel programs. (DLC)

  17. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  18. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  19. TAT [Training and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN. Manpower Development Div.

    The Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) of Tennessee and the Nuclear Division of the Union Carbide Corporation established an industrial training program called Training and Technology (TAT) which was conducted at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant. TAT instructors were provided by the regular work force of Union Carbide while ORAU provided the…

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  1. Detecting Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through an exclusive patent license from NASA Stennis Space Center, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., has developed a hand-held tool that helps farmers, foresters and other growers detect unhealthy crops before the human eye can see the damage. Developed by two NASA researchers, the Observer,TM shows the viewer which plants are under stress through multispectral imaging, a process that uses specific wavelengths of the light spectrum to obtain information about objects-in this case, plants. With this device, several wavelengths of light collect information about the plant and results are immediately processed and displayed. NASA research found that previsible signs of stress, such as such as a lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease, or insect damage, can be detected by measuring the chlorophyll content based on light energy reflected from the plant. The Observer detects stress up to 16 days before deterioration is visible to the eye. Early detection provides an opportunity to reverse stress and save the plant. The hand-held, easily operated unit works in both natural and artificial light, making it suitable for outdoor or indoor planting.

  2. Poisonous plants.

    PubMed

    Kellerman, T S

    2009-03-01

    South Africa is blessed with one of the richest floras in the world, which--not surprisingly--includes many poisonous plants. Theiler in the founding years believed that plants could be involved in the aetiologies of many of the then unexplained conditions of stock, such as gousiekte and geeldikkop. His subsequent investigations of plant poisonings largely laid the foundation for the future Sections of Toxicology at the Institute and the Faculty of Veterinary Science (UP). The history of research into plant poisonings over the last 100 years is briefly outlined. Some examples of sustained research on important plant poisonings, such as cardiac glycoside poisoning and gousiekte, are given to illustrate our approach to the subject and the progress that has been made. The collation and transfer of information and the impact of plant poisonings on the livestock industry is discussed and possible avenues of future research are investigated.

  3. Electronic plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  4. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  5. Plant Minders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Indoor plants are automatically watered by the Aqua Trends watering system. System draws water from building outlets or from pump/reservoir module and distributes it to the plants via a network of tubes and adjustable nozzles. Key element of system is electronic controller programmed to dispense water according to the needs of various plants in an installation. Adjustable nozzle meters out exactly right amount of water at proper time to the plant it's serving. More than 100 Aqua/Trends systems are in service in the USA, from a simple residential system to a large Mirage III system integrated to water all greenery in a large office or apartment building.

  6. Plant functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-06-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  7. Plant features measurements for robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1989-01-01

    Initial studies of the technical feasibility of using machine vision and color image processing to measure plant health were performed. Wheat plants were grown in nutrient solutions deficient in nitrogen, potassium, and iron. An additional treatment imposed water stress on wheat plants which received a full complement of nutrients. The results for juvenile (less than 2 weeks old) wheat plants show that imaging technology can be used to detect nutrient deficiencies. The relative amount of green color in a leaf declined with increased water stress. The absolute amount of green was higher for nitrogen deficient leaves compared to the control plants. Relative greenness was lower for iron deficient leaves, but the absolute green values were higher. The data showed patterns across the leaf consistent with visual symptons. The development of additional color image processing routines to recognize these patterns would improve the performance of this sensor of plant health.

  8. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    cycle. Results of this study indicate that dual flash type plants are preferred at resources with temperatures above 400 F. Closed loop (binary type) plants are preferred at resources with temperatures below 400 F. A rotary separator turbine upstream of a dual flash plant can be beneficial at Salton Sea, the hottest resource, or at high temperature resources where there is a significant variance in wellhead pressures from well to well. Full scale demonstration is required to verify cost and performance. Hot water turbines that recover energy from the spent brine in a dual flash cycle improve that cycle's brine efficiency. Prototype field tests of this technology have established its technical feasibility. If natural gas prices remain low, a combustion turbine/binary hybrid is an economic option for the lowest temperature sites. The use of mixed fluids appear to be an attractive low risk option. The synchronous turbine option as prepared by Barber-Nichols is attractive but requires a pilot test to prove cost and performance. Dual flash binary bottoming cycles appear promising provided that scaling of the brine/working fluid exchangers is controllable. Metastable expansion, reheater, Subatmospheric flash, dual flash backpressure turbine, and hot dry rock concepts do not seem to offer any cost advantage over the baseline technologies. If implemented, the next generation geothermal power plant concept may improve brine utilization but is unlikely to reduce the cost of power generation by much more than 10%. Colder resources will benefit more from the development of a next generation geothermal power plant than will hotter resources. All values presented in this study for plant cost and for busbar cost of power are relative numbers intended to allow an objective and meaningful comparison of technologies. The goal of this study is to assess various technologies on an common basis and, secondarily, to give an approximate idea of the current costs of the technologies at actual

  9. Microsensor Technologies for Plant Growth System Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo

    2004-01-01

    This document covered the following: a) demonstration of feasibility of microsensor for tube and particulate growth systems; b) Dissolved oxygen; c)Wetness; d) Flexible microfluidic substrate with microfluidic channels and microsensor arrays; e)Dynamic root zone control/monitoring in microgravity; f)Rapid prototyping of phytoremediation; and g) A new tool for root physiology and pathology.

  10. Domestication and plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haibao; Sezen, Uzay; Paterson, Andrew H

    2010-04-01

    The techniques of plant improvement have been evolving with the advancement of technology, progressing from crop domestication by Neolithic humans to scientific plant breeding, and now including DNA-based genotyping and genetic engineering. Archeological findings have shown that early human ancestors often unintentionally selected for and finally fixed a few major domestication traits over time. Recent advancement of molecular and genomic tools has enabled scientists to pinpoint changes to specific chromosomal regions and genetic loci that are responsible for dramatic morphological and other transitions that distinguish crops from their wild progenitors. Extensive studies in a multitude of additional crop species, facilitated by rapid progress in sequencing and resequencing(s) of crop genomes, will further our understanding of the genomic impact from both the unusual population history of cultivated plants and millennia of human selection.

  11. Improvement of water treatment at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, B. M.; Bushuev, E. N.; Larin, A. B.; Karpychev, E. A.; Zhadan, A. V.

    2015-04-01

    Prospective and existing technologies for water treatment at thermal power plants, including pretreatment, ion exchange, and membrane method are considered. The results obtained from laboratory investigations and industrial tests of the proposed technologies carried out at different thermal power plants are presented. The possibilities of improving the process and environmental indicators of water treatment plants are shown.

  12. [Characteristics of working conditions at metallurgy-related plants].

    PubMed

    Egorova, A M

    2008-01-01

    Working conditions at more versus less advanced technology steel plants of the Volgograd Region are analyzed. The working conditions at the less advanced technology plants are referred to as a very high occupational risk. It is necessary to work out measures to lower the poor impact of microclimate, dust, noise, to improve illumination, and to regulate labor at steel plants.

  13. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Plant Biology

    PubMed Central

    Goff, Stephen A.; Vaughn, Matthew; McKay, Sheldon; Lyons, Eric; Stapleton, Ann E.; Gessler, Damian; Matasci, Naim; Wang, Liya; Hanlon, Matthew; Lenards, Andrew; Muir, Andy; Merchant, Nirav; Lowry, Sonya; Mock, Stephen; Helmke, Matthew; Kubach, Adam; Narro, Martha; Hopkins, Nicole; Micklos, David; Hilgert, Uwe; Gonzales, Michael; Jordan, Chris; Skidmore, Edwin; Dooley, Rion; Cazes, John; McLay, Robert; Lu, Zhenyuan; Pasternak, Shiran; Koesterke, Lars; Piel, William H.; Grene, Ruth; Noutsos, Christos; Gendler, Karla; Feng, Xin; Tang, Chunlao; Lent, Monica; Kim, Seung-Jin; Kvilekval, Kristian; Manjunath, B. S.; Tannen, Val; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Sanderson, Michael; Welch, Stephen M.; Cranston, Karen A.; Soltis, Pamela; Soltis, Doug; O'Meara, Brian; Ane, Cecile; Brutnell, Tom; Kleibenstein, Daniel J.; White, Jeffery W.; Leebens-Mack, James; Donoghue, Michael J.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Vision, Todd J.; Myers, Christopher R.; Lowenthal, David; Enquist, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Akoglu, Ali; Andrews, Greg; Ram, Sudha; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; Stanzione, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enables scientists throughout the diverse fields that comprise plant biology to address Grand Challenges in new ways, to stimulate and facilitate cross-disciplinary research, to promote biology and computer science research interactions, and to train the next generation of scientists on the use of cyberinfrastructure in research and education. Meeting humanity's projected demands for agricultural and forest products and the expectation that natural ecosystems be managed sustainably will require synergies from the application of information technologies. The iPlant cyberinfrastructure design is based on an unprecedented period of research community input, and leverages developments in high-performance computing, data storage, and cyberinfrastructure for the physical sciences. iPlant is an open-source project with application programming interfaces that allow the community to extend the infrastructure to meet its needs. iPlant is sponsoring community-driven workshops addressing specific scientific questions via analysis tool integration and hypothesis testing. These workshops teach researchers how to add bioinformatics tools and/or datasets into the iPlant cyberinfrastructure enabling plant scientists to perform complex analyses on large datasets without the need to master the command-line or high-performance computational services. PMID:22645531

  14. High-throughput phenotyping of plant shoots.

    PubMed

    Berger, Bettina; de Regt, Bas; Tester, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Advances in automated plant handling and image acquisition now make it possible to use digital imaging for the high-throughput phenotyping of plants. Various traits can be extracted from individual images. However, the potential of this technology lies in the acquisition of time series. Since whole shoot imaging is nondestructive, plants can now be monitored throughout their lifecycle, and dynamic traits such as plant growth and development can be captured and quantified. The technique is applicable to a wide range of plants and research areas and makes high-throughput screens possible, reducing the time and labor needed for the phenotypic characterization of plants.

  15. Innovation for maintenance technology improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shives, T. R. (Editor); Willard, W. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A group of 34 submitted entries (32 papers and 2 abstracts) from the 33rd meeting of the Mechanical Failures Prevention Group whose subject was maintenance technology improvement through innovation. Areas of special emphasis included maintenance concepts, maintenance analysis systems, improved maintenance processes, innovative maintenance diagnostics and maintenance indicators, and technology improvements for power plant applications.

  16. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  17. Plant Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are faced with defending themselves against a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc. Immunity is multi-layered and complex. Plants can induce defenses when they recognize small peptides, proteins or double-stranded RNA associated with pathogens. Recognitio...

  18. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  19. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  20. Recent advances in plant transformation.

    PubMed

    Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2011-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering has become one of the most important molecular tools in the modern molecular breeding of crops. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in the development of new and efficient transformation methods in plants. Despite a variety of available DNA delivery methods, Agrobacterium- and biolistic-mediated transformation remain the two predominantly employed approaches. In particular, progress in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals and other recalcitrant dicot species has been quite remarkable. In the meantime, other transgenic-enabling technologies have emerged, including generation of marker-free transgenics, gene targeting, and chromosomal engineering. Although transformation of some plant species or elite germplasm remains a challenge, further advancement in transformation technology is expected because the mechanisms of governing the regeneration and transformation processes are now better understood and are being creatively applied to designing improved transformation methods or to developing new enabling technologies. PMID:21181522

  1. Assistive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Assistive Technology Assistive technology (AT) is any service or tool that helps ... be difficult or impossible. For older adults, such technology may be a walker to improve mobility or ...

  2. Plant based butters.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Kalyani; Balasubramanian, S; Chandra, Pitam

    2015-07-01

    During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described. PMID:26139864

  3. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Dimension Technologies

    NASA Video Gallery

    Command and Control Technologies (CCT) Corporation of Titusville, Florida, a Florida/NASA Business Incubator tenant, is commercializing technology based on Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) spacecraft...

  5. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2007-03-15

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Three proposed COLs expected in 2007, by Dale E. Klein, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Delivering behaviors that our customers value, by Jack Allen, Westinghouse Electric Company; Facilitating high-level and fuel waste disposal technologies, by Malcolm Gray, IAEA, Austria; Plant life management and long-term operation, by Pal Kovacs, OECD-NEA, France; Measuring control rod position, by R. Taymanov, K. Sapozhnikova, I. Druzhinin, D.I. Mendeleyev, Institue for Metrology, Russia; and, 'Modernization' means higher safety, by Svetlana Genova, Kozluduy NPP plc, Bulgaria.

  6. Operation results of Wakamatsu PFBC plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, Toshio; Abe, Rikiya; Ogura, Yoshio; Hirai, Takeo

    1997-12-31

    Electric Power Development Company, EPDC, has operated 71MWe PFBC demonstration plant at Wakamatsu site to evaluate the system since 1994. Wakamatsu plant is the first PFBC plant in Japan, preceding the commercial plants such as Tomato-Azuma, Osaki and Karita. The plant is the world-wide first plant that is equipped with hot gas filter of 100% capacity. The authors have operated the plant for more than 6,000 hours with some troubles since the first generation in October, 1993. They acquired much information about operation and maintenance, so that they are convinced that PFBC is a promising power generation technology. They plan to operate the plant until the end of 1997, targeting 10,000 hour operation and establishment of the plant reliability.

  7. Plants, plant pathogens, and microgravity--a deadly trio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. E.; Ryba-White, M.; Sun, Q.; Wu, C. J.; Hilaire, E.; Gartner, C.; Nedukha, O.; Kordyum, E.; Keck, M.; Leung, H.; Guikema, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment.

  8. Fbis report. Science and technology. Japan. Nedo: Status report on clean coal technology development, August 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-18

    ;Contents: NEDO: Status Report on Clean Coal Technology Development; Report on General Outlook on Clean Coal Technology Development; Development of Coal Liquefaction Technology--Development of Technology for Hydrorefining Liquefied Coal Oil; Development of Coal Liquefaction Technology--Research to Improve Coal Liquefaction Technology; Development of Technology for Using Coal to Produce Hydrogen--Results of the HYCOL Project; Development of a Jet-Bed Coal Gasification Power Plant--Status of the Development of a 200 t/d Jet-Bed Coal Gasification Power Plant; Survey of Next-Generation Technology for Coal Utilization (Sadayuki Shinozaki; New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Report, Sept 94).

  9. Plant secretomics

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Tehreem; Shaheen, Kanwal; Parveen, Sajida; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2014-01-01

    Plant secretomes are the proteins secreted by the plant cells and are involved in the maintenance of cell wall structure, relationship between host and pathogen, communication between different cells in the plant, etc. Amalgamation of methodologies like bioinformatics, biochemical, and proteomics are used to separate, classify, and outline secretomes by means of harmonizing in planta systems and in vitro suspension cultured cell system (SSCs). We summed up and explained the meaning of secretome, methods used for the identification and isolation of secreted proteins from extracellular space and methods for the assessment of purity of secretome proteins in this review. Two D PAGE method and HPLC based methods for the analysis together with different bioinformatics tools used for the prediction of secretome proteins are also discussed. Biological significance of secretome proteins under different environmental stresses, i.e., salt stress, drought stress, oxidative stress, etc., defense responses and plant interactions with environment are also explained in detail. PMID:25763623

  10. Plant grafting.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Charles W; Meyerowitz, Elliot M

    2015-03-01

    Since ancient times, people have cut and joined together plants of different varieties or species so they would grow as a single plant - a process known as grafting (Figures 1 and 2). References to grafting appear in the Bible, ancient Greek and ancient Chinese texts, indicating that grafting was practised in Europe, the Middle East and Asia by at least the 5(th) century BCE. It is unknown where or how grafting was first discovered, but it is likely that natural grafting, the process by which two plants touch and fuse limbs or roots in the absence of human interference (Figure 3), influenced people's thinking. Such natural grafts are generally uncommon, but are seen in certain species, including English ivy. Parasitic plants, such as mistletoe, that grow and feed on often unrelated species may have also contributed to the development of grafting as a technique, as people would have observed mistletoe growing on trees such as apples or poplars. PMID:25734263

  11. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-29

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  12. History of nuclear technology development in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kiyonobu

    2015-04-01

    Nuclear technology development in Japan has been carried out based on the Atomic Energy Basic Act brought into effect in 1955. The nuclear technology development is limited to peaceful purposes and made in a principle to assure their safety. Now, the technologies for research reactors radiation application and nuclear power plants are delivered to developing countries. First of all, safety measures of nuclear power plants (NPPs) will be enhanced based on lesson learned from TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident.

  13. Technology Development Roadmaps - a Systematic Approach to Maturing Needed Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    John W. Colllins; Layne Pincock

    2010-07-01

    Abstract. Planning and decision making represent important challenges for all projects. This paper presents the steps needed to assess technical readiness and determine the path forward to mature the technologies required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. A Technology Readiness Assessment is used to evaluate the required systems, subsystems, and components (SSC) comprising the desired plant architecture and assess the SSCs against established Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs). A validated TRL baseline is then established for the proposed physical design. Technology Development Roadmaps are generated to define the path forward and focus project research and development and engineering tasks on advancing the technologies to increasing levels of maturity. Tasks include modeling, testing, bench-scale demonstrations, pilot-scale demonstrations, and fully integrated prototype demonstrations. The roadmaps identify precise project objectives and requirements; create a consensus vision of project needs; provide a structured, defensible, decision-based project plan; and, minimize project costs and schedules.

  14. Guerilla Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Royal

    1999-01-01

    Staff at disadvantaged schools lacking sufficient technology must take matters into their own hands. Guerilla technology tactics include finding all the hidden technology on campus, scanning the school budget carefully, helping others spend their technology money, and scrounging free computers at universities and local businesses. (MLH)

  15. Technology 2020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Mike

    2005-01-01

    This brief article discusses the new technologies that may be available in 2020 that will impact the field of education. The author believes that the new educational themes will be "flexibility" and "autonomy", and the new technological theme will be "transparency". Topics discussed include genetic technology, pharmacological technology, digital…

  16. Technology coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, Steven

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on technology coordination are provided. Topics covered include: technology coordination process to date; goals; how the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) can support the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA); how OSSA can support OAST; steps to technology transfer; and recommendations.

  17. A history of plant virology.

    PubMed

    van der Want, J P H; Dijkstra, J

    2006-08-01

    This review traces developments in plant virus research from its very beginning in the eighties of the 19th century until the present day. Starting with the earliest research, which gave a clue as to the existence of a pathogen different from the then known bacteria and fungi, the subsequent topics in plant virus research are highlighted, including the spread of plant viruses in nature and their relationships with possible vectors. In the course of more than a century, macroscopical and (sub)microscopical studies gave way to those with a molecular dimension, thanks to the development of sophisticated molecular-biological techniques and information technology. As a result an insight has been gained into both the molecular characteristics of plant viruses and various resistance mechanisms in plants.

  18. Development of the merchant plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfinger, R.; Gilliss, M.B.

    1998-07-01

    The co-authors of this paper are currently involved in over 1500 megawatts of merchant plant developments in the US. This paper will discuss the latest in combined cycle steam reheat ``H and G'' technology. Big improvements in heat rates along with substantial drop in installed cost will make this power cycle the leading merchant plant of the future. This paper will compare the actual present day performance and clearing price of a state-of-the-art merchant plant versus utility dispatch cost duration curves, known as ``system lambda''. Deregulation of the power market will ultimately provide an open market for these efficient plants to compete effectively against aging utility plants. Comparison of utility system heat rates versus merchant plant heat rates along with an increase need for generation capacity and forecasts of stable gas prices supports to the potential for a large scale building program of these high efficiency generators. This paper will also review the capacity crunch in the Northeast and Wisconsin and how problems with nuclear plants may accelerate the need for merchant plants. This paper will compare the required capacity for the population growth in the SERC Region and in Florida and how this will produce a potential ``hot bed'' for merchant plant development.

  19. Plant health sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manukian, Ara; Mckelvy, Colleen; Pearce, Michael; Syslo, Steph

    1988-01-01

    If plants are to be used as a food source for long term space missions, they must be grown in a stable environment where the health of the crops is continuously monitored. The sensor(s) to be used should detect any diseases or health problems before irreversible damage occurs. The method of analysis must be nondestructive and provide instantaneous information on the condition of the crop. In addition, the sensor(s) must be able to function in microgravity. This first semester, the plant health and disease sensing group concentrated on researching and consulting experts in many fields in attempts to find reliable plant health indicators. Once several indicators were found, technologies that could detect them were investigated. Eventually the three methods chosen to be implemented next semester were stimulus response monitoring, video image processing and chlorophyll level detection. Most of the other technologies investigated this semester are discussed here. They were rejected for various reasons but are included in the report because NASA may wish to consider pursuing them in the future.

  20. OTEC mooring technology

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, D.R.; Wendt, R.L.; Johnson, B.A.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes existing technology for mooring components which may be suitable for OTEC use. Due to the platform size, depth of water, and length of design life required for an operational OTEC plant, only large and high capacity mooring components were investigated. The report contains engineering, test, and manufacturer's data on wire rope, synthetic rope (nylon, polyester and Kevlar), anchors, deck fittings and machinery, and design concepts for tension leg platform mooring systems. A significant portion of the effort was directed to the assessment of synthetic rope technology and its application to moorings.

  1. Energy intensity, electricity consumption, and advanced manufacturing-technology usage

    SciTech Connect

    Doms, M.E.; Dunne, T.

    1995-07-01

    This article reports on the relationship between the usage of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) and energy consumption patterns in manufacturing plants. Using data from the Survey of Manufacturing Technology and the 1987 Census of Manufactures, we model the energy intensity and the electricity intensity of plants as functions of AMT usage and plant age. The main findings are that plants that utilize AMTs are less-energy intensive than plants not using AMTs, but consume proportionately more electricity as a fuel source. Additionally, older plants are generally more energy intensive and rely on fossil fuels to a greater extent than younger plants. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Chlorofluorocarbon leak detection technology

    SciTech Connect

    Munday, E.B.

    1990-12-01

    There are about 590 large coolant systems located at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) and the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) leaking nearly 800,000 lb of R-114 refrigerant annually (1989 estimate). A program is now under way to reduce the leakage to 325,000 lb/year -- an average loss of 551 lb/year (0.063 lb/h) per coolant system, some of which are as large as 800 ft. This report investigates leak detection technologies that can be used to locate leaks in the coolant systems. Included are descriptions, minimum leak detection rate levels, advantages, disadvantages, and vendor information on the following technologies: bubbling solutions; colorimetric leak testing; dyes; halogen leak detectors (coronea discharge detectors; halide torch detectors, and heated anode detectors); laser imaging; mass spectroscopy; organic vapor analyzers; odorants; pressure decay methods; solid-state electrolytic-cell gas sensors; thermal conductivity leak detectors; and ultrasonic leak detectors.

  3. Plant Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Land's agricultural research team is testing new ways to sustain life in space as a research participant with Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Land, sponsored by Kraft General Foods, is an entertainment, research, and education facility at EPCOT Center, part of Walt Disney World. The cooperative effort is simultaneously a research and development program, a technology demonstration that provides the public to see high technology at work and an area of potential spinoff: the CELSS work may generate Earth use technology beneficial to the hydroponic (soilless growing) vegetable production industries of the world.

  4. Enhancing Plant Disease Resistance without R Genes.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Fernando, Dilantha; Silva, Roberto Nascimento; Gupta, Vijai Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Crop plants encounter constant biotic challenges, and these challenges have historically been best managed with resistance (R) genes. However, the rapid evolution of new pathogenic strains along with the nonavailability or nonidentification of R genes in cultivated crop species against a large number of plant pathogens have led researchers to think beyond R genes. Biotechnological tools have shown promise in dealing with such challenges. Technologies such as transgenerational plant immunity, interspecies transfer of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), pathogen-derived resistance (PDR), gene regulation, and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in host plants from other plant species have led to enhanced disease resistance and increased food security. PMID:27113633

  5. Supercritical plants to come online in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, N.

    2009-07-15

    A trio of coal-fired power plants using supercritical technology set to enter service this year. These are: We Energies is Elm Road Generating Station in Wisconsin, a two-unit, 1,230 MW supercritical plant that will burn bituminous coal; a 750 MW supercritical coal-fired power plant at the Comanche Generating Station in Pueblo, Colo., the third unit at the site; and Luminant's Oak Grove plant in Texas which will consist of two supercritical, lignite-fueled power generation units. When complete, the plant will deliver about 1,6000 MW. Some details are given on each of these projects. 2 photos.

  6. Assessing Energy Use in Your Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-02-01

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes ITP resources and software that industrial plants can use for energy assessments that result in greater energy efficiency and lower costs.

  7. Promontory Facility Plant-wide Energy Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, Roger M.; Bebb, Deanna, Brown, Herman E.

    2008-03-28

    A 1-year plant-wide assessment at the ATK Promontory manufacturing facility utilizing innovative assessment technologies to identify energy savings opportunities in: steam, water, compressed air, HVAC, utility, production, and building systems.

  8. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  9. Power plants to go

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-05-01

    Simple-cycle portable power stations have been used to increase the electrical capacity in developing countries and in emergency situations. This article describes the first power barge using combined-cycle technology which has began operation in the Dominican Republic. The construction of a new mobile power plant in Puerto Plata, the Dominican Republic, marks the first time a power barge has been coupled with the efficiency of combined-cycle generation. The 185-megawatt plant, which became fully operational in January, provides 25% of the power required by the Dominican state-owned utility, the Corporacion Dominicana de Electricidad (CDE). The new plant is designed to end the power shortages and blackouts that have traditionally plagued the Caribbean nation. The Puerto Plata plant consists of two barges that were built in the US, transported to the Dominican Republic, installed, and backfilled into place. One barge, delivered in May 1994, contains a 76-megawatt gas turbine. The second barge, installed in April 1995, contains a 45-megawatt heat-recovery steam generator to recover heat energy from the turbine exhaust, two auxiliary boilers to produce additional steam, and a 118-megawatt steam-turbine generator.

  10. Plant intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  11. Proteomic dissection of plant responses to various pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Jianping; Dai, Liangying; Ma, Huasheng; Zhang, Hengmu; Yang, Jian; Wang, Fang; Yan, Chengqi

    2015-05-01

    During their growth and development, plants are vulnerable to the effects of a variety of pathogens. Proteomics technology plays an important role in research studies of plant defense mechanisms by mining the expression changes of proteins in response to various biotic stresses. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the latest developments in international proteomic research on plant biotic stress. It summarizes the methods commonly used in plant proteomic research to investigate biotic stress, analyze the protein responses of plants in adverse conditions, and reviews the applications of proteomics combined with transgenic technology in plant protection.

  12. Hybrid solar powered desalination plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hamester, H.L.; Husseiny, A.; Lumdstrom, J.; La Porta, C.; McLagan, G.

    1981-01-01

    A solar powered sea water desalination system design is described. The commercial size plant is specified to provide at least 1.8*10/sup 6/m/sup 3//year of product water (<500 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids) from sea water containing 44,000 kg/m/sup 3/ total dissolved solids. The basis of the design is a two-stage desalination system employing membrane technologies. Membrane technologies were selected since they require about a factor of five less energy than desalination technologies which use distillation.

  13. Being technological

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    SETI's essential premises involve evolution in multiple domains: cosmology, biology, culture and technology. Comparatively little has been written about the last of these, technology, in relation to SETI's targets, but it is a crucial variable and well worth deep examination. In particular, it would seem prudent to consider carefully our assumptions about hypothetical extraterrestrial societies which have developed technology that SETI could detect, or which could detect, at interstellar distances, the existence of intelligent life on Earth. This paper contributes to that effort by reflecting upon our habits of projecting terracentric assumptions onto hypothetical worlds, exploring dominant narratives about technological development and presenting varied philosophical theories about the nature of technology. It highlights the cultural aspects of technology here on Earth, particularly their role in the development of radio technology. In the end, it is clear that technology need not develop along a prescribed, linear path; projections about extraterrestrial societies which rely on this assumption need to be reconsidered.

  14. Plant Profiles - Industrial Energy Management in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    This 24-page brochure profiles industrial manufacturing firms who are achieving significant energy savings in their plants. The DOE Office of Industrial Technologies six plant-of-the-year nominees are featured, and an additional 10 projects from other companies are also highlighted. Information on OIT's awards and recognition process, and information on OIT and BestPractices is also included.

  15. INDEPENDENT POWER PLANT USING WOOD WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1 MWe power plant using waste wood is to be installed at a U.S. Marine Corps base, which will supply all the wood for the plant from a landfill site. The core energy conversion technology is a down-draft gasifier supplying approximately 150 Btu/scf gas to both spark ignition an...

  16. Plant intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  17. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  18. Evaluation of the ECAS open cycle MHD power plant design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Staiger, P. J.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) MHD/steam power plant is described. The NASA critical evaluation of the design is summarized. Performance of the MHD plant is compared to that of the other type ECAS plant designs on the basis of efficiency and the 30-year levelized cost of electricity. Techniques to improve the plant design and the potential performance of lower technology plants requiring shorter development time and lower development cost are then discussed.

  19. Assistive Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book offers the reader new achievements within the Assistive Technology field made by worldwide experts, covering aspects such as assistive technology focused on teaching and education, mobility, communication and social interactivity, among others. Each chapter included in this book covers one particular aspect of Assistive Technology that…

  20. Technology Night.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Albert P.

    1998-01-01

    A Maryland elementary school enlightened parents and community members about school technology by hosting a technology night showcasing student work. Through staff and community members' cooperative efforts, the technology committee created a comprehensive program composed of several elements: student involvement, district vision,…

  1. Contemporary Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "InSEA News" focuses on contemporary technology and art education. The articles are: "International Travel and Contemporary Technology" (Gilbert Clark); "Recollections and Visions for Electronic Computing in Art Education" (Guy Hubbard); "Using Technologies in Art Education: A Review of Current Issues" (Li-Fen Lu); "Reflections…

  2. Radically innovative steelmaking technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Julian

    1980-09-01

    The steel industry is faced with serious problems caused by the increasing cost of energy, labor and capital and by tough overseas competition, employing new highly efficient process plants. The very high cost of capital and of capital equipment renders the construction of new green field site plants, exemplifying the best available technology economically unattractive. For this reason, over the long term the development radically innovative steelmaking technologies appears to be the only satisfactory resolution of this dilemma. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of some of the radically innovative steelmaking technologies that have been proposed during the past few years and to develop the argument that these indeed do deserve serious consideration at the present time. It should be stressed, however, that these innovative technologies can be implemented only as part of a carefully conceived long range plan, which contains as a subset short term solutions, such as trigger prices improved investment credits, and so forth and intermediate term solutions, such as more extensive use of continuous casting, external desulfurization and selective modernization in general.

  3. Conduct a process control technology audit

    SciTech Connect

    Ayral, T.E.; Melville, S.J. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports that increasing environmental, safety and quality control concerns, coupled with rapid advances in process control technology, are prompting many plants to review their current technology. The goals are to maximize productivity of existing process control resources and determine the improvement potential of today's technology. By implementing the guidelines provided based on recently conducted surveys, control engineer productivity and therefore, plant productivity and profitability can be increased. These studies, called process control technology audits (PCTA), cover the following subjects as they relate to process control: Process control systems, Control and optimization technology overview, System interconnectivity and integration evaluation, and Information system review. A PCTA is designed to answer the following questions for a processing plant: Is our current control technology the most appropriate Do we have the required hardware and software What is the obsolescence level of our hardware Is more computer system integration necessary How can we improve in the process control area

  4. Macrofouling control technology update

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Armor, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Macrofouling of condenser systems with debris, fish, clams, barnacles, mussels, algae, and other marine organisms can significantly affect power plant availability and performance. Typical difficulties include increased condenser back pressure due to reduced cooling-water flow, malfunctioning of on-line tube-cleaning equipment, and accelerated corrosion and erosion of tubing. In some severe cases, condenser back pressure increased to a point that the turbine had to be tripped. In 1981 EPRI initiated a research project to develop utility industry guidelines for reducing macrofouling problems. In 1987 EPRI published the Guidelines on Macrofouling Control Technology. Since then significant progress has been made by EPRI, utility members, equipment manufacturers, and others. The purpose of this paper is to update the macrofouling control technology. Control technology covered will include thermal treatment, mechanical removal devices, antifouling coatings, and chemical treatment.

  5. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moursund, R. A.; Carlson, T. J.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  6. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  7. Being Technological

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    SETI's essential premises involve evolution in multiple domains: cosmology, biology, culture, and technology. Comparatively little has been written about the last of these, technology, in relation to SETI's targets, but it is a crucial variable, and well worth deep examination. In particular, it would seem prudent to consider carefully our assumptions about hypothetical extraterrestrial societies which have developed technology that SETI could detect, or which could detect, at interstellar distances, the existence of intelligent life on Earth. This chapter contributes to that effort by reflecting upon our habits of projecting terracentric assumptions onto hypothetical worlds, exploring dominant narratives about technological development, and presenting varied philosophical theories about the nature of technology. It highlights the cultural aspects of technology here on Earth, particularly their role in the development of radio technology.

  8. Balancing people, plants, and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2006-04-15

    Two of the biggest challenges facing the US power industry today are retaining an experienced, capable workforce and operating and maintaining a reliable, diversified fleet of generating plants. Success in the marketplace requires a proper balancing of staff and new technology, something few gencos do well. Following this introductory paper in this issue are several technical articles representing a small sample of the steps that gencos nationwide are taking to prolong plant life. Unlike the false promise of Ponce de Leon's fountain of youth in Florida, the promise of longer life for aging plants is real wherever experienced engineers and technicians are on the job. The article looks at problems across America, from the East Coast to the West Coast. It is supported by diagrams projecting US new capacity and plant type additions up to 2014. 5 figs.

  9. Technology applications bulletins: Number one

    SciTech Connect

    Koncinski, W. Jr.

    1989-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), operates five facilities for the US Department of Energy (DOE): the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which is a large, multidisciplinary research and development (R and D) center whose primary mission is energy research; the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which engages in defense research, development, and production; and the uranium-enrichment plants at Oak Ridge; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Much of the research carried out at these facilities is of interest to industry and to state or local governments. To make information about this research available, the Energy Systems Office of Technology Applications publishes brief descriptions of selected technologies and reports. These technology applications bulletins describe the new technology and inform the reader about how to obtain further information, gain access to technical resources, and initiate direct contact with Energy Systems researchers.

  10. The United States Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology`s Technology Benefits Recording System

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology`s (OIT`s) Technology Benefits Recording System (TBRS) was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The TBRS is used to organize and maintain records of the benefits accrued from the use of technologies developed with the assistance of OIT. OIT has had a sustained emphasis on technology deployment. While individual program managers have specific technology deployment goals for each of their ongoing programs, the Office has also established a separate Technology Deployment Division whose mission is to assist program managers and research and development partners commercialize technologies. As part of this effort, the Technology Deployment Division developed an energy-tracking task which has been performed by PNL since 1977. The goal of the energy-tracking task is to accurately assess the energy savings impact of OIT-developed technologies. In previous years, information on OIT-sponsored technologies existed in a variety of forms--first as a hardcopy, then electronically in several spreadsheet formats that existed in multiple software programs. The TBRS was created in 1993 for OIT and was based on information collected in all previous years from numerous industrial contacts, vendors, and plants that have installed OIT-sponsored technologies. The TBRS contains information on technologies commercialized between 1977 and the present, as well as information on emerging technologies in the late development/early commercialization stage of the technology life cycle. For each technology, details on the number of units sold and the energy saved are available on a year-by-year basis. Information regarding environmental benefits, productivity and competitiveness benefits, or impact that the technology may have had on employment is also available.

  11. Plant Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Leather, Gerald R.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1978-01-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N2 gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O2 gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN3 and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence. It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  12. Finding our roots and celebrating our shoots: Plant virology in Virology, 1955-1964.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G

    2015-05-01

    To celebrate the sixtieth anniversary of Virology a survey is made of the plant viruses, virologists and their institutions, and tools and technology described in the first decade of plant virus publications in Virology. This was a period when plant viruses increasingly became tools of discovery as epistemic objects and plant virology became a discipline discrete from plant pathology and other life sciences.

  13. Plant biology in the future.

    PubMed

    Bazzaz, F A

    2001-05-01

    In the beginning of modern plant biology, plant biologists followed a simple model for their science. This model included important branches of plant biology known then. Of course, plants had to be identified and classified first. Thus, there was much work on taxonomy, genetics, and physiology. Ecology and evolution were approached implicitly, rather than explicitly, through paleobotany, taxonomy, morphology, and historical geography. However, the burgeoning explosion of knowledge and great advances in molecular biology, e.g., to the extent that genes for specific traits can be added (or deleted) at will, have created a revolution in the study of plants. Genomics in agriculture has made it possible to address many important issues in crop production by the identification and manipulation of genes in crop plants. The current model of plant study differs from the previous one in that it places greater emphasis on developmental controls and on evolution by differential fitness. In a rapidly changing environment, the current model also explicitly considers the phenotypic variation among individuals on which selection operates. These are calls for the unity of science. In fact, the proponents of "Complexity Theory" think there are common algorithms describing all levels of organization, from atoms all the way to the structure of the universe, and that when these are discovered, the issue of scaling will be greatly simplified! Plant biology must seriously contribute to, among other things, meeting the nutritional needs of the human population. This challenge constitutes a key part of the backdrop against which future evolution will occur. Genetic engineering technologies are and will continue to be an important component of agriculture; however, we must consider the evolutionary implications of these new technologies. Meeting these demands requires drastic changes in the undergraduate curriculum. Students of biology should be trained in molecular, cellular, organismal

  14. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  15. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  16. Plant-based vaccines against viruses.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Edward P

    2014-01-01

    Plant-made or "biofarmed" viral vaccines are some of the earliest products of the technology of plant molecular farming, and remain some of the brightest prospects for the success of this field. Proofs of principle and of efficacy exist for many candidate viral veterinary vaccines; the use of plant-made viral antigens and of monoclonal antibodies for therapy of animal and even human viral disease is also well established. This review explores some of the more prominent recent advances in the biofarming of viral vaccines and therapies, including the recent use of ZMapp for Ebolavirus infection, and explores some possible future applications of the technology.

  17. Technology '90

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report.

  18. Advanced genetic tools for plant biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, WS; Yuan, JS; Stewart, CN

    2013-10-09

    Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, 'tunable' transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems.

  19. PACKAGE PLANTS FOR SMALL SYSTEMS: A FIELD STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A joint field study was conducted by AWWA and the Drinking Water Research Division of USEPA to evaluate existing small community systems that use package plant technology. Forty-eight package plant systems representing a geographic and technological cross section were evaluated t...

  20. The DOE Bioethanol Pilot Plant: A Tool for Commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.

    2000-08-31

    With funding from the DOE National Biofuels Program, NREL has constructed a fermentation pilot plant facility. The plant was explicitly designed to assist industry and outside researchers develop commercial bioprocessing technology. Companies that are exploring biofuels technologies can utilize the facilities and expertise of NREL through a variety of flexible business-venture arrangements.