Science.gov

Sample records for plant unit methodology

  1. United States Department of Energy`s reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage.

  2. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    SciTech Connect

    Lester M. Waganer

    2011-01-04

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, "Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the "teething" problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated "mature" subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  3. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  4. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  5. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein.

  6. Unit: Plants, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…

  7. Economic Evaluation of Munitions Manufacturing Pink Wastewater Treatment Alternatives Using a Present Value-Unit Cost Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    present value- unit cost (PVUC) methodology and compares seven state -of-the- art processes: activated granular carbon adsorption with and without...The United States Army controls seventeen Army Ammunition Plants (AAP) engaged in explosive or propellant manufacture. Seven AAP’s engage only in mar...Army manufactures all explosives (except nitroglycerin) employed by the United States Air Force and the Army LAP facilities process Air Force munitions

  8. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  9. A methodology to evaluate water and wastewater treatment plant reliability.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, D; Soller, J; Sakaji, R; Olivieri, A

    2001-01-01

    Evaluating the reliability of treatment processes and treatment facilities should be an important part of the planning and design process for water resource, wastewater treatment, and particularly wastewater reuse projects. With the recent developments in technology, particularly the development of membrane processes and alternative disinfection processes for water and wastewater treatment, there is an increasing need for a common methodology to evaluate the reliability of alternative processes and treatment facilities that utilize different combinations of those processes. To assess the reliability of a treatment facility, several aspects of treatment must be considered including a methodical evaluation of both mechanical reliability and plant performance. A straightforward method for conducting these types of analyses is described herein along with a description of applications of this methodology. A discussion is provided highlighting the value of such a methodology for both the water quality engineer and the risk manager.

  10. Development of Advanced Plant Habitat Flight Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Curtis J., Jr

    2013-01-01

    With NASA's current goals and resources moving forward to bring the idea of Manned Deep-Space missions from a long-thought concept to a reality, innovative research methods and expertise are being utilized for studies that integrate human needs with that of technology to make for the most efficient operations possible. Through the capability to supply food, provide oxygen from what was once carbon dioxide, and various others which help to make plant research one of the prime factors of future long-duration mission, the Advanced Plant Habitat will be the largest microgravity plant growth chamber on the International Space Station when it is launched in the near future (2014- 2015). Soon, the Advanced Plant Habitat unit will continue on and enrich the discoveries and studies on the long-term effects of microgravity on plants.

  11. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  12. Unit Plants, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The Australian Science Education Project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7-10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit introducing the study of plants. The section to be completed by all pupils, contained in the first of the student workbooks, emphasizes observation of specimens on school grounds and on…

  13. The Potential United Kingdom Energy Gap and Creep Life Prediction Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom faces a looming energy gap with around 20 pct of its generating capacity due for closure in the next 10 to 15 years as a result of plant age and new European legislation on environmental protection and safety at work. A number of solutions exist for this problem including the use of new materials so that new plants can operate at higher temperatures, new technologies related to carbon capture and gasification, development of renewable resources, and less obviously the use of accurate models for predicting creep life. This article reviews, with illustrations, some of the more applicable and successful creep prediction methodologies used by academics and industrialists and highlights how these techniques can help alleviate the looming energy gap. The role that these approaches can play in solving the energy gap is highlighted throughout.

  14. Fukushima Daiichi unit 1 uncertainty analysis--Preliminary selection of uncertain parameters and analysis methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoni, Jeffrey N.; Kalinich, Donald A.

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) plans to conduct uncertainty analyses (UA) on the Fukushima Daiichi unit (1F1) plant with the MELCOR code. The model to be used was developed for a previous accident reconstruction investigation jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, that study only examined a handful of various model inputs and boundary conditions, and the predictions yielded only fair agreement with plant data and current release estimates. The goal of this uncertainty study is to perform a focused evaluation of uncertainty in core melt progression behavior and its effect on key figures-of-merit (e.g., hydrogen production, vessel lower head failure, etc.). In preparation for the SNL Fukushima UA work, a scoping study has been completed to identify important core melt progression parameters for the uncertainty analysis. The study also lays out a preliminary UA methodology.

  15. A Methodology for Protective Vibration Monitoring of Hydropower Units Based on the Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Nässelqvist, Mattias; Gustavsson, Rolf; Aidanpää, Jan-Olov

    2013-07-01

    It is important to monitor the radial loads in hydropower units in order to protect the machine from harmful radial loads. Existing recommendations in the standards regarding the radial movements of the shaft and bearing housing in hydropower units, ISO-7919-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005, "ISO 7919-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Rotating Shafts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland) and ISO-10816-5 (International Organization for Standardization, 2000, "ISO 10816-5: Mechanical Vibration-Evaluation of Machine Vibration by Measurements on Non-Rotating Parts-Part 5: Machine Sets in Hydraulic Power Generating and Pumping Plants," Geneva, Switzerland), have alarm levels based on statistical data and do not consider the mechanical properties of the machine. The synchronous speed of the unit determines the maximum recommended shaft displacement and housing acceleration, according to these standards. This paper presents a methodology for the alarm and trip levels based on the design criteria of the hydropower unit and the measured radial loads in the machine during operation. When a hydropower unit is designed, one of its design criteria is to withstand certain loads spectra without the occurrence of fatigue in the mechanical components. These calculated limits for fatigue are used to set limits for the maximum radial loads allowed in the machine before it shuts down in order to protect itself from damage due to high radial loads. Radial loads in hydropower units are caused by unbalance, shape deviations, dynamic flow properties in the turbine, etc. Standards exist for balancing and manufacturers (and power plant owners) have recommendations for maximum allowed shape deviations in generators. These standards and recommendations determine which loads, at a maximum, should be allowed before an alarm is sent that the machine needs maintenance. The radial

  16. 78 FR 36277 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., and Acceptance Criteria (ITAAC) E.2.5.04.05.05.01, for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3... Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 ] (ADAMS Accession No. ML13032A592). This ITAAC was approved...

  17. Plant exomics: Concepts, applications and methodologies in crop improvement

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Uzair; Shafqat, Samia; Khan, Faria; Majid, Misbah; Hussain, Harris; Kazi, Alvina Gul; John, Riffat; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2015-01-01

    Molecular breeding has a crucial role in improvement of crops. Conventional breeding techniques have failed to ameliorate food production. Next generation sequencing has established new concepts of molecular breeding. Exome sequencing has proven to be a significant tool for assessing natural evolution in plants, studying host pathogen interactions and betterment of crop production as exons assist in interpretation of allelic variation with respect to their phenotype. This review covers the platforms for exome sequencing, next generation sequencing technologies that have revolutionized exome sequencing and led toward development of third generation sequencing. Also discussed in this review are the uses of these sequencing technologies to improve wheat, rice and cotton yield and how these technologies are used in exploring the biodiversity of crops, providing better understanding of plant-host pathogen interaction and assessing the process of natural evolution in crops and it also covers how exome sequencing identifies the gene pool involved in symbiotic and other co-existential systems. Furthermore, we conclude how integration of other methodologies including whole genome sequencing, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics with plant exomics covers the areas which are left untouched with exomics alone and in the end how these integration will transform the future of crops. PMID:25482786

  18. Unit-sizing of hydro power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruzewski, P.; Rogeaux, C.; Laurier, P.

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries with great and unexploited renewable energy potential, Governments can exploit local resources for electricity supply, substantial energy savings and sustainable socio-economic development of these own countries. The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable energy sources for energy supply in these countries is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels such as economic, technical, environmental, and social. Therefore, reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very difficult. It is from this difficulty that the need arises to develop a tool for the design of hydro energy sources for electricity. The work involved in seeking a compromise solution requires an adequate technical assessment based on multiple criteria methods. One of the criteria is the assessment of the appropriate size of the hydropower plant. This paper presents the state-of-art of preliminary sizing of hydropower plant for the given renewable energy potential. The main step consists of carefully selecting and sizing the innovative hydraulic units based upon the suitability of the flow and head range. Since the flow and head data have now been confirmed, the potential annual energy generation can be properly assessed.

  19. Thermal energy storage units for solar electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkov, V. I.; Chakalev, K. N.

    Several types of heat storage units for solar power plants with thermodynamic cycles of energy conversion are examined, including specific-heat units (particularly water-vapor devices), thermochemical units, and phase-change units. The dependence of specific capital costs for heat storage units upon time of operation is discussed, and particular consideration is give to types of connections of specific-heat units into the thermal circuit of a power plant, and to a phase-change unit that uses a heat pipe for internal heat transport.

  20. Biomass Production System (BPS) Plant Growth Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R. C.; Crabb, T. M.

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses it's own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive

  1. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive.

  2. Clean Power Plan Proposed Rule: Description of 2012 Unit-Level Data Using the eGRID Methodology

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the 2012 unit-level data using the eGRID Methodology. The unit-level emissions and generation data derived using the eGRID methodology was relied upon for calculating state goals for the Clean Power Plan

  3. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT (HPC) METHODOLOGY IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    In the United States (U.S.), the history of bacterial plate counting methods used for water can be traced largely through Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The bacterial count method has evolved from the original St...

  4. Simplified plant analysis risk (SPAR) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology: Comparisons with other HRA methods

    SciTech Connect

    J. C. Byers; D. I. Gertman; S. G. Hill; H. S. Blackman; C. D. Gentillon; B. P. Hallbert; L. N. Haney

    2000-07-31

    The 1994 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1994 by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). It was decided to revise that methodology for use by the Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) program. The 1994 ASP HRA methodology was compared, by a team of analysts, on a point-by-point basis to a variety of other HRA methods and sources. This paper briefly discusses how the comparisons were made and how the 1994 ASP HRA methodology was revised to incorporate desirable aspects of other methods. The revised methodology was renamed the SPAR HRA methodology.

  5. Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Methodology: Comparisons with other HRA Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, James Clifford; Gertman, David Ira; Hill, Susan Gardiner; Blackman, Harold Stabler; Gentillon, Cynthia Ann; Hallbert, Bruce Perry; Haney, Lon Nolan

    2000-08-01

    The 1994 Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) human reliability analysis (HRA) methodology was developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in 1994 by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). It was decided to revise that methodology for use by the Simplified Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) program. The 1994 ASP HRA methodology was compared, by a team of analysts, on a point-by-point basis to a variety of other HRA methods and sources. This paper briefly discusses how the comparisons were made and how the 1994 ASP HRA methodology was revised to incorporate desirable aspects of other methods. The revised methodology was renamed the SPAR HRA methodology.

  6. Assessment of ISLOCA risk-methodology and application to a combustion engineering plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISOLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed of description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Combustion Engineering plant.

  7. Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in plant populations: susceptible signals in plant traits and methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Quesada, Mauricio; Ashworth, Lorena; Herrerias-Diego, Yvonne; Lobo, Jorge

    2008-12-01

    Conservation of genetic diversity, one of the three main forms of biodiversity, is a fundamental concern in conservation biology as it provides the raw material for evolutionary change and thus the potential to adapt to changing environments. By means of meta-analyses, we tested the generality of the hypotheses that habitat fragmentation affects genetic diversity of plant populations and that certain life history and ecological traits of plants can determine differential susceptibility to genetic erosion in fragmented habitats. Additionally, we assessed whether certain methodological approaches used by authors influence the ability to detect fragmentation effects on plant genetic diversity. We found overall large and negative effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity and outcrossing rates but no effects on inbreeding coefficients. Significant increases in inbreeding coefficient in fragmented habitats were only observed in studies analyzing progenies. The mating system and the rarity status of plants explained the highest proportion of variation in the effect sizes among species. The age of the fragment was also decisive in explaining variability among effect sizes: the larger the number of generations elapsed in fragmentation conditions, the larger the negative magnitude of effect sizes on heterozygosity. Our results also suggest that fragmentation is shifting mating patterns towards increased selfing. We conclude that current conservation efforts in fragmented habitats should be focused on common or recently rare species and mainly outcrossing species and outline important issues that need to be addressed in future research on this area.

  8. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: handbook of availability improvement methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-15

    As part of its program to help improve electrical power plant productivity, the Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a methodology for evaluating productivity improvement projects. This handbook presents a simplified version of this methodology called the Availability Improvement Methodology (AIM), which provides a systematic approach for prioritizing plant improvement projects. Also included in this handbook is a description of data taking requirements necessary to support the AIM methodology, benefit/cost analysis, and root cause analysis for tracing persistent power plant problems. In applying the AIM methodology, utility engineers should be mindful that replacement power costs are frequently greater for forced outages than for planned outages. Equivalent availability includes both. A cost-effective ranking of alternative plant improvement projects must discern between those projects which will reduce forced outages and those which might reduce planned outages. As is the case with any analytical procedure, engineering judgement must be exercised with respect to results of purely mathematical calculations.

  9. A standard description and costing methodology for the balance-of-plant items of a solar thermal electric power plant. Report of a multi-institutional working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.

  10. Projecting labor demand and worker immigration at nuclear power plant construction sites: an evaluation of methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Herzog, H.W. Jr; Schlottmann, A.M.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-12-01

    The study evaluates methodology employed for the projection of labor demand at, and worker migration to, nuclear power plant construction sites. In addition, suggestions are offered as to how this projection methodology might be improved. The study focuses on projection methodologies which forecast either construction worker migration or labor requirements of alternative types of construction activity. Suggested methodological improvements relate both to institutional factors within the nuclear power plant construction industry, and to a better use of craft-specific data on construction worker demand/supply. In addition, the timeliness and availability of the regional occupational data required to support, or implement these suggestions are examined.

  11. Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1992-01-01

    Hydroponic system controls nutrient solution for growing crops in space. Pump draws nutrient solution along inside of tubular membrane in pipe from reservoir, maintaining negative pressure in pipe. Roots of plants in slot extract nutrient through membrane within pipe. Crop plants such as wheat, rice, lettuce, tomatoes, soybeans, and beans grown successfully with system.

  12. A Study of United States Hydroelectric Plant Ownership

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G Hall

    2006-06-01

    Ownership of United States hydroelectric plants is reviewed from several perspectives. Plant owners are grouped into six owner classes as defined by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. The numbers of plants and the corresponding total capacity associated with each owner class are enumerated. The plant owner population is also evaluated based on the number of owners in each owner class, the number of plants owned by a single owner, and the size of plants based on capacity ranges associated with each owner class. Plant numbers and corresponding total capacity associated with owner classes in each state are evaluated. Ownership by federal agencies in terms of the number of plants owned by each agency and the corresponding total capacity is enumerated. A GIS application that is publicly available on the Internet that displays hydroelectric plants on maps and provides basic information about them is described.

  13. How much biomass do plant communities pack per unit volume?

    PubMed Central

    Rheault, Guillaume; Bonin, Laurianne; Roca, Irene Torrecilla; Martin, Charles A.; Desrochers, Louis; Seiferling, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground production in terrestrial plant communities is commonly expressed in amount of carbon, or biomass, per unit surface. Alternatively, expressing production per unit volume allows the comparison of communities by their fundamental capacities in packing carbon. In this work we reanalyzed published data from more than 900 plant communities across nine ecosystems to show that standing dry biomass per unit volume (biomass packing) consistently averages around 1 kg/m3 and rarely exceeds 5 kg/m3 across ecosystem types. Furthermore, we examined how empirical relationships between aboveground production and plant species richness are modified when standing biomass is expressed per unit volume rather than surface. We propose that biomass packing emphasizes species coexistence mechanisms and may be an indicator of resource use efficiency in plant communities. PMID:25802814

  14. Poisonous Plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  15. Important poisonous plants of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisonous plants and the secondary compounds they produce cause large economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world. Catastrophic losses have occurred in certain regions of the U.S. when changing conditions alter the typical forage availability and create unusual management challen...

  16. Pasture plants of the Northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate humid grazing lands are an important component of the landscape of the northeastern Unites States, as well as of the economy of this region, yet unlike their European counterparts, little is known about their basic ecology. During an eight-year survey of 44 farms across the northeastern Un...

  17. Plant materials and methodologies for Great Basin rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nevada Section, Society for Range Management held a winter meeting/symposium January 2017 in Sparks, Nevada. Nearly a century and half of research and experience was presented by scientists in the field of soil science, range and weed science and plant genetics. The ability of resource managers ...

  18. Optimal load distribution between units in a power plant.

    PubMed

    Bortoni, Edson C; Bastos, Guilherme S; Souza, Luiz E

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents a strategy for load distribution between the generating units in hydro power plants. The objective is to reach the maximum energy conversion efficiency for a given dispatched power. The developed tool employs a heuristic-based combinatorial optimization technique in conjunction with a set of system variables measurement allowing real-time load sharing. The developed equipment is used to give online energy conversion efficiency from each unit of the power plant. No specific previous information about the efficiency of system components is required. Simulation results of the proposed optimization technique when applied to typical hydro power plant data are presented.

  19. Definition of sampling units begets conclusions in ecology: the case of habitats for plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Ravolainen, Virve T.; Støvern, Leif Einar; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg Svala; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2015-01-01

    In ecology, expert knowledge on habitat characteristics is often used to define sampling units such as study sites. Ecologists are especially prone to such approaches when prior sampling frames are not accessible. Here we ask to what extent can different approaches to the definition of sampling units influence the conclusions that are drawn from an ecological study? We do this by comparing a formal versus a subjective definition of sampling units within a study design which is based on well-articulated objectives and proper methodology. Both approaches are applied to tundra plant communities in mesic and snowbed habitats. For the formal approach, sampling units were first defined for each habitat in concave terrain of suitable slope using GIS. In the field, these units were only accepted as the targeted habitats if additional criteria for vegetation cover were fulfilled. For the subjective approach, sampling units were defined visually in the field, based on typical plant communities of mesic and snowbed habitats. For each approach, we collected information about plant community characteristics within a total of 11 mesic and seven snowbed units distributed between two herding districts of contrasting reindeer density. Results from the two approaches differed significantly in several plant community characteristics in both mesic and snowbed habitats. Furthermore, differences between the two approaches were not consistent because their magnitude and direction differed both between the two habitats and the two reindeer herding districts. Consequently, we could draw different conclusions on how plant diversity and relative abundance of functional groups are differentiated between the two habitats depending on the approach used. We therefore challenge ecologists to formalize the expert knowledge applied to define sampling units through a set of well-articulated rules, rather than applying it subjectively. We see this as instrumental for progress in ecology as only rules

  20. A role delineation study of health educators in the United States: methodological innovations.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Olsen, Larry K; Gilmore, Gary D; Connell, David

    2008-12-01

    This paper focuses on methodological innovations used in the National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP) in the United States. The CUP was a six-year research study designed to delineate the role of the health educator in the USA. Individuals who self-identified as health educators were included in the study. To provide context, the background for the research is presented, followed by a brief overview of the research process. Some of the key methodological innovations discussed are: selecting a representative sample when the total population of those working as health educators was not easily identified or readily accessible; assessing response methodology preferences through pilot studies; enhancing the response rate through accurate, up-to-date mailing lists and incentives; and exploring new approaches to large-scale data analyses. Insights gained are included for other researchers who may wish to undertake similar studies or draw from the CUP dataset for secondary analyses.

  1. Methodology for the validation of analytical methods involved in uniformity of dosage units tests.

    PubMed

    Rozet, E; Ziemons, E; Marini, R D; Boulanger, B; Hubert, Ph

    2013-01-14

    Validation of analytical methods is required prior to their routine use. In addition, the current implementation of the Quality by Design (QbD) framework in the pharmaceutical industries aims at improving the quality of the end products starting from its early design stage. However, no regulatory guideline or none of the published methodologies to assess method validation propose decision methodologies that effectively take into account the final purpose of developed analytical methods. In this work a solution is proposed for the specific case of validating analytical methods involved in the assessment of the content uniformity or uniformity of dosage units of a batch of pharmaceutical drug products as proposed in the European or US pharmacopoeias. This methodology uses statistical tolerance intervals as decision tools. Moreover it adequately defines the Analytical Target Profile of analytical methods in order to obtain analytical methods that allow to make correct decisions about Content uniformity or uniformity of dosage units with high probability. The applicability of the proposed methodology is further illustrated using an HPLC-UV assay as well as a near infra-red spectrophotometric method.

  2. Common marsh plants of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotchkiss, Neil

    1970-01-01

    This is the fourth of a series of publications on field identification of North American marsh and water plants. It describes the emergent and semiemergent plants most likely to be found in inland and coastal marshes. It omits hundreds of uncommon marsh plants and plants less characteristic of marshes than of marsh edges, lake and stream shores, or wet meadows. The first of the series, "Pondweeds and Pondweedlike Plants of Eastern North America," Circular 187, was broadened in scope as Resource Publication 44, "Underwater and Floating-leaved Plants of the United States and Canada," and is superseded by it. The present publication, widens the scope of "Bulrushes and Bulrushlike Plants of Eastern North America," Circular 221, and contains most of the species listed therein. This guide is designed for identification of marsh plants without recourse to technical botanical keys. To use it, read pages 1 to 4 and then look at the drawings. To identify a plant, find the group in which it fits, then find a drawing and description that match it.

  3. Promoting Students' Conceptual Understanding of Plant Defense Responses Using the Fighting Plant Learning Unit (FPLU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nantawanit, Nantawan; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Ruenwongsa, Pintip

    2012-01-01

    Most students think animals are more interesting than plants as a study topic believing that plants are inferior to animals because they are passive and unable to respond to external challenges, particularly biological invaders such as microorganisms and insect herbivores. The purpose of this study was to develop an inquiry-based learning unit,…

  4. View of unit 42 flywheel with plant crew in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of unit 42 flywheel with plant crew in foreground. From left to right; Asst Superintendent James L. Wine; Paul W. Bragg; Garry N. Dobbins, Robert L. Gregory. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  5. Proposed Methodology for Specifying Atrazine Levels of Concern for Protection of Plant Communities in Freshwater Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a proposed methodology for setting levels of concern (LOCs) for atrazine in natural freshwater systems to prevent unacceptably adverse effects on the aquatic plant communities in those systems. LOCs regarding effects on humans and possible effects on amph...

  6. Non-native plant invasions of United States National parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.A.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States National Park Service was created to protect and make accessible to the public the nation's most precious natural resources and cultural features for present and future generations. However, this heritage is threatened by the invasion of non-native plants, animals, and pathogens. To evaluate the scope of invasions, the USNPS has inventoried non-native plant species in the 216 parks that have significant natural resources, documenting the identity of non-native species. We investigated relationships among non-native plant species richness, the number of threatened and endangered plant species, native species richness, latitude, elevation, park area and park corridors and vectors. Parks with many threatened and endangered plants and high native plant species richness also had high non-native plant species richness. Non-native plant species richness was correlated with number of visitors and kilometers of backcountry trails and rivers. In addition, this work reveals patterns that can be further explored empirically to understand the underlying mechanisms. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  7. Assessment of ISLOCA risk: Methodology and application to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.; Auflick, J.L.; Haney, L.N.

    1992-04-01

    Inter-system loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs) have been identified as important contributors to offsite risk for some nuclear power plants. A methodology has been developed for identifying and evaluating plant-specific hardware designs, human factors issues, and accident consequence factors relevant to the estimation of ISLOCA core damage frequency and risk. This report presents a detailed description of the application of this analysis methodology to a Westinghouse four-loop ice condenser plant. This document also includes appendices A through I which provide: System descriptions; ISLOCA event trees; human reliability analysis; thermal hydraulic analysis; core uncovery timing calculations; calculation of system rupture probability; ISLOCA consequences analysis; uncertainty analysis; and component failure analysis.

  8. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  9. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  10. Probabilistic methodology for estimation of undiscovered petroleum resources in play analysis of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    A geostochastic system called FASPF was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for their 1989 assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources in the United States. FASPF is a fast appraisal system for petroleum play analysis using a field-size geological model and an analytic probabilistic methodology. The geological model is a particular type of probability model whereby the volumes of oil and gas accumulations are modeled as statistical distributions in the form of probability histograms, and the risk structure is bilevel (play and accumulation) in terms of conditional probability. The probabilistic methodology is an analytic method derived from probability theory rather than Monte Carlo simulation. The resource estimates of crude oil and natural gas are calculated and expressed in terms of probability distributions. The probabilistic methodology developed by the author is explained. The analytic system resulted in a probabilistic methodology for play analysis, subplay analysis, economic analysis, and aggregation analysis. Subplay analysis included the estimation of petroleum resources on non-Federal offshore areas. Economic analysis involved the truncation of the field size with a minimum economic cutoff value. Aggregation analysis was needed to aggregate individual play and subplay estimates of oil and gas, respectively, at the provincial, regional, and national levels. ?? 1992 Oxford University Press.

  11. Methodologies Used for Scaling-up From a Single Energy Production Unit to State Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimdina, Ginta; Timma, Lelde; Veidenbergs, Ivars; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2015-12-01

    In a well-functioning and sustainable national energy sector, each of its elements should function with maximum efficiency. To ensure maximum efficiency and study possible improvement of the sector, a scaling-up framework is presented in this work. The scaling-up framework means that the starting point is a CHP unit and its operation, the next step of aggregation is in a district heating network, followed by a municipal energy plan and finally leading to a low carbon strategy. In this framework the authors argue, that the successful, innovative practices developed and tested at the lower level of aggregation can be then transferred to the upper levels of aggregation, thus leading to a scaling-up effect of innovative practices. The work summarizes 12 methodologies used in the energy sector, by dividing these methodologies among the levels of aggregation in a scaling-up framework.

  12. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  13. Emergency feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2 Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, R.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.

    1992-09-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses-existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2 was selected as one of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRS. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at the Arkansas Nuclear One Unit 2 plant.

  14. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-18

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the US provides year-end statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of December 31, 1994. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal, and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data of nonutility capacity are presented, it is specifically noted as such.

  15. Auxiliary feedwater system risk-based inspection guide for the Beaver Valley, Units 1 and 2 nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C.; Vehec, T.A.; Moffitt, N.E.; Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Rossbach, L.W.; Sena, P.P. III

    1993-02-01

    In a study sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed and applied a methodology for deriving plant-specific risk-based inspection guidance for the auxiliary feedwater (AFW) system at pressurized water reactors that have not undergone probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This methodology uses existing PRA results and plant operating experience information. Existing PRA-based inspection guidance information recently developed for the NRC for various plants was used to identify generic component failure modes. This information was then combined with plant-specific and industry-wide component information and failure data to identify failure modes and failure mechanisms for the AFW system at the selected plants. Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2 were selected as two of a series of plants for study. The product of this effort is a prioritized listing of AFW failures which have occurred at the plant and at other PWRs. This listing is intended for use by NRC inspectors in the preparation of inspection plans addressing AFW risk-important components at Beaver Valley Units 1 and 2.

  16. 75 FR 69710 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... (the licensee), for operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR- 3), located...

  17. Can local adaptation research in plants inform selection of native plant materials? An analysis of experimental methodologies.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Alexis L; Espeland, Erin K; Wagner, Viktoria; Nelson, Cara R

    2016-12-01

    Local adaptation is used as a criterion to select plant materials that will display high fitness in new environments. A large body of research has explored local adaptation in plants, however, to what extent findings can inform management decisions has not been formally evaluated. We assessed local adaptation literature for six key experimental methodologies that have the greatest effect on the application of research to selecting plant materials for natural resource management: experimental environment, response variables, maternal effects, intraspecific variation, selective agents, and spatial and temporal variability. We found that less than half of experiments used reciprocal transplants or natural field conditions, which are both informative for revegetation and restoration. Population growth rate was rarely (5%) assessed, and most studies measured only single generations (96%) and ran for less than a year. Emergence and establishment are limiting factors in successful revegetation and restoration, but the majority of studies measured later life-history stages (66%). Additionally, most studies included limited replication at the population and habitat levels and tested response to single abiotic selective factors (66%). Local adaptation research should be cautiously applied to management; future research could use alternative methodologies to allow managers to directly apply findings.

  18. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  19. The Plant Research Unit: An International Space Station Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Robert; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Schaefer, Ronald L.

    2003-01-01

    The Plant Research Unit (PRU) is one of six life science habitats being developed as part of the Space Station Biological Research Program. The PRU is designed for experiments in microgravity and will utilize the ISS Centrifuge Facility to provide gravity levels between microgravity and 29. The PRU will provide and control all aspects of a plant s needs in a nearly closed system. In other words, the shoot and root environments will not be open to the astronaut s environment except for experiment maintenance such as planting, harvesting and plant sampling. This also means that all lighting, temperature and humidity control, "watering," and air filtering and cleaning .must be done within strict limitations of volume, weight, power, and crew time while at the same time providing a very high level of reliability and a service life in excess of 10 years. The PRU will contain two plant chambers 31.5 cm tall, each with independent control of temperature, humidity, light level and photoperiod, CO2 level, nutrient and water delivery, and video and data acquisition. The PRU is currently in the preliminary design phase and a number of subsystem components have been prototyped for testing, including the temperature and humidity control systems, the plant chambers, the LED lighting system, the atmospheric control system and a variety of nutrient delivery systems. The LED prototype provides independent feedback control of 5 separate spectral bands and variable output between 0 and 1000 micro-mol sq m/sec. The water and nutrient delivery system (WNDS) prototypes have been used to test particulate based, thin film, and gel-based WNDS configurations.

  20. Weijia Zhou Inspects the Advanced Astroculture plant growth unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Dr. Weijia Zhou, director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects the Advanced Astroculture(tm) plant growth unit before its first flight last spring. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Product Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  1. Self excitation conditions at AEP's Rockport Plant during unit maintenance and unit start-up

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, R.D.; Lavin, J.M.; Patten, K.W. )

    1989-01-01

    The 2600 MW Rockport Plant, a coal-fired two-unit plant located on the Ohio River in southern Indiana, is integrated into the American Electric Power (AEP) System by two 765 kV transmission lines, each approximately 100 miles in length. This paper illustrates the transmission facilities associated with the Rockport project. Unit No. 1 (1300 MW) and the Rockport--Jefferson line have been in service since 1984. The Rockport--Sullivan 765 kV circuit was placed in service in 1986, and Unit No. 2 (1300 MW) is scheduled for operation by the end of 1989. This paper describes the assessment of the potential for dangerous auxiliary load resonance conditions at Rockport. In addition, the results of an after-the-fact analysis conducted following an actual open-ended line incident at Rockport, are described. The protection schemes evaluated to detect such open-ended line conditions, and guard the Rockport plant auxiliaries against damaging currents and electrical torques resulting from potentially dangerous resonance conditions, are also discussed.

  2. Texas refiner optimizes by integrating units from idle plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-03-20

    In 1993, Phibro Energy USA Inc. purchased Dow Chemical Co.`s idle 200,000 b/d refinery at Freeport, TX. The Dow facility, known as the Oyster Creek refinery, was incapable of producing gasoline, and therefore was somewhat incomplete as a stand-alone refinery. By relocating and integrating units from the Dow plant with Phibro`s 130,700 b/d refinery at Texas City, TX, and adding a new residual oil solvent extraction (ROSE) unit, Phibro will optimize its Texas refinery operations. The dismantling, movement, and re-erection phases of the project are all but finished, and installation of piping and new instrumentation for the major relocated units is well under way. When the project is complete, Phibro will drastically reduce fuel oil production at Texas City and increase output of middle distillate. Resid, which the company now produces in excess, will be converted to a heavy fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock. Most of this stream will be fed to the oversized FCC unit at Phibro`s 71,000 b/d Houston refinery, thus eliminating Phibro`s reliance on purchased FCC feed. The paper discusses the Oyster Creek refinery, the decision to reduce residual fuel oil production company-wide, building versus moving equipment, dismantling and transport, construction, products, operational changes, utilities, process wastes, regulations, preparations, and future prospects. The remaining equipment at Oyster Creek was sold to a South Korean refinery.

  3. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  4. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States. Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    This report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, may be defined in several ways. For example, one definition might be expected revenues (based on local market prices) minus generation costs, considered over the expected lifetime of the generation asset. Another definition might be generation costs relative to a benchmark (e.g., a natural gas combined cycle plant) using assumptions of fuel prices, capital cost, and plant efficiency. Economic potential in this report is defined as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity. The assessment is conducted at a high geospatial resolution (more than 150,000 technology-specific sites in the continental United States) to capture the significant variation in local resource, costs, and revenue potential. This metric can be a useful screening factor for understanding the economic viability of renewable generation technologies at a specific location. In contrast to many common estimates of renewable energy potential, economic potential does not consider market dynamics, customer demand, or most policy drivers that may incent renewable energy generation.

  5. A probabilistic seismic risk assessment procedure for nuclear power plants: (I) Methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.

    2011-01-01

    A new procedure for probabilistic seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is proposed. This procedure modifies the current procedures using tools developed recently for performance-based earthquake engineering of buildings. The proposed procedure uses (a) response-based fragility curves to represent the capacity of structural and nonstructural components of NPPs, (b) nonlinear response-history analysis to characterize the demands on those components, and (c) Monte Carlo simulations to determine the damage state of the components. The use of response-rather than ground-motion-based fragility curves enables the curves to be independent of seismic hazard and closely related to component capacity. The use of Monte Carlo procedure enables the correlation in the responses of components to be directly included in the risk assessment. An example of the methodology is presented in a companion paper to demonstrate its use and provide the technical basis for aspects of the methodology. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. 50 years of medicinal plant research - every progress in methodology is a progress in science.

    PubMed

    Phillipson, J David

    2003-06-01

    Many scientific methods of analysis have been developed for the investigation of the constituents and biological activities of medicinal plants during the 50 years since the inaugural meeting of the Gesellschaft für Arzneipflanzenforschung (GA). The chromatographic (e. g., TLC, GLC, HPLC), spectroscopic (e. g., UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR, MS), and biological (e. g., anticancer, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antiprotozoal, CNS) techniques utilized for medicinal plant research are briefly reviewed. The contribution that advances in scientific methodology have made to our understanding of the actions of some herbal medicines (e. g., Echinacea, Ginkgo, St John's wort, Cannabis), as well as to ethnopharmacology and biotechnology, are briefly summarized. Plants have provided many medicinal drugs in the past and remain as a potential source of novel therapeutic agents. Despite all of the powerful analytical techniques available, the majority of plant species has not been investigated chemically or biologically in any great detail and even well known medicinal plants require further clinical study.

  7. Energy audit in small wastewater treatment plants: methodology, energy consumption indicators, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Foladori, P; Vaccari, M; Vitali, F

    2015-01-01

    Energy audits in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) reveal large differences in the energy consumption in the various stages, depending also on the indicators used in the audits. This work is aimed at formulating a suitable methodology to perform audits in WWTPs and identifying the most suitable key energy consumption indicators for comparison among different plants and benchmarking. Hydraulic-based stages, stages based on chemical oxygen demand, sludge-based stages and building stages were distinguished in WWTPs and analysed with different energy indicators. Detailed energy audits were carried out on five small WWTPs treating less than 10,000 population equivalent and using continuous data for 2 years. The plants have in common a low designed capacity utilization (52% on average) and equipment oversizing which leads to waste of energy in the absence of controls and inverters (a common situation in small plants). The study confirms that there are several opportunities for reducing energy consumption in small WWTPs: in addition to the pumping of influent wastewater and aeration, small plants demonstrate low energy efficiency in recirculation of settled sludge and in aerobic stabilization. Denitrification above 75% is ensured through intermittent aeration and without recirculation of mixed liquor. Automation in place of manual controls is mandatory in illumination and electrical heating.

  8. A radioisotope based methodology for plant-fungal interactions in the rhizosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, A. G.; Bonito, G.; Lee, S.; McKisson, J. E.; Gryganskyi, A.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M. F.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Welch, B.

    2013-10-01

    In plant ecophysiology research there is interest in studying the biology of the rhizosphere because of its importance in plant nutrient-interactions. The rhizosphere is the zone of soil surrounding a plant's root system where microbes (such as fungi) are influenced by the root and the roots by the microbes. We are investigating a methodology for imaging the distribution of molecular compounds of interest in the rhizosphere without disturbing the root or soil habitat. Our intention is to develop a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system (PhytoSPECT) to image the bio-distribution of fungi in association with a host plant's roots. The technique we are exploring makes use of radioactive isotopes as tracers to label molecules that bind to fungal-specific compounds of interest and to image the fungi distribution in the plant and/or soil. We report on initial experiments designed to test the ability of fungal-specific compounds labeled with an iodine radioisotope that binds to chitin monomers (N-acetylglucosamine). Chitin is a compound not found in roots but in fungal cell walls. We will test the ability to label the compound with radioactive isotopes of iodine ({sup 125}I, and {sup 123}I).

  9. A methodology for risk analysis based on hybrid Bayesian networks: application to the regasification system of liquefied natural gas onboard a floating storage and regasification unit.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marcelo Ramos; Schleder, Adriana Miralles; Droguett, Enrique López

    2014-12-01

    This article presents an iterative six-step risk analysis methodology based on hybrid Bayesian networks (BNs). In typical risk analysis, systems are usually modeled as discrete and Boolean variables with constant failure rates via fault trees. Nevertheless, in many cases, it is not possible to perform an efficient analysis using only discrete and Boolean variables. The approach put forward by the proposed methodology makes use of BNs and incorporates recent developments that facilitate the use of continuous variables whose values may have any probability distributions. Thus, this approach makes the methodology particularly useful in cases where the available data for quantification of hazardous events probabilities are scarce or nonexistent, there is dependence among events, or when nonbinary events are involved. The methodology is applied to the risk analysis of a regasification system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on board an FSRU (floating, storage, and regasification unit). LNG is becoming an important energy source option and the world's capacity to produce LNG is surging. Large reserves of natural gas exist worldwide, particularly in areas where the resources exceed the demand. Thus, this natural gas is liquefied for shipping and the storage and regasification process usually occurs at onshore plants. However, a new option for LNG storage and regasification has been proposed: the FSRU. As very few FSRUs have been put into operation, relevant failure data on FSRU systems are scarce. The results show the usefulness of the proposed methodology for cases where the risk analysis must be performed under considerable uncertainty.

  10. Gas circulation and mass exchange between animal and plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong; Tong, Ling; Hu, Enzhu

    To investigate the gas circulation and mass exchange relations among animal, plant and other biological units in the bioregenarative life support system, a closed cultivating system consisting of animal breeding chamber and plant growing chamber was established. This facility is 1.4 m high with the bottom area measuring 1.4 m X 0.8 m. In the animal chamber, silkworms in the multistage instars from the first instar to the third day in the fifth instar were bred; in the plant chamber, lettuce with sharp leaves were grown in a staggered manner. After transferring the silkworms in different instars hatched in the artificial climate box proportionally, utilizing mulberry leaves supplied from the outside of the closed cultivating system to feed the silkworms from the first instar to the third instar; fed the silkworms after the third instar to the third day in the fifth instar with the lettuce leaves grown in the closed facility, meanwhile, took out silkworms' excretion whose amount was in proportion to that of the mulberry leaves input into the facility. Furthermore, the silkworms on the third day in the fifth instar were took out to provide animal protein with high quality for astronauts at certain intervals and the next batch of the silkworms in the first instar were put into the animal chamber. In this cultivating process, the O2 cycle period and CO2 concentration change were investigated, moreover, the transfer and transforming ways of carbon and other elements were determined.

  11. Guide for prioritizing power plant productivity improvement projects: modification and simplification of the DOE/MRI methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    In recent years, the subject of public utility power plant productivity and reliability has received significant attention from both federal and state agencies and from within the utilities. One study was a FEA-sponsored program that had as its purpose the development of improved techniques for assessing cause of power plant unavailability. The results of this study have become widely known as the DOE/MRI methodology for calculating increased power plant equivalent availability resulting from instituting improvement projects. To further the development of the DOE/MRI methodology for assessing and quantifying the effect of improvement projects, the DOE initiated studies with two states to demonstrate the methodology in operating plants. These studies were focused on applying the methodology to specific power plants (fossil-fueled and nuclear) and on identifying any difficulties in using the method. In the course of these investigations, several problems were uncovered. Various recommendations were made for both eliminating the identified deficiencies in the methodology and for simplifying several of the calculations needed to evaluate proposed plant improvements. The information provided here describes four major modifications to the DOE/MRI methodology which eliminate previously uncovered deficiencies and simplify calculational methods.

  12. The Plant Research Unit: Long-Term Plant Growth Support for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Brown, C. S.; Goins, G. D.; Kliss, M.; Levine, H.; Lomax, P. A.; Porter, R. L.; Wheeler, R.

    1996-01-01

    The specifications of the plant research unit (PRU) plant habitat, designed for space station operations, are presented. A prototype brassboard model of the PRU is described, and the results of the subsystems tests are outlined. The effects of the long term red light emitting diode (LED) illumination as the sole source for plant development were compared with red LEDs supplemented with blue wavelengths, and white fluorescent sources. It was found that wheat and Arabidopsis were able to complete a life cycle under red LEDs alone, but with differences in physiology and morphology. The differences noted were greatest for the Arabidopsis, where the time to flowering was increased under red illumination. The addition of 10 percent of blue light was effective in eliminating the observed differences. The results of the comparative testing of three nutrient delivery systems for the PRU are discussed.

  13. Plant metabolomics and its potential for systems biology research background concepts, technology, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Allwood, J William; De Vos, Ric C H; Moing, Annick; Deborde, Catherine; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Goodacre, Royston; Hall, Robert D

    2011-01-01

    The "metabolome" comprises the entire complement of small molecules in a plant or any other organism. It represents the ultimate phenotype of cells, deduced from the perturbation of gene expression and the modulation of protein function, as well as environmental cues. Extensive advances over the past decade, regarding the high-throughput (HTP) nature of "omics" research, have given birth to the expectation that a type of "systems level" overview may soon be possible. Having such a global overview of the molecular organization of a plant in the context of a particular set of genetic or environmental conditions, be it at cell, organ, or whole plant level, would clearly be very powerful. Currently, we are far from achieving this goal; however, within our hands, plant metabolomics is an HTP and informative "omics" approach to both sample generation and data generation, as well as raw data preprocessing, statistical analysis, and biological interpretation. Within this chapter, we aim to describe the great attention given to experimental design to ensure that the correct sample set and control are included and to, thereby, enable reliable statistical analysis of the data. For as comprehensive metabolite coverage as possible, we advocate the use of multiparallel approaches; thus, we describe a step-by-step standardized method for Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as discussing with reference to standardized methodologies the techniques of gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  14. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment. Application to concrete structures in nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period.

  15. Ergonomics program management in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant using TPM methodology.

    PubMed

    Santos, R M; Sassi, A C; Sá, B M; Miguez, S A; Pardauil, A A

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to present the benefits achieved in the ergonomics process management with the use of the TPM methodology (Total Productive Maintenance) in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant. The methodology is aligned with the corporate guidelines, moreover with the Strategic Planning of the company, it is represented in the TPM Pillars including the Health Pillar in which is inserted the ergonomics process. The results of the ergonomic actions demonstrated a 12% reduction over the absenteeism rate due to musculoskeletal disorders, solving 77,0% of ergonomic non-conformities, what favored the rise of the Organizational Climate in 44,8%, impacting on the overall performance of the company. Awards confirmed the success of the work by the achievement of the Award for TPM Excellence in 2001, Award for Excellence in Consistent TPM Commitment in 2009 and more recently the Special Award for TPM Achievement, 2010. The determination of the high rank administration and workers, allied with the involvement/dynamism of Pillars, has assured the success of this management practice in Tucuruí Hydropower Plant.

  16. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  17. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and... Indiana Michigan Power Company (the licensee), for operation of Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2 (CNP... not change normal plant operating conditions (i.e., no changes are expected in the fuel...

  18. 75 FR 65558 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site... Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site (final SEIS) on September 9, 2010. The location of the proposed nuclear plant site was stated incorrectly in the heading of the ROD. TVA prepared the final SEIS to...

  19. 75 FR 34776 - Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Environmental... licensee), for operation of the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4, located in Florida... consider approval of an exemption for Turkey Point, Units 3 and 4, from certain requirements of 10 CFR...

  20. Methodologies for processing plant material into acceptable food on a small scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Thomas R.; Bindon, John N.; Bowles, Anthony J. G.; Golbitz, Peter; Lampi, Rauno A.; Marquardt, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the Controlled Environment Life Support System (CELSS) production of only four crops, wheat, white potatoes, soybeans, and sweet potatoes; a crew size of twelve; a daily planting/harvesting regimen; and zero-gravity conditions, estimates were made on the quantity of food that would need to be grown to provide adequate nutrition; and the corresponding amount of biomass that would result. Projections were made of the various types of products that could be made from these crops, the unit operations that would be involved, and what menu capability these products could provide. Equipment requirements to perform these unit operations were screened to identify commercially available units capable of operating (or being modified to operate) under CELSS/zero-gravity conditions. Concept designs were developed for those equipment needs for which no suitable units were commercially available. Prototypes of selected concept designs were constructed and tested on a laboratory scale, as were selected commercially available units. This report discusses the practical considerations taken into account in the various design alternatives, some of the many product/process factors that relate to equipment development, and automation alternatives. Recommendations are made on both general and specific areas in which it was felt additional investigation would benefit CELSS missions.

  1. Wavelet methodology to improve single unit isolation in primary motor cortex cells

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rosario, Alexis; Adeli, Hojjat; Buford, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The proper isolation of action potentials recorded extracellularly from neural tissue is an active area of research in the fields of neuroscience and biomedical signal processing. This paper presents an isolation methodology for neural recordings using the wavelet transform (WT), a statistical thresholding scheme, and the principal component analysis (PCA) algorithm. The effectiveness of five different mother wavelets was investigated: biorthogonal, Daubachies, discrete Meyer, symmetric, and Coifman; along with three different wavelet coefficient thresholding schemes: fixed form threshold, Stein’s unbiased estimate of risk, and minimax; and two different thresholding rules: soft and hard thresholding. The signal quality was evaluated using three different statistical measures: mean-squared error, root-mean squared, and signal to noise ratio. The clustering quality was evaluated using two different statistical measures: isolation distance, and L-ratio. This research shows that the selection of the mother wavelet has a strong influence on the clustering and isolation of single unit neural activity, with the Daubachies 4 wavelet and minimax thresholding scheme performing the best. PMID:25794461

  2. Instrumentation and methodology for quantifying GFP fluorescence in intact plant organs.

    PubMed

    Millwood, R J; Halfhill, M D; Harkins, D; Russotti, R; Stewart, C N

    2003-03-01

    The General Fluorescence Plant Meter (GFP-Meter) is a portable spectrofluorometer that utilizes a fiber-optic cable and a leaf clip to gather spectrofluorescence data. In contrast to traditional analytical systems, this instrument allows for the rapid detection and fluorescence measurement of proteins under field conditions with no damage to plant tissue. Here we discuss the methodology of gathering and standardizing spectrofluorescence data from tobacco and canola plants expressing GFP. Furthermore, we demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the GFP-Meter. We first compared GFP fluorescence measurements taken by the GFP-Meter to those taken by a standard laboratory-based spectrofluorometer, the FluoroMax-2. Spectrofluorescence measurements were taken from the same location on intact leaves. When these measurements were tested by simple linear regression analysis, we found that there was a positive functional relationship between instruments. Finally, to exhibit that the GFP-Meter recorded accurate measurements over a span of time, we completed a time-course analysis of GFP fluorescence measurements. We found that only initial measurements were accurate; however, subsequent measurements could be used for qualitative purposes.

  3. Methodological advances in predicting flow-induced dynamics of plants using mechanical-engineering theory.

    PubMed

    de Langre, Emmanuel

    2012-03-15

    The modeling of fluid-structure interactions, such as flow-induced vibrations, is a well-developed field of mechanical engineering. Many methods exist, and it seems natural to apply them to model the behavior of plants, and potentially other cantilever-like biological structures, under flow. Overcoming this disciplinary divide, and the application of such models to biological systems, will significantly advance our understanding of ecological patterns and processes and improve our predictive capabilities. Nonetheless, several methodological issues must first be addressed, which I describe here using two practical examples that have strong similarities: one from agricultural sciences and the other from nuclear engineering. Very similar issues arise in both: individual and collective behavior, small and large space and time scales, porous modeling, standard and extreme events, trade-off between the surface of exchange and individual or collective risk of damage, variability, hostile environments and, in some aspects, evolution. The conclusion is that, although similar issues do exist, which need to be exploited in some detail, there is a significant gap that requires new developments. It is obvious that living plants grow in and adapt to their environment, which certainly makes plant biomechanics fundamentally distinct from classical mechanical engineering. Moreover, the selection processes in biology and in human engineering are truly different, making the issue of safety different as well. A thorough understanding of these similarities and differences is needed to work efficiently in the application of a mechanistic approach to ecology.

  4. Instrumentation and methodology for quantifying GFP fluorescence in intact plant organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millwood, R. J.; Halfhill, M. D.; Harkins, D.; Russotti, R.; Stewart, C. N. Jr

    2003-01-01

    The General Fluorescence Plant Meter (GFP-Meter) is a portable spectrofluorometer that utilizes a fiber-optic cable and a leaf clip to gather spectrofluorescence data. In contrast to traditional analytical systems, this instrument allows for the rapid detection and fluorescence measurement of proteins under field conditions with no damage to plant tissue. Here we discuss the methodology of gathering and standardizing spectrofluorescence data from tobacco and canola plants expressing GFP. Furthermore, we demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the GFP-Meter. We first compared GFP fluorescence measurements taken by the GFP-Meter to those taken by a standard laboratory-based spectrofluorometer, the FluoroMax-2. Spectrofluorescence measurements were taken from the same location on intact leaves. When these measurements were tested by simple linear regression analysis, we found that there was a positive functional relationship between instruments. Finally, to exhibit that the GFP-Meter recorded accurate measurements over a span of time, we completed a time-course analysis of GFP fluorescence measurements. We found that only initial measurements were accurate; however, subsequent measurements could be used for qualitative purposes.

  5. Key-Aspects of Scientific Modeling Exemplified by School Science Models: Some Units for Teaching Contextualized Scientific Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Develaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Models and modeling are core elements of scientific methods and consequently also are of key importance for the conception and teaching of scientific methodology. The epistemology of models and its transfer and adaption to nature of science education are not, however, simple themes. We present some conceptual units in which school science models…

  6. 78 FR 65389 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... review. SUMMARY: On April 2, 2013, the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC) filed an...

  7. Standardization of natural pohenomena risk assessment methodology at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.; Hsu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    Safety analyses at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) normally require consideration of the risks of incidents caused by natural events such as high-velocity straight winds, tornadic winds, and earthquakes. The probabilities for these events to occur at SRP had been studied independently by several investigators, but the results of their studies were never systematically evaluated. As part of the endeavor to standardize our environmental risk assessment methodology, these independent studies have been thoroughly reviewed and critiqued, and appropriate probability models for these natural events have been selected. The selected probability models for natural phenomena, high-velocity straight winds and tornadic winds in particular, are in agreement with those being used at other DOE sites, and have been adopted as a guide for all safety studies conducted for SRP operations and facilities. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Application of the MIAS methodology in design of the data acquisition system for wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwikła, G.; Krenczyk, D.; Kampa, A.; Gołda, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of MIAS (Manufacturing Information Acquisition System) methodology to develop customized data acquisition system supporting management of the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (CWWTP) in Gliwice, Poland, being example of production systems leading continuous flow, automated production processes. Access to current data on the state of production system is a key to efficient management of a company, allowing fast reaction or even anticipation of future problems with equipment and reduction of waste. Overview of both analysis and synthesis of organisational solutions, data sources, data pre-processing and communication interfaces, realised according to proposed MIAS methodology, had been presented. The stage of analysis covered i.e.: organisational structure of the company, IT systems used in the company, specifics of technological processes, machines and equipment, structure of control systems, assignments of crew members, materials used in the technological processes. This paper also presents results of the stage of synthesis of technical and organisational solutions of MIAS for CWWTP, including proposed solutions covering MIAS architecture and connections with other IT systems, data sources in production system that are currently available and newly created, data preprocessing procedures, and necessary communication interfaces.

  9. Inventory of Nonutility Electric Power Plants in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Provides annual aggregate statistics on generating units operated by nonutilities in the United States and the District of Columbia. Provides a 5-year outlook for generating unit additions and changes.

  10. Migration and Residential Location of Workers at Nuclear Power Plant Construction Sites Forecasting Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, S.; Manninen, D.

    1981-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of socioeconomic impact assessments by providing an improved methodology for predicting the number of inmigrating workers and their residential location patterns at future nuclear power plant construction projects. Procedures for estimating several other variables which have important implications with respect to socioeconomic impact assessment (i.e., relocation of dependents, intention to remain in the area, type of housing selected, marital status, and average family size) were also developed. The analysis was based on worker survey data from 28 surveys which were conducted at 13 nuclear power plant construction sites. These survey data were examined to identify patterns of variation in variables of interest across sites as well as across various worker groups. In addition, considerable secondary data reflecting various regional and project characteristics were gathered for each site. These data were used to estimate the effects of factors underlying the observed variation in craft-specific migrant proportions and the residential location patterns of inmigrating workers across sites and surveys. The results of these analyses were then used as a basis for the specification of the forecasting procedures.

  11. Increase in NOx emissions from Indian thermal power plants during 1996-2010: unit-based inventories and multisatellite observations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G

    2012-07-17

    Driven by rapid economic development and growing electricity demand, NO(x) emissions (E) from the power sector in India have increased dramatically since the mid-1990s. In this study, we present the NO(x) emissions from Indian public thermal power plants for the period 1996-2010 using a unit-based methodology and compare the emission estimates with the satellite observations of NO(2) tropospheric vertical column densities (TVCDs) from four spaceborne instruments: GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2. Results show that NO(x) emissions from Indian power plants increased by at least 70% during 1996-2010. Coal-fired power plants, NO(x) emissions from which are not regulated in India, contribute ∼96% to the total power sector emissions, followed by gas-fired (∼4%) and oil-fired (<1%) ones. A number of isolated NO(2) hot spots are observed over the power plant areas, and good agreement between NO(2) TVCDs and NO(x) emissions is found for areas dominated by power plant emissions. Average NO(2) TVCDs over power plant areas were continuously increasing during the study period. We find that the ratio of ΔE/E to ΔTVCD/TVCD changed from greater than one to less than one around 2005-2008, implying that a transition of the overall NO(x) chemistry occurred over the power plant areas, which may cause significant impact on the atmospheric environment.

  12. 77 FR 66875 - Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... to Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Brunswick). The petition is included in...

  13. 76 FR 5216 - Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background... authorizes operation of the Crystal River ] Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (Crystal River). The license... under 10 CFR 55.11 from the schedule requirements of 10 CFR 55.59. Specifically for Crystal River,...

  14. 75 FR 16518 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0...-72 that authorizes operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3). The license... approach set forth by the Commission and discussed in the June 4, 2009, letter. Crystal River...

  15. 78 FR 16302 - Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant, Application for Amendment to Facility Operating... Operating License No. DPR-72 for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3), located...

  16. 75 FR 70953 - Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al.; Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Exemption 1.0...-72, which authorizes operation of the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3). The... and discussed in the June 4, 2009, letter. Crystal River Schedule Exemption Request The...

  17. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.L.; Coles, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation.

  18. Teaching for Conceptual Change in a Density Unit Taught to 7th Graders: Comparing Two Teaching Methodologies--Scientific Inquiry and a Traditional Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holveck, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to compare the effect of using an inquiry teaching methodology and a more traditional teaching methodology on the learning gains of students who were taught a five-week conceptual change unit on density. Seventh graders (N = 479) were assigned to five teachers who taught the same unit on density using either a…

  19. A Systems Biology Methodology Combining Transcriptome and Interactome Datasets to Assess the Implications of Cytokinin Signaling for Plant Immune Networks.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Meik; Dandekar, Thomas; Naseem, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) play an important role in plant growth and development. Also, several studies highlight the modulatory implications of CKs for plant-pathogen interaction. However, the underlying mechanisms of CK mediating immune networks in plants are still not fully understood. A detailed analysis of high-throughput transcriptome (RNA-Seq and microarrays) datasets under modulated conditions of plant CKs and its mergence with cellular interactome (large-scale protein-protein interaction data) has the potential to unlock the contribution of CKs to plant defense. Here, we specifically describe a detailed systems biology methodology pertinent to the acquisition and analysis of various omics datasets that delineate the role of plant CKs in impacting immune pathways in Arabidopsis.

  20. 78 FR 30342 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... COMMISSION United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Renewal of its Certificate of Compliance (CoC) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The... compliance for PGDP on November 26, 1996, and assumed regulatory oversight for the plant on March 3,...

  1. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    SciTech Connect

    Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Baker, B.L.

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  2. Occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, A.

    1983-01-01

    The annual statistical summaries of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States are compiled by reactor type for the years 1970 to 1980. The trends of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in both countries are similar in many respects. Individual doses have been well controlled below the occupational dose limit (0.05 Sv/yr), but the collective doses (man-sieverts) have been increasing with plant age, especially in boiling-water reactors. Most of the occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is incurred during maintenance activities rather than routine operation; so the annual collective dose per unit of electric output is in inverse proportion to the annual plant capacity factor. An estimate of the cancer risk for the total number of workers exposed at commercial nuclear power plants in 1980 is fewer than ten hypothetical radiation-induced cancer deaths in the United States and fewer than three in Japan.

  3. Methodology and measures for preventing unacceptable flow-accelerated corrosion thinning of pipelines and equipment of NPP power generating units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Lovchev, V. N.; Gutsev, D. F.

    2016-10-01

    Problems of metal flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) in the pipelines and equipment of the condensate- feeding and wet-steam paths of NPP power-generating units (PGU) are examined. Goals, objectives, and main principles of the methodology for the implementation of an integrated program of AO Concern Rosenergoatom for the prevention of unacceptable FAC thinning and for increasing operational flow-accelerated corrosion resistance of NPP EaP are worded (further the Program). A role is determined and potentialities are shown for the use of Russian software packages in the evaluation and prediction of FAC rate upon solving practical problems for the timely detection of unacceptable FAC thinning in the elements of pipelines and equipment (EaP) of the secondary circuit of NPP PGU. Information is given concerning the structure, properties, and functions of the software systems for plant personnel support in the monitoring and planning of the inservice inspection of FAC thinning elements of pipelines and equipment of the secondary circuit of NPP PGUs, which are created and implemented at some Russian NPPs equipped with VVER-1000, VVER-440, and BN-600 reactors. It is noted that one of the most important practical results of software packages for supporting NPP personnel concerning the issue of flow-accelerated corrosion consists in revealing elements under a hazard of intense local FAC thinning. Examples are given for successful practice at some Russian NPP concerning the use of software systems for supporting the personnel in early detection of secondary-circuit pipeline elements with FAC thinning close to an unacceptable level. Intermediate results of working on the Program are presented and new tasks set in 2012 as a part of the updated program are denoted. The prospects of the developed methods and tools in the scope of the Program measures at the stages of design and construction of NPP PGU are discussed. The main directions of the work on solving the problems of flow

  4. An Educational Methodology for Enhancing Familiarity with United States Air Force Combat Logistics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    ICOMBAT i LOGISTICS FUNCTION IREADINES aenc[Tasotio _____ I 1 dentitication of Units ___ __ __ a b_ _ _ _ c- d e_ _ _ _ ecepn tion K~atons Reqorntro...UNCTION ACTIVITY Sun’IV. ainterianc Tasnortation!Loqi~ic~P!e s .k-f7: o i dentitication of Units __ __ __ a b c d e_ _ _ _ nitiat Unitflono ;Sortie

  5. Operational Optimization of Large-Scale Parallel-Unit SWRO Desalination Plant Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolong; Jiang, Aipeng; Jiangzhou, Shu; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale parallel-unit seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant contains many reverse osmosis (RO) units. If the operating conditions change, these RO units will not work at the optimal design points which are computed before the plant is built. The operational optimization problem (OOP) of the plant is to find out a scheduling of operation to minimize the total running cost when the change happens. In this paper, the OOP is modelled as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem. A two-stage differential evolution algorithm is proposed to solve this OOP. Experimental results show that the proposed method is satisfactory in solution quality. PMID:24701180

  6. J.K. Spruce power plant, Unit 1, San Antonio, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    CPS Energy's J.K. Spruce power plant, Unit 1 was recently recognised by the EUCG Fossil Productivity Committee as the best performer in the large coal plant category over the 2002-2006 evaluation period. The competition was tough, with more than 80 plants in the running, but Unit 1 emerged as the clear winner by earning top points for high plant reliability and very low nonfuel O & M costs. It meets its environmental goals when burning PRB coal in its tangentially fired furnace with recently upgraded low NOx burners, overfire air and a new combustion control system. A baghouse and wet flue gas desulfurization system clean up combustion products. 3 photos.

  7. Mapping plant invadedness in watersheds across the continental United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exotic aquatic plant invasions trigger a cascade of negative effects, resulting in altered structure and function of freshwater ecosystems, loss of native biodiversity, and reduction of valuable ecosystem services such as recreation and water quality. The problem of biological in...

  8. Can local adaptation research in plants inform selection of native plant materials? An analysis of experimental methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation research in plants: limitations to synthetic understanding Local adaptation is used as a criterion to select plant materials that will display high fitness in new environments. A large body of research has explored local adaptation in plants, however, to what extent findings can inf...

  9. Energy prices and substitution in United States manufacturing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grim, Cheryl

    Persistent regional disparities in electricity prices, growth in wholesale power markets, and recent deregulation attempts have intensified interest in the performance of the U.S. electric power industry, while skyrocketing fuel prices have brought renewed interest in the effect of changes in prices of all energy types on the U.S. economy. This dissertation examines energy prices and substitution between energy types in U.S. manufacturing. I use a newly constructed database that includes information on purchased electricity and electricity expenditures for more than 48,000 plants per year and additional data on the utilities that supply electricity to study the distribution of electricity prices paid by U.S. manufacturing plants from 1963 to 2000. I find a large compression in the dispersion of electricity prices from 1963 to 1978 due primarily to a decrease in quantity discounts for large electricity purchasers. I also find that spatial dispersion in retail electricity prices among states, counties and utility service territories is large, rises over time for smaller purchasers, and does not diminish as wholesale power markets expand in the 1990s. In addition, I examine energy type consumption patterns, prices, and substitution in U.S. manufacturing plants. I develop a plant-level dataset for 1998 with data on consumption and expenditures on energy and non-energy production inputs, output, and other plant characteristics. I find energy type consumption patterns vary widely across manufacturing plants. Further, I find a large amount of dispersion across plants in the prices paid for electricity, oil, natural gas, and coal. These high levels of dispersion are accounted for by the plant's location, industry, and purchase quantity. Finally, I present estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities of demand for both the energy and non-energy production inputs.

  10. United States Environmental Protection Agency: Use of risk assessment and risk management methodologies. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Lamuro, R.J.

    1992-09-30

    Make a full investigation of the policy implications and appropriate uses of risk assessment and risk management in regulatory programs under various Federal laws to prevent cancer and other chronic health effects which may result from exposure to hazardous substances. This is the primary mission of the Risk Assessment and Management Commission (Risk Commission). The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), created the Risk Commission reflecting Congress' concern over agency use of risk assessment and risk management techniques and methodologies to implement federal laws protective of human health. The Risk Commission is to consider: methods for measuring and describing risks of chronic health effects from hazardous substances; methods to reflect uncertainties associated with estimation techniques, and whether it is possible or desirable to develop a consistent risk assessment methodology or a consistent standard of acceptable risk for various federal programs.

  11. Development of a Methodology for Collective Training Decision Making in Army Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    follow the name(s) Block 7. Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es) Self-explanatory Block 8 . Performing Organization Report Number...Report Overview 7 PROCEDURES 8 Developing the Regression Equations 8 Developing the Conceptual Decision Model 20 Developing Unit-Type and...CONTENTS fContinued) Page Table 7. Sumnary of analysis to validate unit-type categorization scheme 35 8 . Sumnary of analyses to validate

  12. Inventory of Electric Utility Power Plants in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2002-01-01

    Final issue of this report. Provides detailed statistics on existing generating units operated by electric utilities as of December 31, 2000, and certain summary statistics about new generators planned for operation by electric utilities during the next 5 years.

  13. Estimation of lifespan and economy parameters of steam-turbine power units in thermal power plants using varying regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Shkret, A. F.; Garievskii, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The use of potent power units in thermal and nuclear power plants in order to regulate the loads results in intense wear of power generating equipment and reduction in cost efficiency of their operation. We review the methodology of a quantitative assessment of the lifespan and wear of steam-turbine power units and estimate the effect of various operation regimes upon their efficiency. To assess the power units' equipment wear, we suggest using the concept of a turbine's equivalent lifespan. We give calculation formulae and an example of calculation of the lifespan of a steam-turbine power unit for supercritical parameters of steam for different options of its loading. The equivalent lifespan exceeds the turbine's assigned lifespan only provided daily shutdown of the power unit during the night off-peak time. We obtained the engineering and economical indices of the power unit operation for different loading regulation options in daily and weekly diagrams. We proved the change in the prime cost of electric power depending on the operation regimes and annual daily number of unloading (non-use) of the power unit's installed capacity. According to the calculation results, the prime cost of electric power for the assumed initial data varies from 11.3 cents/(kW h) in the basic regime of power unit operation (with an equivalent operation time of 166700 hours) to 15.5 cents/(kW h) in the regime with night and holiday shutdowns. The reduction of using the installed capacity of power unit at varying regimes from 3.5 to 11.9 hours per day can increase the prime cost of energy from 4.2 to 37.4%. Furthermore, repair and maintenance costs grow by 4.5% and by 3 times, respectively, in comparison with the basic regime. These results indicate the need to create special maneuverable equipment for working in the varying section of the electric load diagram.

  14. 76 FR 39445 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... Company--Minnesota (licensee), the ] operator of Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... 39, Regarding Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2,'' issued May 2011,...

  15. 78 FR 53483 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 3 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  16. 78 FR 53484 - Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... COMMISSION Inspections, Tests, Analyses, and Acceptance Criteria; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Unit 4 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Determination of inspections, tests, analyses, and..., tests, and analyses have been successfully completed, and that the specified acceptance criteria are...

  17. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, L

    1985-09-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  18. United in diversity: mechanosensitive ion channels in plants.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Eric S; Schlegel, Angela M; Haswell, Elizabeth S

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are a common mechanism for perceiving and responding to mechanical force. This class of mechanoreceptors is capable of transducing membrane tension directly into ion flux. In plant systems, MS ion channels have been proposed to play a wide array of roles, from the perception of touch and gravity to the osmotic homeostasis of intracellular organelles. Three families of plant MS ion channels have been identified: the MscS-like (MSL), Mid1-complementing activity (MCA), and two-pore potassium (TPK) families. Channels from these families vary widely in structure and function, localize to multiple cellular compartments, and conduct chloride, calcium, and/or potassium ions. However, they are still likely to represent only a fraction of the MS ion channel diversity in plant systems.

  19. United in Diversity: Mechanosensitive Ion Channels in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Eric S.; Schlegel, Angela M.; Haswell, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are a common mechanism for perceiving and responding to mechanical force. This class of mechanoreceptors is capable of transducing membrane tension directly into ion flux. In plant systems, MS ion channels have been proposed to play a wide array of roles, from the perception of touch and gravity to the osmotic homeostasis of intracellular organelles. Three families of plant MS ion channels have been identified: the MscS-like (MSL), Mid1-complementing activity (MCA), and two-pore potassium (TPK) families. Channels from these families vary widely in structure and function, localize to multiple cellular compartments, and conduct chloride, calcium, and/or potassium ions. However, they are still likely to represent only a fraction of the MS ion channel diversity in plant systems. PMID:25494462

  20. Methodology for the optimal design of an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant combined with power cogeneration.

    PubMed

    Bechara, Rami; Gomez, Adrien; Saint-Antonin, Valérie; Schweitzer, Jean-Marc; Maréchal, François

    2016-08-01

    The application of methodologies for the optimal design of integrated processes has seen increased interest in literature. This article builds on previous works and applies a systematic methodology to an integrated first and second generation ethanol production plant with power cogeneration. The methodology breaks into process simulation, heat integration, thermo-economic evaluation, exergy efficiency vs. capital costs, multi-variable, evolutionary optimization, and process selection via profitability maximization. Optimization generated Pareto solutions with exergy efficiency ranging between 39.2% and 44.4% and capital costs from 210M$ to 390M$. The Net Present Value was positive for only two scenarios and for low efficiency, low hydrolysis points. The minimum cellulosic ethanol selling price was sought to obtain a maximum NPV of zero for high efficiency, high hydrolysis alternatives. The obtained optimal configuration presented maximum exergy efficiency, hydrolyzed bagasse fraction, capital costs and ethanol production rate, and minimum cooling water consumption and power production rate.

  1. Plants teratogenic to livestock in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teratology, as a scientific discipline, is relatively new and recognition of poisonous plants that cause birth defects in livestock only came to the forefront in the 1950’s and 1960’s. The Veratrum-induced “monkey faced” lamb syndrome and lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”, both studied extensive...

  2. 76 FR 58050 - Tennessee Valley Authority, Bellefonte Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... reactor site that has been partially completed. The unit is located on a peninsula between Town Creek and... piping; refurbish major equipment, such as reactor coolant pumps, diesel generators, and plant electrical.... As previously discussed, disposal of hazardous chemicals used at nuclear power plants are...

  3. LAND JUDGING AND PLANT NUTRITION, A PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION UNIT, REPORT NUMBER 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, GILBERT A.

    A UNIT OF PROGRAMED LEARNING MATERIALS WAS PRESENTED ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES OF LAND JUDGING AND PLANT NUTRITION. IN HIS PREPARATION, THE AUTHOR FIRST IDENTIFIED PRINCIPLES AND FACTS NECESSARY FOR EFFECTIVE LAND CLASSIFICATION AND PLANT NUTRITION BY EXAMINING RELEVANT SCIENTIFIC REPORTS. USING THIS INFORMATION, HE THEN FORMED A TEAM OF 16…

  4. Educational Inequality in the United States: Methodology and Historical Estimation of Education Gini Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper estimates historical measures of equality in the distribution of education in the United States by age group and sex. Using educational attainment data for the population, the EduGini measure indicates that educational inequality in the U.S. declined significantly between 1950 and 2009. Reductions in educational inequality were more…

  5. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  6. 75 FR 13320 - Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant; Environmental.... DPR 72 issued to Florida Power Corporation (the licensee), for operation of the Crystal River Unit...

  7. Agricultural Mechanics Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Volume 15, Number 4. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Hunter, Bill

    This instructor's guide is intended for use in teaching the agricultural mechanics unit of a plant science core curriculum. Covered in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: arc welding (following safety procedures, controlling distortion, selecting and caring for electrodes, identifying the material to be welded, and welding…

  8. Invasive Plant Management in the United States National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusk, Michael; Ericson, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species pose a significant challenge to the National Wildlife Refuge System and have been identified as the single most important threat to habitat management on refuges. At present, it is estimated that over 2 million acres of refuge lands are invaded by invasive plants. The current and potential costs of controlling invasive plants, as well as monitoring and restoring refuge lands, are significant both financially and ecologically. Budgetary expenditures for invasive species projects in FY 2009 totaled $18.4 million. A number of strategies are used to confront this threat and have resulted in success on a variety of levels. The Refuge System utilizes key partnerships, invasive species strike teams, and a dedicated cadre of volunteers to implement projects that incorporate mechanical, chemical and biological control methods.

  9. Islamic Radicalization in the United States. New Trends and a Proposed Methodology for Disruption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Islamic Radicalization in the United States. New Trends and a Proposed...arrested for al-Qaeda- related terrorism. 3 This paper reviewed the timeline of how a suspected homegrown terrorist moves quickly from adopting extremist...Islamic extremism. We can’t assume we’ve got months and years”[to apprehend them].5 3 Ibid. 4

  10. Estimating Renewable Energy Economic Potential in the United States: Methodology and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Austin; Beiter, Philipp; Heimiller, Donna; Davidson, Carolyn; Denholm, Paul; Melius, Jennifer; Lopez, Anthony; Hettinger, Dylan; Mulcahy, David; Porro, Gian

    2016-08-01

    The report describes a geospatial analysis method to estimate the economic potential of several renewable resources available for electricity generation in the United States. Economic potential, one measure of renewable generation potential, is defined in this report as the subset of the available resource technical potential where the cost required to generate the electricity (which determines the minimum revenue requirements for development of the resource) is below the revenue available in terms of displaced energy and displaced capacity.

  11. Mathematical simulation of power conditioning systems. Volume 1: Simulation of elementary units. Report on simulation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prajous, R.; Mazankine, J.; Ippolito, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and algorithms used for the simulation of elementary power conditioning units buck, boost, and buck-boost, as well as shunt PWM are described. Definitions are given of similar converters and reduced parameters. The various parts of the simulation to be carried out are dealt with; local stability, corrective network, measurements of input-output impedance and global stability. A simulation example is given.

  12. Deployment of United Nations Peace Keeping Forces: The Nature of Transportation and Review of Current Methodologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    the support by the western countries. For example, the Suez Canal is a vital sea lane for trade between the industrialized developed nations of the west...lines Authority: Security Council Size: Maximum 89 Contributing Countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Mexico , New...other specific public tasks. 3. Royal Netherlands Air Force (a) Organizacion For peace-keeping operations of the United Nations are earmarked: (1

  13. Yonghuang Therm Power Plant Units 1 and 2, Inchon, South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2005-08-01

    Because South Korea depends heavily on imported fuels, its government continues to encourage energy diversification. Today Korea has about 60,000 MW of installed capacity that is fueled equally by coal, liquefied natural gas, and nuclear fission. Although the linchpins of the ongoing diversification program are more nukes and more plants powered by imported LNG, another piece of the plan is to make greater use of the country's domestic coal supplies. That is where Korea South-East Power Co. enters the picture, with two new supercritical units that showcase the technology's 40% efficiency. The plant has two 800-MW units and two identical units are under construction at the site. The plant has two-stage combustion and low NOx burners followed by selective catalytic reduction on each unit. SOx emissions are under 45 ppm. An integrated control and monitoring system helps keep down operating costs. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, P. C.; Khanduja, Rajiv; Gupta, Mahesh

    2012-05-01

    This paper deals with the performance enhancement for crystallization unit of a sugar plant using genetic algorithm. The crystallization unit of a sugar industry has three main subsystems arranged in series. Considering exponential distribution for the probable failures and repairs, the mathematical formulation of the problem is done using probabilistic approach, and differential equations are developed on the basis of Markov birth-death process. These equations are then solved using normalizing conditions so as to determine the steady-state availability of the crystallization unit. The performance of each subsystem of crystallization unit in a sugar plant has also been optimized using genetic algorithm. Thus, the findings of the present paper will be highly useful to the plant management for the timely execution of proper maintenance decisions and, hence, to enhance the system performance.

  15. Methodology used to compute maximum potential doses from ingestion of edible plants and wildlife found on the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Soldat, J.K.; Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the assumptions, dose factors, consumption rates, and methodology used to evaluate potential radiation doses to persons who may eat contaminated wildlife or contaminated plants collected from the Hanford Site. This report includes a description of the number and variety of wildlife and edible plants on the Hanford Site, methods for estimation of the quantities of these items consumed and conversion of intake of radionuclides to radiation doses, and example calculations of radiation doses from consumption of plants and wildlife. Edible plants on the publicly accessible margins of the shoreline of the Hanford Site and Wildlife that move offsite are potential sources of contaminated food for the general public. Calculations of potential radiation doses from consumption of agricultural plants and farm animal products are made routinely and reported annually for those produced offsite, using information about concentrations of radionuclides, consumption rates, and factors for converting radionuclide intake into dose. Dose calculations for onsite plants and wildlife are made intermittently when appropriate samples become available for analysis or when special studies are conducted. Consumption rates are inferred from the normal intake rates of similar food types raised offsite and from the edible weight of the onsite product that is actually available for harvest. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Comparison of background ozone estimates over the western United States based on two separate model methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolwick, Pat; Akhtar, Farhan; Baker, Kirk R.; Possiel, Norm; Simon, Heather; Tonnesen, Gail

    2015-05-01

    Two separate air quality model methodologies for estimating background ozone levels over the western U.S. are compared in this analysis. The first approach is a direct sensitivity modeling approach that considers the ozone levels that would remain after certain emissions are entirely removed (i.e., zero-out modeling). The second approach is based on an instrumented air quality model which tracks the formation of ozone within the simulation and assigns the source of that ozone to pre-identified categories (i.e., source apportionment modeling). This analysis focuses on a definition of background referred to as U.S. background (USB) which is designed to represent the influence of all sources other than U.S. anthropogenic emissions. Two separate modeling simulations were completed for an April-October 2007 period, both focused on isolating the influence of sources other than domestic manmade emissions. The zero-out modeling was conducted with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and the source apportionment modeling was completed with the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Our analysis shows that the zero-out and source apportionment techniques provide relatively similar estimates of the magnitude of seasonal mean daily 8-h maximum U.S. background ozone at locations in the western U.S. when base case model ozone biases are considered. The largest differences between the two sets of USB estimates occur in urban areas where interactions with local NOx emissions can be important, especially when ozone levels are relatively low. Both methodologies conclude that seasonal mean daily 8-h maximum U.S. background ozone levels can be as high as 40-45 ppb over rural portions of the western U.S. Background fractions tend to decrease as modeled total ozone concentrations increase, with typical fractions of 75-100 percent on the lowest ozone days (<25 ppb) and typical fractions between 30 and 50% on days with ozone above 75 ppb. The finding that

  17. Quality Service Analysis and Improvement of Pharmacy Unit of XYZ Hospital Using Value Stream Analysis Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonny; Nasution, Januar

    2013-06-01

    Value stream mapping is a tool which is needed to let the business leader of XYZ Hospital to see what is actually happening in its business process that have caused longer lead time for self-produced medicines in its pharmacy unit. This problem has triggered many complaints filed by patients. After deploying this tool, the team has come up with the fact that in processing the medicine, pharmacy unit does not have any storage and capsule packing tool and this condition has caused many wasting times in its process. Therefore, the team has proposed to the business leader to procure the required tools in order to shorten its process. This research has resulted in shortened lead time from 45 minutes to 30 minutes as required by the government through Indonesian health ministry with increased %VA (valued added activity) or Process Cycle Efficiency (PCE) from 66% to 68% (considered lean because it is upper than required 30%). This result has proved that the process effectiveness has been increase by the improvement.

  18. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Luke McCormack, M.; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1–2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5–2 years and represented 62–87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%–81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  19. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kai; Luke McCormack, M.; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-01

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1–2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5–2 years and represented 62–87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%–81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies. PMID:26791578

  20. Fast-cycling unit of root turnover in perennial herbaceous plants in a cold temperate ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kai; McCormack, M Luke; Li, Le; Ma, Zeqing; Guo, Dali

    2016-01-21

    Roots of perennial plants have both persistent portion and fast-cycling units represented by different levels of branching. In woody species, the distal nonwoody branch orders as a unit are born and die together relatively rapidly (within 1-2 years). However, whether the fast-cycling units also exist in perennial herbs is unknown. We monitored root demography of seven perennial herbs over two years in a cold temperate ecosystem and we classified the largest roots on the root collar or rhizome as basal roots, and associated finer laterals as secondary, tertiary and quaternary roots. Parallel to woody plants in which distal root orders form a fast-cycling module, basal root and its finer laterals also represent a fast-cycling module in herbaceous plants. Within this module, basal roots had a lifespan of 0.5-2 years and represented 62-87% of total root biomass, thus dominating annual root turnover (60%-81% of the total). Moreover, root traits including root length, tissue density, and biomass were useful predictors of root lifespan. We conclude that both herbaceous and woody plants have fast-cycling modular units and future studies identifying the fast-cycling module across plant species should allow better understanding of how root construction and turnover are linked to whole-plant strategies.

  1. 1995 National assessment of United States oil and gas resources; results, methodology, and supporting data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, G.L.; Takahashi, K.I.; Varnes, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States by the U.S. Geological Survey. A parallel study of the Federal offshore is being conducted by the Minerals Management Service. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  2. 1995 National Assessment of United States Oil and Gas Resources: Results, Methodology, and Supporting Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Dolton, Gordon L.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.; Varnes, Katharine L.

    1996-01-01

    This revised CD-ROM summarizes the results, released in 1995, of the 3-year study of the oil and gas resources of the onshore and state waters of the United States. Minor errors in the original DDS-30 (listed in DDS-35 and DDS-36) are corrected in this revised version and in the data files now released in DDS-35 and DDS-36. Estimates are made of technically recoverable oil, including measured (proved) reserves, future additions to reserves in existing fields, and undiscovered resources. Estimates are also made of the technically recoverable conventional resources of natural gas in measured reserves, in anticipated growth of reserves in existing fields, and in undiscovered resources. Additionally, an assessment is made of recoverable resources in continuous-type (largely unconventional) accumulations in sandstones, shales, chalks, and coal beds.

  3. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities... System (ADAMS) Accession No. ML13340A009), for the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant (CR-3..., January 16, 2014, from 7 p.m. until 9 p.m., EST, at the Crystal River Nuclear Plant Training...

  4. 76 FR 66333 - Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... through the ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: H.B. Robinson... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental... operation of the H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2 (HBRSEP), located in Darlington County,...

  5. The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13

    SciTech Connect

    Haemapun, C.

    1993-12-31

    As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

  6. Methodological Guidelines for Accurate Detection of Viruses in Wild Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Christelle; Renner, Kurra; Cole, Ellen; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Malmstrom, Carolyn M

    2016-01-15

    Ecological understanding of disease risk, emergence, and dynamics and of the efficacy of control strategies relies heavily on efficient tools for microorganism identification and characterization. Misdetection, such as the misclassification of infected hosts as healthy, can strongly bias estimates of disease prevalence and lead to inaccurate conclusions. In natural plant ecosystems, interest in assessing microbial dynamics is increasing exponentially, but guidelines for detection of microorganisms in wild plants remain limited, particularly so for plant viruses. To address this gap, we explored issues and solutions associated with virus detection by serological and molecular methods in noncrop plant species as applied to the globally important Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (Luteoviridae), which infects wild native plants as well as crops. With enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we demonstrate how virus detection in a perennial wild plant species may be much greater in stems than in leaves, although leaves are most commonly sampled, and may also vary among tillers within an individual, thereby highlighting the importance of designing effective sampling strategies. With reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrate how inhibitors in tissues of perennial wild hosts can suppress virus detection but can be overcome with methods and products that improve isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. These examples demonstrate the paramount importance of testing and validating survey designs and virus detection methods for noncrop plant communities to ensure accurate ecological surveys and reliable assumptions about virus dynamics in wild hosts.

  7. Methodological Guidelines for Accurate Detection of Viruses in Wild Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Kurra; Cole, Ellen; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Malmstrom, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological understanding of disease risk, emergence, and dynamics and of the efficacy of control strategies relies heavily on efficient tools for microorganism identification and characterization. Misdetection, such as the misclassification of infected hosts as healthy, can strongly bias estimates of disease prevalence and lead to inaccurate conclusions. In natural plant ecosystems, interest in assessing microbial dynamics is increasing exponentially, but guidelines for detection of microorganisms in wild plants remain limited, particularly so for plant viruses. To address this gap, we explored issues and solutions associated with virus detection by serological and molecular methods in noncrop plant species as applied to the globally important Barley yellow dwarf virus PAV (Luteoviridae), which infects wild native plants as well as crops. With enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), we demonstrate how virus detection in a perennial wild plant species may be much greater in stems than in leaves, although leaves are most commonly sampled, and may also vary among tillers within an individual, thereby highlighting the importance of designing effective sampling strategies. With reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we demonstrate how inhibitors in tissues of perennial wild hosts can suppress virus detection but can be overcome with methods and products that improve isolation and amplification of nucleic acids. These examples demonstrate the paramount importance of testing and validating survey designs and virus detection methods for noncrop plant communities to ensure accurate ecological surveys and reliable assumptions about virus dynamics in wild hosts. PMID:26773088

  8. U.S. Geological Survey probabilistic methodology for oil and gas resource appraisal of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey is described for estimating the quantity of undiscovered recoverable conventional resources of oil and gas in the United States. A judgmental probability distribution of the "quantity of resource" and its properties is determined for a geologic province or basin. From this distribution, point and interval estimates of the quantity of undiscovered resource are obtained. Distributions and their properties are established for each of the following resources: (1) oil and nonassociated gas from estimates of the probability of the resource being present and the conditional probability distribution of the quantity of resource given that the resource is present, (2) associated-dissolved gas from its corresponding oil distribution, (3) total gas, (4) oil and total gas in two or more provinces. Computer graphics routines are illustrated with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey Circular 860. ?? 1984 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  9. A year (2014-2015) of plants in Proteomics journal. Progress in wet and dry methodologies, moving from protein catalogs, and the view of classic plant biochemists.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lucas, Rosa; Mehta, Angela; Valledor, Luis; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Romero-Rodrıguez, M Cristina; Simova-Stoilova, Lyudmila; Demir, Sekvan; Rodriguez-de-Francisco, Luis E; Maldonado-Alconada, Ana M; Jorrin-Prieto, Ana L; Jorrín-Novo, Jesus V

    2016-03-01

    The present review is an update of the previous one published in Proteomics 2015 Reviews special issue [Jorrin-Novo, J. V. et al., Proteomics 2015, 15, 1089-1112] covering the July 2014-2015 period. It has been written on the bases of the publications that appeared in Proteomics journal during that period and the most relevant ones that have been published in other high-impact journals. Methodological advances and the contribution of the field to the knowledge of plant biology processes and its translation to agroforestry and environmental sectors will be discussed. This review has been organized in four blocks, with a starting general introduction (literature survey) followed by sections focusing on the methodology (in vitro, in vivo, wet, and dry), proteomics integration with other approaches (systems biology and proteogenomics), biological information, and knowledge (cell communication, receptors, and signaling), ending with a brief mention of some other biological and translational topics to which proteomics has made some contribution.

  10. An evaluation of methodology for seismic qualification of equipment, cable trays, and ducts in ALWR plants by use of experience data

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kana, D.D.; Kennedy, R.P.; Schiff, A.J.

    1997-07-01

    Advanced Reactor Corporation (ARC) has developed a methodology for seismic qualification of equipment, cable trays and ducts in Advanced Light Water Reactor plants. A Panel (members of which acted as individuals) supported by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has evaluated this methodology. The review approach and observations are included in this report. In general, the Panel supports the ARC methodology with some exceptions and provides recommendations for further improvements. 26 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  11. System Error Compensation Methodology Based on a Neural Network for a Micromachined Inertial Measurement Unit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi Qiang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-29

    Errors compensation of micromachined-inertial-measurement-units (MIMU) is essential in practical applications. This paper presents a new compensation method using a neural-network-based identification for MIMU, which capably solves the universal problems of cross-coupling, misalignment, eccentricity, and other deterministic errors existing in a three-dimensional integrated system. Using a neural network to model a complex multivariate and nonlinear coupling system, the errors could be readily compensated through a comprehensive calibration. In this paper, we also present a thermal-gas MIMU based on thermal expansion, which measures three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations using only three thermal-gas inertial sensors, each of which capably measures one-axis angular rate and one-axis acceleration simultaneously in one chip. The developed MIMU (100 × 100 × 100 mm³) possesses the advantages of simple structure, high shock resistance, and large measuring ranges (three-axes angular rates of ±4000°/s and three-axes accelerations of ± 10 g) compared with conventional MIMU, due to using gas medium instead of mechanical proof mass as the key moving and sensing elements. However, the gas MIMU suffers from cross-coupling effects, which corrupt the system accuracy. The proposed compensation method is, therefore, applied to compensate the system errors of the MIMU. Experiments validate the effectiveness of the compensation, and the measurement errors of three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations are reduced to less than 1% and 3% of uncompensated errors in the rotation range of ±600°/s and the acceleration range of ± 1 g, respectively.

  12. System Error Compensation Methodology Based on a Neural Network for a Micromachined Inertial Measurement Unit

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi Qiang; Zhu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Errors compensation of micromachined-inertial-measurement-units (MIMU) is essential in practical applications. This paper presents a new compensation method using a neural-network-based identification for MIMU, which capably solves the universal problems of cross-coupling, misalignment, eccentricity, and other deterministic errors existing in a three-dimensional integrated system. Using a neural network to model a complex multivariate and nonlinear coupling system, the errors could be readily compensated through a comprehensive calibration. In this paper, we also present a thermal-gas MIMU based on thermal expansion, which measures three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations using only three thermal-gas inertial sensors, each of which capably measures one-axis angular rate and one-axis acceleration simultaneously in one chip. The developed MIMU (100 × 100 × 100 mm3) possesses the advantages of simple structure, high shock resistance, and large measuring ranges (three-axes angular rates of ±4000°/s and three-axes accelerations of ±10 g) compared with conventional MIMU, due to using gas medium instead of mechanical proof mass as the key moving and sensing elements. However, the gas MIMU suffers from cross-coupling effects, which corrupt the system accuracy. The proposed compensation method is, therefore, applied to compensate the system errors of the MIMU. Experiments validate the effectiveness of the compensation, and the measurement errors of three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations are reduced to less than 1% and 3% of uncompensated errors in the rotation range of ±600°/s and the acceleration range of ±1 g, respectively. PMID:26840314

  13. Risk Based Inspection Pilot Study of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant,Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Brickstad, Bjorn; Letzter, Adam; Klimasauskas, Arturas; Alzbutas, Robertas; Nedzinskas, Linas; Kopustinskas, Vytis

    2002-07-01

    A project with the acronym IRBIS (Ignalina Risk Based Inspection pilot Study) has been performed with the objective to perform a quantitative risk analysis of a total of 1240 stainless steel welds in Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, unit 2 (INPP-2). The damage mechanism is IGSCC and the failure probabilities are quantified by using probabilistic fracture mechanics. The conditional core damage probabilities are taken from the plant PSA. (authors)

  14. A new coprecipitation methodology with lutetium hydroxide for preconcentration of heavy metal ions in herbal plant samples.

    PubMed

    Soylak, Mustafa; Murat, Ipek

    2014-01-01

    A new coprecipitation methodology that used lutetium hydroxide as a precipitant for Cu(II), Pb(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), and Ni(II) ions in herbal plant and water samples for analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated. The parameters such as pH, amount of lutetium, and volume of aqueous sample were optimized for the recovery of these seven metals. The effects of concomitant ions on the separation-preconcentration of analytes were also checked. The validation of the procedure was checked with addition recovery tests and analysis of Standard Reference Material 1570a-Trace Elements in Spinach Leaves and TMDA-70 fortified lake water Certified Reference Material. The LODs for analyte ions were in the range of 1.7-7.2 microg/L. The application of the present procedure was successfully performed for the analysis of analyte contents of herbal plant samples from Turkey.

  15. Methodological approach for the optimization of drinking water treatment plants' operation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sorlini, Sabrina; Collivignarelli, Maria Cristina; Castagnola, Federico; Crotti, Barbara Marianna; Raboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Critical barriers to safe and secure drinking water may include sources (e.g. groundwater contamination), treatments (e.g. treatment plants not properly operating) and/or contamination within the distribution system (infrastructure not properly maintained). The performance assessment of these systems, based on monitoring, process parameter control and experimental tests, is a viable tool for the process optimization and water quality control. The aim of this study was to define a procedure for evaluating the performance of full-scale drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) and for defining optimal solutions for plant upgrading in order to optimize operation. The protocol is composed of four main phases (routine and intensive monitoring programmes - Phases 1 and 2; experimental studies - Phase 3; plant upgrade and optimization - Phase 4). The protocol suggested in this study was tested in a full-scale DWTP placed in the North of Italy (Mortara, Pavia). The results outline some critical aspects of the plant operation and permit the identification of feasible solutions for the DWTP upgrading in order to optimize water treatment operation.

  16. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  17. Online Consumer Surveys as a Methodology for Assessing the Quality of the United States Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Fiorillo, John; Lansky, David; Hendryx, Michael; Knickman, James

    2004-01-01

    Background Interest in monitoring the quality of health care in the United States has increased in recent years. However, the policy objectives associated with collecting this information are constrained by the limited availability of timely and relevant data at a reasonable cost. Online data-collection technologies hold the promise of gathering data directly and inexpensively from large, representative samples of patients and consumers. These new information technologies also permit efficient, real-time assessment in such areas as health status, access to care, and other aspects of the care experience that impact health outcomes. Objective This study investigates the feasibility, validity, and generalizability of consumer online surveys to measure key aspects of health care quality in the United States. Methods Surveys about the health and health care experiences of a general adult population and of adults with diabetes were administered online and by telephone. The online survey drew from a sample frame of nearly 1 million consumers and used a single e-mail notification. The random-digit-dial methodology included 6 follow-up calls. Results from the online sample were compared to the telephone sample and to national benchmark data. Results Survey responses about quality of care collected using online and telephone methods were commensurate once they were weighted to represent the demographic distribution of the 2000 United States Census. Expected variations in health and health care quality across demographic and socioeconomic groups were largely observed, as were hypothesized associations among quality indicators and other variables. Fewer individuals were required to be contacted to achieve target sample sizes using online versus telephone methods. Neither method yielded representative cohorts of nonwhite individuals. Conclusions Conclusions about the level and variations in health care quality in the United States are similar using data collected in this study

  18. Assessing and managing methylmercury risks associated with power plant mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-03-09

    Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or "hot spots." The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little impact.

  19. A Refined Methodology for Defining Plant Communities Using Postagricultural Data from the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Myster, Randall W.

    2012-01-01

    How best to define and quantify plant communities was investigated using long-term plot data sampled from a recovering pasture in Puerto Rico and abandoned sugarcane and banana plantations in Ecuador. Significant positive associations between pairs of old field species were first computed and then clustered together into larger and larger species groups. I found that (1) no pasture or plantation had more than 5% of the possible significant positive associations, (2) clustering metrics showed groups of species participating in similar clusters among the five pasture/plantations over a gradient of decreasing association strength, and (3) there was evidence for repeatable communities—especially after banana cultivation—suggesting that past crops not only persist after abandonment but also form significant associations with invading plants. I then showed how the clustering hierarchy could be used to decide if any two pasture/plantation plots were in the same community, that is, to define old field communities. Finally, I suggested a similar procedure could be used for any plant community where the mechanisms and tolerances of species form the “cohesion” that produces clustering, making plant communities different than random assemblages of species. PMID:22536137

  20. Flavonoids: chemical properties and analytical methodologies of identification and quantitation in foods and plants.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Eleonora; Foglia, Patrizia; Giansanti, Piero; Gubbiotti, Riccardo; Samperi, Roberto; Lagana, Aldo

    2011-03-01

    Flavonoids have been recognised as one of the largest and most widespread groups of plant secondary metabolites, with marked antioxidant properties. The general name flavonoid refers to a class of more than 6500 molecules based upon a 15-carbon skeleton. In this paper a general overview of flavonoids, their classification, structures and analytical methods for their determination is presented.

  1. 76 FR 77563 - Florida Power & Light Company; St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power & Light Company; St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background The Florida Power & Light Company (FPL, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No....

  2. 76 FR 34105 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company, et al. (the licensee), is the holder of Facility Operating License... Carolina Power & Light Company an exemption from the requirements of 10 CFR 26.205(c) and (d) for...

  3. 75 FR 16871 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  4. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy...

  5. 76 FR 68512 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License... cooling systems for light- water nuclear power reactors,'' paragraph (a)(1)(i) provides requirements...

  6. 77 FR 26793 - Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption 1.0 Background The Florida Power & Light Company (FPL, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License No....

  7. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company, the licensee, doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas Inc., is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  8. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility...

  9. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  10. Fruit and Vegetable Production Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Instructor's Guide. Volume 16, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; Mullinix, Mark K.

    This curriculum guide, part of a plant science core curriculum, consists of materials for use in teaching a unit on fruit and vegetable production. Provided in the first part of the guide are a list of objectives, a bibliography, and a competency profile. The remainder of the guide consists of 11 lessons dealing with the following topics: planning…

  11. 76 FR 800 - Ameren Missouri, Combined License Application for Callaway Plant Unit 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The proposed action is needed to allow Ameren to submit...

  12. 76 FR 52356 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 1; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission)...

  13. STEAM PLANT, TRA609. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. STEAM UNITS, OFFICE, MAINTENANCE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEAM PLANT, TRA-609. FIRST FLOOR PLAN. STEAM UNITS, OFFICE, MAINTENANCE AREA, UTILITY ROOM FOR ELECTRIC GEAR, AIR INTAKE AND FILTERING, DIESEL GENERATOR. BLAW-KNOX 3150-809-2, 8/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0609-00-098-100684, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 78 FR 70965 - Ameren Missouri; Combined License Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 2, Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Ameren Missouri; Combined License Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 2, Exemption 1.0 Background Union Electric Company, doing business as Ameren UE, submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) a Combined License (COL)...

  15. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the US (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1998. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions and generating unit changes. This report is prepared annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience. This is a report of electric utility data; in cases where summary data or nonconfidential data of nonutilities are presented, it is specifically noted as nonutility data. 19 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1997. The publication also provides a 10-yr outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  17. Inventory of power plants in the United States as of January 1, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States provides annual statistics on generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). Statistics presented in this report reflect the status of generating units as of January 1, 1996. The publication also provides a 10-year outlook for generating unit additions. This report is prepared annually by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress; Federal and State agencies; the electric utility industry; and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 as amended.

  18. Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Barnett, D.; Flather, C.; Kartesz, J.; Peterjohn, B.

    2005-01-01

    It has been long established that the richness of vascular plant species and many animal taxa decreases with increasing latitude, a pattern that very generally follows declines in actual and potential evapotranspiration, solar radiation, temperature, and thus, total productivity. Using county-level data on vascular plants from the United States (3000 counties in the conterminous 48 states), we used the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate competing models predicting native and nonnative plant species density (number of species per square kilometer in a county) from various combinations of biotic variables (e.g., native bird species density, vegetation carbon, normalized difference vegetation index), environmental/topographic variables (elevation, variation in elevation, the number of land cover classes in the county; radiation, mean precipitation, actual evapotranspiration, and potential evapotranspiration), and human variables (human population density, crop-land, and percentage of disturbed lands in a county). We found no evidence of a latitudinal gradient for the density of native plant species and a significant, slightly positive latitudinal gradient for the density of nonnative plant species. We found stronger evidence of a significant, positive productivity gradient (vegetation carbon) for the density of native plant species and nonnative plant species. We found much stronger significant relationships when biotic, environmental/topographic, and human variables were used to predict native plant species density and nonnative plant species density. Biotic variables generally had far greater influence in multivariate models than human or environmental/topographic variables. Later, we found that the best, single, positive predictor of the density of nonnative plant species in a county was the density of native plant species in a county. While further study is needed, it may be that, while humans facilitate the initial establishment invasions of nonnative

  19. Experience in connecting the power generating units of thermal power plants to automatic secondary frequency regulation within the united power system of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. V.; Komarov, A. N.; Safronov, A. N.; Barsukov, I. V.

    2009-05-15

    The principles of central control of the power generating units of thermal power plants by automatic secondary frequency and active power overcurrent regulation systems, and the algorithms for interactions between automatic power control systems for the power production units in thermal power plants and centralized systems for automatic frequency and power regulation, are discussed. The order of switching the power generating units of thermal power plants over to control by a centralized system for automatic frequency and power regulation and by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation is presented. The results of full-scale system tests of the control of power generating units of the Kirishskaya, Stavropol, and Perm GRES (State Regional Electric Power Plants) by the Central Coordinating System for automatic frequency and power regulation at the United Power System of Russia on September 23-25, 2008, are reported.

  20. Improvements to LQGI/LTR Methodology for Plants with Lightly Damped or Low Frequency Poles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    93 IV X-29 Aircraft Longitudinal MIMO Model Design .......................................... 94 4.1 Plant...nyrads= F reC..: I -4- 16,7 -- - --- Figure 28 Perturbed Complementary Sensitivity Curves of Three Designs 92 3.5 Summary In aircraft longitudinal control...designing LQG/LTR compensators with the stated methods. An A-4 aircraft longitudinal control is used for a SISO model; it has a pair of lightly damped

  1. Native Brazilian plants against nosocomial infections: a critical review on their potential and the antimicrobial methodology.

    PubMed

    H Moreno, Paulo Roberto; da Costa-Issa, Fabiana Inácio; Rajca-Ferreira, Agnieszka K; Pereira, Marcos A A; Kaneko, Telma M

    2013-01-01

    The growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens have increased the attention on several medicinal plants and their metabolites for antimicrobial properties. These pathogens are the main cause of nosocomial infections which led to an increasing mortality among hospitalized patients. Taking into consideration those factors, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the research on antibacterial agents from native Brazilian plant species related to nosocomial infections as well as the current methods used in the investigations of the antimicrobial activity and points out the differences in techniques employed by the authors. The antimicrobial assays most frequently used were broth microdilution, agar diffusion, agar dilution and bioautography. The broth microdilution method should be the method of choice for testing new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts or isolated compounds due to its advantages. At the moment, only a small part of the rich Brazilian flora has been investigated for antimicrobial activity, mostly with unfractionated extracts presenting a weak or moderate antibacterial activity. The combination of crude extract with conventional antibiotics represents a largely unexploited new form of chemotherapy with novel and multiple mechanisms of action that can overcome microbial resistance that needs to be further investigated. The antibacterial activity of essential oil vapours might also be an interesting alternative treatment of hospital environment due to their ability in preventing biofilm formation. However, in both alternatives more studies should be done on their mode of action and toxicological effects in order to optimize their use.

  2. Selection methodology with scoring system: application to Mexican plants producing podophyllotoxin related lignans.

    PubMed

    Lautié, E; Quintero, R; Fliniaux, M-A; Villarreal, M-L

    2008-12-08

    As most anticancer drugs are derived from natural sources, the screening of local medicinal flora should be considered a primary step in the search for new sources for antineoplastic agents. In Mexico, more than 6000 medicinal plant species are used for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. A multifactorial plant selection method, employing various criteria was designed and applied in order to select alternative sources of podophyllotoxin lignan analogues. For each criterion (chemotaxonomy, traditional medical uses and published scientific data), an arbitrary score system was ascribed to the species and the sum of these enabled us to compare potential candidates. The resulting selected plants were tested for cytotoxic activity and the compounds responsible for this activity were evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Around 50 species from the Mexican flora were initially considered. From these, six species were selected by referring to the results from the scoring system and these were then collected. Three extracts were evaluated as being highly cytotoxic against three different cancer cell lines. Finally, podophyllotoxin-like lignans could be identified by observing the fragmentation pattern on mass spectra, obtained from the LC-MS in two species: Linum scabrellum and Hyptis suaveolens.

  3. Methodological approach in determination of small spatial units in a highly complex terrain in atmospheric pollution research: the case of Zasavje region in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Boznar, Marija Z; Mlakar, Primoz; Grasic, Bostjan; Herakovic, Andrej; Zadnik, Vesna; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The study of atmospheric air pollution research in complex terrains is challenged by the lack of appropriate methodology supporting the analysis of the spatial relationship between phenomena affected by a multitude of factors. The key is optimal design of a meaningful approach based on small spatial units of observation. The Zasavje region, Slovenia, was chosen as study area with the main objective to investigate in practice the role of such units in a test environment. The process consisted of three steps: modelling of pollution in the atmosphere with dispersion models, transfer of the results to geographical information system software, and then moving on to final determination of the function of small spatial units. A methodology capable of designing useful units for atmospheric air pollution research in highly complex terrains was created, and the results were deemed useful in offering starting points for further research in the field of geospatial health.

  4. ESP v1.0: Methodology for Exploring Emission Impacts of Future Scenarios in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a methodology for creating anthropogenic emission inventories that can be used to simulate future regional air quality. The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) methodology focuses on energy production and use, the principal sources of many air pollutants. Emi...

  5. Application of Microprocessor-Based Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Technical Basis for a Qualification Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.

    2001-08-24

    This document (1) summarizes the most significant findings of the ''Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Systems'' program initiated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); (2) documents a comparative analysis of U.S. and European qualification standards; and (3) provides recommendations for enhancing regulatory guidance for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related systems. Safety-related I&C system upgrades of present-day nuclear power plants, as well as I&C systems of Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs), are expected to make increasing use of microprocessor-based technology. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recognized that the use of such technology may pose environmental qualification challenges different from current, analog-based I&C systems. Hence, it initiated the ''Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems'' program. The objectives of this confirmatory research project are to (1) identify any unique environmental-stress-related failure modes posed by digital technologies and their potential impact on the safety systems and (2) develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance using these findings. Previous findings from this study have been documented in several technical reports. This final report in the series documents a comparative analysis of two environmental qualification standards--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Std 323-1983 and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60780 (1998)--and provides recommendations for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based systems based on this analysis as well as on the findings documented in the previous reports. The two standards were chosen for this analysis because IEEE 323 is the standard used in the U.S. for the qualification of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants, and IEC 60780 is its European counterpart. In addition, the IEC document was published in 1998, and should

  6. Methodology for Risk-informed O&M decision making in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-06

    •Incorporation of real-time component information using equipment condition assessment (ECA) through the developmentof enhanced risk monitors (ERM) for active components in advanced reactor (AR) and advanced small modular reactor (SMR) designs •We incorporate time-dependent failure probabilities from prognostic health management (PHM) systems to dynamically update the risk metric of interest •This information is used to augment data used for supervisory control and plant-wide coordination of multiple modules by providing the incremental risk incurred due to aging and demands placed on components that support mission requirements.

  7. Rapid assessment of postfire plant invasions in coniferous forests of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, J.P.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Hunter, M.E.; Omi, Philip N.; Martinson, E.J.; Chong, G.W.; Brown, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Fire is a natural part of most forest ecosystems in the western United States, but its effects on nonnative plant invasion have only recently been studied. Also, forest managers are engaging in fuel reduction projects to lessen fire severity, often without considering potential negative ecological consequences such as nonnative plant species introductions. Increased availability of light, nutrients, and bare ground have all been associated with high-severity fires and fuel treatments and are known to aid in the establishment of nonnative plant species. We use vegetation and environmental data collected after wildfires at seven sites in coniferous forests in the western United States to study responses of nonnative plants to wildfire. We compared burned vs. unburned plots and plots treated with mechanical thinning and/or prescribed burning vs. untreated plots for nonnative plant species richness and cover and used correlation analyses to infer the effect of abiotic site conditions on invasibility. Wildfire was responsible for significant increases in nonnative species richness and cover, and a significant decrease in native cover. Mechanical thinning and prescribed fire fuel treatments were associated with significant changes in plant species composition at some sites. Treatment effects across sites were minimal and inconclusive due to significant site and site x treatment interaction effects caused by variation between sites including differences in treatment and fire severities and initial conditions (e.g., nonnative species sources). We used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) to determine what combinations of environmental variables best explained patterns of nonnative plant species richness and cover. Variables related to fire severity, soil nutrients, and elevation explained most of the variation in species composition. Nonnative species were generally associated with sites with higher fire severity, elevation, percentage of bare ground, and lower soil

  8. 78 FR 14842 - Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3; Application for Renewal of License to Facility... operate the Crystal River Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 3 (CR3), at 2609 megawatts thermal. The FPC... located near Crystal River, FL; the current operating license for the CR3 expires on December 3, 2016....

  9. 77 FR 11173 - Renewal of Facility Operating License No. NPF-30, Union Electric Company, Callaway Plant, Unit 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... COMMISSION Renewal of Facility Operating License No. NPF-30, Union Electric Company, Callaway Plant, Unit 1... Electric Company to operate the Callaway Plant, Unit 1 (Callaway), at 3565 megawatts thermal. The renewed... specified in the current license. Callaway is located in Callaway County, Missouri and its current...

  10. 78 FR 47011 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants..., ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants.'' This... software elements if those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing...

  11. 75 FR 16201 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, which authorize operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and...

  12. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 60.5405 - What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... units at onshore natural gas processing plants? 60.5405 Section 60.5405 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission and Distribution § 60.5405 What standards apply to sweetening units at onshore natural gas processing plants? (a)...

  14. Online Intelligent Controllers for an Enzyme Recovery Plant: Design Methodology and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Leite, M. S.; Fujiki, T. L.; Silva, F. V.; Fileti, A. M. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of intelligent controllers for use in a process of enzyme recovery from pineapple rind. The proteolytic enzyme bromelain (EC 3.4.22.4) is precipitated with alcohol at low temperature in a fed-batch jacketed tank. Temperature control is crucial to avoid irreversible protein denaturation. Fuzzy or neural controllers offer a way of implementing solutions that cover dynamic and nonlinear processes. The design methodology and a comparative study on the performance of fuzzy-PI, neurofuzzy, and neural network intelligent controllers are presented. To tune the fuzzy PI Mamdani controller, various universes of discourse, rule bases, and membership function support sets were tested. A neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS), based on Takagi-Sugeno rules, and a model predictive controller, based on neural modeling, were developed and tested as well. Using a Fieldbus network architecture, a coolant variable speed pump was driven by the controllers. The experimental results show the effectiveness of fuzzy controllers in comparison to the neural predictive control. The fuzzy PI controller exhibited a reduced error parameter (ITAE), lower power consumption, and better recovery of enzyme activity. PMID:21234106

  15. Instrument failure detection and estimation methodology for the nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, D.Y.; No, H.C. )

    1990-02-01

    To detect instrument failures in the nuclear power plant, a failure detection and isolation (FDI) method based on the Kalman filter is developed. As soon as the residual (difference between an estimated value and its measurement) exceeds the predetermined bound, the Kalman filter indicates the possibility of failures. Various simulations were performed to verify and validate the FDI logic in detecting steam generator pressurizer instrument failures. It is proved that the FDI technique can detect not only a single failure but also simultaneous common-mode and sequential multiple failures of several direct redundancies. Also it can correctly estimate the physical states in real time and the remaining time may be used for control with signal validation.

  16. Plant poisonings from herbal medication admitted to a Tunisian toxicologic intensive care unit, 1983-1998.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, C; Amamou, M; Thabet, H; Yacoub, M; Hedhili, A; Bescharnia, F; Ben Salah, N; Zhioua, M; Abdelmoumen, S; El Mekki Ben Brahim, N

    2000-06-01

    To collect data on Tunisian herbal toxicity we analysed 56 medical records of patients admitted to the toxicological intensive care unit from 1983 to 1998 following the ingestion of plants. The sex ratio of patients was 1:2, the mean age of patients was 26y (2 to 75y) and II species of plants were involved with Atractylis gummifera (32%), Datura stramonium (25%), Ricinus communis (9%), Nerium oleander (7%) and Peganum harmala (7%) most commonly infested. Poisonings involved neurological (91%), gastrointestinal (73%) and cardiovascular systems (18%). Treatment was mainly symptomatic. The only lethal cases of liver failure involved 16 Atractylis gummifera poisonings.

  17. Alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie: effects of vegetation type, stochiasticity, and anthropogenic disturbance in two park units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Newton, Wesley E.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of alien plant species to invade a region depends not only on attributes of the plant, but on characteristics of the habitat being invaded. Here, we examine characteristics that may influence the success of alien plant invasion in mixed-grass prairie at Theodore Roosevelt National Park, in western North Dakota, USA. The park consists of two geographically separate units with similar vegetation types and management history, which allowed us to examine the effects of native vegetation type, anthropogenic disturbance, and the separate park units on the invasion of native plant communities by alien plant species common to counties surrounding both park units. If matters of chance related to availability of propagules and transient establishment opportunities determine the success of invasion, park unit and anthropogenic disturbance should better explain the variation in alien plant frequency. If invasibility is more strongly related to biotic or physical characteristics of the native plant communities, models of alien plant occurrence should include vegetation type as an explanatory variable. We examined >1300 transects across all vegetation types in both units of the park. Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) indicated that the fully parameterized model, including the interaction among vegetation type, disturbance, and park unit, best described the distribution of both total number of alien plants per transect and frequency of alien plants on transects where they occurred. Although all vegetation types were invaded by alien plants, mesic communities had both greater numbers and higher frequencies of alien plants than did drier communities. A strong element of stochasticity, reflected in differences in frequencies of individual species between the two park units, suggests that prediction of risk of invasion will always involve uncertainty. In addition, despite well-documented associations between anthropogenic disturbance and alien plant invasion, five of

  18. Wyoming's shute creek plant uses NRU unit to separate methane, nitrogen, and helium

    SciTech Connect

    Pruitt, C.A. ); O'Brien, J.V. )

    1989-10-09

    Operation of Exxon Co. U.S.A.'s LaBarge (Wyoming) gas-processing plant's nitrogen-rejection unit has met or exceeded major design criteria. The plant facility at LaBarge processes a feed gas which contains more than 70% acid gas. This must be removed prior to any cryogenic processing. The processing sequence is shown. After the acid-gas removal step, the gas is polished in a molecular-sieve bed system to remove final traces of water vapor and acid gas. The treated gas is then fed to the cryogenic nitrogen-rejection unit (NRU). There are two parallel trains of acid-gas removal, dehydration, and nitrogen rejection. The NRU is designed to separate this treated gas into three streams.

  19. A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G.; Moreira, M.T.

    2012-11-15

    The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

  20. New approach for data evaluation of industrial wastewater treatment plant: methodology and case study for a coke and steel-processing plant.

    PubMed

    Drakides, Christian; Lay-Son, Meiling

    2009-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTP) treating industrial effluents produces large amount of data. Frequent sampling is done in the influent and effluent but also in intermediate points. Samples are analyzed for classical and specific contaminants and physical-chemical parameters are monitored. In this paper data from a BWWTP treating the effluents of a coke and steel-processing factory are analyzed. Due to a complex situation, this BWWTP gave poor performances that did not match environmental regulations, meanwhile upgrading proved to be uneasy. Data analysis using principal component analyses (PCA) or kinetic modeling with a Haldane model was unsuccessful in handling these data, which was attributed to undetermined toxic effects. A new methodology is reported, that allowed to identify a kinetics for thiocyanate degradation and a relation between pH and toxic effects. This analysis of the plant data allowed to make hypothesis on the process control parameters and to recommend management modifications, allowing a further increase of the performances.

  1. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  2. Upgrade of Control and Protection System of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Ronald E.; Fletcher, Norman; Sidnev, Victor E.; Bickel, John H.; Vianello, Aldo; Pearsall, Raymond D

    2003-08-15

    The Ignalina nuclear power plant (NPP) Units 1 and 2 are Soviet-designed, RBMK (Reaktor Bolshoi Moschnosti Kipyashchiy), channelized, large power-type reactors. The original-design electrical capacity for each unit was 1500 MW. Unit 1 began operating in 1983, and Unit 2 was started up in 1987. In 1994, the government of Lithuania agreed to accept grant support for the Ignalina NPP Safety Improvement Program with funding supplied by the Nuclear Safety Account of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). As conditions for receiving this funding, the Ignalina NPP agreed to prepare a comprehensive safety analysis report that would undergo independent peer review after it was issued. The EBRD Safety Panel oversaw preparation and review of the report. In 1996, the safety analysis report for Unit 1 was completed and delivered to the EBRD. Part of the analyses covered anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). The analysis showed that some ATWS scenarios could lead to unacceptable consequences in <1 min. The EBRD Safety Panel recommended to the government of Lithuania that the Ignalina NPP develop and implement a program of compensatory measures for the control and protection system before the unit would be allowed to return to operation following its 1998 maintenance outage. A compensatory control and protection system that would mitigate the unacceptable consequences was designed, procured, manufactured, tested, and installed. The project was funded by U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  4. Appropriate Methodology in ELT. A Report on the Dunford House Seminar (England, United Kingdom, July 14-24, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Richard, Ed.; Deyes, Tony, Ed.

    Proceedings of a seminar on instructional methodology in training programs for English-as-a-Second-Language teachers are presented in the form of papers, presentations, case study reports, and summary narrative. They include: "Debate on Appropriate Methodology" (Roger Bowers, Henry Widdowson); "Report Back on 1985 Case Study"…

  5. Analytical methodology for sampling and analysing eight siloxanes and trimethylsilanol in biogas from different wastewater treatment plants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Raich-Montiu, J; Ribas-Font, C; de Arespacochaga, N; Roig-Torres, E; Broto-Puig, F; Crest, M; Bouchy, L; Cortina, J L

    2014-02-17

    Siloxanes and trimethylsilanol belong to a family of organic silicone compounds that are currently used extensively in industry. Those that are prone to volatilisation become minor compounds in biogas adversely affecting energetic applications. However, non-standard analytical methodologies are available to analyse biogas-based gaseous matrixes. To this end, different sampling techniques (adsorbent tubes, impingers and tedlar bags) were compared using two different configurations: sampling directly from the biogas source or from a 200 L tedlar bag filled with biogas and homogenised. No significant differences were apparent between the two sampling configurations. The adsorbent tubes performed better than the tedlar bags and impingers, particularly for quantifying low concentrations. A method for the speciation of silicon compounds in biogas was developed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry working in dual scan/single ion monitoring mode. The optimised conditions could separate and quantify eight siloxane compounds (L2, L3, L4, L5, D3, D4, D5 and D6) and trimethylsilanol within fourteen minutes. Biogas from five waste water treatment plants located in Spain, France and England was sampled and analysed using the developed methodology. The siloxane concentrations in the biogas samples were influenced by the anaerobic digestion temperature, as well as the nature and composition of the sewage inlet. Siloxanes D4 and D5 were the most abundant, ranging in concentration from 1.5 to 10.1 and 10.8 to 124.0 mg Nm(-3), respectively, and exceeding the tolerance limit of most energy conversion systems.

  6. Simultaneous recovery of vanadium and nickel from power plant fly-ash: Optimization of parameters using response surface methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Nazari, E.; Rashchi, F. Saba, M.; Mirazimi, S.M.J.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Leaching of vanadium and nickel from fly ash (14.43% V and 5.19% Ni) in sulfuric acid was performed. • Optimization of leaching parameters was carried out using a response surface methodology. • Using optimum conditions, 94.28% V and 81.01% Ni “actual recovery” was obtained. - Abstract: Simultaneous recovery of vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni), which are classified as two of the most hazardous metal species from power plant heavy fuel fly-ash, was studied using a hydrometallurgical process consisting of acid leaching using sulfuric acid. Leaching parameters were investigated and optimized in order to maximize the recovery of both vanadium and nickel. The independent leaching parameters investigated were liquid to solid ratio (S/L) (5–12.5 wt.%), temperature (45–80 °C), sulfuric acid concentration (5–25 v/v%) and leaching time (1–5 h). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters. The most effective parameter on the recovery of both elements was found to be temperature and the least effective was time for V and acid concentration for Ni. Based on the results, optimum condition for metals recovery (actual recovery of ca.94% for V and 81% for Ni) was determined to be solid to liquid ratio of 9.15 wt.%, temperature of 80 °C, sulfuric acid concentration of 19.47 v/v% and leaching time of 2 h. The maximum V and Ni predicted recovery of 91.34% and 80.26% was achieved.

  7. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  8. Assessing and Managing Methylmercury Risks Associated With Power Plant Mercury Emissions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or “hot spots.” The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little

  9. Exploring Methodologies for Researching Indigenous Knowledge of Plant Healing for Integration into Classroom Science: Insights Related to the Data Collection Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mpofu, Vongai; Mushayikwa, Emmanuel; Otulaja, Femi S.

    2014-01-01

    This article forms part of a major study being conducted in Zimbabwe to explore the possibilities of integrating indigenous knowledge of plant healing (Ikoph) into western-oriented classroom science. The article reports on an aspect of research methodology. This study explored appropriate strategies for gaining access to indigenous knowledge…

  10. Single ribosomal transcription units are linear, compacted Christmas trees in plant nucleoli.

    PubMed

    González-Melendi, P; Wells, B; Beven, A F; Shaw, P J

    2001-08-01

    The rDNA transcription units are enormous macromolecular structures located in the nucleolus and containing 50-100 RNA polymerases together with the nascent pre-rRNA attached to the rDNA. It has not previously been possible to visualize nucleolar transcription units directly in intact nucleoli, although highly spread preparations in the electron microscope have been imaged as "Christmas trees" 2-3 microm long. Here we determine the relative conformation of individual transcription units in Pisum sativum plant nucleoli using a novel labelling technique. Nascent transcripts were detected by a highly sensitive silver-enhanced 1 nm gold procedure, followed by 3D electron microscopy of entire nucleoli. Individual transcription units are seen as conical, elongated clusters approximately 300 nm in length and 130 nm in width at the thickest end. We further show that there were approximately 300 active ribosomal genes in the nucleoli examined. The underlying chromatin structure of the transcribing rDNA was directly visualized by applying a novel limited extraction procedure to fixed specimens in order to wash out the proteins and RNA, thus specifically revealing DNA strands after uranyl acetate staining. Using this technique, followed by post-embedding in situ hybridization, we observed that the nucleolar rDNA fibres are not extended but show a coiled, thread-like appearance. Our results show for the first time that native rDNA transcription units are linear, compacted Christmas trees.

  11. Automated chemical monitoring in new projects of nuclear power plant units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanok, O. I.; Fedoseev, M. V.

    2013-07-01

    The development of automated chemical monitoring systems in nuclear power plant units for the past 30 years is briefly described. The modern level of facilities used to support the operation of automated chemical monitoring systems in Russia and abroad is shown. Hardware solutions suggested by the All-Russia Institute for Nuclear Power Plant Operation (which is the General Designer of automated process control systems for power units used in the AES-2006 and VVER-TOI Projects) are presented, including the structure of additional equipment for monitoring water chemistry (taking the Novovoronezh 2 nuclear power plant as an example). It is shown that the solutions proposed with respect to receiving and processing of input measurement signals and subsequent construction of standard control loops are unified in nature. Simultaneous receipt of information from different sources for ensuring that water chemistry is monitored in sufficient scope and with required promptness is one of the problems that have been solved successfully. It is pointed out that improved quality of automated chemical monitoring can be supported by organizing full engineering follow-up of the automated chemical monitoring system's equipment throughout its entire service life.

  12. Multiscale sampling of plant diversity: Effects of minimum mapping unit size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    Only a small portion of any landscape can be sampled for vascular plant diversity because of constraints of cost (salaries, travel time between sites, etc.). Often, the investigator decides to reduce the cost of creating a vegetation map by increasing the minimum mapping unit (MMU), and/or by reducing the number of vegetation classes to be considered. Questions arise about what information is sacrificed when map resolution is decreased. We compared plant diversity patterns from vegetation maps made with 100-ha, 50-ha, 2-ha, and 0.02-ha MMUs in a 754-ha study area in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, United States, using four 0.025-ha and 21 0.1-ha multiscale vegetation plots. We developed and tested species-log(area) curves, correcting the curves for within-vegetation type heterogeneity with Jaccard's coefficients. Total species richness in the study area was estimated from vegetation maps at each resolution (MMU), based on the corrected species-area curves, total area of the vegetation type, and species overlap among vegetation types. With the 0.02-ha MMU, six vegetation types were recovered, resulting in an estimated 552 species (95% CI = 520-583 species) in the 754-ha study area (330 plant species were observed in the 25 plots). With the 2-ha MMU, five vegetation types were recognized, resulting in an estimated 473 species for the study area. With the 50-ha MMU, 439 plant species were estimated for the four vegetation types recognized in the study area. With the 100-ha MMU, only three vegetation types were recognized, resulting in an estimated 341 plant species for the study area. Locally rare species and keystone ecosystems (areas of high or unique plant diversity) were missed at the 2-ha, 50-ha, and 100-ha scales. To evaluate the effects of minimum mapping unit size requires: (1) an initial stratification of homogeneous, heterogeneous, and rare habitat types; and (2) an evaluation of within-type and between-type heterogeneity generated by environmental

  13. Simultaneous recovery of vanadium and nickel from power plant fly-ash: optimization of parameters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Nazari, E; Rashchi, F; Saba, M; Mirazimi, S M J

    2014-12-01

    Simultaneous recovery of vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni), which are classified as two of the most hazardous metal species from power plant heavy fuel fly-ash, was studied using a hydrometallurgical process consisting of acid leaching using sulfuric acid. Leaching parameters were investigated and optimized in order to maximize the recovery of both vanadium and nickel. The independent leaching parameters investigated were liquid to solid ratio (S/L) (5-12.5 wt.%), temperature (45-80 °C), sulfuric acid concentration (5-25 v/v%) and leaching time (1-5h). Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters. The most effective parameter on the recovery of both elements was found to be temperature and the least effective was time for V and acid concentration for Ni. Based on the results, optimum condition for metals recovery (actual recovery of ca.94% for V and 81% for Ni) was determined to be solid to liquid ratio of 9.15 wt.%, temperature of 80 °C, sulfuric acid concentration of 19.47 v/v% and leaching time of 2h. The maximum V and Ni predicted recovery of 91.34% and 80.26% was achieved.

  14. 300-FF-1 Operable Unit physical separation of soils pilot plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-01-15

    Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) was selected in a competitive selection process to conduct a pilot study for the physical separation of soils in the North Process Pond of the 300 Area at the Hanford Site. In January 1994, ART mobilized its 15 tons-per-hour pilot plant to the site. The plant was initially staged in a commercial area to allow for pretest inspections and minor modifications. The plant was specifically designed for use as a physical separations unit and consisted of a feed hopper, wet screens, hydrocyclones, as well as settling and dewatering equipment. The plant was supported in the field with prescreening equipment, mobile generators, air compressors, and water storage tanks. The plant was moved into the surface contamination area on March 24, 1994. The testing was conducted during the period March 23, 1994 through April 13, 1994. Two soil types were treated during the testing: a natural soil contaminated with low levels of uranium, cesium, cobalt, and heavy metals, and a natural soil contaminated with a uranium carbonate material that was visually recognizable by the presence of a green sludge material in the soil matrix. The ``green`` material contained significantly higher levels of the same contaminants. Both source materials were treated by the plant in a manner that fed the material, produced clean gravel and sand fractions, and concentrated the contaminants in a sludge cake. Process water was recycled during the operations. The testing was extremely successful in that for both source waste streams, it was demonstrated that volume reductions of greater than 90% could be achieved while also meeting the test performance criteria. The volume reduction for the natural soils averaged a 93.8%, while the ``green`` soils showed a 91.4% volume reduction.

  15. Energy Optimization Modeling of Geothermal Power Plant (Case Study: Darajat Geothermal Field Unit III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Darmanto, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Darajat unit III geothermal power plant is developed by PT. Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (CGI). The plant capacity is 121 MW and load 110%. The greatest utilization power is consumed by Hot Well Pump (HWP) and Cooling Tower Fan (CTF). Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modelling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430.The possibility of energy saving is indicated by Specific Steam Consumption (SSC) net in relation to wet bulb temperature fluctuation from 9°C up to 20.5°C. Result shows that the existing daily operation reaches its optimum condition. The installation of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) could be applied to optimize both utility power of HWP and CTF. The highest gain is obtained by VFD HWP installation as much as 0.80% when wet bulb temperature 18.5 °C.

  16. Probabilistic Safety Study Applications Program for inspection of the Indian Point Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.H.; Fullwood, R.; Fresco, A.

    1986-03-01

    By prioritizing the various areas of interest for inspection and by better defining inspection needs, the NRC expects to make more effective use of finite inspection resources by concentrating on those potential areas most significant to safety. Through review and application of the Indian Point Unit 3 Probabilistic Safety Study's numerical data and event tree modeling, and by utilizing related documents, a technical basis for prioritizing areas for NRC inspection has been developed. This was then tested at the plant site for the NRC Operating Reactor Inspection Program, I and E Manual Chapter 2515. Inspection activities addressed include normal operations, system and component testing, maintenance and surveillance. A computer program entitled NSPKTR, which was developed specifically for this program, modeled the internal plant states to the system level and performed the risk and importance calculations. 17 refs., 21 tabs.

  17. Summary of inspection findings of licensee inservice testing programs at United States commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, A.; Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    Periodic inspections of pump and valve inservice testing (IST) programs in United States commercial nuclear power plants are performed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regional Inspectors to verify licensee regulatory compliance and licensee commitments. IST inspections are conducted using NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pumps and Valves{close_quotes} (IP 73756), which was updated on July 27, 1995. A large number of IST inspections have also been conducted using Temporary Instruction 2515/114, {open_quotes}Inspection Requirements for Generic Letter 89-04, Acceptable Inservice Testing Programs{close_quotes} (TI-2515/114), which was issued January 15, 1992. A majority of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants have had an IST inspection to either IP 73756 or TI 2515/114. This paper is intended to summarize the significant and recurring findings from a number of these inspections since January of 1990.

  18. Vascular plant and vertebrate species richness in national parks of the eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, Jeffrey S.; Myrick, Kaci E.; Huston, Michael A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Green, M. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Given the estimates that species diversity is diminishing at 50-100 times the normal rate, it is critical that we be able to evaluate changes in species richness in order to make informed decisions for conserving species diversity. In this study, we examined the potential of vascular plant species richness to be used as a surrogate for vertebrate species richness in the classes of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Vascular plants, as primary producers, represent the biotic starting point for ecological community structure and are the logical place to start for understanding vertebrate species associations. We used data collected by the United States (US) National Park Service (NPS) on species presence within parks in the eastern US to estimate simple linear regressions between plant species richness and vertebrate richness. Because environmental factors may also influence species diversity, we performed simple linear regressions of species richness versus natural logarithm of park area, park latitude, mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, and human population density surrounding the parks. We then combined plant species richness and environmental variables in multiple regressions to determine the variables that remained as significant predictors of vertebrate species richness. As expected, we detected significant relationships between plant species richness and amphibian, bird, and mammal species richness. In some cases, plant species richness was predicted by park area alone. Species richness of mammals was only related to plant species richness. Reptile species richness, on the other hand, was related to plant species richness, park latitude and annual precipitation, while amphibian species richness was related to park latitude, park area, and plant species richness. Thus, plant species richness predicted species richness of different vertebrate groups to varying degrees and should not be used exclusively as a surrogate for vertebrate

  19. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  20. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, M; Ghasemi, M; Amrollahi, R; Khamooshi, C; Parsouzi, Z

    2013-05-01

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  1. Effects from early planting of late-maturing sunflowers on damage from primary insect pests in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delayed planting is recommended to reduce damage from sunflower insect pests in the United States, including the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) and banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham. However, in some locations, planting earlier or growing later-maturing hybrids could i...

  2. 75 FR 80545 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental..., ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License No. DPR-23, issued to Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), for operation of the H. B. Robinson Steam Electric...

  3. 77 FR 50722 - Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants... regulatory guide (DG), DG-1208, ``Software Unit Testing for Digital Computer Software used in Safety Systems... revision endorses, with clarifications, the enhanced consensus practices for testing of computer...

  4. 78 FR 34639 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restart of Healy Power Plant Unit #2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... human environment from DOE's proposal to partially fund construction of Unit 2 of the Healy Power Plant... DOE and the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA). Healy Unit 1 is a 25 megawatt... environment, regulatory requirements, and environmental consequences related to the commercial operation...

  5. 40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Is my small municipal waste combustion... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15035 Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant capacity?...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15035 - Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is my small municipal waste combustion... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Applicability of This Subpart § 62.15035 Is my small municipal waste combustion unit subject to different requirements based on plant capacity?...

  7. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  8. Analysis of thermodynamics of two-fuel power unit integrated with a carbon dioxide separation plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Mikosz, Dorota

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of thermodynamic analysis of the supercritical coal-fired power plant with gross electrical output of 900 MW and a pulverized coal boiler. This unit is integrated with the absorption-based CO2 separation installation. The heat required for carrying out the desorption process, is supplied by the system with the gas turbine. Analyses were performed for two variants of the system. In the first case, in addition to the gas turbine there is an evaporator powered by exhaust gases from the gas turbine expander. The second expanded variant assumes the application of gas turbine combined cycle with heat recovery steam generator and backpressure steam turbine. The way of determining the efficiency of electricity generation and other defined indicators to assess the energy performance of the test block was showed. The size of the gas turbine system was chosen because of the need for heat for the desorption unit, taking the value of the heat demand 4 MJ/kg CO2. The analysis results obtained for the both variants of the installation with integrated CO2 separation plant were compared with the results of the analysis of the block where the separation is not conducted.

  9. Unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at nuclear power plants. [R

    SciTech Connect

    Godbee, H.W.; Kibbey, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Estimates are given of the annual amounts of each generic type of LLW (i.e., Government and commerical (fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle)) that is generated at LWR plants. Many different chemical engineering unit operations used to treat process and/or waste streams at LWR plants include adsorption, evaporation, calcination, centrifugation, compaction, crystallization, drying, filtration, incineration, reverse osmosis, and solidification of waste residues. The treatment of these various streams and the secondary wet solid wastes thus generated is described. The various treatment options for concentrates or solid wet wastes, and for dry wastes are discussed. Among the dry waste treatment methods are compaction, baling, and incineration, as well as chopping, cutting and shredding. Organic materials (liquids (e.g., oils or solvents) and/or solids), could be incinerated in most cases. The filter sludges, spent resins, and concentrated liquids (e.g., evaporator concentrates) are usually solidified in cement, or urea-formaldehyde or unsaturated polyester resins prior to burial. Incinerator ashes can also be incorporated in these binding agents. Asphalt has not yet been used. This paper presents a brief survey of operational experience at LWRs with various unit operations, including a short discussion of problems and some observations on recent trends.

  10. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…

  11. Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition, and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, Methodology to Estimate the Quantity, Composition and Management of Construction and Demolition Debris in the US, was developed to expand access to data on CDD in the US and to support research on CDD and sustainable materials management. Since past US EPA CDD estima...

  12. FluMo - A mobile fluid-chemical monitoring unit for geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsch, H.; Regenspurg, S.; Giese, R.; Poser, M.; Kranz, S.

    2012-04-01

    A versatile fluid-chemical monitoring unit has been developed in the framework of the geothermal research laboratory Groß Schönebeck, Germany. It enables online and in-situ measurements of a variety of physico-chemical parameters at different locations of a geothermal fluid loop above ground. The scientific and technical purpose of the system is to monitor (a) a compositional variability of the produced fluid and (b) chemical processes potentially occurring within the plant. The latter may result from reactions between fluid and surrounding materials and/or mineral precipitation, e.g. in the course of a temperature decrease or oxygen contamination. This information is of paramount importance as so induced reactions might lead to failure of plant components through corrosion and scaling and/or damage the reservoir upon fluid reinjection and thus decrease injectivity. Within the fluid loop above ground a number of locations can be defined where fluid-chemical monitoring is of interest, e.g. after the degasser, the filters and the heat exchanger. The monitoring unit is set up close to these installations and permits selective fluid bypass and monitoring through solenoid valves. The fluid passes through tubings from one device or sensor to another until it is pumped back into the main fluid line right before the injection pump. Sensors are provided for pressure, temperature, volumetric flow-rate, density, pH-value, redox potential and oxygen content. Two flow through-cells are installed each containing a pair of pH and redox sensors with different temperature ratings. A small heat exchanger is placed between these two flow-through cells to both cope with individual sensor specifications as well as for online investigations concerning temperature effects on both parameters and fluid chemistry. Additionally, two fluid samplers - one before and one after the mentioned heat-exchanger - have been installed to collect fluid and analyze the solution composition. All devices

  13. A new methodology for the discrimination of plant species and their varieties using hyperspectral data: application on vetch and lentil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykas, Dimitris; Karathanassi, Vassilia; Fountas, Spyros

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the discrimination of plant species and their varieties using hyperspectral data. The concept lies on the combination of spectral pre-processing algorithms (SPPA) that enhance spectral discrimination between species and their varieties. SPPA use as input a single spectral signature and transform it according to the SPPA function. A k-step combination of SPPA uses k pre-processing algorithms serially. Initially each spectral signature is used as input to the first SPPA. The result of this SPPA is used as input to the second SPPA, and so on until the desired pre-processed signatures are reached. These signatures are then discriminated by applying spectral matching algorithms. The performance of the combination is evaluated based on the number of correctly matched signatures. In this work a k-step combination of SPPA has been set up, with k ranging from 1 to 3. The following SPPA have been investigated: vector normalization, Fourier transformation, Logarithm transformation, Kubelka-Munck transformation, derivatives, continuum removal, band depth, value normalization, n order square root transformation, and smoothing. There is a very large number of possible combinations of the aforementioned SPPAs, thus a Simple Genetic Algorithm has been used for finding optimum combinations. The input hyperspectral data were the spectral signatures of 9 varieties of vetches and 9 varieties of lentils, measured by the GER1500 spectroradiometer. For all the samples, the spectral signatures were measured at two slightly different times in the growing season. The results showed that several combinations exist which can successfully discriminate and label the spectral signatures in terms of variety, and they are independent from the time of the spectral signature measurement.

  14. Plant Growth and Development in the ASTROCULTURE(trademark) Space-Based Growth Unit-Ground Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    The ASTROCULTURE(trademark) plant growth unit flown as part on the STS-63 mission in February 1995, represented the first time plants were flown in microgravity in a enclosed controlled environment plant growth facility. In addition to control of the major environmental parameters, nutrients were provided to the plants with the ZEOPONICS system developed by NASA Johnson Space Center scientists. Two plant species were included in this space experiment, dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a unique mustard called "Wisconsin Fast Plants" (Brassica rapa). Extensive post-flight analyses have been performed on the plant material and it has been concluded that plant growth and development was normal during the period the plants were in the microgravity environment of space. However, adequate plant growth and development control data were not available for direct comparisons of plant responses to the microgravity environment with those of plants grown at 1 g. Such data would allow for a more complete interpretation of the extent that microgravity affects plant growth and development.

  15. Scenarios for multi-unit inertial fusion energy plants producing hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    1993-12-01

    This work describes: (a) the motivation for considering fusion in general, and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) in particular, to produce hydrogen fuel powering low-emission vehicles; (b) the general requirements for any fusion electric plant to produce hydrogen by water electrolysis at costs competitive with present consumer gasoline fuel costs per passenger mile, for advanced car architectures meeting President Clinton`s 80 mpg advanced car goal, and (c) a comparative economic analysis for the potential cost of electricity (CoE) and corresponding cost of hydrogen (CoH) from a variety of multi-unit IFE plants with one to eight target chambers sharing a common driver and target fab facility. Cases with either heavy-ion or diode-pumped, solid-state laser drivers are considered, with ``conventional`` indirect drive target gains versus ``advanced, e.g. Fast Ignitor`` direct drive gain assumptions, and with conventional steam balance-of-plant (BoP) versus advanced MHD plus steam combined cycle BoP, to contrast the potential economics under ``conventional`` and ``advanced`` IFE assumptions, respectively.

  16. Radioactive fallout in the United States due to the Fukushima nuclear plant accident.

    PubMed

    Thakur, P; Ballard, S; Nelson, R

    2012-05-01

    The release of radioactivity into the atmosphere from the damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant started on March 12th, 2011. Among the various radionuclides released, iodine -131 ((131)I) and cesium isotopes ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) were transported across the Pacific Ocean and reached the United States on 17-18 March 2011. Consequently, an elevated level of fission products (131)I, (132)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in air, water, and milk samples collected across the United States between March 17 and April 4, 2011. The continuous monitoring of activities over a period of 25 days and spatial variations across more than 100 sampling locations in the United States made it possible to characterize the contaminated air masses. For the entire period, the highest detected activity values ranged from less than 1 m Bq m(-3) to 31 m Bq m(-3) for the particulate (131)I, and up to 96 m Bq m(-3) for the gaseous (131)I fraction.

  17. Using Lean Six Sigma Methodology to Improve a Mass Immunizations Process at the United States Naval Academy.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chrysanthy; McCoy, Donald A; Taylor, Christopher B; Kirk, Kayla D; Fry, Robert S; Modi, Jitendrakumar R

    2016-06-01

    Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology developed in the manufacturing industry to increase process efficiency while maintaining product quality. The efficacy of LSS application to the health care setting has not been adequately studied. This article presents a quality improvement project at the U.S. Naval Academy that uses LSS to improve the mass immunizations process for Midshipmen during in-processing. The process was standardized to give all vaccinations at one station instead of giving a different vaccination at each station. After project implementation, the average immunizations lead time decreased by 79% and staffing decreased by 10%. The process was shown to be in control with a capability index of 1.18 and performance index of 1.10, resulting in a defect rate of 0.04%. This project demonstrates that the LSS methodology can be applied successfully to the health care setting to make sustainable process improvements if used correctly and completely.

  18. A Present Value-Unit Cost Methodology for Evaluating Wastewater Reclamation and Direct Reuse at a Military Base of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    KEY WORDS (Conllnut on rtvtrt^ tldt II ntctttmry mnd Idtntlly by block numbtr) Waslewater reciainalion Wat(;r renovation Water reuse Present...applied to a water supply problem typical for a military operation. A relevant unit cost figure, called the "present value-unit cost" (PVUC), is...determined and applied to alternative methods for meeting a projected need for water . The concepls of reclamation am! dual supply systems are

  19. Weed Risk Assessment for Aquatic Plants: Modification of a New Zealand System for the United States

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Doria R.; Gantz, Crysta A.; Jerde, Christopher L.; Chadderton, W. Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P.; Champion, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand’s Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31–39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species. PMID:22808088

  20. Weed risk assessment for aquatic plants: modification of a New Zealand system for the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Doria R; Gantz, Crysta A; Jerde, Christopher L; Chadderton, W Lindsay; Keller, Reuben P; Champion, Paul D

    2012-01-01

    We tested the accuracy of an invasive aquatic plant risk assessment system in the United States that we modified from a system originally developed by New Zealand's Biosecurity Program. The US system is comprised of 38 questions that address biological, historical, and environmental tolerance traits. Values associated with each response are summed to produce a total score for each species that indicates its risk of invasion. To calibrate and test this risk assessment, we identified 39 aquatic plant species that are major invaders in the continental US, 31 species that have naturalized but have no documented impacts (minor invaders), and 60 that have been introduced but have not established. These species represent 55 families and span all aquatic plant growth forms. We found sufficient information to assess all but three of these species. When the results are compared to the known invasiveness of the species, major invaders are distinguished from minor and non-invaders with 91% accuracy. Using this approach, the US aquatic weed risk assessment correctly identifies major invaders 85%, and non-invaders 98%, of the time. Model validation using an additional 10 non-invaders and 10 invaders resulted in 100% accuracy for the former, and 80% accuracy for the latter group. Accuracy was further improved to an average of 91% for all groups when the 17% of species with scores of 31-39 required further evaluation prior to risk classification. The high accuracy with which we can distinguish non-invaders from harmful invaders suggests that this tool provides a feasible, pro-active system for pre-import screening of aquatic plants in the US, and may have additional utility for prioritizing management efforts of established species.

  1. A benchmark survey of the common plants of South Northumberland and Durham, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, John Liam; O'Reilly, John; Mclay, Andy; Richards, A John; Angel, Janet; Horsley, Angela; Rogers, Megs; Young, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background It is obvious to anyone studying plants in the landscape that man-made environmental change is having profound effects on the abundance, distribution and composition of plant communities. Nevertheless, quantifying these changes and estimating the impact of the different drivers of change is extremely difficult. Botanical surveying can potentially provide insights to the changes that are occurring and inform decisions related to conservation, agriculture and forestry policy. However, much of botanical surveying is conducted in such a way that it is not comparable between dates and places. Any comparison of historical and modern data has to account for biases in the recording of different taxonomic groups, geographic biases and varying surveying effort in time. In 2010 botanical recorders in the Vice Counties of Durham and South Northumberland in the United Kingdom decided to conduct a four year survey specifically to benchmark the abundance and distribution of common plants in their counties. It is intended that this survey will provide a relatively unbiased assessment with which to compare future and past surveys of the area and a means to study the drivers of biodiversity change in the North-east of England. New information This survey of Durham and South Northumberland has been designed with two goals, firstly to provide information on common vascular plant species and secondly to provide a dataset that will be versatile with respect to the sorts of questions that can be answered with the data. The survey is primarily an occupancy study of 1km2 grid squares, however, observers were also asked to provide a relative abundance estimate of the species in each grid square. The collection of relative abundance estimate data was an experiment to assess the repeatablity and useablity of such estimates. PMID:26752970

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, D.; Darby, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  3. Land-Use Requirements for Solar Power Plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, S.; Campbell, C.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.; Heath, G.

    2013-06-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with utility-scale ground-mounted solar facilities, defined as installations greater than 1 MW. We begin by discussing standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature and then discuss their applicability to solar power plants. We present total and direct land-use results for various solar technologies and system configurations, on both a capacity and an electricity-generation basis. The total area corresponds to all land enclosed by the site boundary. The direct area comprises land directly occupied by solar arrays, access roads, substations, service buildings, and other infrastructure. As of the third quarter of 2012, the solar projects we analyze represent 72% of installed and under-construction utility-scale PV and CSP capacity in the United States.

  4. Florisitic summary of 'Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada', second edition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The second edition of the Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada by Gleason and Cronquist (1991) is the most recent and up-to-date taxonomic treatment of the flora of that region. Since no floristic summary of the Manual was included in the publication, a computer analysis of the taxonomic data of the Manual was performed in order to generate a floristic summary. Totals of 4285 species, 1091 genera, and 191 families were tabulated. The largest genus was Carex, with 230 species; the largest family was the Asteraceae, with 528 species. Comparisons made with earlier floras of the same region indicated small declines on the order of 10% for these taxonomic groups.

  5. Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Samuel M.; Allen, Edith B.; Bowman, William D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Belnap, Jayne; Brooks, Matthew L.; Cade, Brian S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Gilliam, Frank S.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Pardo, Linda H.; Schulz, Bethany K.; Stevens, Carly J.; Suding, Katharine N.; Throop, Heather L.; Waller, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United States, to address how edaphic and climatic conditions altered vulnerability to this stressor. In our dataset, with N deposition ranging from 1 to 19 kg N⋅ha−1⋅y−1, we found a unimodal relationship; richness increased at low deposition levels and decreased above 8.7 and 13.4 kg N⋅ha−1⋅y−1 in open and closed-canopy vegetation, respectively. N deposition exceeded critical loads for loss of plant species richness in 24% of 15,136 sites examined nationwide. There were negative relationships between species richness and N deposition in 36% of 44 community gradients. Vulnerability to N deposition was consistently higher in more acidic soils whereas the moderating roles of temperature and precipitation varied across scales. We demonstrate here that negative relationships between N deposition and species richness are common, albeit not universal, and that fine-scale processes can moderate vegetation responses to N deposition. Our results highlight the importance of contingent factors when estimating ecosystem vulnerability to N deposition and suggest that N deposition is affecting species richness in forested and nonforested systems across much of the continental United States. PMID:27035943

  6. Conditional vulnerability of plant diversity to atmospheric nitrogen deposition across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simkin, Samuel M.; Allen, Edith B.; Bowman, William D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Belnap, Jayne; Brooks, Matthew L.; Cade, Brian S.; Collins, Scott L.; Geiser, Linda H.; Gilliam, Frank S.; Jovan, Sarah E.; Pardo, Linda H.; Schulz, Bethany K.; Stevens, Carly J.; Suding, Katharine N.; Throop, Heather L.; Waller, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been shown to decrease plant species richness along regional deposition gradients in Europe and in experimental manipulations. However, the general response of species richness to N deposition across different vegetation types, soil conditions, and climates remains largely unknown even though responses may be contingent on these environmental factors. We assessed the effect of N deposition on herbaceous richness for 15,136 forest, woodland, shrubland, and grassland sites across the continental United States, to address how edaphic and climatic conditions altered vulnerability to this stressor. In our dataset, with N deposition ranging from 1 to 19 kg N⋅ha−1⋅y−1, we found a unimodal relationship; richness increased at low deposition levels and decreased above 8.7 and 13.4 kg N⋅ha−1⋅y−1 in open and closed-canopy vegetation, respectively. N deposition exceeded critical loads for loss of plant species richness in 24% of 15,136 sites examined nationwide. There were negative relationships between species richness and N deposition in 36% of 44 community gradients. Vulnerability to N deposition was consistently higher in more acidic soils whereas the moderating roles of temperature and precipitation varied across scales. We demonstrate here that negative relationships between N deposition and species richness are common, albeit not universal, and that fine-scale processes can moderate vegetation responses to N deposition. Our results highlight the importance of contingent factors when estimating ecosystem vulnerability to N deposition and suggest that N deposition is affecting species richness in forested and nonforested systems across much of the continental United States.

  7. Observed aerosol-induced radiative effect on plant productivity in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, S.; Unger, N.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    We apply satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in conjunction with flux tower-derived estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) to probe the relationship between atmospheric aerosol loading and carbon uptake rate at 10 select sites (4 deciduous broadleaf, 3 cropland, 1 evergreen needle leaf, 1 mixed forest and 1 grassland) on hourly time scales in the growing season in the eastern United States. For deciduous and mixed forests, the aerosol light scattering increases GPP with a maximum effect observed under polluted conditions (AOD >0.6), when diffuse radiation is 40-60%. During midday hours, high AOD conditions (>0.4) enhance plant productivity by ∼13% in deciduous forests. In contrast, we find that high diffuse light fraction does not increase the carbon uptake rate in croplands and grasslands; for these ecosystems, we estimate that high AOD conditions reduce GPP by ∼17% during midday hours. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that have attributed these contrasting response sensitivities to the complex and closed canopy architecture of forests versus crops and grasslands. C4 but not C3 crops may benefit from pollution-induced changes in diffuse and direct light. Further research is needed to investigate the role of local meteorology as a possible confounder in the connection between atmospheric aerosols and plant productivity.

  8. Programmer/Analyst Guide for the Army Unit Resiliency Analysis (AURA) computer Simulation Model. Volume 1. AURA Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Combat model Optimization Unit Analysis 170C CD Effectiveness Lethality Chemical Model Nuclear model 1.PIECD 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY... Chemical Lethality Model ................................................................. 112 a. Triggering a Toxic Scenario...112 b. Overview of the Chemical Lethality Model .................................. 112 (1) Inputs

  9. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 187 - Methodology for Computation of Fees for Certification Services Performed Outside the United States

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., provides for efficient cost recovery and time management. (c) The hourly billing rate has been determined... persons outside the United States. (b) These rates are based on aviation safety inspector time rather than calculating a separate rate for managerial or clerical time because the inspector is the individual...

  10. Fire management impacts on invasive plants in the western United States.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Jon E

    2006-04-01

    Fire management practices affect alien plant invasions in diverse ways. I considered the impact of six fire management practices on alien invasions: fire suppression, forest fuel reduction, prescription burning in crown-fire ecosystems, fuel breaks, targeting of noxious aliens, and postfire rehabilitation. Most western United States forests have had fire successfully excluded for unnaturally long periods of time, and this appears to have favored the exclusion of alien plant species. Forest fuel reduction programs have the potential for greatly enhancing forest vulnerability to alien invasions. In part this is due to the focus on reestablishing pre-Euro-American fire regimes on a landscape that differs from pre-Euro-American landscapes in the abundance of aggressive non-native species. We may be forced to choose between restoring "natural"fire regimes or altering fire regimes to favor communities of native species. Intensive grazing in many western forests may exacerbate the alien problem after fire and temporally decoupling grazing and fire restoration may reduce the alien threat. Many shrubland ecosystems such as the Intermountain West sagebrush steppe or California chaparral have a natural, high-intensity crown fire regime that is less amenable to forest restoration tactics. Historical use of prescribed fire for type conversion of shrublands to more useful grazing lands has played some role in the massive annual grass invasion that threatens these shrublands. Fuel breaks pose a special invasive plant risk because they promote alien invasion along corridors into wildland areas. Use of prescription burning to eliminate noxious aliens has had questionable success, particularly when applied to disturbance-dependent annuals, and success is most likely when coupled with ecosystem restoration that alters the competitive balance between aliens and natives. Artificial seeding of alien species as a form of postfire stabilization appears to cause more problems than it

  11. Using a multi-parameter monitoring methodology to predict failures in the cryogenic plant of the cold neutron source at Australia's OPAL reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijian; Thiering, Russell

    2012-06-01

    A 5 kW Brayton-cycle helium refrigeration plant provides cooling at 20 K to the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) at Australia's OPAL Reactor. During several years of operation to the present day, the plant has experienced an unusually high number of turbine and compressor failures. The root cause for some of the failures is known, but for others remains to be determined. All of the failures were catastrophic without any prior warning from standard industrial monitoring based on singular process variables such as temperature, pressure and vibration. The failures and the down time they caused have been very costly. As the operator of the plant, we have developed a multi-parameter monitoring (MPM) methodology to track the performance of the plant. The methodology utilises indicators obtained from a combination of process variables based on their thermodynamic relations. By studying the historical trends of appropriate indicators, especially during the past failures, we have found some indicators that would be able to improve our predictive capability so that we can avoid similar failures in the future.

  12. Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) using Currently Existing Flight Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, Gail; Bates, Scott; Bugbee, Bruce; Garland, Jay; Podolski, Igor; Levinskikh, Rita; Sychev, Vladimir; Gushin, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) is a study to advance the technology required for plant growth in microgravity and to research related food safety issues. Lada-VPU-P3R also investigates the non-nutritional value to the flight crew of developing plants on-orbit. The Lada-VPU-P3R uses the Lada hardware on the ISS and falls under a cooperative agreement between National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Federal Space Association (FSA). Research Summary: Validating Vegetable Production Unit (VPU) Plants, Protocols, Procedures and Requirements (P3R) Using Currently Existing Flight Resources (Lada-VPU-P3R) will optimize hardware and

  13. Combustion systems and power plants incorporating parallel carbon dioxide capture and sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G [Menlo Park, CA; Merkel, Timothy C [Menlo Park, CA; Baker, Richard W [Palo Alto, CA

    2011-10-11

    Disclosed herein are combustion systems and power plants that incorporate sweep-based membrane separation units to remove carbon dioxide from combustion gases. In its most basic embodiment, the invention is a combustion system that includes three discrete units: a combustion unit, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In a preferred embodiment, the invention is a power plant including a combustion unit, a power generation system, a carbon dioxide capture unit, and a sweep-based membrane separation unit. In both of these embodiments, the carbon dioxide capture unit and the sweep-based membrane separation unit are configured to be operated in parallel, by which we mean that each unit is adapted to receive exhaust gases from the combustion unit without such gases first passing through the other unit.

  14. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  15. Heritage of the romantic philosophy in post-Linnaean botany Reichenbach's reception of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework.

    PubMed

    Robin, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of the reception and development of Goethe's metamorphosis of plants as a methodological and philosophical framework in the history of botanical theories. It proposes a focus on the textbooks written by the German botanist Ludwig Reichenbach and his first attempt to use Goethe's idea of metamorphosis of plants as fundamental to his natural system of plants published under the title 'Botany for Women', in German Botanik für Damen (1828). In this book, Reichenbach paid particular attention to Goethe's sensitive views on the essence of nature; he regarded Goethe's idea of metamorphosis in the plant kingdom as an ideal model to interpret connections of natural phenomena, in particular as a conceptual frame for a natural system. Furthermore, he aimed to develop the philosophical statement of the metamorphosis, in which he called for nature-philosophical conceptions in order to materialize his representation of plant "affinities," and of a kind of "ontogeny" of the whole plant kingdom. This paper demonstrates that, between speculative views and empirical attempts, the extent to which Reichenbach actually belonged to a new "school" of thought, which left its mark on the history and philosophy of botany.

  16. Alcohol- and Drug-Involved Driving in the United States: Methodology for the 2007 National Roadside Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling procedure. Data were collected during a 2-hour Friday daytime session at 60 locations and during 2-hour nighttime weekend periods at 240 locations. Both self-report and biological measures were taken. Biological measures included breath alcohol measurements from 9,413 respondents, oral fluid samples from 7,719 respondents, and blood samples from 3,276 respondents. PMID:21997324

  17. A Methodology for Modeling Nuclear Power Plant Passive Component Aging in Probabilistic Risk Assessment under the Impact of Operating Conditions, Surveillance and Maintenance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler Yigitoglu, Askin

    In the context of long operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) (i.e., 60-80 years, and beyond), investigation of the aging of passive systems, structures and components (SSCs) is important to assess safety margins and to decide on reactor life extension as indicated within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program. In the traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology, evaluating the potential significance of aging of passive SSCs on plant risk is challenging. Although passive SSC failure rates can be added as initiating event frequencies or basic event failure rates in the traditional event-tree/fault-tree methodology, these failure rates are generally based on generic plant failure data which means that the true state of a specific plant is not reflected in a realistic manner on aging effects. Dynamic PRA methodologies have gained attention recently due to their capability to account for the plant state and thus address the difficulties in the traditional PRA modeling of aging effects of passive components using physics-based models (and also in the modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems). Physics-based models can capture the impact of complex aging processes (e.g., fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, etc.) on SSCs and can be utilized to estimate passive SSC failure rates using realistic NPP data from reactor simulation, as well as considering effects of surveillance and maintenance activities. The objectives of this dissertation are twofold: The development of a methodology for the incorporation of aging modeling of passive SSC into a reactor simulation environment to provide a framework for evaluation of their risk contribution in both the dynamic and traditional PRA; and the demonstration of the methodology through its application to pressurizer surge line pipe weld and steam generator tubes in commercial nuclear power plants. In the proposed methodology, a

  18. Learning about Plants with STEAM: In a Yearlong Unit on Plants, Students Use Art to Make Models of Their Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurson, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In this article Rebecca Kurson describes her school garden, now in its second year, as one that the lower school (preK-5) students plant and observe as often as possible. They call the garden an "outdoor classroom," and the younger students are particularly interested in how the plants grow. Kruson had lots of garden activities…

  19. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yonny, Melisa E; Rodríguez Torressi, Ariel; Nazareno, Mónica A; Cerutti, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo) is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L(-1) and 0.08 μg·L(-1), respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants.

  20. Development of a Novel, Sensitive, Selective, and Fast Methodology to Determine Malondialdehyde in Leaves of Melon Plants by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yonny, Melisa E.; Rodríguez Torressi, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Early production of melon plant (Cucumis melo) is carried out using tunnels structures, where extreme temperatures lead to high reactive oxygen species production and, hence, oxidative stress. Malondialdehyde (MDA) is a recognized biomarker of the advanced oxidative status in a biological system. Thus a reliable, sensitive, simple, selective, and rapid separative strategy based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to positive electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-(+)ESI-MS/MS) was developed for the first time to measure MDA, without derivatization, in leaves of melon plants exposed to stress conditions. The detection and quantitation limits were 0.02 μg·L−1 and 0.08 μg·L−1, respectively, which was demonstrated to be better than the methodologies currently reported in the literature. The accuracy values were between 96% and 104%. The precision intraday and interday values were 2.7% and 3.8%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to monitoring of changes in MDA levels between control and exposed to thermal stress conditions melon leaves samples. Important preliminary conclusions were obtained. Besides, a comparison between MDA levels in melon leaves quantified by the proposed method and the traditional thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) approach was undertaken. The MDA determination by TBARS could lead to unrealistic conclusions regarding the oxidative stress status in plants. PMID:28203476

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B Permit Application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This is the RCRA required permit application for Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; Cyanide Treatment Unit. All four of these units are associated with the recovery of enriched uranium and other metals from wastes generated during the processing of nuclear materials.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for Production Associated Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    Attention is focused on permit applications for the following units: Building 9206 Container Storage Unit; Building 9212 Container Storage Unit; Building 9720-12 Container Storage Unit; and Cyanide Treatment Unit. This report addresses the following areas: facility description; waste characteristics; process information; ground water monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plant, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification.

  3. 75 FR 75704 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of... Dr. Tianqing Cao, Senior Seismologist, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, has...

  4. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear... Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-24 and DPR-27, issued to FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC (FPLE, the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (PBNP), located in...

  5. 75 FR 9625 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2... holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-42 and DPR-60, which authorize operation of the...

  6. 78 FR 28245 - In the Matter of Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Nuclear Plant (FNP), Units 1 and 2, in accordance with conditions specified therein. The facility is... investigation, the NRC issued a letter to FNP dated January 9, 2013, which documented an apparent violation that occurred during calendar years 2010 and 2011. Specifically, FNP Technical Specification 5.4.1.a,...

  7. 75 FR 76052 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    .... Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP). The licenses provide, among other things, that the facility is... consistent with the approach set forth by the Commission as discussed in the June 4, 2009, letter. FNP... regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 73.55 for the FNP, as issued on March 27, 2009. 4.0 Conclusion for Part...

  8. 75 FR 82414 - Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility...

  9. 75 FR 11579 - Carolina Power & Light Company H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company H. B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No....

  10. 78 FR 4467 - UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy, Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Power Plant, Unit 3, Exemption 1.0 Background UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE), on behalf of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Project, LLC and UniStar Nuclear Operating Services, LLC, submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  11. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  12. 76 FR 53970 - Carolina Power & Light; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light; Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel... Resulting From the Proposed Merger Between Progress Energy, Inc. and Duke Energy Corporation, and... BSEP Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, currently held by Carolina Power & Light Company,...

  13. The prevalence of Salmonella from cheek meat and head trim in a pork processing plant in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary survey, a large pork processing plant in the United States was sampled bimonthly from January to July of 2015 to determine the prevalence, seasonality, and serotype diversity of Salmonella enterica (SE) isolated from cheek meat and head trim of swine carcasses. Each cheek meat and ...

  14. 76 FR 20368 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... Plant Protection Feasibility Study in August 2005 to identify alternatives that meet the PCGID-PID's... Feasibility Study for the Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit to investigate the feasibility of restoration and... developed based on the River Partners 2005 feasibility study, the 2010 Ayres feasibility study, and...

  15. 75 FR 6225 - Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Northern States Power Company--Minnesota; Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)...

  16. 77 FR 12332 - Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Issuance of Combined Licenses and Limited Work...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 3 and 4; Issuance of Combined Licenses and Limited Work... Operating Company (SNC), Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe Power Corporation, Municipal Electric Authority... inimical to the common defense and security or to the health and safety of the public. Finally,...

  17. Thematic accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data for the eastern United States: Statistical methodology and regional results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stehman, S.V.; Wickham, J.D.; Smith, J.H.; Yang, L.

    2003-01-01

    The accuracy of the 1992 National Land-Cover Data (NLCD) map is assessed via a probability sampling design incorporating three levels of stratification and two stages of selection. Agreement between the map and reference land-cover labels is defined as a match between the primary or alternate reference label determined for a sample pixel and a mode class of the mapped 3×3 block of pixels centered on the sample pixel. Results are reported for each of the four regions comprising the eastern United States for both Anderson Level I and II classifications. Overall accuracies for Levels I and II are 80% and 46% for New England, 82% and 62% for New York/New Jersey (NY/NJ), 70% and 43% for the Mid-Atlantic, and 83% and 66% for the Southeast.

  18. Status of porous tube plant growth unit research - Development of a plant nutrient delivery system for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    A system developed for plant production in space was used to grow wheat, beans, rice, and white potatoes. It was found that the negative gauge pressure used to control the nutrient solution at the root/membrane interface and the pore size influence plant production. The results suggest that wheat, rice, beans, and lettuce can probably be grown with production values resembling those of plants grown in other media. Potato growth seemed to be stunted; this could be a possible response to root restriction.

  19. Benchmarking historical CMIP5 plant functional types across the Upper Midwest and Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthes, Jaclyn Hatala; Goring, Simon; Williams, John W.; Dietze, Michael C.

    2016-02-01

    Centennial-scale climate-ecosystem feedbacks are a major source of predictive uncertainty for land-atmosphere fluxes of energy, carbon, and water. Accurate representations of plant functional type (PFT) distributions through time and space are required for modeling centennial-scale feedbacks within Earth system models (ESMs). We tested the ability of ESMs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to capture historical PFT distributions at the time of Euro-American settlement in the Northeastern United States against a new subcontinental-scale data set of historical tree abundances derived from forest composition surveys. To identify and diagnose errors in ESM-simulated PFT distributions and quantify impacts on modeled albedo, net primary productivity, and transpiration, we analyzed actual and modeled PFT distributions with respect to historical mean annual climate and modeled elasticity among PFTs, climate, and vegetation-atmosphere fluxes. Historical PFT distributions were poorly matched between ESMs and the settlement-era data, often due to inaccurate PFT-climate relationships within ESMs, particularly for evergreen trees. Some models exhibited large local, but regionally compensating, errors in simulated albedo, net primary productivity, and transpiration due to inaccurate PFT distributions, while others had systematic regional biases in vegetation-atmosphere fluxes. Internal variable elasticity varied among ESMs, and these differences closely corresponded to model skill in predicting PFT distributions. New historical benchmarks like the settlement-era vegetation data provide opportunities to confront ESMs, parse sources of error, and improve simulations of historical and future vegetation-atmosphere feedbacks.

  20. EIS No. 20100312 EIS Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J

    2010-08-01

    In accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by other Federal agencies public. Historically, EPA has met this mandate by publishing weekly notices of availability of EPA comments, which includes a brief summary of EPA's comment letters, in the Federal Register. Since February 2008, EPA has been including its comment letters on EISs on its Web site at: http://www.epa.gov/compliance/nepa/eisdata.html. Including the entire EIS comment letters on the Web site satisfies the Section 309(a) requirement to make EPA's comments on EISs available to the public. Accordingly, on March 31, 2010, EPA discontinued the publication of the notice of availability of EPA comments in the Federal Register. EIS No. 20100312, Draft EIS, NRC, TX, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant Units 3 and 4, Application for Combined Licenses (COLs) for Construction Permits and Operating Licenses, (NUREG-1943), Hood and Somervell Counties, TX, Comment Period Ends: 10/26/2010.

  1. Evidence for Two Catalytic Sites in the Functional Unit of H+-ATPase from Higher Plants.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, G.; Berberian, G.; Beauge, L.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the nature of the complex ATP activation kinetics of plant H+-ATPases. To this aim we analyzed that activation in three isolated isoforms (AHA1, AHA2, and AHA3) of H+-ATPase from Arabidopsis thaliana. The isoforms were obtained by heterologous expression in endoplasmic reticulum of yeast. ATP stimulation was always with low affinity (K0.5 between 500 and 1800 [mu]M). In addition, the curves were not Michaelian and displayed positive cooperativity. Detailed studies with AHA2 showed that (a) enzyme solubilized with lysophosphatidylcholine exhibited Michaelian behavior even in the presence of soybean lecithin liposomes free of enzyme, (b) solubilized enzyme incorporated into the same liposomes displayed two-site kinetics with negative cooperativity, and (c) enzyme partially digested with trypsin lost the C-terminal portion of the molecule. Under this condition the ATP activation kinetics was Michaelian or had a slight negative cooperativity and the K0.5ATP was reduced 3-fold. These data suggest that the functional unit of the H+-ATPase has two catalytic ATP sites with variable cooperativity and kinetics competence of the E(ATP) and E(ATP)2 complexes. Such variability is likely modulated by the association of the enzyme with membrane structures and by a regulatory domain in the C terminus of the enzyme molecule. PMID:12228512

  2. A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF SELECTED INVASIVE PLANTS IN RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian ecosystems typically exhibit high levels of plant species richness, physical disturbance, and interconnectedness; characteristics that may favor establishment and spread of invasive plant species. To assess the magnitude of this invasion, we organized an extensive surve...

  4. Air pollution response to changing weather and power plant emissions in the eastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomer, Bryan Jaye

    Air pollution in the eastern United States causes human sickness and death as well as damage to crops and materials. NOX emission reduction is observed to improve air quality. Effectively reducing pollution in the future requires understanding the connections between smog, precursor emissions, weather, and climate change. Numerical models predict global warming will exacerbate smog over the next 50 years. My analysis of 21 years of CASTNET observations quantifies a climate change penalty. I calculate, for data collected prior to 2002, a climate penalty factor of ˜3.3 ppb O3/°C across the power plant dominated receptor regions in the rural, eastern U.S. Recent reductions in NOX emissions decreased the climate penalty factor to ˜2.2 ppb O3/°C. Prior to 1995, power plant emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOX were estimated with fuel sampling and analysis methods. Currently, emissions are measured with continuous monitoring equipment (CEMS) installed directly in stacks. My comparison of the two methods show CO 2 and SO2 emissions are ˜5% lower when inferred from fuel sampling; greater differences are found for NOX emissions. CEMS are the method of choice for emission inventories and commodity trading and should be the standard against which other methods are evaluated for global greenhouse gas trading policies. I used CEMS data and applied chemistry transport modeling to evaluate improvements in air quality observed by aircraft during the North American electrical blackout of 2003. An air quality model produced substantial reductions in O3, but not as much as observed. The study highlights weaknesses in the model as commonly used for evaluating a single day event and suggests areas for further investigation. A new analysis and visualization method quantifies local-daily to hemispheric-seasonal scale relationships between weather and air pollution, confirming improved air quality despite increasing temperatures across the eastern U.S. Climate penalty factors indicate

  5. 75 FR 18572 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...; would support TVA's policy to reduce the carbon emissions of its generating system and take advantage of lower carbon dioxide-emitting energy sources; and would make beneficial use of existing assets at the...-fired plants, nine combustion-turbine plants, two combined-cycle plants, 29 hydroelectric dams, a...

  6. Common Marsh Plants of the United States and Canada. Resource Publication 93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Neil

    Described in this guide are the emergent and semiemergent plants most likely to be found in inland and coastal marshes. The guide is intended for field identification of marsh plants without resources to technical botanical keys. The plants are discussed in seven groups. Within each group the kinds which resemble one another most closely are next…

  7. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  8. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC is owned by Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG). The... one of CENG's parent companies, Constellation Energy Group, Inc (CEG). According to the application... Generation; and Throughout the transaction, the direct ownership by CEG of 100 percent of...

  9. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-23

    The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. The Summary Statistics chapter contains aggregate capacity statistics at the national and various regional levels for operable electric generating units and planned electric generating unit additions. Aggregate capacity data at the national level are presented by energy source and by prime mover. Aggregate capacity data at the various regional levels are presented by prime energy source. Planned capacity additions in new units are summarized by year, 1991 through 2000. Additionally, this chapter contains a summary of electric generating unit retirements, by energy source and year, from 1991 through 2000. The chapter on Operable Electric Generating Units contains data about each operable electric generating unit and each electric generating unit that was retired from service during the year. Additionally, it contains a summary by energy source of electric generating unit capacity additions and retirements during 1990. Finally, the chapter on Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions contains data about each electric generating unit scheduled by electric utilities to start operation between 1991 and 2000. 11 figs., 22 tabs.

  10. Development of the Plant Growth Facility for Use in the Shuttle Middeck and Test Units for Ground-Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, David K.; Wells, H. William

    1996-01-01

    The plant growth facility (PGF), currently under development as a Space Shuttle middeck facility for the support of research on higher plants in microgravity, is presented. The PGF provides controlled fluorescent lighting and the active control of temperature, relative humidity and CO2 concentration. These parameters are designed to be centrally controlled by a dedicated microprocessor. The status of the experiment can be displayed for onboard analysis, and will be automatically archived for post-flight analysis. The facility is designed to operate for 15 days and will provide air filtration to remove ethylene and trace organics with replaceable potassium permanganate filters. Similar ground units will be available for pre-flight experimentation.

  11. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Juan; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of FCM in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of the most representative and diverse genera of the Old World Gesneriaceae, to evaluate the methodology effect on determining genome size. Our results showed that buffer choice significantly affected genome size estimation in six out of the eight species examined and altered the 2C-value (DNA content) by as much as 21.4%. The staining duration and propidium iodide (PI) concentration slightly affected the 2C-value. Our experiments showed better histogram quality when the samples were stained for 40 min at a PI concentration of 100 μg ml(-1). The quality of the estimates was not improved by 1-day incubation in the dark at 4°C or by centrifugation. Thus, our study determined an optimum protocol for genome size measurement in Primulina: LB01 buffer supplemented with 100 μg ml(-1) PI and stained for 40 min. This protocol also demonstrated a high universality in other Gesneriaceae genera. We report the genome size of nine Gesneriaceae species for the first time. The results showed substantial genome size variation both within and among the species, with the 2C-value ranging between 1.62 and 2.71 pg. Our study highlights the necessity of optimizing the FCM methodology prior to obtaining reliable genome size estimates in a given taxon.

  12. An analysis of problems arising during operation of the perm district power plant 800-MW power unit at sliding pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrutsky, G. D.; Zakharov, A. E.; Sargsyan, V. A.; Frolov, M. S.; Schwartz, A. L.; Adamov, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of cracks at locations in which bottoms are welded to the high-pressure heaters' headers was revealed during planned repairs of the Perm district power plant units. Specialists of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute carried out investigations aimed at obtaining more detailed data on the effect the loading cyclicity and sliding-pressure operating modes have on the reliability of power-generating equipment. Another aim of those investigations was to elaborate recommendations for achieving more reliable operation of power-generating equipment under the conditions of cyclic variation of its load. The state of the main and auxiliary equipment of the Perm district power plant units is analyzed for determining the possibility and advisability of their further operation in sliding-pressure modes. The results obtained from calculating the permissible number of load variation cycles for the headers used in the Perm district power plant units operating under the conditions of startup-shutdown modes are analyzed, and the headers' residual cyclic service life is estimated. The results obtained from a metallographic investigation of the high-pressure header's bottom in the welded joint of which a through crack was revealed are presented. Recommendations for examining the header bottoms and for modifying their design in order to improve their operational reliability are given.

  13. Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan I; Baxter, Lisa K; Schwartz, Joel

    2009-07-01

    The health-related damages associated with emissions from coal-fired power plants can vary greatly across facilities as a function of plant, site, and population characteristics, but the degree of variability and the contributing factors have not been formally evaluated. In this study, we modeled the monetized damages associated with 407 coal-fired power plants in the United States, focusing on premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). We applied a reduced-form chemistry-transport model accounting for primary PM(2.5) emissions and the influence of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxide (NO(x)) emissions on secondary particulate formation. Outputs were linked with a concentration-response function for PM(2.5)-related mortality that incorporated nonlinearities and model uncertainty. We valued mortality with a value of statistical life approach, characterizing and propagating uncertainties in all model elements. At the median of the plant-specific uncertainty distributions, damages across plants ranged from $30,000 to $500,000 per ton of PM(2.5), $6,000 to $50,000 per ton of SO(2), $500 to $15,000 per ton of NO(x), and $0.02 to $1.57 per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. Variability in damages per ton of emissions was almost entirely explained by population exposure per unit emissions (intake fraction), which itself was related to atmospheric conditions and the population size at various distances from the power plant. Variability in damages per kilowatt-hour was highly correlated with SO(2) emissions, related to fuel and control technology characteristics, but was also correlated with atmospheric conditions and population size at various distances. Our findings emphasize that control strategies that consider variability in damages across facilities would yield more efficient outcomes.

  14. Remote Methodology used at B Plant Hanford to Map High Radiation and Contamination Fields and Document Remaining Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    A remote radiation mapping system using the Gammacam{trademark} (AIL Systems Inc. Trademark) with real-time response was used in deactivating the B Plant at Hanford to produce digitized images showing actual radiation fields and dose rates. Deployment of this technology has significantly reduced labor requirements, decreased personnel exposure, and increased the accuracy of the measurements. Personnel entries into the high radiation/contamination areas was minimized for a dose savings of 30 Rem (.3 Seivert) and a cost savings of $640K. In addition, the data gathered was utilized along with historical information to estimate the amount of remaining hazardous waste in the process cells. The B Plant facility is a canyon facility containing 40 process cells which were used to separate cesium and strontium from high level waste. The cells and vessels are contaminated with chemicals used in the separation and purification processes. Most of the contaminants have been removed but the residual contamination from spills in the cells and heels in the tanks contribute to the localized high radioactivity. The Gammacam{trademark} system consists of a high density terbium-activated scintillating glass detector coupled with a digitized video camera. Composite images generated by the system are presented in pseudo color over a black and white image. Exposure times can be set from 10 milliseconds to 1 hour depending on the field intensity. This information coupled with process knowledge is then used to document the hazardous waste remaining in each cell. Additional uses for this radiation mapping system would be in support of facilities stabilization and deactivation activities at Hanford or other DOE sites. The system is currently scheduled for installation and mapping of the U Plant in 1999. This system is unique due to its portability and its suitability for use in high dose rate areas.

  15. Age Demographics, Hiring Trends, and Graduation Rates in Plant Pathology in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the status of plant pathology departments and age demographics of the profession. Seven of eight large departments have lost from 17 to 40% of their faculty positions since 1987, and several smaller graduate programs in plant pathology (e.g., in several northeastern states) have all but...

  16. Underwater and Floating-Leaved Plants of the United States and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Neil

    This is the third in a series of guides to the field identification of North American marsh and water plants. Described are plants which have foliage habitually under water or floating, or which have underwater or floating forms, and which have characteristics by which they can be distinguished with the naked eye. Where genera or species cannot be…

  17. 78 FR 66779 - United States Enrichment Corporation, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Engineering, Manpower Inc., Bartlett Nuclear, Inc., C-Plant Federal Credit Union, CJ Enterprises, Pashacl... Consultants, Inbounds Engineering LLC, Matrix Engineering, Manpower Inc. and Bartlett Nuclear, Inc., Paducah... Engineering, Manpower Inc., Bartlett Nuclear, Inc., C-Plant Federal Credit Union, CJ Enterprises,...

  18. Plant microfossil record of the terminal Cretaceous event in the western United States and Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. J.; Fleming, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    Plant microfossils, principally pollen grains and spores produced by land plants, provide an excellent record of the terminal Cretaceous event in nonmarine environments. The record indicates regional devastation of the latest Cretaceous vegetation with the extinction of many groups, followed by a recolonization of the earliest Tertiary land surface, and development of a permanently changed land flora. The regional variations in depositional environments, plant communities, and paleoclimates provide insight into the nature and effects of the event, which were short-lived but profound. The plant microfossil data support the hypothesis that an abruptly initiated, major ecological crisis occurred at the end of the Cretaceous. Disruption of the Late Cretaceous flora ultimately contributred to the rise of modern vegetation. The plant microfossils together with geochemical and mineralogical data are consistent with an extraterrestrial impact having been the cause of the terminal Cretaceous event.

  19. Modelling primary and secondary growth processes in plants: a summary of the methodology and new data from an early lignophyte.

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Thomas; Rowe, Nick P

    2003-01-01

    A mathematical method, based on polar coordinates that allow modelling of primary and secondary growth processes in stems of extant and fossil plants, is summarized and its potential is discussed in comparison with numerical methods using digitizing tablets or electronic image analysing systems. As an example, the modelling of tissue distribution in the internode of an extant sphenopsid (Equisetum hyemale) is presented. In the second half of the paper we present new data of a functional analysis of stem structure and biomechanics of the early lignophyte Tetraxylopteris schmidtii (Middle Devonian) using the polar coordinate method for modelling the tissue distribution in stems of different ontogenetic age. Calculations of the mechanical properties of the stems, based on the modelling of the tissue arrangement, indicate that there is no increase in structural bending modulus throughout the entire development of the plant. The oldest ontogenetic stage has a significantly smaller bending elastic modulus than the intermediate ontogenetic stage, a 'mechanical signal', which is not consistent with a self-supporting growth form. These results, and the ontogenetic variations of the contributions of different stem tissues to the flexural stiffness of the entire stem, are discussed in the evolutionary context of cambial secondary growth. PMID:14561338

  20. The acceptability and feasibility of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on a mother and baby unit: Q-methodology with mothers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Butler, Hannah; Hare, Dougal; Walker, Samantha; Wieck, Angelika; Wittkowski, Anja

    2014-10-01

    New mothers with severe mental illness (SMI) frequently experience significant difficulties in caring for their babies. There are no structured, evidence-based interventions that guide health professionals to help these women improve early parenting. The extensively researched and effective Triple P Positive Parenting Programme has recently been expanded to families with children less than 1 year old, which provides an opportunity to develop the intervention for women with severe postnatal mental illness. This study explored the views of mothers with SMI about the acceptability and feasibility of Baby Triple P (Baby TP) in the setting of a psychiatric Mother and Baby Unit (MBU). An 88-item Q-sort was conducted with a purposive sample of 15 mothers using Q-methodology. Three main factors were identified: 'what we need', 'what we want' and 'we can do it'. A consensus was noted with general agreement about the benefits of Baby TP, and suitability of the MBU environment to accommodate Baby TP. Baby TP was viewed as an acceptable and feasible parenting intervention and deemed positive and non-stigmatising. Mothers requested more staff awareness and knowledge about the programme so that they were supported in learning and generalising skills.

  1. Divergent Vegetation Growth Patterns Relative to Bioinfiltration Unit Size and Plant Placement

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency constructed six experimental bioinfiltration units at the Edison Environmental Center in Edison, New Jersey. They were designed as two sets of three bioinfiltration units with drainage area to surface area ratios of 5.5:1, 11:1, ...

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States 1989. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    This document is prepared annually by the Electric Power Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units in operation and to provide a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 states and the District of Columbia). Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA, to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Summary Statistics; Operable Electric Generating Units; and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions.

  3. 75 FR 8753 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Brunswick Steam Electric Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... reactors, fuel, plant structures, support structures, water, or land at the BSEP site. The proposed actions...., design and construction of a new security building to support the new physical protection...

  4. Flow paths of plant tissue residues and digesta through gastrointestinal segments in Spanish goats and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Walz, L S; Ellis, W C; White, T W; Matis, J H; Bateman, H G; Williams, C C; Fernandez, J M; Gentry, L R

    2004-02-01

    A sequence of eight twice-daily meals, each marked with different rare earth elements, was fed to 24 Spanish goats (BW = 20.6 +/- 1.94 kg) to produce meal-based profiles of rare earth markers within segments of the gastrointestinal digesta on subsequent slaughter. Accumulative mean residence time and time delay of rare earths and segmental and accumulative mean residence times of indigestible NDF (IDF) were estimated for each sampled segment. Diets consisted of ad libitum access to bermudagrass hay with a limit feeding of one of four supplements: 1) minerals (basal, B); 2) B + energy (E); 3) B + CP (CP); or 4) B + E + CP for 84 d. Mean daily intake (g/kg of BW) during the 5 d before slaughter differed (P < 0.05) via diet for DM but not for IDF (8.0 +/- 0.35 g/kg of BW). Larger estimates of cumulative mean residence time for IDF vs. rare earths were suggested to be the consequence of a meal-induced bias in the single measurement of IDF pool size by anatomical site. The rare earth compartment method was considered more reliable than the IDF pool dilution method because it yielded flow estimates based on the flux of eight meal-dosed rare earth markers over 4 d and was independent of anatomical definitions of pool size. Statistically indistinguishable estimates for gastrointestinal mean residence times for IDF and rare earths conform to assumed indelibility for the specifically applied rare earths and indigestibility of IDF. The potentially digestible NDF (PDF):IDF ratio of dietary fragments (0.8) progressively decreased in the following order: caudodorsal reticulorumen (0.390) > crainodorsal reticulorumen (0.357) approximately reticulum (0.354) > mid-dorsal reticulorumen (0.291) approximately ventral reticulorumen (0.286), to that within the omasal folds and in the abomasum (0.259). Such a gradient of progressively aging mixture of plant tissue fragments is consistent with age-dependent flow paths established in the reticulorumen and flowing to the omasum and abomasum

  5. Review of methodological and experimental LIBS techniques for coal analysis and their application in power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Shu-Xia; Li, Yu-Fang; Gong, Yao; Dong, Lei; Ma, Wei-Guang; Yin, Wang-Bao; Yao, Shun-Chun; Lu, Ji-Dong; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2016-12-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical spectroscopy technique. This review presents the main recent developments in China regarding the implementation of LIBS for coal analysis. The paper mainly focuses on the progress of the past few years in the fundamentals, data pretreatment, calibration model, and experimental issues of LIBS and its application to coal analysis. Many important domestic studies focusing on coal quality analysis have been conducted. For example, a proposed novel hybrid quantification model can provide more reproducible quantitative analytical results; the model obtained the average absolute errors (AREs) of 0.42%, 0.05%, 0.07%, and 0.17% for carbon, hydrogen, volatiles, and ash, respectively, and a heat value of 0.07 MJ/kg. Atomic/ionic emission lines and molecular bands, such as CN and C2, have been employed to generate more accurate analysis results, achieving an ARE of 0.26% and a 0.16% limit of detection (LOD) for the prediction of unburned carbon in fly ashes. Both laboratory and on-line LIBS apparatuses have been developed for field application in coal-fired power plants. We consider that both the accuracy and the repeatability of the elemental and proximate analysis of coal have increased significantly and further efforts will be devoted to realizing large-scale commercialization of coal quality analyzer in China.

  6. Ecosystem consequences of plant life form changes at three sites in the semiarid United States.

    PubMed

    Gill, R A; Burke, Ingrid C

    1999-12-01

    Many semiarid rangelands have recently experienced changes in dominant plant life form. Both woody plant expansion into grasslands and the invasion of annual grasses into shrublands have potential influence on regional carbon cycling. Soil carbon content, chemistry, and distribution may change following shifts in dominant plant life form because plant life forms differ in litter chemistry and patterns of detrital input. This study assesses the amount, quality, and distribution of soil C below woody vegetation and grasses at three rangelands in Texas, New Mexico, and Utah. At each of these sites there has been a well-documented shift in dominant plant life form. In Texas and New Mexico, woody plants have increased in grasslands, while grasses have invaded into former shrublands in Utah. We measured total soil carbon, particulate organic matter (POM) C, and the carbon isotopic composition of soil carbon beneath woody plants and grasses at each of these three sites. At the La Copita Research Area in south-central Texas there was significantly more soil C found beneath Prosopis glandulosa, the dominant woody plant, than was found beneath grasses. Mean soil C content to 1 m was 7.2 kg C m(-2) beneath P. glandulosa and 6.0 kg C m(-2) beneath grasses. There was also significantly more POM C beneath P. glandulosa than beneath grasses. Stable carbon isotopic composition indicated that the expansion of P. glandulosa in savannas in Texas first influences carbon cycling in surface soils, then deep soil C, and finally throughout the soil profile. At the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico, we found that there was significantly more soil C in the upper 10 cm of the soil profile beneath Larrea tridentata than was found beneath Bouteloua spp. Stable carbon isotopic composition indicated that the expansion of L. tridentata influenced C cycling throughout the soil profile. At Curlew Valley in northern Utah, we found no significant differences in total profile

  7. Fragility Analysis Methodology for Degraded Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants - Illustrated using a Condensate Storage Tank

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Choun, Y.; Kim, M.; Choi, I.

    2010-06-30

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is conducting a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which includes the consideration of aging of structures and components in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The KAERI research project includes three specific areas that are essential to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA): (1) probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, (2) seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and (3) a plant seismic risk analysis. Since 2007, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has entered into a collaboration agreement with KAERI to support its development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period. The goal of this collaboration endeavor is to assist KAERI to develop seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of structures, systems, and components (SSCs). The research results of this multi-year collaboration will be utilized as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work, BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. In the Year 2 scope of work, BNL carried out a research effort to identify and assess degradation models for the long-term behavior of dominant materials that are

  8. Land Use Requirements of Modern Wind Power Plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hand, M.; Jackson, M.; Ong, S.

    2009-08-01

    This report provides data and analysis of the land use associated with modern, large wind power plants (defined as greater than 20 megawatts (MW) and constructed after 2000). The analysis discusses standard land-use metrics as established in the life-cycle assessment literature, and then discusses their applicability to wind power plants. The report identifies two major 'classes' of wind plant land use: 1) direct impact (i.e., disturbed land due to physical infrastructure development), and 2) total area (i.e., land associated with the complete wind plant project). The analysis also provides data for each of these classes, derived from project applications, environmental impact statements, and other sources. It attempts to identify relationships among land use, wind plant configuration, and geography. The analysts evaluated 172 existing or proposed projects, which represents more than 26 GW of capacity. In addition to providing land-use data and summary statistics, they identify several limitations to the existing wind project area data sets, and suggest additional analysis that could aid in evaluating actual land use and impacts associated with deployment of wind energy.

  9. Influence of plant communities on denitrification in a tidal freshwater marsh of the Potomac River, United States.

    PubMed

    Hopfensperger, Kristine N; Kaushal, Sujay S; Findlay, Stuart E G; Cornwell, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether marsh surface elevation, plant community composition (annuals vs. perennials), and organic matter quantity/quality were associated with differences in denitrification rates in an urban tidal freshwater marsh of the Potomac River, United States. We measured denitrification rates using both denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) with acetylene inhibition (June: n = 38, 3234 +/- 303; October: n = 38, 1557 +/- 368 ng N g dry soil(-1) h(-1)) and direct N(2) flux measurements with membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) (November: n = 6, 147 +/- 24 mumol m(-2) h(-1)). Organic carbon content and nitrate concentrations in soil, and plant community composition were correlated with elevation, but DEA rates did not differ across marsh surface elevation. Soil organic carbon was highest in plots dominated by perennial graminoids, but DEA rates did not differ across plant community types. The DEA rates increased with increasing soil ammonium concentrations and total N content, and DEA rates differed between summer and fall sampling. The MIMS rates did not differ across plant community types, but were correlated with soil organic N content. Denitrification rates suggest that potential N removal at the site could be substantial. In addition, denitrification rates measured in Dyke Marsh were higher than rates for sediments measured in the adjacent Potomac River. Tidal freshwater marshes can represent an important site for denitrification, and factors fostering denitrification should be considered when restoring urban tidal freshwater wetlands as they are faced with pressures from increasing land use change and sea level rise.

  10. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  11. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  12. Lessons learned from reheater replacements TVA Gallatin Fossil Plant units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, P.S.; Stangarone, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    Gallatin Units 1 and 2 have experienced a long history of problems in the reheat front inlet platens and front outlet pendants. Cracks were discovered at lug welds on the reheat inlet platen assemblies after six years of operation. During the next ten years cracking at lugs continued to be a problem in both the inlet platen and front outlet assemblies. Solutions included changing tube material and spacing, and redesigning lugs. None of the solutions were successful. In 1980, a fuel switch to washed coal was made to reduce boiler slagging. Within two years of the fuel change, liquid phase corrosion began to attack the tubes. The corrosion became severe and elements were replaced at seven year intervals. During this time, EPRI sought utilities with boilers experiencing liquid phase corrosion to test new corrosion resistant materials. Gallatin Unit 2 was selected as one of the test units. Probes containing a number of different alloys were inserted into the furnace and subjected to the corrosion attacks. After a five year study, HR3C was selected as the alloy from which to build a complete set of elements for further testing. Reheat assemblies were manufactured from HR3C and installed in Unit 2 and Unit 1 Shortly after Unit 1 returned to service, swages between the front pendant and inlet platen elements failed by brittle fracture due to the cold swaging operation used in fabrication. Cracks were discovered after two years of operation at the tube to lug welds and the new elements were experiencing the same liquid phase corrosion as in the past. The attempt to resolve the liquid phase corrosion problem in Gallatin Units 1 and 2 pendant reheater revealed that past replacements did not address the root cause of the problems. HR3C is a relatively brittle material and manufacturers used traditional methods to design and fabricate the elements. Inadequate fabrication and erection procedures have led to several in-service problems not associated with liquid phase corrosion.

  13. Carbon dioxide control costs for gasification combined-cycle plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Humphreys, K.K.; Vail, L.W.

    1993-06-01

    This study focused on evaluating the cost of recovering CO{sub 2} from coal gasification, combined-cycle (GCC) power plants and transporting the CO{sub 2} in pipelines for disposal in deep ocean water, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or aquifers. Other fuels and conversion technologies were not evaluated. Technical feasibility, environmental acceptability, and other implementation issues were not addressed in detail. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} offers essentially unlimited capacity, but is distant from most US coal-fired power plants and presents environmental concerns at the disposal point. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs are also distant from most US coal-fired power plants and have a more limited disposal capacity,, but were calculated to have a potential capacity more than double that required to dispose of all CO{sub 2} from 830 GCC power plants (380-mwe each) for a period of 40 years. The existence of oil and gas reservoirs provides ``proof`` of the long-term CO{sub 2} confinement potential in these formations. In contrast, aquifer disposal is believed to be significantly riskier. Key concerns are lack of geologic knowledge at depths adequate for CO{sub 2} disposal; uncertainty about geochemical impacts from decreased water pH; and long-term confinement, which is unproven for non-petroleum formations. Carbon dioxide recovery at GCC plants increased the levelized energy cost (LEC) by about one third relative to a reference GCC plant without CO{sub 2} recovery. The transmission distance is the key factor affecting total CO{sub 2} control costs.

  14. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of 2005 and 2010 EIA-reported water use indicated that withdrawal and consumption declined 18 percent and 34 percent, respectively. Alternative water types (types other than freshwater) accounted for approximately 25 percent of all withdrawals in 2010, most of which occurred at plants with once-through cooling systems using saline and brackish tidal waters. Differences among withdrawal and consumption coefficients based on EIA-reported water use for 2005 and 2010 and heat-budget model results for 2010 reveal opportunities for improving consistency and accuracy of reporting of water-use information at the plant scale.

  15. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Heat budgets were constructed for the first four generation-type categories; data at solar thermal plants were insufficient for heat budgets. These heat budgets yielded estimates of the amount of heat transferred to the condenser. The ratio of evaporation to the heat discharged through the condenser was estimated using existing heat balance models that are sensitive to environmental data; this feature allows estimation of consumption under different climatic conditions. These two estimates were multiplied to yield an estimate of consumption at each power plant.

  16. Rationale, design and methodology of a trial evaluating three strategies designed to improve sedation quality in intensive care units (DESIST study)

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Timothy S; Kydonaki, Kalliopi; Antonelli, Jean; Stephen, Jacqueline; Lee, Robert J; Everingham, Kirsty; Hanley, Janet; Uutelo, Kimmo; Peltola, Petra; Weir, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the rationale, design and methodology for a trial of three novel interventions developed to improve sedation-analgesia quality in adult intensive care units (ICUs). Participants and Setting 8 clusters, each a Scottish ICU. All mechanically ventilated sedated patients were potentially eligible for inclusion in data analysis. Design Cluster randomised design in 8 ICUs, with ICUs randomised after 45 weeks baseline data collection to implement one of four intervention combinations: a web-based educational programme (2 ICUs); education plus regular sedation quality feedback using process control charts (2 ICUs); education plus a novel sedation monitoring technology (2 ICUs); or all three interventions. ICUs measured sedation-analgesia quality, relevant drug use and clinical outcomes, during a 45-week preintervention and 45-week postintervention period separated by an 8-week implementation period. The intended sample size was >100 patients per site per study period. Main Outcome measures The primary outcome was the proportion of 12 h care periods with optimum sedation-analgesia, defined as the absence of agitation, unnecessary deep sedation, poor relaxation and poor ventilator synchronisation. Secondary outcomes were proportions of care periods with each of these four components of optimum sedation and rates of sedation-related adverse events. Sedative and analgesic drug use, and ICU and hospital outcomes were also measured. Analytic approach Multilevel generalised linear regression mixed models will explore the effects of each intervention taking clustering into account, and adjusting for age, gender and APACHE II score. Sedation-analgesia quality outcomes will be explored at ICU level and individual patient level. A process evaluation using mixed methods including quantitative description of intervention implementation, focus groups and direct observation will provide explanatory information regarding any effects observed. Conclusions The

  17. Comparison of Standards and Technical Requirements of Grid-Connected Wind Power Plants in China and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, David Wenzhong; Muljadi, Eduard; Tian, Tian; Miller, Mackay; Wang, Weisheng

    2016-09-01

    The rapid deployment of wind power has made grid integration and operational issues focal points in industry discussions and research. Compliance with grid connection standards for wind power plants (WPPs) is crucial to ensuring the reliable and stable operation of the electric power grid. This report compares the standards for grid-connected WPPs in China to those in the United States to facilitate further improvements in wind power standards and enhance the development of wind power equipment. Detailed analyses of power quality, low-voltage ride-through capability, active power control, reactive power control, voltage control, and wind power forecasting are provided to enhance the understanding of grid codes in the two largest markets of wind power. This study compares WPP interconnection standards and technical requirements in China to those in the United States.

  18. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ... tsunami-induced events at the Fukushima (Japan) Daiichi Nuclear Plant on March 11, 2011, TVA performed a.... Based upon TVA's post-Fukushima review, TVA concludes that the severe accident analysis in the FSEIS... Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from the Fukushima...

  19. 75 FR 3762 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Sequoyah Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... actions required by the revised 10 CFR part 73, does not involve any physical changes to the reactor, fuel..., ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' for Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-77 and DPR-79... for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  1. 75 FR 54961 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    .... These groups preferred the No Action Alternative due to their perception of the high cost and safety... and operation of a nuclear plant. The in-depth analysis of the impacts on low-income or minority... related to the construction workforce and the need for mitigation. TVA has undertaken an in-depth...

  2. Plant breeding with genomic selection: potential gain per unit time and cost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advancements in genotyping are rapidly decreasing marker costs and increasing genome coverage. This is facilitating the use of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in plant breeding. Commonly employed MAS strategies, however, are not well suited for complex traits, requiring extra time for field-based ph...

  3. Species richness and patterns of invasion in plants, birds, and fishes in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Barnett, David; Flather, Curtis; Fuller, Pam L.; Peterjohn, Bruce G.; Kartesz, John; Master, Lawrence L.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified broad-scale patterns of species richness and species density (mean # species/km2) for native and non-indigenous plants, birds, and fishes in the continental USA and Hawaii. We hypothesized that the species density of native and non-indigenous taxa would generally decrease in northern latitudes and higher elevations following declines in potential evapotranspiration, mean temperature, and precipitation. County data on plants (n = 3004 counties) and birds (n=3074 counties), and drainage (6 HUC) data on fishes (n = 328 drainages) showed that the densities of native and non-indigenous species were strongly positively correlated for plant species (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001), bird species (r = 0.93, P<0.0001), and fish species (r = 0.41, P<0.0001). Multiple regression models showed that the densities of native plant and bird species could be strongly predicted (adj. R2 = 0.66 in both models) at county levels, but fish species densities were less predictable at drainage levels (adj. R2 = 0.31,P<0.0001). Similarly, non-indigenous plant and bird species densities were strongly predictable (adj. R2 = 0.84 and 0.91 respectively), but non-indigenous fish species density was less predictable (adj. R2 = 0.38). County level hotspots of native and non-indigenous plants, birds, and fishes were located in low elevation areas close to the coast with high precipitation and productivity (vegetation carbon). We show that (1) native species richness can be moderately well predicted with abiotic factors; (2) human populations have tended to settle in areas rich in native species; and (3) the richness and density of non-indigenous plant, bird, and fish species can be accurately predicted from biotic and abiotic factors largely because they are positively correlated to native species densities. We conclude that while humans facilitate the initial establishment, invasions of non-indigenous species, the spread and subsequent distributions of non-indigenous species may be controlled

  4. TESTING TREE-CLASSIFIER VARIANTS AND ALTERNATE MODELING METHODOLOGIES IN THE EAST GREAT BASIN MAPPING UNIT OF THE SOUTHWEST REGIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROJECT (SW REGAP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested two methods for dataset generation and model construction, and three tree-classifier variants to identify the most parsimonious and thematically accurate mapping methodology for the SW ReGAP project. Competing methodologies were tested in the East Great Basin mapping un...

  5. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for container storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains Part B of the Permit Application for Container Storage Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Sections cover the following areas: Facility description; Waste characteristics; Process information; Ground water monitoring; Procedures to prevent hazards; Contingency plan; Personnel training; Closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; Recordkeeping; Other federal laws; Organic air emissions; Solid waste management units; and Certification.

  6. [Environmental Education Units.] Soil Sampling. Stream Profiles. Tree Watching. Plant Puzzles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Five of these eleven units describe methods elementary school students can use when studying soil characteristics. Soil nitrogen and water holding capacity tests are included with two techniques for measuring soil pH. Survey methods for soil organisms are suggested. The remaining pamphlets describe diverse activities associated with field…

  7. 78 FR 35989 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ..., Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elaine N. Keegan, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U... second light-water nuclear reactor (the facility), WBN Unit 2, located on the applicant's site in Rhea... Branch II-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. BILLING...

  8. 78 FR 278 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ...; Reclassification of the Continental United States Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered to....) breeding population of wood stork from endangered to threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973... reclassify the continental U.S. breeding population of wood stork from endangered to threatened under the...

  9. 78 FR 62709 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Unit 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... construction (FES-CP) of WBN, Units 1 and 2, issued on November 9, 1972 (ADAMS Accession No. ML073470580... on TVA's FES-CP as part of its review. In December 1978, the NRC staff issued NUREG-0498, ``Final... activities not addressed previously in TVA's FES-CP. The activities included: (1) Construction of...

  10. 78 FR 69367 - Golden Valley Electric Association: Healy Power Plant Unit #2 Restart

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    .... ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the ROD or for further information, contact: Deirdre M. Remley, Environmental...PowerPlan.html or you may contact Ms. Remley for a hard copy. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Healy Unit 2 is... documented in RUS's ROD is that RUS agrees to consider, subject to additional engineering and...

  11. Improvements in and actual performance of the Plant Experiment Unit onboard Kibo, the Japanese experiment module on the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Sachiko; Kasahara, Haruo; Masuda, Daisuke; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shimazu, Toru; Suzuki, Hiromi; Karahara, Ichirou; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Tayama, Ichiro; Tsuchiya, Yoshikazu; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    2013-03-01

    In 2004, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the engineered model of the Plant Experiment Unit and the Cell Biology Experiment Facility. The Plant Experiment Unit was designed to be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility and to support the seed-to-seed life cycle experiment of Arabidopsis plants in space in the project named Space Seed. Ground-based experiments to test the Plant Experiment Unit showed that the unit needed further improvement of a system to control the water content of a seedbed using an infrared moisture analyzer and that it was difficult to keep the relative humidity inside the Plant Experiment Unit between 70 and 80% because the Cell Biology Experiment Facility had neither a ventilation system nor a dehumidifying system. Therefore, excess moisture inside the Cell Biology Experiment Facility was removed with desiccant bags containing calcium chloride. Eight flight models of the Plant Experiment Unit in which dry Arabidopsis seeds were fixed to the seedbed with gum arabic were launched to the International Space Station in the space shuttle STS-128 (17A) on August 28, 2009. Plant Experiment Unit were installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility with desiccant boxes, and then the Space Seed experiment was started in the Japanese Experiment Module, named Kibo, which was part of the International Space Station, on September 10, 2009 by watering the seedbed and terminated 2 months later on November 11, 2009. On April 19, 2010, the Arabidopsis plants harvested in Kibo were retrieved and brought back to Earth by the space shuttle mission STS-131 (19A). The present paper describes the Space Seed experiment with particular reference to the development of the Plant Experiment Unit and its actual performance in Kibo onboard the International Space Station. Downlinked images from Kibo showed that the seeds had started germinating 3 days after the initial watering. The plants continued growing, producing rosette leaves, inflorescence

  12. Tolerances of plants to drought and salinity in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branson, Farrel Allen; Miller, Reuben Fred; Sorenson, Stephen K.

    1988-01-01

    Differing capacities of plant species to tolerate drought and salinity are causative factors for presence of species and communities in various habitats. It is proposed that minimum xylem pressure potentials measured are indicative of drought tolerance and that minimum cell osmotic potentials are indicative of salt tolerance of plant species. Of 85 species measured, Nuttall saltbush (Atriplex nuttallii nuttallii) was found to be the most drought tolerant. Saltbrush (Atriplex confertifolia, A. nuttallii, A. canescens, and A. torreyi) had the lowest cell osmotic potentials measured. Although pickleweed (Allenrolfea occidentalis) grows in the saltiest soil measured, it did not have the lowest cell osmotic potential. This apparent inconsistency may be explained by the succulent characteristics of pickleweed. (USGS)

  13. ASTROCULTURE(tm) Commercial Plant Growth Unit and Glove Box Insert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Wei-Jia; Lambing, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Two commercial plant investigations will be conducted during the STS-107 mission: living flower essential oil production and gene transfer. The research will be done using the ASTROCULTURE (trademark) hardware, which builds on similar experiments flown in the past on the space shuttle. This research will investigate how microgravity might affect the formation of the volatile chemical compounds - the essential oils - produced by two different types of living flowers. The flowers will be cultured in the ASTROCULTURE (trademark) plant chamber, which provides an enclosed and controlled environment. As the flowers bloom in space, they will produce essential oils, and these volatile compounds will be collected using International Flavors and Fragrance's proprietary Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) technology. The gene transfer experiment examines a newly developed transformation system to see if it operates efficiently in the microgravity environment. This research is important for the development of genetically engineered crops, also known as transgenic crops.

  14. Induced Radioactivity and Waste Classification of Reactor Zone Components of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 After Final Shutdown

    SciTech Connect

    Bylkin, Boris K.; Davydova, Galina B.; Zverkov, Yuri A.; Krayushkin, Alexander V.; Neretin, Yuri A.; Nosovsky, Anatoly V.; Seyda, Valery A.; Short, Steven M.

    2001-10-15

    The dismantlement of the reactor core materials and surrounding structural components is a major technical concern for those planning closure and decontamination and decommissioning of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Specific issues include when and how dismantlement should be accomplished and what the radwaste classification of the dismantled system would be at the time it is disassembled. Whereas radiation levels and residual radiological characteristics of the majority of the plant systems are directly measured using standard radiation survey and radiochemical analysis techniques, actual measurements of reactor zone materials are not practical due to high radiation levels and inaccessibility. For these reasons, neutron transport analysis was used to estimate induced radioactivity and radiation levels in the Chernobyl NPP Unit 1 reactor core materials and structures.Analysis results suggest that the optimum period of safe storage is 90 to 100 yr for the Unit 1 reactor. For all of the reactor components except the fuel channel pipes (or pressure tubes), this will provide sufficient decay time to allow unlimited worker access during dismantlement, minimize the need for expensive remote dismantlement, and allow for the dismantled reactor components to be classified as low- or medium-level radioactive waste. The fuel channel pipes will remain classified as high-activity waste requiring remote dismantlement for hundreds of years due to the high concentration of induced {sup 63}Ni in the Zircaloy pipes.

  15. New reports of nuclear DNA content for 407 vascular plant taxa from the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Chengke; Alverson, William S.; Follansbee, Aaron; Waller, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The amount of DNA in an unreplicated haploid nuclear genome (C-value) ranges over several orders of magnitude among plant species and represents a key metric for comparing plant genomes. To extend previously published datasets on plant nuclear content and to characterize the DNA content of many species present in one region of North America, flow cytometry was used to estimate C-values of woody and herbaceous species collected in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. Methods A total of 674 samples and vouchers were collected from locations across Wisconsin and Michigan, USA. From these, C-value estimates were obtained for 514 species, subspecies and varieties of vascular plants. Nuclei were extracted from samples of these species in one of two buffers, stained with the fluorochrome propidium iodide, and an Accuri C-6 flow cytometer was used to measure fluorescence peaks relative to those of an internal standard. Replicate extractions, coefficients of variation and comparisons to published C-values in the same and related species were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of our results. Key Results and Conclusions Prime C-values for 407 taxa are provided for which no published data exist, including 390 angiosperms, two gymnosperms, ten monilophytes and five lycophytes. Non-prime reports for 107 additional taxa are also provided. The prime values represent new reports for 129 genera and five families (of 303 genera and 97 families sampled). New family C-value maxima or minima are reported for Betulaceae, Ericaceae, Ranunculaceae and Sapindaceae. These data provide the basis for phylogenetic analyses of C-value variation and future analyses of how C-values covary with other functional traits. PMID:23100602

  16. Mass and number size distributions of emitted particulates at five important operation units in a hazardous industrial waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Chi; Huang, Hsiao-Lin; Hsiao, Wen-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Past studies indicated particulates generated by waste incineration contain various hazardous compounds. The aerosol characteristics are very important for particulate hazard control and workers' protection. This study explores the detailed characteristics of emitted particulates from each important operation unit in a rotary kiln-based hazardous industrial waste incineration plant. A dust size analyzer (Grimm 1.109) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) were used to measure the aerosol mass concentration, mass size distribution, and number size distribution at five operation units (S1-S5) during periods of normal operation, furnace shutdown, and annual maintenance. The place with the highest measured PM10 concentration was located at the area of fly ash discharge from air pollution control equipment (S5) during the period of normal operation. Fine particles (PM2.5) constituted the majority of the emitted particles from the incineration plant. The mass size distributions (elucidated) made it clear that the size of aerosols caused by the increased particulate mass, resulting from work activities, were mostly greater than 1.5 μm. Whereas the number size distributions showed that the major diameters of particulates that caused the increase of particulate number concentrations, from work activities, were distributed in the sub micrometer range. The process of discharging fly ash from air pollution control equipment can significantly increase the emission of nanoparticles. The mass concentrations and size distributions of emitted particulates were different at each operation unit. This information is valuable for managers to take appropriate strategy to reduce the particulate emission and associated worker exposure.

  17. Creation and application of voxelised dosimetric models, and a comparison with the current methodology as used for the International Commission on Radiological Protection's Reference Animals and Plants.

    PubMed

    Higley, K; Ruedig, E; Gomez-Fernandez, M; Caffrey, E; Jia, J; Comolli, M; Hess, C

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has developed a comprehensive approach to environmental protection that includes the use of Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) to assess radiological impacts on the environment. For the purposes of calculating radiation dose, the RAPs are approximated as simple shapes that contain homogeneous distributions of radionuclides. As uncertainties in environmental dose effects are larger than uncertainties in radiation dose calculation, some have argued against more realistic dose calculation methodologies. However, due to the complexity of organism morphology, internal structure, and density, dose rates calculated via a homogenous model may be too simplistic. The purpose of this study is to examine the benefits of a voxelised phantom compared with simple shapes for organism modelling. Both methods typically use Monte Carlo methods to calculate absorbed dose, but voxelised modelling uses an exact three-dimensional replica of an organism with accurate tissue composition and radionuclide source distribution. It is a multi-stage procedure that couples imaging modalities and processing software with Monte Carlo N-Particle. These features increase dosimetric accuracy, and may reduce uncertainty in non-human biota dose-effect studies by providing mechanistic answers regarding where and how population-level dose effects arise.

  18. Effects of flooding, salinity and herbivory on coastal plant communities, Louisiana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gough, L.; Grace, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Flooding and salinity stress are predicted to increase in coastal Louisiana as relative sea level rise (RSLR) continues in the Gulf of Mexico region. Although wetland plant species are adapted to these stressors, questions persist as to how marshes may respond to changed abiotic variables caused by RSLR, and how herbivory by native and non-native mammals may affect this response. The effects of altered flooding and salinity on coastal marsh communities were examined in two field experiments that simultaneously manipulated herbivore pressure. Marsh sods subjected to increased or decreased flooding (by lowering or raising sods, respectively), and increased or decreased salinity (by reciprocally transplanting sods between a brackish and fresh marsh), were monitored inside and outside mammalian herbivore exclosures for three growing seasons. Increased flooding stress reduced species numbers and biomass; alleviating flooding stress did not significantly alter species numbers while community biomass increased. Increased salinity reduced species numbers and biomass, more so if herbivores were present. Decreasing salinity had an unexpected effect: herbivores selectively consumed plants transplanted from the higher-salinity site. In plots protected from herbivory, decreased salinity had little effect on species numbers or biomass, but community composition changed. Overall, herbivore pressure further reduced species richness and biomass under conditions of increased flooding and increased salinity, supporting other findings that coastal marsh species can tolerate increasingly stressful conditions unless another factor, e.g., herbivory, is also present. Also, species dropped out of more stressful treatments much faster than they were added when stresses were alleviated, likely due to restrictions on dispersal. The rate at which plant communities will shift as a result of changed abiotic variables will determine if marshes remain viable when subjected to RSLR.

  19. Recent evolutionary radiation and host plant specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa subspecies native to the United States.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Vickerman, Danel B; Bromley, Robin E; Russell, Stephanie A; Hartman, John R; Morano, Lisa D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 "non-IHR" isolates, 2 minimally recombinant "intermediate" ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): "almond," "peach," and "oak" types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity.

  20. Recent Evolutionary Radiation and Host Plant Specialization in the Xylella fastidiosa Subspecies Native to the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Danel B.; Bromley, Robin E.; Russell, Stephanie A.; Hartman, John R.; Morano, Lisa D.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, infects many plant species in the Americas, making it a good model for investigating the genetics of host adaptation. We used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify isolates of the native U.S. subsp. multiplex that were largely unaffected by intersubspecific homologous recombination (IHR) and to investigate how their evolutionary history influences plant host specialization. We identified 110 “non-IHR” isolates, 2 minimally recombinant “intermediate” ones (including the subspecific type), and 31 with extensive IHR. The non-IHR and intermediate isolates defined 23 sequence types (STs) which we used to identify 22 plant hosts (73% trees) characteristic of the subspecies. Except for almond, subsp. multiplex showed no host overlap with the introduced subspecies (subspecies fastidiosa and sandyi). MLST sequences revealed that subsp. multiplex underwent recent radiation (<25% of subspecies age) which included only limited intrasubspecific recombination (ρ/θ = 0.02); only one isolated lineage (ST50 from ash) was older. A total of 20 of the STs grouped into three loose phylogenetic clusters distinguished by nonoverlapping hosts (excepting purple leaf plum): “almond,” “peach,” and “oak” types. These host differences were not geographical, since all three types also occurred in California. ST designation was a good indicator of host specialization. ST09, widespread in the southeastern United States, only infected oak species, and all peach isolates were ST10 (from California, Florida, and Georgia). Only ST23 had a broad host range. Hosts of related genotypes were sometimes related, but often host groupings crossed plant family or even order, suggesting that phylogenetically plastic features of hosts affect bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:23354698

  1. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

    1994-09-29

    In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected.

  3. Historic Properties Report: Newport Army Ammunition Plant, Newport Indiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Holston Army Ammunition Plant (HSAAP) in Kingsport , Tennessee , the only other RDX-manufactur. ng plant in the United States. Information on...January 1984 of all Anrm-owned properties located within the official boundaries of the Newport Army Ammunition Plant (Newport. AAP). The survey...described in the following section of this report. METHODOLOGY 1. Documentary Research The Nercort Army Ammunition Plant (Newport AAP) was constructed

  4. The evolution of NOx control policy for coal-fired power plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dallas Burtraw; David A. Evans

    2003-12-15

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) contribute to formation of particulate matter and ozone, and also to acidification of the environment. The electricity sector is responsible for about 20% of NOx emissions in the United States, and the sector has been the target of both prescriptive (command-and-control) and flexible (cap-and-trade) approaches to regulation. The paper summarises the major NOx control policies affecting this sector in the USA, and provides some perspectives as to their effectiveness. While both prescriptive and flexible approaches continue to play an important role, significant new proposals have wholly embraced a cap-and-trade approach. 20 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater operable units at the Chemical Plant Area and the Ordnance Works Area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are evaluating conditions in groundwater and springs at the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area near Weldon Spring, Missouri. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The 88-ha (217-acre) chemical plant area is chemically and radioactively contaminated as a result of uranium-processing activities conducted by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and 1960s and explosives-production activities conducted by the U.S. Army (Army) in the 1940s. The 6,974-ha (17,232-acre) ordnance works area is primarily chemically contaminated as a result of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and dinitrotoluene (DNT) manufacturing activities during World War II. This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is being conducted as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RUFS) required under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended. The purpose of the BRA is to evaluate potential human health and ecological impacts from contamination associated with the groundwater operable units (GWOUs) of the chemical plant area and ordnance works area. An RI/FS work plan issued jointly in 1995 by the DOE and DA (DOE 1995) analyzed existing conditions at the GWOUs. The work plan included a conceptual hydrogeological model based on data available when the report was prepared; this model indicated that the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. Hence, to optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts, the DOE and DA have decided to conduct a joint RI/BRA. Characterization data obtained from the chemical plant area wells indicate that uranium is present at levels slightly higher than background, with a few concentrations exceeding the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 20 {micro}g/L (EPA 1996c). Concentrations of other radionuclides (e

  6. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  7. Disposal of United Nuclear Company materials at the Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, T.R.; Stoner, H.H.

    1983-12-19

    The UNC Recovery Systems Company, located at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, was involved in the recovery of enriched uranium from scrap materials generated primarily in defense program activities of the DOE and its predecessor agencies. Following shutdown of the recovery operations in August 1980, UNC was required to decontaminate facilities and the associated waste lagoon systems and to remove the resultant low-level radioactive waste out of the state of Rhode Island. In view that the waste resulted from the processing of scrap materials generated in DOE Defense Programs activities and due to the lack of adequate capacity at commercial waste disposal facilities, DOE agreed to accept the waste for burial at the Y-12 Plant. Site characterization and well monitoring results are presented of the disposal site.

  8. Implementation of boric acid in the field - Indian Point Unit 3 plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jusino, B.J.

    1983-05-01

    A corrosion phenomenon termed denting has occurred in some operating PWR nuclear steam generators. A steam-generator boric-acid-conditioning program was implemented at Indian Point Unit 3 to demonstrate the effectiveness of boric acid in reducing or stopping the progression of denting. The program included a four-day low-power, boric-acid soak of the steam generators followed by continuous addition of boric acid at high-power operation. An on-line hydrogen-monitoring technique and steam-generator inspection technique were used to determine the baseline condition of the steam generators and to provide an indication of the rate of denting progression after the addition of boric acid to the steam generators. The results from these tests indicated that, although denting had continued, it had progressed at a slower rate than the immediate period before the boric-acid treatment.

  9. Optimal integration condition between the gas turbine air compressor and the air separation unit of IGCC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kim, H.T.; Yun, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Parametric studies are conducted for optimizing the integration design between gas turbine compressor and air separation unit (ASU) of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The ASU is assumed as low pressure double-distillation column process which is integrated at the interstage location of the compressor, and integration design criteria of air extraction and reversing heat exchanger are defined and mathematically formulated. With the performance prediction of compressor by through-flow analysis, the effects of pinch-point temperature difference (PTD) in the reversing heat exchanger, the amount and the pressure of extracted air are quantitatively examined. As the extraction air amount or the PTD is increased, the power consumption is increased. The compressor efficiency deteriorates as the increase of the flow rate of air extracted at higher pressure while improving at lower pressure air extraction. Furthermore, optimal integration condition for compressor efficiency maximization is found by generating the compressor characteristic curve.

  10. Assessment of the radionuclide composition of "hot particles" sampled in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant fourth reactor unit.

    PubMed

    Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zheltonozhsky, Viktor A; Zheltonozhskaya, Maryna V; Kulich, Nadezhda V; Maksimenko, Andrey M; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy; Marra, James C

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified, and the fuel burn-up in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burn-up values based on the cesium isotopes in comparison with other radionuclides was observed. The studies conducted were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of 242Cm and 243Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from 241Am (and going higher) in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF THE RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION OF "HOT PARTICLES" SAMPLED IN THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT FOURTH REACTOR UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.; Marra, J.

    2011-10-01

    Fuel-containing materials sampled from within the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) 4th Reactor Unit Confinement Shelter were spectroscopically studied for gamma and alpha content. Isotopic ratios for cesium, europium, plutonium, americium, and curium were identified and the fuel burnup in these samples was determined. A systematic deviation in the burnup values based on the cesium isotopes, in comparison with other radionuclides, was observed. The conducted studies were the first ever performed to demonstrate the presence of significant quantities of {sup 242}Cm and {sup 243}Cm. It was determined that there was a systematic underestimation of activities of transuranic radionuclides in fuel samples from inside of the ChNPP Confinement Shelter, starting from {sup 241}Am (and going higher), in comparison with the theoretical calculations.

  12. Native wildflower plantings support wild bee abundance and diversity in agricultural landscapes across the United States.

    PubMed

    Williams, Neal M; Ward, Kimiora L; Pope, Nathaniel; Isaacs, Rufus; Wilson, Julianna; May, Emily A; Ellis, Jamie; Daniels, Jaret; Pence, Akers; Ullmann, Katharina; Peters, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    Global trends in pollinator-dependent crops have raised awareness of the need to support managed and wild bee populations to ensure sustainable crop production. Provision of sufficient forage resources is a key element for promoting bee populations within human impacted landscapes, particularly those in agricultural lands where demand for pollination service is high and land use and management practices have reduced available flowering resources. Recent government incentives in North America and Europe support the planting of wildflowers to benefit pollinators; surprisingly, in North America there has been almost no rigorous testing of the performance of wildflower mixes, or their ability to support wild bee abundance and diversity. We tested different wildflower mixes in a spatially replicated, multiyear study in three regions of North America where production of pollinator-dependent crops is high: Florida, Michigan, and California. In each region, we quantified flowering among wildflower mixes composed of annual and perennial species, and with high and low relative diversity. We measured the abundance and species richness of wild bees, honey bees, and syrphid flies at each mix over two seasons. In each region, some but not all wildflower mixes provided significantly greater floral display area than unmanaged weedy control plots. Mixes also attracted greater abundance and richness of wild bees, although the identity of best mixes varied among regions. By partitioning floral display size from mix identity we show the importance of display size for attracting abundant and diverse wild bees. Season-long monitoring also revealed that designing mixes to provide continuous bloom throughout the growing season is critical to supporting the greatest pollinator species richness. Contrary to expectation, perennials bloomed in their first season, and complementarity in attraction of pollinators among annuals and perennials suggests that inclusion of functionally diverse

  13. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates.

  14. Occurrence of disinfection byproducts in United States wastewater treatment plant effluents.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Westerhoff, Paul; Chen, Baiyang; Rittmann, Bruce E; Amy, Gary

    2009-11-01

    Effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contain disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of health concern when the water is utilized downstream as a potable water supply. The pattern of DBP formation was strongly affected by whether or not the WWTP achieved good nitrification. Chlorine addition to poorly nitrified effluents formed low levels of halogenated DBPs, except for (in some cases) dihalogenated acetic acids, but often substantial amounts of N-nitrosodimethyamine (NDMA). Chlorination of well-nitrified effluent typically resulted in substantial formation of halogenated DBPs but much less NDMA. For example, on a median basis after chlorine addition, the well-nitrified effluents had 57 microg/L of trihalomethanes [THMs] and 3 ng/L of NDMA, while the poorly nitrified effluents had 2 microg/L of THMs and 11 ng/L of NDMA. DBPs with amino acid precursors (haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes) formed at substantial levels after chlorination of well-nitrified effluent. The formation of halogenated DBPs but not that of NDMA correlated with the formation of THMs in WWTP effluents disinfected with free chlorine. However, THM formation did not correlate with the formation of other DBPs in effluents disinfected with chloramines. Because of the relatively high levels of bromide in treated wastewater, bromine incorporation was observed in various classes of DBPs.

  15. Late Pleistocene C4 plant dominance and summer rainfall in the southwestern United States from isotopic study of herbivore teeth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connin, S.L.; Betancourt, J.; Quade, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Patterns of climate and C4 plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel ??13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C4 plant consumption for Mammuthus spp., Bison spp., Equus spp., and Camelops spp. The ??13C values were greatest in Bison spp. (-6.9 to + 1.7???) and Mammuthus spp. (-9.0 to +0.3???), and in some locales indicated C4-dominated grazing. The ??13C values of Antilocaprids were lowest among taxa (-12.5 to -7.9???) and indicated C3 feeding at all sites. On the basis of modern correlations between climate and C4 grass abundance, the enamel data imply significant summer rain in parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico throughout the last glaciation. Enamel ??18O values range from +19.0 to +31.0??? and generally increase to the east. This pattern could point to a tropical or subtropical source of summer rainfall. At a synoptic scale, the isotope data indicate that interactions of seasonal moisture, temperature, and lowered atmospheric pCO2 determined glacial-age C4 abundance patterns.

  16. The virtual digital nuclear power plant: A modern tool for supporting the lifecycle of VVER-based nuclear power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkadov, G. V.; Zhukavin, A. P.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Parshikov, I. A.; Solov'ev, S. L.; Shishov, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The article describes the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based Nuclear Power Plant" computerized system comprising a totality of verified initial data (sets of input data for a model intended for describing the behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) systems in design and emergency modes of their operation) and a unified system of new-generation computation codes intended for carrying out coordinated computation of the variety of physical processes in the reactor core and NPP equipment. Experiments with the demonstration version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system has shown that it is in principle possible to set up a unified system of computation codes in a common software environment for carrying out interconnected calculations of various physical phenomena at NPPs constructed according to the standard AES-2006 project. With the full-scale version of the "Virtual Digital VVER-Based NPP" computerized system put in operation, the concerned engineering, design, construction, and operating organizations will have access to all necessary information relating to the NPP power unit project throughout its entire lifecycle. The domestically developed commercial-grade software product set to operate as an independently operating application to the project will bring about additional competitive advantages in the modern market of nuclear power technologies.

  17. Organization and management of the plant safety evaluation of the VVER-440/230 units at Novovoronezh.

    SciTech Connect

    Afshar, C. M.; Pizzica, P.; Puglia, W. J.; Rozin, V.

    1999-05-13

    As part of the Soviet-Designed Reactor Safety (SDRS) element of the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP), the US Department of Energy (US DOE) is funding a plant safety evaluation (PSE) project for the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant (NvNPP). The Novovoronezh PSE Project is a multi-faceted project with participants from sixteen different international organizations from five different countries scattered across eleven time zones. The purpose of this project is to provide a thorough Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) and Deterministic Safety Analysis (DSA) for Units 3 and 4 of the NvNPP. In addition, this project provides assistance to the operation organizations in meeting their international commitments in support of safety upgrades, and their regulatory requirements for the conduct of safety analyses. Managing this project is a complex process requiring numerous management tools, constant monitoring, and effective communication skills. Employing management tools to resolve unanticipated problems one of the keys to project success. The overall scope, programmatic context, objectives, project interactions, communications, practical hindrances, and lessons learned from the challenging performance of the PSE project are summarized in this paper.

  18. Quantifying the efficiency and equity implications of power plant air pollution control strategies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, J.I.; Wilson, A.M.; Zwack, L.M.

    2007-05-15

    We modeled the public health benefits and the change in the spatial inequality of health risk for a number of hypothetical control scenarios for power plants in the United States to determine optimal control strategies. We simulated various ways by which emission reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) could be distributed to reach national emissions caps. We applied a source-receptor matrix to determine the PM2.5 concentration changes associated with each control scenario and estimated the mortality reductions. We estimated changes in the spatial inequality of health risk using the Atkinson index and other indicators, following previously derived axioms for measuring health risk inequality. In our baseline model, benefits ranged from 17,000-21,000 fewer premature deaths per year across control scenarios. Scenarios with greater health benefits also tended to have greater reductions in the spatial inequality of health risk, as many sources with high health benefits per unit emissions of SO{sub 2} were in areas with high background PM2.5 concentrations. Sensitivity analyses indicated that conclusions were generally robust to the choice of indicator and other model specifications. Our analysis demonstrates an approach for formally quantifying both the magnitude and spatial distribution of health benefits of pollution control strategies, allowing for joint consideration of efficiency and equity.

  19. Flexible NO(x) abatement from power plants in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Webster, Mort; McGaughey, Gary; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Thompson, Tammy; Prinn, Ronald; Ellerman, A Denny; Allen, David T

    2012-05-15

    Emission controls that provide incentives for maximizing reductions in emissions of ozone precursors on days when ozone concentrations are highest have the potential to be cost-effective ozone management strategies. Conventional prescriptive emissions controls or cap-and-trade programs consider all emissions similarly regardless of when they occur, despite the fact that contributions to ozone formation may vary. In contrast, a time-differentiated approach targets emissions reductions on forecasted high ozone days without imposition of additional costs on lower ozone days. This work examines simulations of such dynamic air quality management strategies for NO(x) emissions from electric generating units. Results from a model of day-specific NO(x) pricing applied to the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM) portion of the northeastern U.S. electrical grid demonstrate (i) that sufficient flexibility in electricity generation is available to allow power production to be switched from high to low NO(x) emitting facilities, (ii) that the emission price required to induce EGUs to change their strategies for power generation are competitive with other control costs, (iii) that dispatching strategies, which can change the spatial and temporal distribution of emissions, lead to ozone concentration reductions comparable to other control technologies, and (iv) that air quality forecasting is sufficiently accurate to allow EGUs to adapt their power generation strategies.

  20. Genetic variation in Pueraria lobata (Fabaceae), an introduced, clonal, invasive plant of the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Pappert, R A; Hamrick, J L; Donovan, L A

    2000-09-01

    Pueraria lobata (kudzu), a clonal, leguminous vine, is invading the southeastern United States at a rate of 50 000 ha per year. Genetic variability and clonal diversity were measured in 20 southeastern U.S. populations using 14 allozyme loci. Within its U.S. range, 92.9% of the loci were polymorphic and overall genetic diversity was 0.290. Such high levels of genetic diversity are consistent with its history of multiple introductions over an extended period of time. The average proportions of polymorphic loci and genetic diversity within populations were 55.7% (range = 28.6-85.7%) and 0.213 (range = 0.114-0.317), respectively. The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was similar to species with equivalent life history characters (G(ST) = 0.199). No regional patterns of variation were seen. The number of putative genotypes in each population ranged from 2 to 26. Mean genotypic diversity was 0.694, ranging from 0.223 to 0.955. Such high levels of genotypic diversity indicate that local sites are often colonized by several propagules (most likely seeds) and/or that sexual reproduction occurs within populations after establishment. An excess of heterozygosity was observed in populations with few unique genets, implying that selection for highly heterozygous individuals may occur in populations of P. lobata.

  1. Methodological Gravitism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaman, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author presents the case of the exchange marriage system to delineate a model of methodological gravitism. Such a model is not a deviation from or alteration to the existing qualitative research approaches. I have adopted culturally specific methodology to investigate spouse selection in line with the Grounded Theory Method. This…

  2. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is

  3. A methodology for fast assessments to the electrical activity of barrel fields in vivo: from population inputs to single unit outputs

    PubMed Central

    Riera, Jorge J.; Goto, Takakuni; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    Here we propose a methodology to analyze volumetric electrical activity of neuronal masses in the somatosensory barrel field of Wistar rats. The key elements of the proposed methodology are a three-dimensional microelectrode array, which was customized by our group to observe extracellular recordings from an extended area of the barrel field, and a novel method for the current source density analysis. By means of this methodology, we were able to localize single barrels from their event-related responses to single whisker deflection. It was also possible to assess the spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal aggregates in several barrels at the same time with the resolution of single neurons. We used simulations to study the robustness of our methodology to unavoidable physiological noise and electrode configuration. We compared the accuracy to reconstruct neocortical current sources with that obtained with a previous method. This constitutes a type of electrophysiological microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution, which could change the way we analyze the activity of cortical neurons in the future. PMID:24550785

  4. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  5. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  6. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    EPA Science Inventory

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspe...

  7. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) General Contingency Plan for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    This contingency plan provides a description of the Y-12 plant and its waste units and prescribes control procedures and emergency response procedures. It lists emergency and spill response equipment, provides information on coordination agreements with local agencies, and describes the evacuation plan and reporting requirements.

  8. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovars Heidelberg and Kentucky in the scalder water of a commercial poultry processing plant in the southeastern United States.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of Salmonella enterica present in the water of scalder and chiller tanks from a commercial chicken processing plant in the southeaster United States. Three liters of scald and chill water were aseptically sampled three times daily for three consec...

  9. Tri-State Synfuels Project Review: Volume 8. Commercial status of licensed process units. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; licensed commercial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This document demonstrates the commercial status of the process units to be used in the Tri-State Synfuels Project at Henderson, Kentucky. The basic design philosophy as established in October, 1979, was to use the commercial SASOL II/III plants as a basis. This was changed in January 1982 to a plant configuration to produce gasoline via a methanol and methanol to gasoline process. To accomplish this change the Synthol, Oil workup and Chemical Workup Units were eliminated and replaced by Methanol Synthesis and Methanol to Gasoline Units. Certain other changes to optimize the Lurgi liquids processing eliminated the Tar Distillation and Naphtha Hydrotreater Units which were replaced by the Partial Oxidation Unit. The coals to be gasified are moderately caking which necessitates the installation of stirring mechanism in the Lurgi Dry Bottom gasifier. This work is in the demonstration phase. Process licenses either have been obtained or must be obtained for a number of processes to be used in the plant. The commercial nature of these processes is discussed in detail in the tabbed sections of this document. In many cases there is a list of commercial installations at which the licensed equipment is used.

  10. CONFIRMATORY SURVEY RESULTS FOR PORTIONS OF THE MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT FROM UNITS 1 AND 2 AT THE HUMBOLDT BAY POWER PLANT, EUREKA, CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    W.C. Adams

    2011-04-01

    The Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E) operated the Humboldt Bay Power Plant (HBPP) Unit 3 nuclear reactor near Eureka, California under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) provisional license number DPR-7. HBPP Unit 3 achieved initial criticality in February 1963 and began commercial operations in August 1963. Unit 3 was a natural circulation boiling water reactor with a direct-cycle design. This design eliminated the need for heat transfer loops and large containment structures. Also, the pressure suppression containment design permitted below-ground construction. Stainless steel fuel claddings were used from startup until cladding failures resulted in plant system contamination—zircaloy-clad fuel was used exclusively starting in 1965 eliminating cladding-related contamination. A number of spills and gaseous releases were reported during operations resulting in a range of mitigative activities (see ESI 2008 for details).

  11. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  12. Feasibility study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In July 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) directed the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations to comply with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the remediation of the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. EPA, Waste Management Branch, had approved a closure plan in December 1989 for the UNC Disposal Site. This feasibility study (FS) is a fully satisfy the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Contingency Plan (NCP) requirements for support of the selection of a remedial response for closure of the UNC Disposal Site. For two years the UNC Disposal Site accepted and disposed of waste from the decommissioning of a UNC uranium recovery facility in Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. Between June 1982 and November 1984, the UNC Disposal Site received 11,000 55-gal drums of sludge fixed in cement, 18,000 drums of contaminated soil, and 288 wooden boxes of contaminated building and process demolition materials. The FS assembles a wide range of remedial technologies so the most appropriate actions could be selected to remediate potential contamination to below MCLs and/or to below the maximum level of acceptable risk. Technologies were evaluated based on technical effectiveness, ease of implementation, and costs. Applicable technologies were then selected for alternative development. 33 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of in vivo antimycobacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants and enumeration of colony forming unit in murine model

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Acheenta Gohain; Raj, Himangshu; Konch, Pranab; Hussain, P.; Barua, Chandana C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo antimycobacterial activity of methanol extract of Alstonia scholaris and Mucuna imbricata in murine model. Materials and Methods: Female BALB/c mice were infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv suspension. Extracts were administered orally for 2 weeks from 7th day postinfection at a dose of 200 mg/kg and rifampicin at 20 mg/kg as standard. The synergistic groups were 10 and 100 mg/kg for rifampicin and extract, respectively. Results: The final body weight of mycobacteria-infected group was significantly reduced (15.41 ± 0.42, P < 0.01), but following treatment with the plant extract plus rifampicin could elevate the body weight. Colony forming unit (CFU) count of lung (8.71 ± 0.01) and spleen (8.59 ± 0.01) was significantly higher in infected and untreated group (P < 0.01). It was observed that activity of the synergistic group displayed powerful and maximum response against tuberculosis (TB) infection with lower CFU counts. Histopathology study showed cells such as lymphocytes, epithelioid, Langhans giant cell, and fibrous tissue proliferation in lungs; depletion of lymphocytes in the spleen. Conclusions: The data indicate that methanol extract of A. scholaris has potential antimycobacterial activity, and the synergistic group consisting of rifampicin and A. scholaris could be a rational choice for the treatment of TB. PMID:27721538

  14. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Newcomer; Jay Apt

    2009-06-15

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been cancelled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO{sub 2} emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO{sub 2} reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies. 50 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. The observed response of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 columns to NOx emission controls on power plants in the United States: 2005-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; de Foy, Benjamin; Lamsal, Lok N.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2013-12-01

    We show that Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric column data may be used to assess changes of the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States, though careful interpretation of the data is necessary. There is a clear response for OMI NO2 data to NOx emission reductions from power plants associated with the implementation of mandated emission control devices (ECDs) over the OMI record (2005-2011). This response is scalar for all intents and purposes, whether the reduction is rapid or incremental over several years. However, it is variable among the power plants, even for those with the greatest absolute decrease in emissions. We document the primary causes of this variability, presenting case examples for specific power plants.

  16. The Observed Response of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 Columns to NOx Emission Controls on Power Plants in the United States: 2005-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; deFoy, Benjamin; Lamsal, Lok N.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2013-01-01

    We show that Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric column data may be used to assess changes of the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States, though careful interpretation of the data is necessary. There is a clear response for OMI NO2 data to NOx emission reductions from power plants associated with the implementation of mandated emission control devices (ECDs) over the OMI record (2005e2011). This response is scalar for all intents and purposes, whether the reduction is rapid or incremental over several years. However, it is variable among the power plants, even for those with the greatest absolute decrease in emissions. We document the primary causes of this variability, presenting case examples for specific power plants.

  17. Benzene exposure in the petroleum distribution industry associated with leukemia in the United Kingdom: overview of the methodology of a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes basic principles underlying the methodology for obtaining quantitative estimates of benzene exposure in the petroleum marketing and distribution industry. Work histories for 91 cases of leukemia and 364 matched controls (4 per case) identified for a cohort of oil distribution workers up to the end of 1992 were obtained, primarily from personnel records. Information on the distribution sites, more than 90% of which were closed at the time of data collection, was obtained from site visits and archive material. Industrial hygiene measurements measured under known conditions were assembled for different tasks. These were adjusted for conditions where measured data were not available using variables known to influence exposure, such as temperature, technology, percentage of benzene in fuel handled, products handled, number of loads, and job activity. A quantitative estimate of dermal contact and peak exposure was also made. PMID:9118922

  18. Impacts of woody plant encroachment on regional climate in the southern Great Plains of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jianjun; Zou, Chris

    2013-08-01

    change can influence climate by altering the fluxes of mass and energy between ecosystems and the atmosphere. In the past century or so, rapid conversion of grasslands to woodland by woody species encroachment is one of the most important vegetation changes in the semiarid and arid regions of the world. The objective of this study is to investigate potential impacts of this widespread phenomenon on climate system in the southern Great Plains of the United States. The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) is used for this study. Grassland on the surface in RAMS is gradually replaced by woody species and RAMS is run a set of times, each with a different amount of encroachment. RAMS-simulated precipitation and air temperature are then analyzed. This study finds tha t over a 1 year period woody plant encroachment leads to increase in rainfall and the increase is statistically significant at many locations. Woody encroachment also has an overall warming effect, but increase in temperature is not statistically significant. Temperature and precipitation increase almost linearly with increasing encroachment on the surface. When grassland is completely replaced, annual accumulated precipitation increases by 23.6 mm and maximum air temperature rises by 0.13°C averaged over the entire study area. In areas where encroachment occurs, averaged increases in accumulated precipitation and temperature are 58.2 mm and 0.27°C, respectively. The largest increase in precipitation and strongest warming tend to be located in dry and encroached areas including central and northern Texas, and they reach as high as 213.6 mm and 0.68°C, respectively. Decrease in surface albedo is found to be the most important factor that causes these changes.

  19. Analysis of the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Volume 8, Seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, J.E.; Lappa, D.A.; Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Chuang, T.Y.; Johnson, J.J.; Campbell, R.D.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Tiong, L.W.; Ravindra, M.K.; Kincaid, R.H.; Sues, R.H.; Putcha, C.S.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the methodology used and the results obtained from the application of a simplified seismic risk methodology to the LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Unit 2. This study is part of the Level I analysis being performed by the Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP). Using the RMIEP developed event and fault trees, the analysis resulted in a seismically induced core damage frequency point estimate of 6.OE-7/yr. This result, combined with the component importance analysis, indicated that system failures were dominated by random events. The dominant components included diesel generator failures (failure to swing, failure to start, failure to run after started), and condensate storage tank.

  20. Effects of the rider on the kinematics of the equine spine under the saddle during the trot using inertial measurement units: Methodological study and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Cheze, L; Pourcelot, P; Desquilbet, L; Duray, L; Chateau, H

    2017-03-01

    Many factors associated with the saddle and the rider could produce pain in horses thus reducing performance. However, studies of horse-saddle-rider interactions are limited and determining their effects remains challenging. The aim of this study was to test a novel method for assessing equine thoracic and lumbar spinal movement under the saddle and collect data during trotting. Back movement was measured using inertial measurement units (n = 5) fixed at the levels of thoracic vertebrae T6, T12 and T16, and lumbar vertebrae L2 and L5. To compare unridden and ridden conditions, three horses were trotted in hand then at the rising trot (seated phase: left diagonal, rider seated; standing phase: right diagonal, rider standing). The protraction-retraction angles of the forelimbs and the hind limbs were also calculated in two dimensions (2D) using reflective markers. To compare conditions, linear mixed-effects regression models were used and estimated means (standard error) were calculated. The range of motion (ROM) of the caudal thoracic and thoracolumbar regions decreased respectively by -1.3 (0.4)° and -0.6 (0.2)° during the seated phase compared to the unridden condition. Concomitantly, the ROM of protraction and retraction angles increased in the ridden condition. This study demonstrated the ability of inertial measurement units to assess equine vertebral movements under the saddle. The rider, at the rising trot, affected the horse's global locomotion with measurable changes in the vertebral kinematics under the saddle.

  1. Supporting evaluation for the proposed plan for final remedial action for the groundwater operable unit at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri.

    SciTech Connect

    2003-08-06

    This report presents the technical information developed since the interim record of decision (IROD) was issued in September 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE] 2000). The information was incorporated into the evaluation that was performed in selecting the preferred alternative for the Chemical Plant groundwater operable unit (GWOU) of the Weldon Spring site. The contaminants of concern (COCs) in groundwater and springs are trichloroethylene (TCE), nitrate, uranium, and nitroaromatic compounds. The preferred alternative of monitored natural attenuation (MNA) coupled with institutional controls (ICs) and contingency activities is described in the ''Proposed Plan (PP) for Final Remedial Action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri'' (DOE 2003b).

  2. Detailed analysis of a RCRA landfill for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this detailed analysis is to provide a preliminary compilation of data, information, and estimated costs associated with a RCRA landfill alternative for UNC Disposal Site. This is in response to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) comment No. 6 from their review of a {open_quotes}Feasibility Study for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.{close_quotes}

  3. Long-term sampling of CO(2) from waste-to-energy plants: (14)C determination methodology, data variation and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Karsten; Pedersen, Niels Hald; Larsen, Anna Warberg; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-02-01

    A dedicated sampling and measurement method was developed for long-term measurements of biogenic and fossil-derived CO(2) from thermal waste-to-energy processes. Based on long-term sampling of CO(2) and (14)C determination, plant-specific emission factors can be determined more accurately, and the annual emission of fossil CO(2) from waste-to-energy plants can be monitored according to carbon trading schemes and renewable energy certificates. Weekly and monthly measurements were performed at five Danish waste incinerators. Significant variations between fractions of biogenic CO(2) emitted were observed, not only over time, but also between plants. From the results of monthly samples at one plant, the annual mean fraction of biogenic CO(2) was found to be 69% of the total annual CO(2) emissions. From weekly samples, taken every 3 months at the five plants, significant seasonal variations in biogenic CO(2) emissions were observed (between 56% and 71% biogenic CO(2)). These variations confirmed that biomass fractions in the waste can vary considerably, not only from day to day but also from month to month. An uncertainty budget for the measurement method itself showed that the expanded uncertainty of the method was ± 4.0 pmC (95 % confidence interval) at 62 pmC. The long-term sampling method was found to be useful for waste incinerators for determination of annual fossil and biogenic CO(2) emissions with relatively low uncertainty.

  4. Thematic Science Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.; Cliatt, Mary Jo Puckett

    1990-01-01

    Described are four interdisciplinary units entitled "A Very Fishy Unit,""Building Healthy Bodies Unit,""Hands-On Plants Units," and "Butterflies Spell Beauty Unit." Each unit contains science activities, skills and concepts covered, and activities that cover other disciplines. (KR)

  5. 75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... part 73, does not involve any physical changes to the reactor, fuel, plant structures, support... part 73, ``Physical protection of plants and materials,'' for Renewed Facility Operating License Nos... FR 13967). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to...

  6. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. A Survey of the Continental United States for Pathogens of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    8 Rationale ............. .......................... 8 Purpose and Objectives ......... .................... 9 PART II: MATERIALS AND...systems, decline of aesthetic and real estate values due to accumulation and decay of plant material , and associated depression of dissolved oxygen...environmental benefits of harvesting include the removal of plant material prior to decay, thereby lessening oxygen depletion and aesthetic problems

  7. Mitigating Community Impacts of Energy Development: Some Examples for Coal and Nuclear Generating Plants in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Elizabeth

    The Hartsville, Tennessee nuclear reactor site, the coal plant at Wheatland, Wyoming, and the nuclear plant at Skagit, Washington have mitigation plans developed in response to a federal, state, and local regulatory agency, respectively; the three mitigation plans aim at internalizing community-level social costs and benefits during the…

  8. Haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli, on the wild host plant, Solanum dulcamara, in the Pacific Northwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso) is a bacterium that infects solanaceous crops and causes plant decline and yield losses, especially in potato and tomato. Lso is transmitted to these hosts by the potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc.) vector. B. cockerelli host plants are not li...

  9. Comparison of the Various Methodologies for Estimating Thermoelectric Power Generation Water Withdrawals and Their Effect on Water-Use Trends from 1985-2010 in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutson, S.

    2013-12-01

    the cooling water. Condenser duty is the amount of waste heat delivered to the cooling system through the condenser. The modeled water withdrawal results were expressed as a single value for each powerplant along with a minimum and maximum that bracketed a thermodynamically reasonable range of values. This range also provided a quality assurance check for other self-reported operator or coefficient derived water withdrawal estimates for a powerplant. To varying degrees, the USGS modeled results differed from the self-reported operator values used by most USGS State offices for the 2010 national compilation. Importantly, these two USGS nationally-generated sets of 2010 withdrawal values show a notable shift in the relatively stable thermoelectric water-use trend from 1985 to 2005. To understand the shift in the 2010 thermoelectric withdrawal estimates, the methodologies were analyzed by comparing EIA reported data for 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005 to USGS national compilation estimates for the same years. Further, 2010 self-reported water withdrawal data from EIA, the USGS national compilation data, and USGS model results were also compared.

  10. 78 FR 48203 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3, Notice of Public Meeting on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    .... Unit 3, which is the NRC licensed reactor, is currently being decommissioned with the spent fuel now stored in the onsite Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation. Unit 3 decommissioning commenced in May....82(a)(9)(iii), the NRC is providing notice to individuals in the vicinity of the site that the...

  11. Paired Comparison Survey Analyses Utilizing Rasch Methodology of the Relative Difficulty and Estimated Work Relative Value Units of CPT® Code 27279

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Morgan; Ferrara, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis (“MI SIJ fusion”) received a Category I CPT® code (27279) effective January 1, 2015 and was assigned a work relative value unit (“RVU”) of 9.03. The International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery (“ISASS”) conducted a study consisting of a Rasch analysis of two separate surveys of surgeons to assess the accuracy of the assigned work RVU. Methods A survey was developed and sent to ninety-three ISASS surgeon committee members. Respondents were asked to compare CPT® 27279 to ten other comparator CPT® codes reflective of common spine surgeries. The survey presented each comparator CPT® code with its code descriptor as well as the description of CPT® 27279 and asked respondents to indicate whether CPT® 27279 was greater, equal, or less in terms of work effort than the comparator code. A second survey was sent to 557 U.S.-based spine surgeon members of ISASS and 241 spine surgeon members of the Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (“SMISS”). The design of the second survey mirrored that of the first survey except for the use of a broader set of comparator CPT® codes (27 vs. 10). Using the work RVUs of the comparator codes, a Rasch analysis was performed to estimate the relative difficulty of CPT® 27279, after which the work RVU of CPT® 27279 was estimated by regression analysis. Results Twenty surgeons responded to the first survey and thirty-four surgeons responded to the second survey. The results of the regression analysis of the first survey indicate a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.36 and the results of the regression analysis of the second survey indicate a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.1. Conclusion The Rasch analysis indicates that the current work RVU assigned to CPT® 27279 is undervalued at 9.03. Averaging the results of the regression analyses of the two surveys indicates a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.23.

  12. 76 FR 11521 - Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant, Unit 1, Northern States Power Company-Minnesota; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... CONTACT: Thomas J. Wengert, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission..., Plant Licensing Branch III-1, Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  13. 75 FR 54920 - In the Matter of Pacific Gas & Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... management of the Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant's design/ licensing basis which undermines PG&E's ability... Electronic Hearing Docket webpage at http://ehd1.nrc.gov/EHD/ . The time and date of the evidentiary...

  14. 78 FR 76317 - Llano Seco Riparian Sanctuary Unit Restoration and Pumping Plant/Fish Screen Facility Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... that is south of the revetment has eroded approximately 600 feet. The erosion on refuge property is...-screening efficiency of the new PCGID-PID pumping plant is now endangered by the bank erosion on the...

  15. The effectiveness of using the combined-cycle technology in a nuclear power plant unit equipped with an SVBR-100 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Gospodchenkov, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    The design of a modular SVBR-100 reactor with a lead-bismuth alloy liquid-metal coolant is described. The basic thermal circuit of a power unit built around the SVBR-100 reactor is presented together with the results of its calculation. The gross electrical efficiency of the turbine unit driven by saturated steam at a pressure of 6.7 MPa is estimated at η{el/gr} = 35.5%. Ways for improving the efficiency of this power unit and increasing its power output by applying gas-turbine and combined-cycle technologies are considered. With implementing a combined-cycle power-generating system comprising two GE-6101FA gas-turbine units with a total capacity of 140 MW, it becomes possible to obtain the efficiency of the combined-cycle plant equipped with the SVBR-100 reactor η{el/gr} = 45.39% and its electrical power output equal to 328 MW. The heat-recovery boiler used as part of this power installation generates superheated steam with a temperature of 560°C, due to which there is no need to use a moisture separator/steam reheater in the turbine unit thermal circuit.

  16. Conducting water chemistry of the secondary coolant circuit of VVER-based nuclear power plant units constructed without using copper containing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkov, V. F.

    2014-07-01

    The secondary coolant circuit water chemistry with metering amines began to be put in use in Russia in 2005, and all nuclear power plant units equipped with VVER-1000 reactors have been shifted to operate with this water chemistry for the past seven years. Owing to the use of water chemistry with metering amines, the amount of products from corrosion of structural materials entering into the volume of steam generators has been reduced, and the flow-accelerated corrosion rate of pipelines and equipment has been slowed down. The article presents data on conducting water chemistry in nuclear power plant units with VVER-1000 reactors for the secondary coolant system equipment made without using copper-containing alloys. Statistical data are presented on conducting ammonia-morpholine and ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistries in new-generation operating power units with VVER-1000 reactors with an increased level of pH. The values of cooling water leaks in turbine condensers the tube system of which is made of stainless steel or titanium alloy are given.

  17. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  18. Treatment of wastewater effluents from paper-recycling plants by coagulation process and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birjandi, Noushin; Younesi, Habibollah; Bahramifar, Nader

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a coagulation process was used to treat paper-recycling wastewater with alum coupled with poly aluminum chloride (PACl) as coagulants. The effect of each four factors, viz. the dosages of alum and PACl, pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD), on the treatment efficiency was investigated. The influence of these four parameters was described using response surface methodology under central composite design. The efficiency of reducing turbidity, COD and the sludge volume index (SVI) were considered the responses. The optimum conditions for high treatment efficiency of paper-recycling wastewater under experimental conditions were reached with numerical optimization of coagulant doses and pH, with 1,550 mg/l alum and 1,314 mg/l PACl and 9.5, respectively, where the values for reduction of 80.02 % in COD, 83.23 % in turbidity, and 140 ml/g in SVI were obtained.

  19. Radioactive Waste Evaporation: Current Methodologies Employed for the Development, Design, and Operation of Waste Evaporators at the Savannah River Site and Hanford Waste Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Calloway, T.B.

    2003-09-11

    Evaporation of High level and Low Activity (HLW and LAW) radioactive wastes for the purposes of radionuclide separation and volume reduction has been conducted at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites for more than forty years. Additionally, the Savannah River Site (SRS) has used evaporators in preparing HLW for immobilization into a borosilicate glass matrix. This paper will discuss the methodologies, results, and achievements of the SRTC evaporator development program that was conducted in support of the SRS and Hanford WTP evaporator processes. The cross pollination and application of waste treatment technologies and methods between the Savannah River and Hanford Sites will be highlighted. The cross pollination of technologies and methods is expected to benefit the Department of Energy's Mission Acceleration efforts by reducing the overall cost and time for the development of the baseline waste treatment processes.

  20. Testing methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Several methodologies are available for screening human populations for exposure to ionizing radiation. Of these, aberration frequency determined in peripheral blood lymphocytes is the best developed. Individual exposures to large doses can easily be quantitated, and population exposures to occupational levels can be detected. However, determination of exposures to the very low doses anticipated from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site is more problematical. Aberrations occur spontaneously, without known cause. Exposure to radiation induces no new or novel types, but only increases their frequency. The limitations of chromosomal aberration dosimetry for detecting low level radiation exposures lie mainly in the statistical signal to noise'' problem, the distribution of aberrations among cells and among individuals, and the possible induction of aberrations by other environmental occupational or medical exposures. However, certain features of the human peripheral lymphocyte-chromosomal aberration system make it useful in screening for certain types of exposures. Future technical developments may make chromosomal aberration dosimetry more useful for low-level radiation exposures. Other methods, measuring gene mutations or even minute changes on the DNA level, while presently less will developed techniques, may eventually become even more practical and sensitive assays for human radiation exposure. 15 refs.

  1. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) contingency plan for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Y-12 RCRA Contingency Plan will be continually reviewed and revised if any of the following occur: the facility permit is revised, the plan is inadequate in an emergency, the procedures can be improved, the operations of the facility change in a way that alters the plan, the emergency coordinator changes, or the emergency equipment list changes. Copies of the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan are available at the Plant Shift Superintendent`s Office and the Emergency Management Office. This document serves to supplement the Y-12 Emergency Management Plan to be appropriate for all RCRA hazardous waste treatment, storage, or disposal units. The 90-day accumulation areas at the Y-12 Plant have a separate contingency supplement as required by RCRA and are separate from this supplement.

  2. Spatial characteristics to calcium signalling; the calcium wave as a basic unit in plant cell calcium signalling

    PubMed Central

    Malhó, R.

    1998-01-01

    Many signals that modify plant cell growth and development initiate changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+. The subsequent movement of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm is thought to take place via waves of free Ca2+. These waves may be initiated at defined regions of the cell and movement requires release from a reticulated endoplasmic reticulum and the vacuole. The mechanism of wave propagation is outlined and the possible basis of repetitive reticulum wave formation, Ca2+ oscillations and capacitative Ca2+ signalling is discussed. Evidence for the presence of Ca2+ waves in plant cells is outlined, and from studies on raphides it is suggested that the capabilities for capacitative Ca2+ signalling are also present. The paper finishes with an outline of the possible interrelation between Ca2+ waves and organelles and describes the intercellular movement of Ca2+ waves and the relevance of such information communication to plant development.

  3. Model-based monitoring and fault diagnosis of fossil power plant process units using Group Method of Data Handling.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Upadhyaya, Belle R; Coffey, Lonnie A

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents an incipient fault diagnosis approach based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) technique. The GMDH algorithm provides a generic framework for characterizing the interrelationships among a set of process variables of fossil power plant sub-systems and is employed to generate estimates of important variables in a data-driven fashion. In this paper, ridge regression techniques are incorporated into the ordinary least squares (OLS) estimator to solve regression coefficients at each layer of the GMDH network. The fault diagnosis method is applied to feedwater heater leak detection with data from an operating coal-fired plant. The results demonstrate the proposed method is capable of providing an early warning to operators when a process fault or an equipment fault occurs in a fossil power plant.

  4. Joint US/Russian study on the development of a decommissioning strategy plan for RBMK-1000 unit No. 1 at the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this joint U.S./Russian study was to develop a safe, technically feasible, economically acceptable strategy for decommissioning Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant (LNPP) Unit No. 1 as a representative first-generation RBMK-1000 reactor. The ultimate goal in developing the decommissioning strategy was to select the most suitable decommissioning alternative and end state, taking into account the socioeconomic conditions, the regulatory environment, and decommissioning experience in Russia. This study was performed by a group of Russian and American experts led by Kurchatov Institute for the Russian efforts and by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. efforts and for the overall project.

  5. Methodology for developing and implementing alternative temperature-time curves for testing the fire resistance of barriers for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, L.Y.; Steckler, K.D.

    1996-08-01

    Advances in fire science over the past 40 years have offered the potential for developing technically sound alternative temperature-time curves for use in evaluating fire barriers for areas where fire exposures can be expected to be significantly different than the ASTM E-119 standard temperature-time exposure. This report summarizes the development of the ASTM E-119, standard temperature-time curve, and the efforts by the federal government and the petrochemical industry to develop alternative fire endurance curves for specific applications. The report also provides a framework for the development of alternative curves for application at nuclear power plants. The staff has concluded that in view of the effort necessary for the development of nuclear power plant specific temperature-time curves, such curves are not a viable approach for resolving the issues concerning Thermo-Lag fire barriers. However, the approach may be useful to licensees in the development of performance-based fire protection methods in the future.

  6. Thermal tests of the SGT5-4000F gas-turbine plant of the PGU-420T power-generating unit at Combined Heat And Power Plant 16 of Mosenergo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teplov, B. D.; Radin, Yu. A.; Filin, A. A.; Rudenko, D. V.

    2016-08-01

    In December 2014, the PGU-420T power-generating unit was put into operation at the Combined Heat and Power Plant 16, an affiliated company of PAO Mosenergo. In 2014-2015, thermal tests of the SGT5- 4000F gas-turbine plant (GTP) integrated into the power-generating unit were carried out. In the article, the test conditions are described and the test results are presented and analyzed. During the tests, 92 operating modes within a wide range of electrical loads and ambient air temperatures and operating conditions of the GTP when fired with fuel oil were investigated. In the tests, an authorized automated measuring system was applied. The experimental data were processed according to ISO 2314:2009 "Gas turbines—Acceptance tests" standard. The available capacity and the GTP efficiency vary from 266 MW and 38.8% to 302 MW and 39.8%, respectively, within the ambient air temperature range from +24 to-12°C, while the turbine inlet temperature decreases from 1200 to 1250°C. The switch to firing fuel oil results in a reduction in the turbine inlet temperature and the capacity of the GTP. With the full load and a reduction in the ambient temperature from +24 to-12°C, the compressor efficiency decreases from 89.6 to 86.4%. The turbine efficiency is approximately 89-91%. Within the investigated range of power output, the emissions of nitrogen oxides do not exceed 35 ppm for the gas-fired plant and 65 ppm for the fuel-oil-fired plant. Within the range of the GTP power output from 50 to 100% of the rated output, the combustion chamber operates without underburning and with hardly any CO being formed. At low loads close to the no-load operation mode, the CO emissions drastically increase.

  7. The Lolium pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae recovered from a single blasted wheat plant in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat blast is a devastating disease that was first identified in Brazil and has subsequently spread to surrounding countries in South America. In May 2011, disease scouting in a University of Kentucky wheat trial plot in Princeton, Kentucky identified a single plant with disease symptoms that diffe...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: UTC FUEL CELLS' PC25C POWER PLANT - GAS PROCESSING UNIT PERFORMANCE FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system based on the UTC Fuel Cell's PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant was evaluated. The...

  9. The botanist effect revisited: plant species richness, county area, and human population size in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Marco; McKinney, Michael L

    2007-10-01

    The "botanist effect" is thought to be the reason for higher plant species richness in areas where botanists are disproportionately present as an artefactual consequence of a more thorough sampling. We examined whether this was the case for U.S. counties. We collated the number of species of vascular plants, human population size, and the area of U.S. counties. Controlling for spatial autocorrelation and county area, plant species richness increased with human population size and density in counties with and without universities and/or botanical gardens, with no significant differences in the relation between the two subsets. This is consistent with previous findings and further evidence of a broad-scale positive correlation between species richness and human population presence, which has important consequences for the experience of nature by inhabitants of densely populated regions. Combined with the many reports of a negative correlation between the two variables at a local scale, the positive relation between plant species richness in U.S. counties and human population presence stresses the need for the conservation of seminatural areas in urbanized ecosystems and for the containment of urban and suburban sprawl.

  10. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    This case study describes how the U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, Minnesota, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  11. Largest Producer of Steel Products in the United States Achieves Significant Energy Savings at its Minntac Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-01

    The U. S. Steel Minntac plant in Mt. Iron, MN, achieved annual savings of $760,000 and 95,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its process heating system.

  12. Using long-term datasets to study exotic plant invasions on rangelands in the western United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasions by exotic species are generally described with a logistic growth curve divided into three phases: introduction, expansion and saturation. This model is constructed primarily from regional studies of plant invasions based on historical records and herbarium samples. The goal of this study w...

  13. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... ``FPLE Group Capital'' to ``FPL Group Capital.'' The proposed action is in accordance with the licensee's... will not be endangered by operation in the proposed manner, (2) such activities will be conducted in... 2010. For the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Peter S. Tam, Senior Project Manager, Plant...

  14. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO{sub 2} capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  15. Sensor placement algorithm development to maximize the efficiency of acid gas removal unit for integrated gasifiction combined sycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with CO{sub 2} capture will face stricter operational and environmental constraints. Accurate values of relevant states/outputs/disturbances are needed to satisfy these constraints and to maximize the operational efficiency. Unfortunately, a number of these process variables cannot be measured while a number of them can be measured, but have low precision, reliability, or signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a sensor placement (SP) algorithm is developed for optimal selection of sensor location, number, and type that can maximize the plant efficiency and result in a desired precision of the relevant measured/unmeasured states. In this work, an SP algorithm is developed for an selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. A comprehensive nonlinear dynamic model of the AGR unit is developed in Aspen Plus Dynamics® (APD) and used to generate a linear state-space model that is used in the SP algorithm. The SP algorithm is developed with the assumption that an optimal Kalman filter will be implemented in the plant for state and disturbance estimation. The algorithm is developed assuming steady-state Kalman filtering and steady-state operation of the plant. The control system is considered to operate based on the estimated states and thereby, captures the effects of the SP algorithm on the overall plant efficiency. The optimization problem is solved by Genetic Algorithm (GA) considering both linear and nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for sensor placement and because of the long time that it takes to solve the constrained optimization problem that includes more than 1000 states, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel

  16. Unit Reference Sheet (URS) Cost Methodology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Z52163 RADAR SET: AN/SPS-64 (V) 5 Z52435 RADAR SET: AN/TPN-18 Z52457 RADAR SET: AN/TPQ-37 LESS POWER Z53412 RADAR WARNING SYSTEM : AN/APR-44 ( ) (V) 1...Z53414 RADAR WARNING SYSTEM : AN/APR-44 ( ) (V) 2 Z53416 RADAR WARNING SYSTEM : AN/APR-44 ( ) (V) 3 Z53850 RADIO INTERFERENCE MEASURING SET: AN/URM-200...method of force costing requires having a complete AURS installed on the Force Cost Information System (FCIS) data base at USAMSSA, and detailed cost

  17. 75 FR 69711 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... stiff CFRWs can act as a barrier to reflect the seismic waves and could affect seismic lateral soil... applicant's static and seismic stability analysis of the SSCs identified in 10 CFR 50.10(a)(1). Specifically... compression wave velocities, and a constant value for unit weight. Poisson's ratio is assumed to vary...

  18. 76 FR 77023 - In the Matter of Florida Power Corporation, et al., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... co-holders of the Crystal River facility. The Crystal River facility consists of a single unit... ultimate parent corporation. As part of the transaction, Progress Energy will merge with Diamond... intermediate parent corporation of FPC. FPC is the sole operator of Crystal River. The proposed...

  19. 77 FR 74030 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Humboldt Bay Power Plant, Unit 3; Schedular Exemption From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...) announced its intention to decommission the unit. On July 16, 1985, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission... of 2008, the transfer of spent fuel from the fuel storage pool to the dry- cask Independent Spent... based on a comprehensive review of the NRC's EP regulations and guidance. The requirements enhance...

  20. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  1. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus

  2. Analytical Utility of Campylobacter Methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, or the Committee) was asked to address the analytical utility of Campylobacter methodologies in preparation for an upcoming United States Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) baseline study to enumerate Campylobacter...

  3. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  4. Isotopic evidence for the role of plant development on transpiration in deciduous forests of southern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, GermáN.; Jahren, A. Hope

    2003-06-01

    We evaluated D/H ratios of soil- and plant-extracted water during the 1997 growing season to assess the influence of temperature, humidity, and rainfall on water distribution in deciduous forests. Three state parks (Chicot in Arkansas; Natchez in Mississippi, and St. Bernard in Louisiana) were identified along a 13.5-cm precipitation gradient established during the studied growing season within the Mississippi River basin. Samples were collected for isotopic determinations from five to six species at each site early (March) and late (June) in the growing season. To capture the isotopic variability in water sources, samples of rainwater, groundwater, and soil water were collected. Isotopic results for rainwater showed an average increase of 4‰ from March to June. This increase did not transfer to soil water: soil water δD values throughout the growing season showed values close to those measured for March rainwater. In contrast, leaf water showed δD values that were 15‰ to 20‰ higher in March compared to June δD values. Elevated March δD values in leaf water were observed in virtually all species at the three sites. Change in leaf water δD value during the growing season was not correlated with precipitation rate, temperature, humidity, or changes in atmospheric water vapor isotopic composition. We propose that this widespread March isotopic enrichment resulted from enhanced evaporative demand induced by accelerated plant growth early in the growing season. This suggestion implies a decoupling of environmental factors and plant response, pointing to the important role of plant developmental timing in ecosystem functioning.

  5. Multi-unit inertial fusion plants based on HYLIFE-II, with shared heavy-ion RIA driver and target factory, producing electricity and hydrogen fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.; Moir, R.; Hoffman, M.

    1994-05-05

    Following is a modification of the IFEFUEL systems code, called IFEFUEL2, to treat specifically the HYLIFE-II target chamber concept. The same improved Recirculating Induction Accelerator (RIA) energy scaling model developed recently by Bieri is used in this survey of the economics of multi-unit IFE plants producing both electricity and hydrogen fuel. Reference cases will assume conventional HI-indirect target gains for a 2 mm spot, and improved HYLIFE-II BoP models as per Hoffman. Credits for improved plant availability and lower operating costs due to HYLIFE-II`s 30-yr target chamber lifetime are included, as well as unit cost reductions suggested by Delene to credit greater {open_quotes}learning curve{close_quotes} benefits for the duplicated portions of a multi-unit plant. To illustrate the potential impact of more advanced assumptions, additional {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} cases will consider the possible benefits of an MHD + Steam BoP, where direct MHD conversion of plasma from baseball-size LiH target blanket shells is assumed to be possible in a new (as yet undesigned) liquid Flibe-walled target chamber, together and separately, with advanced, higher-gain heavy-ion targets with Fast Ignitors. These runs may help decide the course of a possible future {open_quotes}HYLIFE-III{close_quotes} IFE study. Beam switchyard and final focusing system costs per target chamber are assumed to be consistent with single-sided illumination, for either {open_quotes}conventional{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}advanced{close_quotes} indirect target gain assumptions. Target costs are scaled according to the model by Woodworth. In all cases, the driver energy and rep rate for each chosen number of target chambers and total plant output will be optimized to minimize the cost of electricity (CoE) and the associated cost of hydrogen (CoH), using a relationship between CoE and CoH to be presented in the next section.

  6. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  7. Common cause failure analysis of the rodded scram system of the Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Montague, D.F.; Campbell, D.J.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1986-10-01

    This study demonstrates the use of a formal method for common cause failure analysis in a reliability analysis of the Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1 rodded scram system. The scram system failure of interest is loss of capability of the system to shut the reactor down when required. The results of this analysis support the ATWS program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The methods used in this analysis support the NRC's Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP).

  8. Plants. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The study of plants is often limited to studying plant structure with little emphasis on the vital role plants play in our natural system and the variety of ways man uses plants. This unit, designed for intermediate level elementary students, reviews basic plant structure, discusses roles of plants in nature's system, illustrates plant…

  9. Assessing the Effects of Land-use Change on Plant Traits, Communities and Ecosystem Functioning in Grasslands: A Standardized Methodology and Lessons from an Application to 11 European Sites

    PubMed Central

    Garnier, Eric; Lavorel, Sandra; Ansquer, Pauline; Castro, Helena; Cruz, Pablo; Dolezal, Jiri; Eriksson, Ove; Fortunel, Claire; Freitas, Helena; Golodets, Carly; Grigulis, Karl; Jouany, Claire; Kazakou, Elena; Kigel, Jaime; Kleyer, Michael; Lehsten, Veiko; Lepš, Jan; Meier, Tonia; Pakeman, Robin; Papadimitriou, Maria; Papanastasis, Vasilios P.; Quested, Helen; Quétier, Fabien; Robson, Matt; Roumet, Catherine; Rusch, Graciela; Skarpe, Christina; Sternberg, Marcelo; Theau, Jean-Pierre; Thébault, Aurélie; Vile, Denis; Zarovali, Maria P.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims A standardized methodology to assess the impacts of land-use changes on vegetation and ecosystem functioning is presented. It assumes that species traits are central to these impacts, and is designed to be applicable in different historical, climatic contexts and local settings. Preliminary results are presented to show its applicability. Methods Eleven sites, representative of various types of land-use changes occurring in marginal agro-ecosystems across Europe and Israel, were selected. Climatic data were obtained at the site level; soil data, disturbance and nutrition indices were described at the plot level within sites. Sixteen traits describing plant stature, leaf characteristics and reproductive phase were recorded on the most abundant species of each treatment. These data were combined with species abundance to calculate trait values weighed by the abundance of species in the communities. The ecosystem properties selected were components of above-ground net primary productivity and decomposition of litter. Key Results The wide variety of land-use systems that characterize marginal landscapes across Europe was reflected by the different disturbance indices, and were also reflected in soil and/or nutrient availability gradients. The trait toolkit allowed us to describe adequately the functional response of vegetation to land-use changes, but we suggest that some traits (vegetative plant height, stem dry matter content) should be omitted in studies involving mainly herbaceous species. Using the example of the relationship between leaf dry matter content and above-ground dead material, we demonstrate how the data collected may be used to analyse direct effects of climate and land use on ecosystem properties vs. indirect effects via changes in plant traits. Conclusions This work shows the applicability of a set of protocols that can be widely applied to assess the impacts of global change drivers on species, communities and ecosystems. PMID

  10. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

  11. Beyond Punnett squares: Student word association and explanations of phenotypic variation through an integrative quantitative genetics unit investigating anthocyanin inheritance and expression in Brassica rapa Fast plants.

    PubMed

    Batzli, Janet M; Smith, Amber R; Williams, Paul H; McGee, Seth A; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question "What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev)," we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students' cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students' final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on "variation" as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students' explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from "plug and play," this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics.

  12. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W.; Lookman, A.A.; Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L.; Johnson, S.A.

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  13. Identification of cotton fleahopper (Hemiptera: Miridae) host plants in central Texas and compendium of reported hosts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, J F; Esquivel, S V

    2009-06-01

    The cotton fleahopper, Pseudatomoscelis seriatus (Reuter), is an early-season pest of developing cotton in Central Texas and other regions of the Cotton Belt. Cotton fleahopper populations develop on spring weed hosts and move to cotton as weed hosts senesce or if other weed hosts are not readily available. To identify weed hosts that were seasonably available for the cotton fleahopper in Central Texas, blooming weed species were sampled during early-season (17 March-31 May), mid-season (1 June-14 August), late-season (15 August-30 November), and overwintering (1 December-16 March) periods. The leading hosts for cotton fleahopper adults and nymphs were evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa T. Nuttall) and Mexican hat [Ratibida columnifera (T. Nuttall) E. Wooton and P. Standley], respectively, during the early season. During the mid-season, silver-leaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium A. Cavanilles) was consistently a host for fleahopper nymphs and adults. Woolly croton (Croton capitatus A. Michaux) was a leading host during the late season. Cotton fleahoppers were not collected during the overwintering period. Other suitable hosts were available before previously reported leading hosts became available. Eight previously unreported weed species were documented as temporary hosts. A compendium of reported hosts, which includes >160 plant species representing 35 families, for the cotton fleahopper is provided for future research addressing insect-host plant associations. Leading plant families were Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, and Onagraceae. Results presented here indicate a strong argument for assessing weed species diversity and abundance for the control of the cotton fleahopper in the Cotton Belt.

  14. Demonstration, testing and evaluation of nonintrusive characterization technologies at operable Unit 2 of Rocky Flats Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-09-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution (HR) seismic reflection evaluation was conducted at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), near Golden, Colorado, to demonstrate the applicability of nonintrusive characterization techniques to detect buried objects, contamination, and geological/hydrological features at RFP. The evaluation was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) request for demonstration, testing and evaluation (DT&E) of nonintrusive techniques, under DOE Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) No. DE-RA05-09OR22000.

  15. Design-Basis Flood Estimation for Site Characterization at Nuclear Power Plants in the United States of America

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.

  16. Draft audit report, human factors engineering control room design review: Saint Lucie Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.R.; Lappa, D.A.; Moore, J.W.

    1981-09-03

    A human factors engineering preliminary design review of the Saint Lucie Unit 2 control room was performed at the site on August 3 through August 7, 1981. This design review was carried out by a team from the Human Factors Engineering Branch, Division of Human Factors Safety. This report was prepared on the basis of the HFEB's review of the applicant's Preliminary Design Assessment and the human factors engineering design review/audit performed at the site. The review team included human factors consultants from BioTechnology, Inc., Falls Church, Virginia, and from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (University of California), Livermore, California.

  17. Integrity of production wells and confining unit at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas, 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Sonya A.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1997-01-01

    The results of borehole geophysical log analysis indicate that two of the production wells could have vertically connected intervals where cement bonding in the well annulus is poor. The other production wells have overall good bonding. Temperature logs do not indicate flow behind casing except in the screened interval of one well. Geophysical logs show the Eagle Ford Shale ranges from 147 to 185 feet thick at the site. The Eagle Ford Shale has low permeability and a high plasticity index. These physical characteristics make the Eagle Ford Shale an excellent confining unit.

  18. Flow Analysis and Sorting of Plant Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Vrána, Jan; Cápal, Petr; Šimková, Hana; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Čížková, Jana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-10-10

    Analysis and sorting of plant chromosomes (plant flow cytogenetics) is a special application of flow cytometry in plant genomics and its success depends critically on sample quality. This unit describes the methodology in a stepwise manner, starting with the induction of cell cycle synchrony and accumulation of dividing cells in mitotic metaphase, and continues with the preparation of suspensions of intact mitotic chromosomes, flow analysis and sorting of chromosomes, and finally processing of the sorted chromosomes. Each step of the protocol is described in detail as some procedures have not been used widely. Supporting histograms are presented as well as hints on dealing with plant material; the utility of sorted chromosomes for plant genomics is also discussed. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Migration patterns of the emerging plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Prospero, S; Grünwald, N J; Winton, L M; Hansen, E M

    2009-06-01

    Phytophthora ramorum (oomycetes) is the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight on trees, shrubs, and woody ornamentals in the forests of coastal California and southwestern Oregon and in nurseries of California, Oregon, and Washington. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure of P. ramorum on the West Coast of the United States, focusing particularly on population differentiation potentially indicative of gene flow. In total, 576 isolates recovered from 2001 to 2005 were genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci. Our analyses of genetic diversity and inferences of reproductive mode confirm previous results for the Oregon and California populations, with the strong majority of the genotypes belonging to the NA1 clonal lineage and showing no evidence for sexual reproduction. The high incidence of genotypes shared among populations and the lack of genetic structure among populations show that important large-scale, interpopulation genetic exchanges have occurred. This emphasizes the importance of human activity in shaping the current structure of the P. ramorum population on the West Coast of the United States.

  20. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Rechard, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    Since its identification as a potential deep geologic repository in about 1973, the regulatory assessment process for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico has developed over the past 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements over the first half of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected. Assessments and studies before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal, or (3) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico. In the last third of the project, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, but continued to evolve until 1996. During this eight-year period, four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  1. Osmia species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) from the southeastern United States with modified facial hairs: taxonomy, host plants, and conservation status

    PubMed Central

    Rightmyer, Molly G.; Deyrup, Mark; Ascher, John S.; Griswold, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We describe females and males of Osmia (Melanosmia) calaminthae sp. n., an apparent floral specialist on Calamintha ashei (Lamiaceae), and provide observations on the behavior of female bees on flowers of this plant. We also provide diagnostic information for Osmia (Diceratosmia) conjunctoides Robertson, stat. n., and synonymize Osmia (Diceratosmia) subfasciata miamiensis Mitchell with Osmia conjunctoides syn. n. Females of both Osmia calaminthae and Osmia conjunctoides are unique among North American Osmia for having short, erect, simple facial hairs, which are apparent adaptations for collecting pollen from nototribic flowers. Osmia calaminthae is currently only known from sandy scrub at four nearby sites in the southern Lake Wales Ridge in Highlands County, Florida, USA, while Osmia conjunctoides is known from limited but widespread sites in the southeastern USA. We discuss the conservation status of both species based on known or speculated floral associates and distributions. PMID:22287900

  2. Milestones for disposal of radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    RECHARD,ROBERT P.

    2000-03-01

    The opening of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant on March 26, 1999, was the culmination of a regulatory assessment process that had taken 25 years. National policy issues, negotiated agreements, and court settlements during the first 15 years of the project had a strong influence on the amount and type of scientific data collected up to this point. Assessment activities before the mid 1980s were undertaken primarily (1) to satisfy needs for environmental impact statements, (2) to satisfy negotiated agreements with the State of New Mexico, or (3) to develop general understanding of selected natural phenomena associated with nuclear waste disposal. In the last 10 years, federal compliance policy and actual regulations were sketched out, and continued to evolve until 1996. During this period, stochastic simulations were introduced as a tool for the assessment of the WIPP's performance, and four preliminary performance assessments, one compliance performance assessment, and one verification performance assessment were performed.

  3. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    DOE PAGES

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; ...

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease inmore » annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.« less

  4. Fate of Parabens and Their Metabolites in Two Wastewater Treatment Plants in New York State, United States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-02-02

    Little is known about the occurrence and fate of parabens and their metabolites in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, mass loadings, removal efficiencies, and environmental emission of six parabens, four of their metabolites (4-hydroxy benzoate, 3,4-dihydroxy benzoate, methyl-protocatechuate, and ethyl-protocatechuate) and benzoic acid were studied based on the concentrations determined in wastewater influent, primary effluent, final effluent, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sludge collected from two WWTPs (denoted as WWTP(A) and WWTP(B)) in the Albany area of New York State. The median respective concentrations of sum of parabens (Σparabens = 6 parent compounds) and paraben-metabolites (Σmetabolites = 4 metabolites) were 73.1-158 and 5460-10,000 ng/L in influents, and 1.96-5.57 and 2060-2550 ng/L in final effluents. The concentrations of Σmetabolites were significantly higher than those of Σparabens in sludge and SPM. The removal efficiencies for parabens (89.6-99.9%) were higher than those for their metabolites (25.9-90.6%). The respective mass loadings of parabens and their metabolites were 46.3 and 6210 mg/d/1000 people for WWTP(A) and 176 and 63,100 mg/d/1000 people for WWTP(B). The environmental emission of parabens and their metabolites through WWTP discharges was 4.85-6.16 and 1270-2050 mg/d/1000 people, respectively.

  5. Projecting changes in annual hydropower generation using regional runoff data: An assessment of the United States federal hydropower plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, Shih -Chieh; Sale, Michael J.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Uria Martinez, Rocio; Kaiser, Dale Patrick; Wei, Yaxing; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-12-18

    Federal hydropower plants account for approximately half of installed US conventional hydropower capacity, and are an important part of the national renewable energy portfolio. Utilizing the strong linear relationship between the US Geological Survey WaterWatch runoff and annual hydropower generation, a runoff-based assessment approach is introduced in this study to project changes in annual and regional hydropower generation in multiple power marketing areas. Future climate scenarios are developed with a series of global and regional climate models, and the model output is bias-corrected to be consistent with observed data for the recent past. Using this approach, the median decrease in annual generation at federal projects is projected to be less than –2 TWh, with an estimated ensemble uncertainty of ±9 TWh. Although these estimates are similar to the recently observed variability in annual hydropower generation, and may therefore appear to be manageable, significantly seasonal runoff changes are projected and it may pose significant challenges in water systems with higher limits on reservoir storage and operational flexibility. Lastly, future assessments will be improved by incorporating next-generation climate models, by closer examination of extreme events and longer-term change, and by addressing the interactions among hydropower and other water uses.

  6. Remedial investigation concept plan for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of the Army (DA) are conducting cleanup activities at two properties--the DOE chemical plant area and the DA ordnance works area (the latter includes the training area)--located in the Weldon Spring area in St. Charles County, Missouri. These areas are on the National Priorities List (NPL), and cleanup activities at both areas are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. DOE and DA are conducting a joint remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) as part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the groundwater operable units for the two areas. This joint effort will optimize further data collection and interpretation efforts and facilitate overall remedial decision making since the aquifer of concern is common to both areas. A Work Plan issued jointly in 1995 by DOE and the DA discusses the results of investigations completed at the time of preparation of the report. The investigations were necessary to provide an understanding of the groundwater system beneath the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area. The Work Plan also identifies additional data requirements for verification of the evaluation presented.

  7. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  8. Remedial investigation work plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 4 (Rogers Quarry/Lower McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant includes - 800 acres near the northeast comer of the reservation and adjacent to the city of Oak Ridge (Fig. 1-1). The plant is a manufacturing and developmental engineering facility that produced components for various nuclear weapons systems and provides engineering support to other Energy Systems facilities. More than 200 contaminated sites have been identified at the Y-12 Plant that resulted from past waste management practices. Many of the sites have operable units (OUs) based on priority and on investigative and remediation requirements. This Remedial Investigation RI work plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Chestnut Ridge OU 4 consists of Rogers Quarry and Lower McCoy Branch (MCB). Rogers Quarry, which is also known as Old Rogers Quarry or Bethel Valley Quarry was used for quarrying from the late 1940s or early 1950s until about 1960. Since that time, the quarry has been used for disposal of coal ash and materials from Y-12 production operations, including classified materials. Disposal of coal ash ended in July 1993. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern, support an Ecological Risk Assessment and a Human Health Risk Assessment, support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this work plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU 4. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the risk posed to human health and the environment by OU 4.

  9. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  10. Phenological response of five wild plant shrubs and assessment its sums of effective units in region of the Czech Republic during 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartosova, L.; Bauer, Z.; Trnka, M.; Balek, J.; Kucera, J.; Stepanek, P.; Zalud, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Presented study is focused on 50 years of phenological observations (1961-2010) of five wild plant shrubs and its phenological phases that create a continuous phenological sequence covering the whole spring aspect of floodplain forest. The phases were observed for Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas), English hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha), Midland hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) and Common dogwood (Cornus sanguinea). The study was conducted at nature reserve at Vranovice (170 m a.s.l., 48°56´ N, 16°35´ E) with additional data available from three observational sites in the region (15-60 km apart). For each shrub the date of first flower and the date of full flowering were determined. The collected phenological data were analysed together with local meteorological observations for trends and periodicity by software AnClim and PhenoClim developed by Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and Mendel University respectively. For each shrub and its phenological phases the sum of effective units above the given threshold were calculate by means of PhenoClim. The values of sum of effective units for weather variables parameters (e. g. mean temperature, maximum temperature) and above given threshold (e. g. range of baseline mean temperature values from 1 to 10°C with step of 0.1°C) were assess. Observations of these five wild plant shrubs have been since season 2009 modernized by extremely detail air temperature measurements and phenocameras (taking multiple series of 12 photos during a single day) for three individuals of Common dogwood at three different habitats (insolated, shaded and half-shaded habitat) at plot Vranovice. This detailed observation provide unusual level of detail about the role of particular location of the given species within the particular site and provides a method allowing for precise determination of the individual phenological stages. The mean annual temperature showed a significant increase of 0.33°C per decade, with

  11. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  12. Feasibility Assessment of Water Energy Resources of the United States for New Low Power and Small Hydro Classes of Hydroelectric Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas G. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MW) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MW) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  13. Feasibility assessment of the water energy resources of the United States for new low power and small hydro classes of hydroelectric plants: Main report and Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Douglas G.; Reeves, Kelly S.; Brizzee, Julie; Lee, Randy D.; Carroll, Gregory R.; Sommers, Garold L.

    2006-01-01

    Water energy resource sites identified in the resource assessment study reported in Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources, DOE/ID-11111, April 2004 were evaluated to identify which could feasibly be developed using a set of feasibility criteria. The gross power potential of the sites estimated in the previous study was refined to determine the realistic hydropower potential of the sites using a set of development criteria assuming they are developed as low power (less than 1 MWa) or small hydro (between 1 and 30 MWa) projects. The methodologies for performing the feasibility assessment and estimating hydropower potential are described. The results for the country in terms of the number of feasible sites, their total gross power potential, and their total hydropower potential are presented. The spatial distribution of the feasible potential projects is presented on maps of the conterminous U.S. and Alaska and Hawaii. Results summaries for each of the 50 states are presented in an appendix. The results of the study are also viewable using a Virtual Hydropower Prospector geographic information system application accessible on the Internet at: http://hydropower.inl.gov/prospector.

  14. Plants on Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawniczak, Stefanie; Gerber, D. Timothy; Beck, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Food, medicine, clothing--much of what people encounter every day comes from plants or plant products. However, plants often do not get as much attention in the K-12 curriculum as they deserve. Because of the essential role plants play in peoples lives, it is important to include standards-based plant units in the elementary science curriculum.…

  15. Diversity of bacterial communities that colonize the filter units used for controlling plant pathogens in soilless cultures.

    PubMed

    Renault, David; Vallance, Jessica; Déniel, Franck; Wery, Nathalie; Godon, Jean Jacques; Barbier, Georges; Rey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, increasing the level of suppressiveness by the addition of antagonistic bacteria in slow filters has become a promising strategy to control plant pathogens in the recycled solutions used in soilless cultures. However, knowledge about the microflora that colonize the filtering columns is still limited. In order to get information on this issue, the present study was carried out over a 4-year period and includes filters inoculated or not with suppressive bacteria at the start of the filtering process (two or three filters were used each year). After 9 months of filtration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism analyses point out that, for the same year of experiment, the bacterial communities from control filters were relatively similar but that they were significantly different between the bacteria-amended and control filters. To characterize the changes in bacterial communities within the filters, this microflora was studied by quantitative PCR, community-level physiological profiles, and sequencing 16SrRNA clone libraries (filters used in year 1). Quantitative PCR evidenced a denser bacterial colonization of the P-filter (amended with Pseudomonas putida strains) than control and B-filter (amended with Bacillus cereus strains). Functional analysis focused on the cultivable bacterial communities pointed out that bacteria from the control filter metabolized more carbohydrates than those from the amended filters whose trophic behaviors were more targeted towards carboxylic acids and amino acids. The bacterial communities in P- and B-filters both exhibited significantly more phylotype diversity and markedly distinct phylogenetic compositions than those in the C-filter. Although there were far fewer Proteobacteria in B- and P-filters than in the C-filter (22% and 22% rather than 69% of sequences, respectively), the percentages of Firmicutes was much higher (44% and 55% against 9%, respectively). Many Pseudomonas

  16. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  17. Payload training methodology study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the Payload Training Methodology Study (PTMS) are documented. Methods and procedures are defined for the development of payload training programs to be conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center Payload Training Complex (PCT) for the Space Station Freedom program. The study outlines the overall training program concept as well as the six methodologies associated with the program implementation. The program concept outlines the entire payload training program from initial identification of training requirements to the development of detailed design specifications for simulators and instructional material. The following six methodologies are defined: (1) The Training and Simulation Needs Assessment Methodology; (2) The Simulation Approach Methodology; (3) The Simulation Definition Analysis Methodology; (4) The Simulator Requirements Standardization Methodology; (5) The Simulator Development Verification Methodology; and (6) The Simulator Validation Methodology.

  18. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  19. 10 CFR 455.64 - Life-cycle cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life-cycle cost methodology. 455.64 Section 455.64 Energy..., Hospitals, Units of Local Government, and Public Care Institutions § 455.64 Life-cycle cost methodology. (a) The life-cycle cost methodology under § 455.63(b) of this part is a systematic comparison of...

  20. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This document outlines the activities necessary to conduct a Remedial Investigation (RI) of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The CRSP, also designated Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 1, is one of four OUs along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The purpose of the RI is to collect data to (1) evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminants, (2) support an Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) and a Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA), (3) support the feasibility study in the development and analysis of remedial alternatives, and (4) ultimately, develop a Record of Decision (ROD) for the site. This chapter summarizes the regulatory background of environmental investigation on the ORR and the approach currently being followed and provides an overview of the RI to be conducted at the CRSP. Subsequent chapters provide details on site history, sampling activities, procedures and methods, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, and waste management related to the RI.

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  2. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health.

    PubMed

    King, Dawn N; Donohue, Maura J; Vesper, Stephen J; Villegas, Eric N; Ware, Michael W; Vogel, Megan E; Furlong, Edward F; Kolpin, Dana W; Glassmeyer, Susan T; Pfaller, Stacy

    2016-08-15

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus (quantitative PCR [qPCR]); and the bacteria Legionella pneumophila (qPCR), Mycobacterium avium, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Mycobacterium intracellulare (qPCR and culture). Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 25% and in 46% of the source water samples, respectively (treated waters were not tested). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most commonly detected fungus in source waters (48%) but none of the three fungi were detected in treated water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 25% of the source water samples but in only 4% of treated water samples. M. avium and M. intracellulare were both detected in 25% of source water, while all three mycobacteria were detected in 36% of treated water samples. Five species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, Mycobacterium phocaicum, Mycobacterium triplex, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium lentiflavum were cultured from treated water samples. Although these DWTPs represent a fraction of those in the U.S., the results suggest that many of these pathogens are widespread in source waters but that treatment is generally effective in reducing them to below detection limits. The one exception is the mycobacteria, which were commonly detected in treated water, even when not detected in source waters.

  3. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Dawn N.; Donohue, Maura J.; Vesper, Stephen J.; Villegas, Eric N.; Ware, Michael W.; Vogel, Megan E.; Furlong, Edward; Kolpin, Dana W.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Pfaller, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus (quantitative PCR [qPCR]); and the bacteria Legionella pneumophila (qPCR), Mycobacterium avium, M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Mycobacterium intracellulare (qPCR and culture). Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 25% and in 46% of the source water samples, respectively (treated waters were not tested). Aspergillus fumigatus was the most commonly detected fungus in source waters (48%) but none of the three fungi were detected in treated water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 25% of the source water samples but in only 4% of treated water samples. M. avium and M. intracellulare were both detected in 25% of source water, while all three mycobacteria were detected in 36% of treated water samples. Five species of mycobacteria, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, Mycobacterium phocaicum, Mycobacterium triplex, Mycobacterium fortuitum, and Mycobacterium lentiflavum were cultured from treated water samples. Although these DWTPs represent a fraction of those in the U.S., the results suggest that many of these pathogens are widespread in source waters but that treatment is generally effective in reducing them to below detection limits. The one exception is the mycobacteria, which were commonly detected in treated water, even when not detected in source waters.

  4. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1 (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan specifically addresses Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 1, (OU1) which consists of the Chestnut Ridge Security Pits (CRSP). The CRSP are located {approximately}800 ft southeast of the central portion of the Y-12 Plant atop Chestnut Ridge, which is bounded to the northwest by Bear Creek Valley and to the southeast by Bethel Valley. Operated from 1973 to 1988, the CRSP consisted of a series of trenches used for the disposal of classified hazardous and nonhazardous waste materials. Disposal of hazardous waste materials was discontinued in December 1984, while nonhazardous waste disposal ended on November 8, 1988. An RI is being conducted at this site in response to CERCLA regulations. The overall objectives of the RI are to collect data necessary to evaluate the nature and extent of contaminants of concern (COC), support an ecological risk assessment (ERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA), support the evaluation of remedial alternatives, and ultimately develop a Record of Decision for the site. The purpose of this Work Plan is to outline RI activities necessary to define the nature and extent of suspected contaminants at Chestnut Ridge OU1. Potential migration pathways also will be investigated. Data collected during the RI will be used to evaluate the overall risk posed to human health and the environment by OU1.

  5. Response Surface Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    methods . All three of these topics are usually combined into Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Also the experimenter may encounter situations where...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Response Surface Methodology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...18 Keywords: Response Surface Methodology (RSM), regression analysis, linear

  6. Estimation of the stability of the photosynthetic unit in the bioregenerative life support system with plant wastes included in mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya A.; Velichko, Vladimir V.; Zolotukhin, Igor G.; Shklavtsova, Ekaterina S.; Lasseur, Christophe; Golovko, Tamara K.

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the possible effect produced on plant productivity by inedible plant biomass added to soil-like substrate (SLS). Results of the experiments with radish plants grown on the SLS with inedible biomass of carrot and beet plants added in the amounts roughly equal to their yields harvested from the same area showed a significant reduction in productivity of radish plants. The yield of radish plants grown on the SLS with added radish tops was almost the same as the yield of the radish grown on the neutral substrate. Experiments with addition of dry wheat straw to the SLS and growing of wheat and radish plants on that substrate also showed that the productivity of the plants grown in that way was decreased. Attempts to negate the adverse effect of plant wastes proved that the most effective way was to mineralize the wastes using the technique of "wet incineration".

  7. Methodological Issues in Using the Rasch Model To Select Cross Culturally Equivalent Items in Order To Develop a Quality of Life Index: The Analysis of Four WHOQOL-100 Data Sets (Argentina, France, Hong Kong, United Kingdom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leplege, Alain; Ecosse, Emmanuel

    2000-01-01

    Describes the source instrument, the database, and the experimental methodology that have been used in developing the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) profiles to allow the comparison of quality of life findings from a variety of cultural settings. Illustrates the precautions necessary in interpreting scores from different…

  8. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  9. Plant secretomics

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Tehreem; Shaheen, Kanwal; Parveen, Sajida; Kazi, Alvina Gul; Ahmad, Parvaiz

    2014-01-01

    Plant secretomes are the proteins secreted by the plant cells and are involved in the maintenance of cell wall structure, relationship between host and pathogen, communication between different cells in the plant, etc. Amalgamation of methodologies like bioinformatics, biochemical, and proteomics are used to separate, classify, and outline secretomes by means of harmonizing in planta systems and in vitro suspension cultured cell system (SSCs). We summed up and explained the meaning of secretome, methods used for the identification and isolation of secreted proteins from extracellular space and methods for the assessment of purity of secretome proteins in this review. Two D PAGE method and HPLC based methods for the analysis together with different bioinformatics tools used for the prediction of secretome proteins are also discussed. Biological significance of secretome proteins under different environmental stresses, i.e., salt stress, drought stress, oxidative stress, etc., defense responses and plant interactions with environment are also explained in detail. PMID:25763623

  10. Plant distributions in the southwestern United States; a scenario assessment of the modern-day and future distribution ranges of 166 Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Guertin, Patricia P.; Gass, Leila

    2012-01-01

    The authors developed spatial models of the predicted modern-day suitable habitat (SH) of 166 dominant and indicator plant species of the southwestern United States (herein referred to as the Southwest) and then conducted a coarse assessment of potential future changes in the distribution of their suitable habitat under three climate-change scenarios for two time periods. We used Maxent-based spatial modeling to predict the modern-day and future scenarios of SH for each species in an over 342-million-acre area encompassing all or parts of six states in the Southwest--Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. Modern-day SH models were predicted by our using 26 annual and monthly average temperature and precipitation variables, averaged for the years 1971-2000. Future SH models were predicted for each species by our using six climate models based on application of the average of 16 General Circulation Models to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios B1, A1B, and A2 for two time periods, 2040 to 2069 and 2070 and 2100, referred to respectively as the 2050 and 2100 time periods. The assessment examined each species' vulnerability to loss of modern-day SH under future climate scenarios, potential to gain SH under future climate scenarios, and each species' estimated risk as a function of both vulnerability and potential gains. All 166 species were predicted to lose modern-day SH in the future climate change scenarios. In the 2050 time period, nearly 30 percent of the species lost 75 percent or more of their modern-day suitable habitat, 21 species gained more new SH than their modern-day SH, and 30 species gained less new SH than 25 percent of their modern-day SH. In the 2100 time period, nearly half of the species lost 75 percent or more of their modern-day SH, 28 species gained more new SH than their modern-day SH, and 34 gained less new SH than 25 percent of their modern-day SH. Using nine risk categories we found only two

  11. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This is a listing of 221 baseload power plant units currently in the planning stage. The list shows the plant owner, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, major equipment suppliers (steam generator, turbogenerator, and flue gas desulfurization system), partner, and date the plant is to be online. This data is a result of a survey by the journal of power plant owners.

  12. Photovoltaic module energy rating methodology development

    SciTech Connect

    Kroposki, B.; Myers, D.; Emery, K.; Mrig, L.; Whitaker, C.; Newmiller, J.

    1996-05-01

    A consensus-based methodology to calculate the energy output of a PV module will be described in this paper. The methodology develops a simple measure of PV module performance that provides for a realistic estimate of how a module will perform in specific applications. The approach makes use of the weather data profiles that describe conditions throughout the United States and emphasizes performance differences between various module types. An industry-representative Technical Review Committee has been assembled to provide feedback and guidance on the strawman and final approach used in developing the methodology.

  13. A data envelopment analysis approach to evaluation of operational inefficiencies in power generating units: A case study of Indian power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chitkara, P.

    1999-05-01

    A non-parametric approach to frontier analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), is applied in this work to evaluate the operational inefficiencies of generating units. Three parameters viz. generation per unit of coal consumed, generation per unit of oil consumed and generation per unit of auxiliary power consumption have been considered as indicators of performance. The DEA approach provides with a best practice frontier for each of these parameters, which can then serve as a benchmark for efficiency. Also, the slack analysis indicates the causes of inefficiency. A time series study of units` performance, identifies those units that need renovation and repowering and those units where the performance could be improved by extensive training of operating personnel. The analysis in this paper considers operational performance statistics of all coal based generating units belong to National Thermal Power Corporation of India over the period 1991 to 1995.

  14. Experience in the development and introduction of a full scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit at Mosenergo TETs-27 heat and electric power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kopsov, A. Ya.; Sviderskii, A. G.; Bilenko, V. A.; Dobrev, E. N.; Ukolov, S. V.; Zhezherya, D. A.; Plotnikov, D. V.; Shavochkin, I. A.; Manevskaya, O. A.; Asoskov, O. G.

    2009-03-15

    This is a description of experience in the development and introduction of a full-scale process control system for the PGU-450T power production unit of station No. 3 at the TETs-27 heat and electric power station of JSC 'Mosenergo' based on the latest, fourth generation program package SPPA-T3000, which is being used for the first time in Russia for steam-gas units. The fundamental technical solutions for the structure of the process control system are described, along with the features of the algorithms for control of the main engineering equipment in electric power plants based on the PGU-450.

  15. Technical evaluation report on the Third 10-year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan: Florida Power and Light Company, Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4 (Docket Numbers 50-250 and 50-251)

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.; Feige, E.J.; Galbraith, S.G.; Porter, A.M.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the results of the evaluation of the Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Third 10-Year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan, Revision 0, submitted September 9, 1993, including the requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, requirements that the licensee has determined to be impractical. The Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4, Third 10-Year Interval Inservice Inspection Program Plan is evaluated in Section 2 of this report. The inservice inspection (ISI) program plan is evaluated for (a) compliance with the appropriate edition/addenda of Section XI, (b) acceptability of the examination sample, (c) correctness of the application of system or component examination exclusion criteria, and (d) compliance with ISI-related commitments identified during previous Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews. The requests for relief are evaluated in Section 3 of this report.

  16. Predicting the sound power and impact of a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    De Heyder, B; Ockier, P; Jansen, R; Huiberts, R

    2001-01-01

    Several process units at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) can produce a significant level of sound and thus induce sound nuisance for nearby residents. The risk for sound nuisance should be considered by making a prognosis of sound impact in an early project phase (planning, design). A prognosis requires information with respect to the sound characteristics of the different process units. This paper reports the development of empirical models for the sound power of relevant process units in the water line at Aquafin WWTPs. The used methodology for model derivation and validation allowed us to minimize the required number of measurements. Besides the methodology, the paper describes in detail the derivation and validation of the empirical model for the splashing water of screw pumps. Also the use of all the derived empirical models to determine the sound impact of a wastewater treatment plant at close distance is illustrated with a case-study.

  17. Remedial investigation report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (rust spoil area, spoil area 1, and SY-200 yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2. Appendixes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains the appendices to the Remedial Investigation Report on Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, Spoil Area 1, and SY-200 Yard) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The appendices include Current and historical soil boring and groundwater monitoring well information, well construction logs, and field change orders; Analytical data; Human health risk assessment data; and Data quality.

  18. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  19. Data Centric Development Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Fadi E.

    2012-01-01

    Data centric applications, an important effort of software development in large organizations, have been mostly adopting a software methodology, such as a waterfall or Rational Unified Process, as the framework for its development. These methodologies could work on structural, procedural, or object oriented based applications, but fails to capture…

  20. The Methodology of Magpies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Arts/Humanities researchers frequently do not explain methodology overtly; instead, they "perform" it through their use of language, textual and historic cross-reference, and theory. Here, methodologies from literary studies are shown to add to Higher Education (HE) an exegetical and critically pluralist approach. This includes…

  1. Propeller aeroacoustic methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Gregorek, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    The aspects related to propeller performance by means of a review of propeller methodologies are addressed. Preliminary wind tunnel propeller performance data are presented and the predominent limitations of existing propeller performance methodologies are discussed. Airfoil developments appropriate for propeller applications are also reviewed.

  2. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Part B permit application for tank storage units at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    In compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), this report discusses information relating to permit applications for three tank storage units at Y-12. The storage units are: Building 9811-1 RCRA Tank Storage Unit (OD-7); Waste Oil/Solvent Storage Unit (OD-9); and Liquid Organic Solvent Storage Unit (OD-10). Numerous sections discuss the following: Facility description; waste characteristics; process information; groundwater monitoring; procedures to prevent hazards; contingency plan; personnel training; closure plan, post closure plan, and financial requirements; record keeping; other federal laws; organic air emissions; solid waste management units; and certification. Sixteen appendices contain such items as maps, waste analyses and forms, inspection logs, equipment identification, etc.

  3. Isaac Kandel's Methodology of Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkinshaw, Scott B.

    The paper presents an analytical criticism of Isaac Kandel's methodology. Isaac Kandel, who compared the educational systems of England, France, Russia, Germany, Italy, and the United States in "Comparative Education," 1933, is credited with laying the foundations of the scientific study of comparative education. The paper criticizes…

  4. RESEARCH IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LADO, ROBERT; ORNSTEIN, JACOB

    A SELECTIVE REVIEW OF CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS AND PUBLICATIONS, MAINLY FROM THE UNITED STATES, ON THE METHODOLOGY OF TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES REVEALS MANY IMPORTANT SOURCES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH AND DOCUMENTATION ON MANY PROBLEMS. THE NEED TO SUMMARIZE, CLASSIFY, AND CLARIFY IS URGENT. AMONG CURRENT RESEARCH, TWO BASIC TYPES ARE…

  5. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  6. Methodologies for clinical ethics.

    PubMed

    Drane, J F

    1990-01-01

    Truly professional medical ethics requires a methodology that generates both moral discernment and consistently right judgments. In this article the author briefly reviews difficulties involved in ethical decision-making, the historical development of casuistry, and four ethical methodologies employed in clinical medicine today. These latter, which are outlined and compared, are as follows: the methodology developed by David Thomasma in the 1960s and 1970s; one created by Jonsen, Siegler, and Winslade; another developed by the author; and the Bochum Protocol authored by Hans-Martin Sass et al. of the Bochum Center for Medical Ethics in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  7. Interim reliability-evaluation program: analysis of the Millstone Point Unit 1 nuclear power plant. Volume IV. Appendix B. 9 through B. 19 and C

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J J; Gallagher, D W; Modarres, M; Radder, J A

    1983-05-01

    Appendices are presented concerning isolation condenser makeup; vapor suppression system; station air system; reactor building closed cooling water system; turbine building secondary closed water system; service water system; emergency service water system; fire protection system; emergency ac power; dc power system; event probability estimation; methodology of accident sequence quantification; and assignment of dominant sequences to release categories.

  8. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  9. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  10. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  11. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  12. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  13. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  14. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  15. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  17. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  18. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  20. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...