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Sample records for plantation soil volatilizacao

  1. [Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Ang; He, Yuan-Hao; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Tan, Yi-Min; Zhou, Jie-Chen

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations. PMID:25223021

  2. [Soil microfauna diversity among Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations based on pyrosequencing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Jie; Liu, Jun-Ang; He, Yuan-Hao; Zhou, Guo-Ying; Tan, Yi-Min; Zhou, Jie-Chen

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the function of soil microfauna and its responses to environmental changes, we used metagenome analyses of the 18S rDNA gene region to identify differences in microfauna diversity and community structure among fifteen soil samples belonging to five different Cunninghamia lanceolate plantations. The plantations were located in Youxian County, Hunan Province in central China. The trees in these plantations were of different ages (3, 13, and 26 years) and belonged to different ecological successions (first, second, and third successions). The total dataset comprised 94922 high quality sequences with an average length of 436 bp. The dominant taxonomic groups across all samples were Chordata, Annelida, Arthropoda, Nematoda, Rotifera and Platyhelminthes with each accounting for 60.8%, 24.0%, 7.4%, 3.6%, 1.5% and 1.2% of the sequences, respectively. There were significant differences in ACE index and Shannon index among the five plantations. The lowest diversity of soil microfauna was in the 13-year old plantation of the first ecological succession. The correlation analysis showed that both ACE and available potassium concentration were negatively correlated to the Chaol index. However, there were no significant correlations between the Shannon, Simpson indices and the physical-chemical properties of soil. Overall, the Jaccard's similarity coefficient was less than 0.4 among samples at each site, and significant differences were found among plantations.

  3. [Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zha, Tong-Gang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Wang, Gao-min

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (< or =0.25 mm), which accounted for 51% -58% and 42% -49%, respectively. Both the mean mass diameter and the geometrical mean mass diameter of the soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

  4. Long-term tobacco plantation induces soil acidification and soil base cation loss.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuting; He, Xinhua; Liang, Hong; Zhao, Jian; Zhang, Yueqiang; Xu, Chen; Shi, Xiaojun

    2016-03-01

    Changes in soil exchangeable cations relative to soil acidification are less studied particularly under long-term cash crop plantation. This study investigated soil acidification in an Ali-Periudic Argosols after 10-year (2002-2012) long-term continuous tobacco plantation. Soils were respectively sampled at 1933 and 2143 sites in 2002 and 2012 (also 647 tobacco plants), from seven tobacco plantation counties in the Chongqing Municipal City, southwest China. After 10-year continuous tobacco plantation, a substantial acidification was evidenced by an average decrease of 0.20 soil pH unit with a substantial increase of soil sites toward the acidic status, especially those pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.5, whereas 1.93 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) was mostly derived from nitrogen (N) fertilizer input and plant N uptake output. After 1 decade, an average decrease of 27.6 % total exchangeable base cations or of 0.20 pH unit occurred in all seven tobacco plantation counties. Meanwhile, for one unit pH decrease, 40.3 and 28.3 mmol base cations kg(-1) soil were consumed in 2002 and 2012, respectively. Furthermore, the aboveground tobacco biomass harvest removed 339.23 kg base cations ha(-1) year(-1) from soil, which was 7.57 times higher than the anions removal, leading to a 12.52 kmol H(+) production ha(-1) year(-1) as the main reason inducing soil acidification. Overall, our results showed that long-term tobacco plantation not only stimulated soil acidification but also decreased soil acid-buffering capacity, resulting in negative effects on sustainable soil uses. On the other hand, our results addressed the importance of a continuous monitoring of soil pH changes in tobacco plantation sites, which would enhance our understanding of soil fertility of health in this region. PMID:26566613

  5. [Population structure of soil arthropod in different age Pinus massoniana plantations].

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin

    2013-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the individual density and taxonomic group number among different age P. massoniana plantations. In comparison with other stand age P. massoniana plantations, 3years old P. massoniana plantation had a significant difference in the structure and diversity of soil arthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.

  6. [Soil active organic matter in broadleaved forest and Chinese fir plantation in subtropical region of China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Kui; Fan, Bing; Xu, Guang-Biao

    2009-07-01

    A comparative study was made on the soil active organic matter in a broadleaved forest and two Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical region of China, aimed to understand the effects of forest conversion and continuous plantation on soil organic C and nutrient status. After the conversion from broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the contents of soil total organic C, humus C, humic acid, and fulvic acid decreased by 27.8%-52.1%, 32.2%-52.8%, 36.4%-59.0%, and 29.7%-50.0%, respectively. Continuous plantation also resulted in the decrease of soil organic C and humus contents. The contents of soil total organic C, humus C, humic acid, and fulvic acid in second generation of Chinese fir plantation were 9.0%-25.0%, 25.0%-38.0%, 28.6%-39.2% and 23.1%-36.4% lower than those in the first generation of Chinese fir plantation, respectively. More obvious effects were observed on the soil active organic matter. After the conversion from broadleaved forest to Chinese fir plantation, the maximum decrement of soil microbial biomass C and N and dissolved organic C and N was 61.8%, 38.2%, 43.3%, and 69.0%; while comparing with the first generation of Chinese fir plantation, the second generation of Chinese fir plantation had the maximum decrement of soil microbial biomass C and N and dissolved organic C and N being 34.7%, 29.3%, 30.4%, and 18.4%, respectively. Soil nutrient contents also decreased due to forest conversion and continuous plantation. In comparing with broadleaved forests, Chinese fir plantations had a decrease of soil N, P, and K contents being 15.7%-31.2%, 11.5%-49.3%, and 15.1%-33.8%, respectively. There were close relationships between soil nutrients and soil active organic matter fractions except cold water extractable organic N.

  7. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  8. [Relationship between soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Peng, Shaolin; Li, Zhihui; Ren, Hai; Li, Zhi'an

    2003-03-01

    Canonical correlation analysis on soil enzyme activities and trace element contents in Eucalyptus plantation soil showed that among the test elements, only Zn and Mn affected enzyme activity. Both Zn and Mn increased soil proteinase activity. Zn decreased the activities of soil urease and peroxidase, while Mn promoted them. "Integral soil enzyme factor" could be used as an index of soil fertility. Together with other growth factors, this index should be considered when evaluating soil fertility of Eucalyptus forest sites. It also had a definite significance on the division of Eucalyptus soil families. PMID:12836538

  9. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  10. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks. PMID:27243577

  11. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks. PMID:27243577

  12. Soil Erosion Protection Potential of Young Paulownia Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepchich, Avgusta; Djodjov, Christo

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is removal of soil and rock particles by water, wind, ice and gravity. It is widely recognized as a global soil threat. Soils impacted by different forms of erosion cover large areas around the world. While landscape, soil and climate conditions trigger soil erosion processes, the vegetation cover reduces the soil erosion risk. About 60 % of the area of agricultural land in Bulgaria is under erosion risk, which necessitates implementation of series of measures for soil erosion control. The aim of this study is to determine the erosion protection potential and the loss of soil nutrients of young Paulownia plantation. Field experiments have been set up under unirrigated conditions at the experimental field for soil erosion studies of the N. Poushkarov Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection near Suhodol. The local soils are Chromic Luvisols, moderately eroded. The altitude is 750 m and the slope gradient is 80. The experiment consists of four field plots for soil erosion studies, three of which planted with Paulownia Bellissima and a reference one with bare soil. The plants have been planted at a distance of 2 m between adjacent rows and 1 m between each two plants within the row. The size of each field plot is 32 m2 (4 m width and 8 m length). The plots are equipped with containers for collecting the surface runoff caused by erosive rainfall events. Biometrics, including the root-striking of the plants, their growth in height, foliage cover (projection) and stem diameter, was studied from May 13th to October 21st. The data reported cover the results from the studies during the first vegetation period after planting in the Spring of 2013. During the year four erosive rainfalls were observed with a total amount of 79.2 mm, resulting to a total amount of soil loss of 772 kg/ha from a planted plot and 551 kg/ha from bear soil. The total surface runoff is 156.7 m3/ha from planted plot and 153.1 m3/ha from bare soil. The total losses of

  13. [Effects of stand structure regulation on soil labile organic carbon in Pinus elliottii plantation].

    PubMed

    Tan, Gui-Xia; Liu, Yuan-Qiu; Li, Lian-Lian; Liu, Wu; Zan, Yu-Ting; Huo, Bing-Nan; He, Mu-Jiao

    2014-05-01

    Taking 21-year-old Pinus elliottii pure plantation as the control, effects of enrichment planting with broadleaf trees (Liquidambar fornosana) after thinning the conifer trees (P. elliottii) on soil labile organic carbon of different plantations, including 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old P. elliottii and 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantations, were investigated. The results showed that the contents of soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), readily oxidizable organic carbon (ROC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) significantly increased in the 6-year-old and 9-year-old plantations compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. Soil labile organic carbon contents in the 21-year-old P. elliottii-L. fornosana mixed plantation increased significantly than those in 3-year-old, 6-year-old, 9-year-old stands, and the DOC, ROC and MBC contents increased by 113.1%, 53.3% and 54.6%, respectively, compared with those in the 21-year-old P. elliottii pure plantation. The results suggested that replanting with broadleaf trees are an effective measure to improve the soil ecological function in pure P. elliottii plantation.

  14. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  15. Soil Changes Induced by Rubber and Tea Plantation Establishment: Comparison with Tropical Rain Forest Soil in Xishuangbanna, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Ma, Youxin; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Over the past thirty years, Xishuangbanna in Southwestern China has seen dramatic changes in land use where large areas of tropical forest and fallow land have been converted to rubber and tea plantations. In this study we evaluated the effects of land use and slope on soil properties in seven common disturbed and undisturbed land-types. Results indicated that all soils were acidic, with pH values significantly higher in the 3- and 28-year-old rubber plantations. The tropical forests had the lowest bulk densities, especially significantly lower from the top 10 cm of soil, and highest soil organic matter concentrations. Soil moisture content at topsoil was highest in the mature rubber plantation. Soils in the tropical forests and abandoned cultivated land had inorganic N (IN) concentrations approximately equal in NH4 +-N and NO3 --N. However, soil IN pools were dominated by NH4 +-N in the rubber and tea plantations. This trend suggests that conversion of tropical forest to rubber and tea plantations increases NH4 +-N concentration and decreases NO3 --N concentration, with the most pronounced effect in plantations that are more frequently fertilized. Soil moisture content, IN, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N concentrations within all sites were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Significant differences in the soil moisture content, and IN, NH4 +-N and NO3 --N concentration was detected for both land uses and sampling season effects, as well as interactions. Higher concentrations of NH4 +-N were measured at the upper slopes of all sites, but NO3 --N concentrations were highest at the lower slope in the rubber plantations and lowest at the lower slopes at all other. Thus, the conversion of tropical forests to rubber and tea plantations can have a profound effect on soil NH4 +-N and NO3 --N concentrations. Options for improved soil management in plantations are discussed.

  16. Soil changes induced by rubber and tea plantation establishment: comparison with tropical rain forest soil in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Ma, Youxin; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Over the past thirty years, Xishuangbanna in Southwestern China has seen dramatic changes in land use where large areas of tropical forest and fallow land have been converted to rubber and tea plantations. In this study we evaluated the effects of land use and slope on soil properties in seven common disturbed and undisturbed land-types. Results indicated that all soils were acidic, with pH values significantly higher in the 3- and 28-year-old rubber plantations. The tropical forests had the lowest bulk densities, especially significantly lower from the top 10 cm of soil, and highest soil organic matter concentrations. Soil moisture content at topsoil was highest in the mature rubber plantation. Soils in the tropical forests and abandoned cultivated land had inorganic N (IN) concentrations approximately equal in NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N. However, soil IN pools were dominated by NH(4) (+)-N in the rubber and tea plantations. This trend suggests that conversion of tropical forest to rubber and tea plantations increases NH(4) (+)-N concentration and decreases NO(3) (-)-N concentration, with the most pronounced effect in plantations that are more frequently fertilized. Soil moisture content, IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations within all sites were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Significant differences in the soil moisture content, and IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentration was detected for both land uses and sampling season effects, as well as interactions. Higher concentrations of NH(4) (+)-N were measured at the upper slopes of all sites, but NO(3) (-)-N concentrations were highest at the lower slope in the rubber plantations and lowest at the lower slopes at all other. Thus, the conversion of tropical forests to rubber and tea plantations can have a profound effect on soil NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations. Options for improved soil management in plantations are discussed.

  17. Soil changes induced by rubber and tea plantation establishment: comparison with tropical rain forest soil in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Ma, Youxin; Liu, Wenjie; Liu, Wenjun

    2012-11-01

    Over the past thirty years, Xishuangbanna in Southwestern China has seen dramatic changes in land use where large areas of tropical forest and fallow land have been converted to rubber and tea plantations. In this study we evaluated the effects of land use and slope on soil properties in seven common disturbed and undisturbed land-types. Results indicated that all soils were acidic, with pH values significantly higher in the 3- and 28-year-old rubber plantations. The tropical forests had the lowest bulk densities, especially significantly lower from the top 10 cm of soil, and highest soil organic matter concentrations. Soil moisture content at topsoil was highest in the mature rubber plantation. Soils in the tropical forests and abandoned cultivated land had inorganic N (IN) concentrations approximately equal in NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N. However, soil IN pools were dominated by NH(4) (+)-N in the rubber and tea plantations. This trend suggests that conversion of tropical forest to rubber and tea plantations increases NH(4) (+)-N concentration and decreases NO(3) (-)-N concentration, with the most pronounced effect in plantations that are more frequently fertilized. Soil moisture content, IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations within all sites were higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. Significant differences in the soil moisture content, and IN, NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentration was detected for both land uses and sampling season effects, as well as interactions. Higher concentrations of NH(4) (+)-N were measured at the upper slopes of all sites, but NO(3) (-)-N concentrations were highest at the lower slope in the rubber plantations and lowest at the lower slopes at all other. Thus, the conversion of tropical forests to rubber and tea plantations can have a profound effect on soil NH(4) (+)-N and NO(3) (-)-N concentrations. Options for improved soil management in plantations are discussed. PMID:22986585

  18. [Topsoil phosphorus forms and availability of different soil and water conservation plantations in typical black soil region, northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Fan, Rui-Ying; Wang, En-Heng; Xia, Xiang-You; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2014-06-01

    Aiming to understand soil phosphorus status of plantations in typical black soil region of Northeast China, the topsoil (0-10 cm) phosphorus fractionations and its availability were examined in four soil and water conservation plantations dominantly composed of Larix gmelini, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and Populus nigra var. italica x P. cathayan, respectively. The results showed that total P, Olsen-P and the concentration of different P fractionations in F. mandshurica and P. nigra var. italica x P. cathayan plantations were significantly higher than that of the other two coniferous plantations. Organic P was the major fractionation in the four plantations' topsoil, and sodium hydroxide extractable organic P (NaOH-Po ) representing moderately labile organic phosphorus was predominant, which accounted for 58.9% of total P. The contents of H2O-Pi and NaHCO3-P which were more labile to plant were lower, only accounting for 1.2% and 6.6% of total P, respectively. Except for NaHCO3-Po, all the other P fractions of four plantations correlated with each other, and they also had significant correlations with soil organic matter, total P, Olsen-P. Compared with the coniferous plantations, the broadleaf plantations presented higher availability of phosphorus.

  19. Methanotrophic community abundance and composition in plateau soils with different plant species and plantation ways.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yu; Wu, Zhen; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) play an important role in mitigating the methane emission in soil ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, the impact of plant species and plantation ways on the distribution of MOB remains unclear. The present study investigated MOB abundance and structure in plateau soils with different plant species and plantation ways (natural and managed). Soils were collected from unmanaged wild grassland and naturally forested sites, and managed farmland and afforested sites. A large variation in MOB abundance and structure was found in these studied soils. In addition, both type I MOB (Methylocaldum) and type II MOB (Methylocystis) were detected in these soils, while type II MOB usually outnumbered type I MOB. The distribution of soil MOB community was found to be collectively regulated by plantation way, plant species, the altitude of sampling site, and soil properties. PMID:26142389

  20. Soil carbon stocks decrease following conversion of secondary forests to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    PubMed

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha(-1) in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha(-1) to an increase of 8 Mg C ha(-1). In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes.

  1. Soil Carbon Stocks Decrease following Conversion of Secondary Forests to Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations

    PubMed Central

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Brumme, Rainer; Xu, Jianchu; Corre, Marife D.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2013-01-01

    Forest-to-rubber plantation conversion is an important land-use change in the tropical region, for which the impacts on soil carbon stocks have hardly been studied. In montane mainland southeast Asia, monoculture rubber plantations cover 1.5 million ha and the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations is predicted to cause a fourfold expansion by 2050. Our study, conducted in southern Yunnan province, China, aimed to quantify the changes in soil carbon stocks following the conversion from secondary forests to rubber plantations. We sampled 11 rubber plantations ranging in age from 5 to 46 years and seven secondary forest plots using a space-for-time substitution approach. We found that forest-to-rubber plantation conversion resulted in losses of soil carbon stocks by an average of 37.4±4.7 (SE) Mg C ha−1 in the entire 1.2-m depth over a time period of 46 years, which was equal to 19.3±2.7% of the initial soil carbon stocks in the secondary forests. This decline in soil carbon stocks was much larger than differences between published aboveground carbon stocks of rubber plantations and secondary forests, which range from a loss of 18 Mg C ha−1 to an increase of 8 Mg C ha−1. In the topsoil, carbon stocks declined exponentially with years since deforestation and reached a steady state at around 20 years. Although the IPCC tier 1 method assumes that soil carbon changes from forest-to-rubber plantation conversions are zero, our findings show that they need to be included to avoid errors in estimating overall ecosystem carbon fluxes. PMID:23894456

  2. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation’s canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations. PMID:26805949

  3. Impact of logging and forest conversion to oil palm plantations on soil bacterial communities in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Edwards, David P; Tripathi, Binu M; Adams, Jonathan M

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are being rapidly altered by logging and cleared for agriculture. Understanding the effects of these land use changes on soil bacteria, which constitute a large proportion of total biodiversity and perform important ecosystem functions, is a major conservation frontier. Here we studied the effects of logging history and forest conversion to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo, on the soil bacterial community. We used paired-end Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, V3 region, to compare the bacterial communities in primary, once-logged, and twice-logged forest and land converted to oil palm plantations. Bacteria were grouped into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% similarity level, and OTU richness and local-scale α-diversity showed no difference between the various forest types and oil palm plantations. Focusing on the turnover of bacteria across space, true β-diversity was higher in oil palm plantation soil than in forest soil, whereas community dissimilarity-based metrics of β-diversity were only marginally different between habitats, suggesting that at large scales, oil palm plantation soil could have higher overall γ-diversity than forest soil, driven by a slightly more heterogeneous community across space. Clearance of primary and logged forest for oil palm plantations did, however, significantly impact the composition of soil bacterial communities, reflecting in part the loss of some forest bacteria, whereas primary and logged forests did not differ in composition. Overall, our results suggest that the soil bacteria of tropical forest are to some extent resilient or resistant to logging but that the impacts of forest conversion to oil palm plantations are more severe. PMID:24056463

  4. [Dynamics of soil water under Eucommia ulmodes plantation in hilly red soil region of southern China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Feng-Rui; Cao, Yun; Wang, Zhong-Jian; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Li, Xi-Quan; Tian, Yu-Xin

    2007-09-01

    By using time domain reflectometry (TDR), a fixed-position monitoring research on the dynamics of soil water under Eucommia ulmoides plantation was conducted in a hilly red soil region of southern China. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the soil water storage among different months, and the dynamics of soil water could be divided into the phases of reduction, increase, and more reduction. Soil water varied significantly in its vertical distribution, and the variation pattern also differed with seasons. The vertical distribution of soil water could be divided into two phases, i.e., accumulation and depletion based on the seasonal variation of soil water, or rainy season and dry season based on the monthly variation of rainfall. Soil water was correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with relative humidity (RH), air temperature (t), vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and rainfall (R), and regulated by these meteorological factors synthetically, among which, rainfall was the most important factor, followed by air temperature. The soil water loss rate after rain had a significant hyperbolic relationship with durative droughty days, while soil water storage had a significant linear negative relationship with this duration (P < 0.05). With the extension of drought duration after rain, soil water loss tended to vary gently with increasing soil depth.

  5. Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianping; Liu, Zhanfeng; Huang, Guomin; Chen, Dima; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Wan, Songze; Fu, Shenglei

    2014-01-01

    Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We conducted a field manipulation experiment from 2008 to 2009. Understory removal reduced soil respiration in both plantations, whereas tree girdling decreased soil respiration only in the 2-year-old plantations. The net ecosystem production was approximately three times greater in the 2-year-old plantations (13.4 t C ha−1 yr−1) than in the 24-year-old plantations (4.2 t C h−1 yr−1). The biomass increase of understory plants was 12.6 t ha−1 yr−1 in the 2-year-old plantations and 2.9 t ha−1 yr−1 in the 24-year-old plantations, accounting for 33.9% and 14.1% of the net primary production, respectively. Our findings confirm the ecological importance of understory plants in subtropical plantations based on the 2 years of data. These results also indicate that Eucalyptus plantations in China may be an important carbon sink due to the large plantation area. PMID:25179343

  6. Response of soil respiration and ecosystem carbon budget to vegetation removal in Eucalyptus plantations with contrasting ages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liu, Zhanfeng; Huang, Guomin; Chen, Dima; Zhang, Weixin; Shao, Yuanhu; Wan, Songze; Fu, Shenglei

    2014-09-02

    Reforested plantations have substantial effects on terrestrial carbon cycling due to their large coverage area. Although understory plants are important components of reforested plantations, their effects on ecosystem carbon dynamics remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of vegetation removal/understory removal and tree girdling on soil respiration and ecosystem carbon dynamics in Eucalyptus plantations of South China with contrasting ages (2 and 24 years old). We conducted a field manipulation experiment from 2008 to 2009. Understory removal reduced soil respiration in both plantations, whereas tree girdling decreased soil respiration only in the 2-year-old plantations. The net ecosystem production was approximately three times greater in the 2-year-old plantations (13.4 t C ha(-1) yr(-1)) than in the 24-year-old plantations (4.2 t C h(-1) yr(-1)). The biomass increase of understory plants was 12.6 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the 2-year-old plantations and 2.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) in the 24-year-old plantations, accounting for 33.9% nd 14.1% of the net primary production, respectively. Our findings confirm the ecological importance of understory plants in subtropical plantations based on the 2 years of data. These results also indicate that Eucalyptus plantations in China may be an important carbon sink due to the large plantation area.

  7. Management Effects on Soil Respiration in North Carolina Coastal Plain Loblolly Pine Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavazzi, M.; McNulty, S.; Noormets, A.; Treasure, E.

    2012-12-01

    Loblolly pine is the most widely planted tree for plantation management in the southern US. In the southern coastal plain, where much of the original longleaf pine and bottomland hardwood forests have been converted to loblolly pine plantations, inland areas are commonly characterized by deep organic soils that can store up to 80 kg C m-2. Intensive management activities on these sites disturb the forest floor and soil and their impact on soil respiration rates and long term soil storage capabilities is unclear. We measured soil respiration rates in three loblolly pine plantations being managed with a combination of ditching, bedding, clearcutting, thinning and fertilization. Sites and management regimes represented a wide range of real world conditions found in managed southern US forestry plantations. Soil efflux rates along with soil temperature and moisture were measured throughout the year at four to six plots on each site and best fit relationships were developed. Annual soil respiration rates where modeled using 30-minute soil temperature and moisture measurements recorded at a centralized meteorological station on each site. Soil efflux rates were highly correlated with soil temperature and moisture, but interaction between the two effects was uncommon. Soil temperature was the primary driver of soil respiration rates, but rates were suppressed under high soil moisture content. Modeled annual soil efflux rates were higher the first two years following clearcut harvest and thinning operations, but lower two years following fertilization. Rates were lower in the gaps, where entire tree rows were removed, compared to thinned areas, especially on the unfertilized site. Results indicate that soil respiration rates can be strongly impacted by forest management practices; however, the period of increased soil CO2 efflux due to site disturbance may last only a few years.

  8. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth. PMID:25707391

  9. Losses of soil carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: erosion and decomposition estimated by δ(13) C.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Thomas; Damris, Muhammad; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-09-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm, and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber, and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi Province on Sumatra Island. The focus was on two processes: (1) erosion and (2) decomposition of soil organic matter. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). On average, converting forest to plantations led to a loss of 10 Mg C ha(-1) after about 15 years of conversion. The C content in the subsoil was similar under the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ(13) C values in plantation subsoil corresponds to the losses from the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ(13) C profiles in the soils under forest and under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35 ± 8 cm) and rubber (33 ± 10 cm) plantations. The (13) C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. Nonetheless, based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC in oil palm plantations, which are a less sustainable land use compared to rubber plantations. We conclude that δ(13) C depth profiles may be a powerful tool to disentangle soil erosion and SOC mineralization after the conversion of natural ecosystems conversion to intensive plantations when soils show gradual increase of δ(13) C values with depth.

  10. Long lasting effects of the conversion from natural forest to poplar plantation on soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Mastromei, Giorgio; Senatore, Giuliana; Caroppo, Cesarea; Casalone, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the long-lasting effects on soil microbial communities of a change within a single land-use category, specifically the conversion from natural forest to forest plantation. To minimize the effects of impacts other than land-use (i.e., climatic and anthropogenic), we chose three sites within a Natural Park, with homogeneous orographic and soil texture characteristics. We compared microbial diversity in a total of 156 soil samples from two natural mixed forests and a similar forest converted to poplar plantation about thirty years ago. The diversity and structure of bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragments length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S-rRNA gene and the ITS-rDNA regions, respectively. Bacterial and fungal communities from the forest plantation, compared to those from natural forest soils, showed different community structure and lower α-diversity values, consistently with the significantly higher pH values and lower organic matter content of those soils. β-diversity values, the number of measured and estimated dominant OTUs, and their distribution among the three sites showed that microbial communities from the two natural forests were much more similar to each other than they were to communities from the poplar plantation, suggesting an effect of the forest conversion on the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities. α-diversity in cultivated forest soils had narrower temporal fluctuations than in natural forest soils, suggesting higher temporal stability of microbial communities. Overall, we demonstrated that the conversion from natural forest to forest plantation altered soil microbial communities, changing their structure, lowering their diversity, and causing a spatial and temporal homogenization.

  11. Long lasting effects of the conversion from natural forest to poplar plantation on soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Vitali, Francesco; Mastromei, Giorgio; Senatore, Giuliana; Caroppo, Cesarea; Casalone, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the long-lasting effects on soil microbial communities of a change within a single land-use category, specifically the conversion from natural forest to forest plantation. To minimize the effects of impacts other than land-use (i.e., climatic and anthropogenic), we chose three sites within a Natural Park, with homogeneous orographic and soil texture characteristics. We compared microbial diversity in a total of 156 soil samples from two natural mixed forests and a similar forest converted to poplar plantation about thirty years ago. The diversity and structure of bacterial and fungal communities were investigated by terminal restriction fragments length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of the 16S-rRNA gene and the ITS-rDNA regions, respectively. Bacterial and fungal communities from the forest plantation, compared to those from natural forest soils, showed different community structure and lower α-diversity values, consistently with the significantly higher pH values and lower organic matter content of those soils. β-diversity values, the number of measured and estimated dominant OTUs, and their distribution among the three sites showed that microbial communities from the two natural forests were much more similar to each other than they were to communities from the poplar plantation, suggesting an effect of the forest conversion on the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities. α-diversity in cultivated forest soils had narrower temporal fluctuations than in natural forest soils, suggesting higher temporal stability of microbial communities. Overall, we demonstrated that the conversion from natural forest to forest plantation altered soil microbial communities, changing their structure, lowering their diversity, and causing a spatial and temporal homogenization. PMID:26686617

  12. [Effect of pine plantations on soil arthropods in a high Andean forest].

    PubMed

    León-Gamboa, Alba Lucía; Ramos, Carolina; García, Mary Ruth

    2010-09-01

    One of the most common problems in the Colombian mountains has been the replacement of native vegetation by pine plantations. Soil arthropods are a fundamental component of forest ecosystem, since they participate in the organic matter fragmentation, previous to decomposition. This role is more valuable in high altitude environments, where low temperatures limit the dynamics of biological processes, where the effects of pine plantations on soil arthropods are still not well-known. In a remnant of high-andean forest (Neusa - Colombia) and a pine plantation of about 50 years-old, it was evaluated the composition, richness and abundance of arthropods at surface (S), organic horizon (O) and mineral horizon (A) of soil, to establish the differences associated to the soil use transformation. It was used "Pitfall" sampling to register the movement of the epigeous fauna, and extraction by funnel Berlese for determining the fauna density from O and A horizons. The Shannon and Simpson indexes estimated the diversity at different places and horizons, and the trophic structure of the community was evaluated. Overall, there were collected 38 306 individuals from forest and 17 386 individuals from pine plantation, mainly distributed in Collembola (42.4%), Acari (27%), Diptera (17.6%) and Coleoptera (4.6%). The most important differences were given in the surface, where the mobilization in forest (86 individuals/day) almost triplicates the one in pine plantation (33 individuals/day). The differences in composition were given in Collembola, Araneae, Hemiptera, Homoptera and Hymenoptera. The dynamics of richness and abundance along the year had significant high values in the native forest than in the pine plantation. The general trophic structure was dominated by saprophagous (75%), followed by predators (14%) and phytophagous (9%), but in two layers of the pine plantation soil (S and O) this structural pattern was not given. Based on the results, it was concluded that pine

  13. [Effects of gaps on distribution of soil aggregates and organic carbon in Pinus massoniana plantation].

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Dan-Ju; Zhang, Jian; Li, Jian-Ping; Deng, Chang-Chun; Deng, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The effects of forest gap size on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon were investigated in a 39-year-old Pinus massoniana plantation in Yibin, Sichuan Province. The results showed that the composition of soil aggregates was dominated by particles > 2 mm, which accounted for 51.7%-78.7% of the whole soil samples under different sized forest gaps and beneath P. massoniana plantation. Soil organic carbon content and labile organic carbon content in > 5 mm aggregates were significantly positively correlated with the soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon contents. Furthermore, the amounts of organic carbon and labile organic carbon storage > 5 mm particles were higher than those in other size particles. Therefore, particles > 5 mm of aggregates dominated the soil carbon pool. Compared with those P. massoniana plantations, the contents of organic carbon in aggregates and total topsoil decreased during the formation of forest gaps, whereas the soil organic carbon storage under 1225 m2 gap was higher. In addition, the soil labile organic carbon content under 225 and 400 m2 gaps and the labile organic carbon storage under 225, 400, 900 and 1225 m2 gaps were higher than those the plantations, but were lower than under the other gaps. It was suggested that an appropriate size of forest gap would increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon and labile organic carbon content. The size of forest gap had significant effects on the distribution of soil aggregates, organic carbon and labile organic carbon. The soil sample under 1225 m2 gap had the highest organic carbon content and storage and a better aggregate proportion, and the higher labile organic carbon storage. Therefore, it was suggested that 1225 m2 gap might be an optimal logging gap size.

  14. [Effects of conversion of natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation on soil respiration in subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Bai, Yang; Liu, Juan; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Wu, Jia-sen; Tong, Zhi-peng; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-10-01

    Soil CO2 effluxes in natural broad-leaved forest and the conversed Chinese fir plantation in Linglong Mountains Scenic of Zhejiang Province were evaluated by using static closed chamber and gas chromatography method. The results showed that soil CO2 efflux showed consistent seasonal dynamics in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, with the maximums observed in summer and autumn, the minimums in winter and spring. Soil CO2 effluxes were 20.0-111.3 and 4.1-118.6 mg C . m-2 . h-1 in natural broad-leaved forest and Chinese fir plantation, respectively. The cumulative soil CO2 emission of natural broad-leaved forest (16.46 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1) was significantly higher than that of Chinese fir plantation (11.99 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1). Soil moisture did not affect soil CO2 efflux. There was a significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux and soil temperature at 5 cm depth. There was no significant relationship between soil CO2 efflux of natural broad-leaved forest and water soluble organic carbon content, while water soluble organic carbon content affected significantly soil CO2 efflux in Chinese fir plantation. Converting the natural broad-leaved forest to Chinese fir plantation reduced soil CO2 efflux significantly but improved the sensitivity of soil respiration to environmental factors. PMID:26995901

  15. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    DOE PAGES

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments:more » monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.« less

  16. Intercropped silviculture systems, a key to achieving soil fungal community management in eucalyptus plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Caio T.C.C. Rachid; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-02-23

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that.

  17. Intercropped Silviculture Systems, a Key to Achieving Soil Fungal Community Management in Eucalyptus Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Fonseca, Eduardo S.; Peixoto, Raquel Silva; Chaer, Guilherme M.; Tiedje, James M.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous and important contributors to soil nutrient cycling, playing a vital role in C, N and P turnover, with many fungi having direct beneficial relationships with plants. However, the factors that modulate the soil fungal community are poorly understood. We studied the degree to which the composition of tree species affected the soil fungal community structure and diversity by pyrosequencing the 28S rRNA gene in soil DNA. We were also interested in whether intercropping (mixed plantation of two plant species) could be used to select fungal species. More than 50,000 high quality sequences were analyzed from three treatments: monoculture of Eucalyptus; monoculture of Acacia mangium; and a mixed plantation with both species sampled 2 and 3 years after planting. We found that the plant type had a major effect on the soil fungal community structure, with 75% of the sequences from the Eucalyptus soil belonging to Basidiomycota and 19% to Ascomycota, and the Acacia soil having a sequence distribution of 28% and 62%, respectively. The intercropping of Acacia mangium in a Eucalyptus plantation significantly increased the number of fungal genera and the diversity indices and introduced or increased the frequency of several genera that were not found in the monoculture cultivation samples. Our results suggest that management of soil fungi is possible by manipulating the composition of the plant community, and intercropped systems can be a means to achieve that. PMID:25706388

  18. [Characteristics of soil macrofaunal community structure in secondary forest and forest plantations in western Qinling Mountains of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Liang; Cao, Jing; Li, Shi-Jie; Pan, Chun-Lin; Pan, Cheng-Chen

    2012-09-01

    Long-term disturbance of human beings on secondary forest ecosystem would have profound impacts on belowground ecological processes, whereas the community structure and functional diversity of soil fauna would be sensitive to the changes of belowground ecological processes, with significance as an indicator of the changes. In this study, the method of hand-sorting was adopted to investigate the density of soil macrofaunal community in a secondary forest and the Pinus tabulaeformis, Larix kaempferi, Picea abie, and Picea asperata plantations of nearly 30 years old in Xiaolongshan forest area of western Qinling Mountains, and the PCA ordination and one-way ANOVA analysis were applied to analyze the community structure and trophic group composition of soil macrofauna in the five forest types. In the P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations, the density of soil macrofaunal community was 3.0 and 2.1 times of that in the secondary forest, respectively, and the consumers/decomposers ratio of the community was obviously higher than that in the secondary forest. Among the plantations, P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations had a significantly higher consumers/decomposers ratio of soil macrofaunal community than P. abies and P. asperata plantations. There was an obvious difference in community structure of soil macrofauna among the four plantations. The density of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis and L. kaempferi plantations was 3.5 and 2.1 times higher than that in P. asperata plantation, respectively, whereas the group richness of soil macrofaunal community in P. tabulaeformis plantation was 1.5 times of that in P. abies and P. asperata plantations.

  19. [Soil nutrient status of pure birch and larch plantations based on their seedlings bioassay].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-ling; Wang, Qing-cheng; Sun, Xin-xin

    2011-08-01

    One-year-old birch (Betula platyphylla) and larch (Larix olgensis) seedlings were respectively planted in pots with the soils taken from 35-year-old pure birch and larch plantations, and the seedlings growth, biomass increment, foliar nutrient content, and soil nutrient status were monitored, aimed to evaluate the fertility levels of the two soils and the possible interspecific interaction in mixed larch-birch forest. Birch soil had significantly higher contents of total N and available N than larch soil, while larch soil had significantly higher contents of total P, available P, and total K than birch soil (P < 0.05). In the first growth season, the height and collar diameter growth and the biomass accumulation of birch seedlings growing on birch soil were 69%, 52%, and 65% (P < 0.05) higher than those growing on larch soil, and the larch seedlings also had 12%, 8%, and 37% gains of the indices, respectively. The foliar N concentration of both larch and birch seedlings growing on birch soil was higher than that on larch soil, while the foliar P concentration was higher when the seedlings were growing on larch soil than on birch soil. The birch soil had higher content of available N because of the higher litterfall, while the larch soil had greater available P because of the higher P mobilizing effect. It was predicted that in mixed birch-larch forest, the complementary interaction of soil N and P could benefit the growth of the two tree species.

  20. Response of soil respiration to soil temperature and moisture in a 50-year-old oriental arborvitae plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinxiao; Zha, Tianshan; Pang, Zhuo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Guopeng; Li, Chunping; Cao, Jixin; Jia, Guodong; Li, Xizhi; Wu, Hailong

    2011-01-01

    China possesses large areas of plantation forests which take up great quantities of carbon. However, studies on soil respiration in these plantation forests are rather scarce and their soil carbon flux remains an uncertainty. In this study, we used an automatic chamber system to measure soil surface flux of a 50-year-old mature plantation of Platycladus orientalis at Jiufeng Mountain, Beijing, China. Mean daily soil respiration rates (R(s)) ranged from 0.09 to 4.87 µmol CO(2) m(-2) s(-1), with the highest values observed in August and the lowest in the winter months. A logistic model gave the best fit to the relationship between hourly R(s) and soil temperature (T(s)), explaining 82% of the variation in R(s) over the annual cycle. The annual total of soil respiration estimated from the logistic model was 645±5 g C m(-2) year(-1). The performance of the logistic model was poorest during periods of high soil temperature or low soil volumetric water content (VWC), which limits the model's ability to predict the seasonal dynamics of R(s). The logistic model will potentially overestimate R(s) at high T(s) and low VWC. Seasonally, R(s) increased significantly and linearly with increasing VWC in May and July, in which VWC was low. In the months from August to November, inclusive, in which VWC was not limiting, R(s) showed a positively exponential relationship with T(s). The seasonal sensitivity of soil respiration to T(s) (Q(10)) ranged from 0.76 in May to 4.38 in October. It was suggested that soil temperature was the main determinant of soil respiration when soil water was not limiting.

  1. Forest thinning and soil respiration in a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianwu; Qi, Ye; Xu, Ming; Misson, Laurent; Goldstein, Allen H

    2005-01-01

    Soil respiration is controlled by soil temperature, soil water, fine roots, microbial activity, and soil physical and chemical properties. Forest thinning changes soil temperature, soil water content, and root density and activity, and thus changes soil respiration. We measured soil respiration monthly and soil temperature and volumetric soil water continuously in a young ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws.) plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California from June 1998 to May 2000 (before a thinning that removed 30% of the biomass), and from May to December 2001 (after thinning). Thinning increased the spatial homogeneity of soil temperature and respiration. We conducted a multivariate analysis with two independent variables of soil temperature and water and a categorical variable representing the thinning event to simulate soil respiration and assess the effect of thinning. Thinning did not change the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature or to water, but decreased total soil respiration by 13% at a given temperature and water content. This decrease in soil respiration was likely associated with the decrease in root density after thinning. With a model driven by continuous soil temperature and water time series, we estimated that total soil respiration was 948, 949 and 831 g C m(-2) year(-1) in the years 1999, 2000 and 2001, respectively. Although thinning reduced soil respiration at a given temperature and water content, because of natural climate variability and the thinning effect on soil temperature and water, actual cumulative soil respiration showed no clear trend following thinning. We conclude that the effect of forest thinning on soil respiration is the combined result of a decrease in root respiration, an increase in soil organic matter, and changes in soil temperature and water due to both thinning and interannual climate variability.

  2. Exploring the Role of Plant Genetics to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration in Hybrid Poplar Plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wullschleger, S. D.; Garten, C. T.; Classen, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased in recent decades and are projected to increase even further during the coming century. These projections have prompted scientists and policy-makers to consider how plants and soils can be used to stabilize CO2 concentrations. Although storing carbon in terrestrial ecosystems represents an attractive near-term option for mitigating rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, enhancing the sequestration potential of managed systems will require advancements in understanding the fundamental mechanisms that control rates of carbon transfer and turnover in plants and soils. To address this challenge, a mathematical model was constructed to evaluate how changes in particular plant traits and management practices could affect soil carbon storage beneath hybrid poplar (Populus) plantations. The model was built from four sub-models that describe aboveground biomass, root biomass, soil carbon dynamics, and soil nitrogen transformations for trees growing throughout a user-defined rotation. Simulations could be run over one or multiple rotations. A sensitivity analysis of the model indicated changes in soil carbon storage were affected by variables that could be linked to hybrid poplar traits like rates of aboveground production, partitioning of carbon to coarse and fine roots, and rates of root decomposition. A higher ratio of belowground to aboveground production was especially important and correlated directly with increased soil carbon storage. Faster decomposition rates for coarse and fine dead roots resulted in a greater loss of carbon to the atmosphere as CO2 and less residual organic carbon for transfer to the fast soil carbon pool. Hence, changes in root chemistry that prolonged dead root decomposition rates, a trait that is under potential genetic control, were predicted to increase soil carbon storage via higher soil carbon inputs. Nitrogen limitation of both aboveground biomass production and soil carbon sequestration was

  3. Stable soil organic carbon is positively linked to microbial-derived compounds in four plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Liu, S.; Chang, S. X.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.; Huang, X.; Wen, Y.; Lu, L.; Cai, D.

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous broadleaf plantations are increasingly being developed to substitute pure coniferous plantations to increase biodiversity and soil fertility in subtropical China. To assess how plantation types affect soil organic carbon (SOC) chemical composition, we used the solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CPMAS-NMR) technique to analyze SOC and litter C chemical compositions in a coniferous (Pinus massoniana) and three broadleaf (Castanopsis hystrix, Michelia macclurei and Mytilaria laosensis) plantations in subtropical China. Soil microbial community composition and biomass were investigated with the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and chloroform fumigation-extraction methods, respectively. The SOC chemical composition varied with plantation type, with 34% of the SOC found in the alkyl C fraction in the P. massoniana plantation compared to < 28% in the broadleaf plantations. The amount of total PLFAs, bacterial and particularly the gram-positive bacterial population size, and microbial C / N ratio were correlated with the alkyl C content and alkyl C / O-alkyl C ratio. However, the soil alkyl C content was not correlated with the recalcitrance of leaf litter or fine roots. We thus suggest that the stable SOC composition could be attributable to the contribution of microbial-derived C compounds, rather than leaf litter or fine root quality or a direct flux of C from recalcitrant litter materials to more stable SOC pools.

  4. [Soil organic carbon storage in different aged Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Qi, Guang; Wang, Qing-Li; Wang, Xin-Chuang; Yu, Da-Pao; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Wang-Ming; Peng, Shun-Lei; Dai, Li-Min

    2013-01-01

    A sampling plot investigation was conducted to study the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in 0-40 cm layer in 10-, 15-, 26- and 61 years old Larix gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains of Northeast China as well as the temporal variation pattern of the SOC source/sink during the plantation management after the clear cutting of primary L. gmelinii forest. With the increasing age of the plantations, the SOC storage increased after an initial decrease, and the inflection point was at a stand age between 15- and 26-years old. Compared with that of primary forest, the SOC storage of the plantations played a role of carbon source at early stage (10-26 years old), but gradually transformed into carbon sink then, with a SOC storage of 158.91 t x hm(-2) in 61-year-old plantation. The SOC storage of the plantations increased with soil depth initially, but was higher in upper soil layer than in deeper soil layer after the stand age being 26, which implied that human disturbance had strong effects on the vertical distribution of SOC. It was considered that the appropriate cutting age for the L. gmelinii plantations in Great Xing' an Mountains could be at least 60 years old.

  5. Changes in soil quality due to converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations and subsequent successive Eucalyptus planting in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2014-09-01

    Plants play a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index (SQI) was calculated. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities significantly decreased in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations after conversion from Pinus to Eucalyptus but gradually recovered in the 3rd and 4th generations. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower, but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations compared to the Pinus plantation. As an integrated indicator, SQI was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92), but decreased to 0.24 and 0.13 in the 1st and 2nd generations of Eucalyptus plantations, respectively. However, it recovered to 0.36 and 0.38 in the 3rd and 4th generations, respectively. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the "U" shaped change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understory coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during logging and subsequent establishment of the next rotation should be considered to help improving soil quality during plantation management.

  6. Physico-chemical properties of soil at oil palm plantation area, Labu, Negeri Sembilan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozieta, R.; Sahibin A., R.; Wan Mohd Razi, I.

    2015-09-01

    A study on the physico-chemical characteristics of soil from oil palm plantation area at New Labu Estate, Negeri Sembilan was carried out. A number of 20 topsoil (0-20cm) samples were collected based on plantation block by using `Dutch Auger'. The soil physico-chemical properties determined were particle size distribution, organic matter content, pH and total organic carbon. Particle size distribution was determined by pipette method and dry sieving. Bulk density was determined by waxing method. Organic matter and total organic carbon were measured through loss of ignition and Walkley-Black method, respectively. Soil pH was determined based on soil:water ratio of 1:2.5. Results showed that the texture of the soil was classified as sandy clay with the highest percentage of sand particles component. Organic matter content is considered as low at less than 4% and soil organic carbon content was low with 1.75%. The average soil pH in the study area was very acidic with values of 3.81.

  7. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  8. Soil nitrate leaching in silvopastures compared with open pasture and pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Bambo, Susan K; Nowak, Jarek; Blount, Ann R; Long, Alan J; Osiecka, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Wide acceptance of silvopasture as an alternative sustainable agricultural system in the southeastern United States will depend on an improved understanding of the tree-forage interactions and recognition of its environmental benefits. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in soil nitrate leaching in different land-use systems, in north Florida. An 18-yr-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation was thinned in the summer of 2002 to create a fifth-row thinned, nontraditional intensive pine plantation (FO), silvopastures (HE = fourth-row conventionally thinned with random tree distribution and DO = double-row sets of trees with 15-m wide alleys), and an open pasture (PA). 'Argentine' bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge.) was established as understory vegetation in HE, DO, and PA. From 2004 to 2005 soil nitrate leaching was sampled and compared in the DO, HE, PA, and FO systems at 0.3 and 1.2 m depths after fertilizer application. Significant nitrate peaks were observed at 0.3 m depth after N fertilizer application in all systems. At the 1.2 m depth, the maximum nitrate concentrations were 67, 18, and 8 mg L(-1), in the forest plantation, open pasture, and both silvopastures, respectively. In general, reduced nitrate leaching at 1.2 m depth was observed in silvopastures compared with other land-used systems. These results are not intended to have a direct bearing on traditional pine plantation management, but rather support the potential role of silvopasture systems in reducing nitrate losses from the soil. PMID:19643752

  9. Nitrate Distribution in Soil Moisture and Groundwater with Intensive Plantation Management on Abandoned Agricultural Land

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Paper outlines nitrate leaching results of loblolly pine and sweet gum that were grown with irrigation, continuous fertilization and insect pest control on a year old abandoned peanut field. Wells and tension lysimeters were used to measure nitrate in soil moisture and groundwater on three replicate transects for two years. Groundwater nitrate concentration beneath the minimum treatment was much higher than the maximum treatment and old field. All three treatments often exceeded the drinking water standard. Forest and lake edge had low levels while the soil moisture nitrate concentrations in the two plantations treatments were much higher than the old field.

  10. Estimation of Soil Erosion Rates in Oil Palm Plantation with Different Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahat, S.; Yusop, Z.; Askari, M.; Ziegler, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    Soil losses from hill slopes in oil palm plantation in Sedenak Estate, Johor were measured using runoff plot and rainfall simulator. The plot was designed to be removable but the size was fixed at 8 x 3.75m. Four types of surface covers were investigated for the plots, i.e. half bare soil and half grass cover (HGC), half bare soil and half dry frond (HDF), fully grass cover (FG), and fully bare soil (BS). The influence of initial soil moisture, saturated hydraulics conductivity, Ks, bulk density and slope on rates of soil loss were also evaluated. The rainfall simulator produced rainfall intensities between 90 and 160 mm/hr with durations from 45 to 60 min per run. BS plot exhibited the highest Ks value among all plots but the percentage of initial soil moisture on this surface was low. BS plot recorded the highest runoff coefficient (C) and soil loss values of 73.6 ± 4 percent and 5.26 ± 3.2 t/ha respectively, while the lowest was from plot FG with 41.7 ± 5.7 percent and soil loss of 2.85 ± 2.1 t/ha. Meanwhile, the results suggested that the ground cover had the ability to reduce soil loss by 67% and 17%, respectively for plots BS-HGC and BS-HDF. Overall, soil erosion control such as surface is effective measures in reducing level of runoff and soil erosion.

  11. [Dynamic changes in soil respiration components and their regulating factors in the Moso bamboo plantation in subtropical China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-jia; Li, Yong-fu; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Liu, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Dynamic changes (from April 2013 to March 2014) in soil respiration components were investigated by Li-8100 in the Moso bamboo plantation in Lin' an City, Zhejiang Province. Results showed that the average annual values for the soil total respiration rate, heterotrophic respiration rate, and autotrophic respiration rate in the Moso bamboo plantation were 2.93, 1.92 and 1.01 imol CO2 . m-2 . s-1, respectively. The soil respiration rate and its components exhibited strongly a seasonal dynamic pattern. The maximum appeared in July 2013, and the minimum appeared in January 2014. The annual cumulative CO2 emissions through soil respiration, heterotrophic respiration, and autotrophic respiration were 37.25, 24.61 and 12.64 t CO2 . hm-2 . a-1, respectively. The soil respiration and its components showed a close relation with soil temperature of 5 cm depth, and the corresponding Q10, values at 5 cm depth were 2.05, 1.95 and 2.34, respectively. Both the soil respiration and heterotrophic respiration were correlated to soil water soluble organic C (WSOC) content, but no significant relationship between autotrophic respiration and WSOC was observed. There were no significant relationships between soil respiration components and soil moisture content or microbial biomass C. The seasonal changes in soil respiration components in the Moso bamboo plantation were predominantly controlled by the soil temperature, and the soil WSOC content was an important environmental factor controlling total soil respiration and soil heterotrophic respiration. PMID:26995900

  12. [Ecological stoichiometry of soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus within soil aggregates in tea plantations with different ages].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zheng, Zi-cheng; Li, Ting-xuan

    2015-01-01

    This study selected 4 tea plantations with different ages (12-15, 20-22, 30-33 and >50 year-old) located in Ya' an, Sichuan Province, China to investigate the distribution patterns of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) , and to examine the ecological stoichiometric characteristics of C, N and P within soil aggregates. The results showed that the coefficients of variation of SOC, TN and TP were 17.5%, 16.3% and 9.4%, respectively in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were 24.0%, 21.0% and 9.2%, respectively in the 20-40 cm soil layer. The spatial variation of TP was lower than that of SOC and TN but there were significant positive correlations among them. SOC and TN were distributed in the small-size aggregates and both of them had the greatest values in the >50 year-old tea plantation, however, the distribution of TP was relatively uniform among aggregates and ages. The coefficients of variation of C/N, C/P, and N/P were 9.4%, 14.0% and 14.9%, respectively in the 0-20 cm soil layer and were 7.4%, 24.9% and 21.8%, respectively in the 20-40 cm soil layer. Variation of C/N was lower than that of C/P and N/P. Averaged C/P and N/P values in the small-size aggregates were higher than in aggregates of other sizes, and the maximum values were in the >50 year-old plantation. C/N, C/P and N/P had good indication for soil organic carbon storage.

  13. Rainforest Conversion to Rubber Plantation May Not Result in Lower Soil Diversity of Bacteria, Fungi, and Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Dong, Ke; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Large areas of rainforest in Asia have been converted to plantations, with uncertain effects on soil biodiversity. Using standard metagenetic methods, we compared the soil biota of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes at three rainforest sites in Malaysia with two rubber plantation sites with similar soils and geology. We predicted the following: (1) that the rubber sites would have a lower α- and β-diversity than the rainforest sites, due to the monospecific canopy cover and intensive management with herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, and (2) that due to differences in the physical and biotic environment associated with cultivation, there would be distinct communities of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. However, regarding (1), the results showed no consistent difference in α- and β-diversity of bacteria, fungi, or nematodes between rainforest and rubber plantation sites. It appears that conversion of rainforest to rubber plantations does not necessarily result in a decrease in diversity of soil biota. It may be that heterogeneity associated with the cultivation regimen compensates for loss of biotically imposed heterogeneity of the original rainforest. Regarding (2), as predicted there were statistically significant differences in community composition between rainforest and rubber plantation for bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. These differences could be related to a range of factors including light level, litter fall composition, pH, C and N, selecting a distinct set of soil taxa, and it is possible that this in itself would affect long-term soil function. PMID:27221090

  14. Rainforest Conversion to Rubber Plantation May Not Result in Lower Soil Diversity of Bacteria, Fungi, and Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tripathi, Binu M; Dong, Ke; Go, Rusea; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-08-01

    Large areas of rainforest in Asia have been converted to plantations, with uncertain effects on soil biodiversity. Using standard metagenetic methods, we compared the soil biota of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes at three rainforest sites in Malaysia with two rubber plantation sites with similar soils and geology. We predicted the following: (1) that the rubber sites would have a lower α- and β-diversity than the rainforest sites, due to the monospecific canopy cover and intensive management with herbicides, pesticides, and fertilizers, and (2) that due to differences in the physical and biotic environment associated with cultivation, there would be distinct communities of bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. However, regarding (1), the results showed no consistent difference in α- and β-diversity of bacteria, fungi, or nematodes between rainforest and rubber plantation sites. It appears that conversion of rainforest to rubber plantations does not necessarily result in a decrease in diversity of soil biota. It may be that heterogeneity associated with the cultivation regimen compensates for loss of biotically imposed heterogeneity of the original rainforest. Regarding (2), as predicted there were statistically significant differences in community composition between rainforest and rubber plantation for bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. These differences could be related to a range of factors including light level, litter fall composition, pH, C and N, selecting a distinct set of soil taxa, and it is possible that this in itself would affect long-term soil function.

  15. Spatial variability of some soil properties varies in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations of west coastal area of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Sanjib Kumar; Suresh, Kancherla; Narsimha Rao, Bezawada; Mathur, Ravi Kumar; Shukla, Arvind Kumar; Manorama, Kamireddy; Ramachandrudu, Kummari; Harinarayana, Parasa; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    Mapping spatial variability of soil properties is the key to efficient soil resource management for sustainable crop yield. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the spatial variability of soil properties such as acidity (pH), salinity (electrical conductivity (EC)), organic carbon, available K, available P, exchangeable Ca2+, exchangeable Mg2+, available S and hot water soluble B in surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) soil layers of oil palm plantations in south Goa district of Goa located in west coastal area of India. A total of 128 soil samples were collected from 64 oil palm plantations of Goa located at an approximate interval of 1-2 km and analyzed. Soil was acidic to neutral in reaction. Other soil properties varied widely in both the soil layers. Correlations between soil pH and exchangeable Ca2+, between soil EC and available K, between available P and available S and between exchangeable Ca2+ and exchangeable Mg2+ in both the soil layers were found to be positive and significant (P < 0.01). Geostatistical analysis revealed a varied spatial distribution pattern for the measured soil properties. Best-fit models for measured soil properties were exponential, Gaussian, stable, K-Bessel and spherical with moderate to strong spatial dependency. The results revealed that site-specific fertilizer management options needed to be adopted in the oil palm plantations of the study area owing to variability in soil properties.

  16. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  17. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Yin-Long; Luo, Shou-Hua; Li, Ren-Hong; Dai, Hong-Zhong

    2012-08-01

    From January 2008 to January 2009, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 5, 15, and 30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) on the soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China. As compared with the control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), simulated N deposition stimulated the activities of soil hydrolases (beta-fructofuranosidase, cellulase, acid phosphatase, and urease) significantly, but depressed the activities of soil oxidases (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase). These results suggested that the increased exogenous inorganic N could stimulate soil microbial activity and increase the demands of both B. luminifera and soil microbes for C and P, whereas the depress of soil polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities under N addition could inhibit the degradation of litter and promote its accumulation in soil, leading to the increase of soil C storage in the B. luminifera plantation ecosystem.

  18. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-Hua; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Yin-Long; Luo, Shou-Hua; Li, Ren-Hong; Dai, Hong-Zhong

    2012-08-01

    From January 2008 to January 2009, a field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition (0, 5, 15, and 30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) on the soil enzyme activities in a Betula luminifera plantation in Rainy Area of West China. As compared with the control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), simulated N deposition stimulated the activities of soil hydrolases (beta-fructofuranosidase, cellulase, acid phosphatase, and urease) significantly, but depressed the activities of soil oxidases (polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase). These results suggested that the increased exogenous inorganic N could stimulate soil microbial activity and increase the demands of both B. luminifera and soil microbes for C and P, whereas the depress of soil polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activities under N addition could inhibit the degradation of litter and promote its accumulation in soil, leading to the increase of soil C storage in the B. luminifera plantation ecosystem. PMID:23189689

  19. [Effects of understory removal on soil labile organic carbon pool in a Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Cong; Li, Zheng-Cai; Cheng, Cai-Fang; Liu, Rong-Jie; Wang, Bin; Geri, Le-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Taking a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the eastern area of our subtropics as test object, this paper studied the labile organic carbon contents and their ratios to the total organic carbon (TOC) in 0-60 cm soil layer under effects of understory removal (UR). As compared with no understory removal (CK), the soil TOC and easily-oxidized carbon (EOC) contents under UR decreased, with a decrement of 4.8% - 34.1% and 27.1% - 36.2%, respectively, and the TOC and EOC contents had a significant difference in 0-10 cm and 0-20 cm layers, respectively. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) (except in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm layers) and light fraction organic matter (LFOM) under UR increaesd, but the difference was not significant. The ratio of soil WSOC to soil TOC in UR stand was higher than that in CK stand, while the ratio of soil EOC to soil TOC showed an opposite trend. In the two stands, soil WSOC, EOC, and LFOM had significant or extremely significant correlations with soil TOC, and the correlation coefficients of soil EOC and LFOM with soil TOC were higher in UR stand than in CK, but the correlation coefficient between soil WSOC and TOC was in opposite. The soil EOC, LFOM, and TOC in the two stands were significantly or extremely significantly correlated with soil nutrients, but the soil WSOC in UR stand had no significant correlations with soil hydrolyzable N, available P, exchangeable Ca, and exchangeable Mg.

  20. The influence of mature oak stands and spruce plantations on soil-dwelling click beetles in lowland plantation forests

    PubMed Central

    Loskotová, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Most European forests have been converted into forest plantations that are managed for timber production. The main goal of this paper was to determine the difference between mature native sessile oak (Quercus petraea) stands and non-indigenous Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations, with respect to communities of Athous click beetles in approximately 6,500 ha of lowland plantation forest area in the Czech Republic. Athous subfuscus was the most abundant and widespread species, followed by A. zebei and A. haemorrhoidalis, while A. vittatus was considered rare. Spatial analysis of environmental variables inside studied patches showed that the species composition of Athous beetles best responded to a 20 m radius surrounding traps. The species’ responses to the environment showed that A. vittatus and A. haemorrhoidalis preferred oak stands, while A. zebei and A. subfuscus were associated with spruce plantations. In addition, oak stands showed higher diversity of beetle communities. The studied species are important for their ecosystem services (e.g. predation on pests or bioturbation) and seem to tolerate certain degrees of human disturbances, which is especially beneficial for forest plantations managed for timber production. PMID:26793425

  1. Effect of soil acidification induced by a tea plantation on chemical and mineralogical properties of Alfisols in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, T; Alekseev, A; Xu, Ren-Kou; Zhao, An-Zhen; Kalinin, P

    2011-04-01

    The effect of a tea plantation on soil basic properties, chemical and mineralogical compositions, and magnetic properties of Alfisols from eastern China was studied. Under the tea plantation, acidification took place within a soil depth of 70 cm, with the maximum difference in pH in the upper 17 cm (ΔpH = 2.80). Both the tea plantation and unused soil profiles were predominated by free Fe and Al oxides, i.e. citrate/bicarbonate/dithionite extractable Fe (Fe(d)) and Al (Al(d)). Tea plantation soil was characterized by higher Al(d) and Fe(d) and lower Fe oxalate, Fe(2)O(3) and Al(2)O(3); CaO was depleted, whereas SiO(2) accumulated. Acidification induced by the tea plantation led to destruction of vermiculite followed by dissolution of the hydroxy-Al interlayers within its structure. The data clearly demonstrated that significant soil weathering occurred with acidification caused by tea cultivation. This acidification also resulted in decreased content of ferrimagnetic minerals due to the dissolution of minerals and movement of Fe in the profile.

  2. [Effects of compaction on diurnal variaaton of soil respiration in Larix gmellini plantation in summer].

    PubMed

    He, Na; Wang, Li-hai

    2010-12-01

    Taking the Larix gmellinii plantation in the experimental forest farm of Northeast Forestry University as test object, and by using Li-8100 automatic instrument, the daily CO2 emission rate of soil in summer under different degrees of man-made compaction was measured, with the regression models established. There were significant differences in the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate under different degrees of man-made compaction. In CK (no compaction), the maximum value of soil respiration appeared at 15:30-17:30, and the minimum value appeared at 03:30-05:30, which were obviously lagged behind those in compaction treatments. The maximum and minimum values of soil respiration rate in main roads appeared at 09:30-11:30 and 23:30-01:30, and those in branch roads appeared at 11:30 and 01:30-03:30, respectively. In all treatments, soil respiration rate had significant correlations with surface temperature, relative humidity, and the temperature at 10 cm soil depth, but the correlation with the soil moisture at 5 cm depth tended to be not significant when the compaction degree was increasing. Compaction altered surface soil physical structure, decreased surface soil CO2 release rate. PMID:21442991

  3. [Soil greenhouse gases emission from an Acacia crassicarpa plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhang, Xing-Feng

    2010-03-01

    Forest soil is one of the main sources of greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O. By using static chamber and GS technique, this paper measured in situ the CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes of Acacia crassicarpa plantation in Heshan Hilly Land Interdisciplinary Experimental Station under Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), and studied the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the plantation under effects of understory removal and Cassia alata addition. The CO2 flux of the plantation maintained at a higher level during rainy season but decreased obviously in dry season, while the CH4 and N2O fluxes varied widely from September to November, with the peaks in October. Under the effects of understory removal and C. alata addition, the soil in the plantation could be a sink or a source of CH4, but consistently a source of CO2 and N2O. Understory removal enhanced the soil CO2 emission (P < 0.05 ), C. alata addition increased the soil CH4 emission (P < 0.05), while both understory removal and C. alata addition increased the soil N2O emission (P < 0.05). Surface soil temperature, moisture content, NO3(-) -N concentration, and microbial biomass carbon were the main factors affecting the soil CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions.

  4. Effect of inter-row cultivation on soil CO2 emission in a peach plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, E.; Farkas, Cs.; Gelybó, Gy.; Lagzi, I.

    2012-04-01

    We examined the effect of inter-row cultivation on soil CO2 emission in a peach plantation planted in 1991. The soil is Ramann type brown forest soil /Mollic Cambisol/ developed on sandy loam. Every second row in the orchard is covered with undisturbed grass, and every other row is disked (depth: 12-15cm) with a two-three-week frequency. The humus content varies from 1,69% to 2,28% in the upper 20 cm layer, where the sand, loam and clay contents are 58%, 21% and 19 %, respectively. The average annual precipitation total is 570 mm (330 mm for the growing season) at the site. During the vegetation period of 2009 soil CO2 emission measurements were carried out with static chamber method in the differently managed rows. Parallel with CO2 measurements soil volumetric water content and soil temperature were also determined. Soil microbiological properties water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) and water-extractable nitrogen (WEN) as well as substrate-induced respiration (SIR) were determined from disturbed soil samples collected on the first measurement day. The measured soil physical properties showed that different soil management practices influence soil water content, bulk density and soil temperature as well. Soil water content was higher in the grass covered row on 10 of the 13 measurement days, the difference - which reached 10 v% - was the highest on the warmest days. Soil temperature is also different in case of disked and grass covered rows, found to be lower in the grass covered rows on every measurement days. SIR, WEOC and WEN were all higher in the grass covered row (19.45 μg CO2-C g-1 soil 36.91 μg g-1 soil, 139.36 μg g-1 soil, respectively) than in the disked row (4.88 μg CO2-C g-1 soil 25.43 μg C g-1 soil, 61.25 μg N g-1 soil, respectively) in 2009. Soil CO2 emission also differed between the two rows, grass covered rows produced higher emission in all measurements days without exemption. The difference between CO2 fluxes from the two cultivation

  5. Extreme soil erosion rates in citrus slope plantations and control strategies. A literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Pereira, Paulo; Reyes Ruiz Gallardo, José; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Burguet, María

    2013-04-01

    Soil Erosion is a natural process that shapes the Earth. Due to the impact of agriculture, soil erosion rates increase, landforms show gullies and rills, and soils are depleted. In the Mediterranean, wheat, olive and vineyards were the main agriculture products, but new plantations are being found in sloping terrain due to the drip-irrigation. This new strategy results in the removal of the traditional terraces in order to make suitable for mechanization the agriculture plantation. Citrus is a clear example of the impact of the new chemical agriculture with a high investment in herbicides, pesticides, mechanisation, land levelling and drip computer controlled irrigation systems. The new plantation of citrus orchards is found in the Mediterranean, but also in California, Florida, China and Brazil. Chile, Argentina, and South Africa are other producers that are moving to an industrial production of citrus. This paper shows how the citrus plantations are found as one of the most aggressive plantation due to the increase in soil erosion, and how we can apply successful control strategies. The research into the high erosion rates of citrus orchard built on the slopes are mainly found in China (Wu et al., 1997; Xu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Wu et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011; Lü et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2012) and in the Mediterranean (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; 2009; Cerdà et al., 2009a; 2009b; Cerdà et al., 2011; 2012) Most of the research done devoted to the measurements of the soil losses but also some research is done related to the soil properties (Lu et al., 1997; Lü et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2012) and the impact of cover crops to reduce the soil losses (Lavigne et al., 2012; Le Bellec et al., 2012) and the use of residues such as dried citrus peel in order to reduce the soil losses. There are 116 million tonnes of citrus produced yearly, and this affects a large surface of the best land. The citrus orchards are moving from flood irrigated to drip

  6. Bioaccessible arsenic in soils of former sugar cane plantations, Island of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Cutler, William G; Brewer, Roger C; El-Kadi, Aly; Hue, Nguyen V; Niemeyer, Patrick G; Peard, John; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenical herbicides were used extensively for emergent weed control in Hawaiian sugar cane cultivation from 1913 to about 1950. As a result, surface soil arsenic concentrations average 280 mg kg(-1) across more than 60 km(2) of former sugar plantation land in the eastern portion of the Island of Hawaii. This study was conducted to elucidate the relationship between soil properties and arsenic bioaccessibility in the iron-rich volcanic soils. Soils are predominantly Andisols, formed by weathering of basaltic lava and tephra, with pedogenic solid phases consisting of short-range order iron oxyhydroxides, allophane-like aluminosilicates, and metal-humus compounds. These reactive solid phases strongly adsorb oxyanions, such as phosphate and arsenite/arsenate. High arsenic sorption capacity limits desorption and vertical migration within the soil column and prevents contamination of the underlying groundwater aquifer, despite high arsenic loading and precipitation rates. In vitro arsenic bioaccessibility, as measured by the SBRC gastric-phase test, ranges from 2% to 35% and averages 9% of total arsenic. Bioaccessible arsenic is higher in less weathered soils (Udifolists, Typic and Lithic Hydrudands) and lower in more weathered ash-dominant soils (Acrudoxic Hydrudands). Soil weathering indicators, such as reactive iron content, are strong predictors of arsenic bioaccessibility. Based on evidence from soil mineralogy, geochemistry and arsenic speciation, as well as limited soil arsenic bioavailability/bioaccessibility comparisons, risks to human health from direct contact (soil ingestion) are significantly reduced by low arsenic bioaccessibility. Nonetheless, some soils within former sugar cane cultivation areas contain bioaccessible arsenic concentrations exceeding Hawaii Department of Health risk-based action levels, and will require mitigating actions. Even higher levels of soil arsenic contamination have been identified at former pesticide storage and mixing areas

  7. [Impact of heavy snow storm and freezing rain disasters on soil fauna in Chinese fir plantation in southern China].

    PubMed

    Yan, Shao-kui; Zhang, Wei-dong; Liu, Yan-xin; Fu, Sheng-lei; Li, Yuan-liang; Wang, Si-long

    2009-01-01

    In January 2008, southern China suffered an unusual heavy snowstorm and freezing rain over a large area for almost a month long. This catastrophic event was the worst one in past 50 years, which brought the area a serious impact on the infrastructure, ecology, and environment. To understand the long-term impact of this catastrophic event on the forest ecosystems in this area, a field investigation was conducted on the soil fauna in a pure Chinese fir plantation and a mixed Chinese fir plantation-alder plantation in Huitong County of Hunan Province on March 23, 2008, the date 40 days after the heavy snowstorm and freezing rain. With the abundance and community composition as the main parameters and the monitoring data from the two plantations on March 23, 2007 as the reference, the flexibility and resistance of soil fauna to the disturbances of the catastrophic event was preliminarily evaluated. The results showed that there was a significant deviation of soil fauna communities in the two plantations from the reference. An outbreak increase in microfauna nematode abundance was found from 12216.9 ind x m(-2) to 118343.9 ind x m(-2) in pure Chinese fir plantation and from 25435.9 ind x m(-2) to 84573.0 ind x m(-2) in mixed Chinese fir plantation-alder plantation, while a 27.0% and 85.6% decrease of macrofauna abundance was found in the two plantations, respectively, compared with the reference. Mesofauna abundance also had a significant decrease in litter layer but not in soil. The abundance recovery displayed a trend from quick rate for microfauna to slow rate for macrofauna, which indicated that the soil fauna functional groups, in terms of body size, could be used as a vulnerable indicator in evaluating disturbance event and post-disturbance recovery. By using community ordinations, no shift in soil fauna community composition was detected 40 days after the catastrophic event, suggesting that the community composition of soil invertebrate had a high resistance to

  8. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM. PMID:27558833

  9. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem's SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM. PMID:27558833

  10. Invasion of moso bamboo into a Japanese cedar plantation affects the chemical composition and humification of soil organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Bamboo, which has dense culms and root rhizome systems, can alter soil properties when it invades adjacent forests. Therefore, this study investigated whether bamboo invasions can cause changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition and soil humification. We combined solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and chemical analysis to examine the SOM in a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and adjacent bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation. Bamboo reduced soil organic C (SOC) content, compared to the cedar plantation. The value of ∆logK (ratio of absorbance of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) was cedar > transition zone > bamboo soils. Our results indicated that bamboo increased SOM humification, which could be due to the fast decomposition of bamboo litter with the high labile C. Furthermore, intensive management in the bamboo plantation could enhance the humification as well. Overall, litter type can control an ecosystem’s SOC nature, as reflected by the finding that higher labile C in bamboo litter contributed the higher ratios of labile C to SOC and lower ratios of recalcitrant C to SOC in bamboo soils compared with cedar soils. The invasion of bamboo into the Japanese cedar plantation accelerated the degradation of SOM.

  11. Spatial variability of soil nutrient in paddy plantation: Sites FELCRA Seberang Perak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, H.; Adnan, N. A.; Mispan, M. R.; Athirah. A, A.

    2016-06-01

    The conventional methods currently used for rice cultivation in Malaysia are unable to give maximum yield although the yield production of paddy is increasing. This is due to the conversional method being unable to include soil properties as one of their parameters in agriculture management. Soil properties vary spatially in farm scale due to differences in topography, parent material, vegetation or land management and soil characteristics; also plantation productivity varies significantly over small spatial scales. Knowledge of spatial variability in soil fertility is important for site specific nutrient management. Analysis of spatial variability of soil nutrient of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) were conducted in this study with the aid of GIS (i.e ArcGIS) and statistical softwares. In this study different temporal and depths of soil nutrient were extracted on the field and further analysis of N,P,K content were analysed in the chemical laboratory and using spatially technique in GIS sofware. The result indicated that for the Seberang Perak site of 58 hactares area, N and K are met minimum requirements nutrient content as outlines by the MARDI for paddy cultivation. However, P indicated poor condition in the study area; therefore the soil needs further attention and treatment.

  12. Upward mobilization of 137Cs in surface soils of Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc. (hinoki) plantation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Taijiro; Takenaka, Chisato

    2004-01-01

    The use of 137Cs has recently been adopted to estimate erosion in hinoki plantations in Japan. However, there have been several reports of the upward mobilization of 137Cs in forest humus layers. In this study, the vertical distribution of 137Cs within the soil profile was measured in a hinoki plantation. In order to confirm the upward migration of 137Cs from mineral soil to fresh surface litter and to identify mechanisms of the transfer, changes in 137Cs specific activity in the contents of litterbags were examined in a hinoki plantation. A controlled laboratory experiment was also conducted to assess the effect of microbial activity on the upward migration of 137Cs. As a result, the higher 137Cs activities in the surface organic layer of a hinoki plantation than in fresh litter and the increasing 137Cs total content of litterbags with time demonstrated the upward mobilization of 137Cs from mineral soil to the surface organic layer. Physical movement of soil particles by raindrop splash was considered an important process in 137Cs upward migration. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate an influence from soil microbial activity on the upward mobilization of 137Cs. Thus, upward migration of 137Cs and constant litter removal by runoff may induce 137Cs loss from steep forested catchments and underestimation of the 137Cs inventory leading to the overestimation of soil redistribution rates.

  13. Correlation of soil microbes and soil micro-environment under long-term safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuang; Quan, Wang; Wang, Shao-Ming; Liu, Hong-Ling; Tan, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ping; Zhang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    Microbial community structure and ecological functions are influenced by interactions between above and belowground biota. There is an urgent need for intensive monitoring of microbes feedback of soil micro-ecosystem for setting up a good agricultural practice. Recent researches have revealed that many soils characteristic can effect microbial community structure. In the present study factors affecting microbial community structure and soil in Carthamus tinctorius plantations in arid agricultural ecosystem of northern Xinjiang, China were identified. The result of the study revealed that soil type was the key factor in safflower yield; Unscientific field management resulted high fertility level (bacteria dominant) of soil to turn to low fertility level (fungi dominant), and Detruded Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) showed that soil water content, organic matter, available N, P and K were the dominant factors affecting distribution of microbial community. Soil water content showed a significant positive correlation with soil microbes quantity (P < 0.01), while others showed a significant quantity correlation with soil microbe quantity (P < 0.05).

  14. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    their neighboring mountain slopes. The interest of orange groves is not only economic, but also environmental. Although the traditional farming developed a beautiful man made landscape of terraces and irrigation ditches, the development of new irrigation systems by means of drips contributed to new plantations that removed the ditches and the terraces. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). This research evaluates the production and the cost of production, the economic investment in the establishment of the new citrus plantations and the revenues of 5 farms in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain. The soil erosion rates measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1) and by five-year survey by means of topographical measurements. The results show that the soil losses in the new plantation are extremely high, that the investments in the new plantation reached 18352 € ha-1 and that the revenues do not cover the expenses of production. Soil erosion measured since 2007 to 2011 show values that range from 7.54 to 56.76 Mg ha-1 year-1 and show a mean value of 28.45 Mg ha-1 year-1. Rainfall simulation experiments shown that the soil losses were very high as other researched found in new citrus plantations. The comparison with other land uses and agriculture crop and managements shown that soil erosion is higher in then new chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002), and even higher that on road embankments (Cerdà, 2007) and rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009), although the water repellency found was very low in comparison to organic farming orange plantations (González et al., 2012). The current situation of a high

  15. Soil water nitrate and ammonium dynamics under a sewage effluent irrigated eucalypt plantation.

    PubMed

    Livesley, S J; Adams, M A; Grierson, P F

    2007-01-01

    Managed forests and plantations are appropriate ecosystems for land-based treatment of effluent, but concerns remain regarding nutrient contamination of ground- and surface waters. Monthly NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations in soil water, accumulated soil N, and gross ammonification and nitrification rates were measured in the second year of a second rotation of an effluent irrigated Eucalyptus globulus plantation in southern Western Australia to investigate the separate and interactive effects of drip and sprinkler irrigation, effluent and water irrigation, irrigation rate, and harvest residues retention. Nitrate concentrations of soil water were greater under effluent irrigation than water irrigation but remained <15 mg L(-1) when irrigated at the normal rate (1.5-2.0 mm d(-1)), and there was little evidence of downward movement. In contrast, NH4-N concentrations of soil water at 30 and 100 cm were generally greater under effluent irrigation than water irrigation when irrigated at the normal rate because of direct effluent NH4-N input and indirect ammonification of soil organic N. Drip irrigation of effluent approximately doubled peak NO3-N and NH4-N concentrations in soil water. Harvest residue retention reduced concentrations of soil water NO3-N at 30 cm during active sprinkler irrigation, but after 1 yr of irrigation there was no significant difference in the amount of N stored in the soil system, although harvest residue retention did enhance the "nitrate flush" in the following spring. Gross mineralization rates without irrigation increased with harvest residue retention and further increased with water irrigation. Irrigation with effluent further increased gross nitrification to 3.1 mg N kg(-1) d(-1) when harvest residues were retained but had no effect on gross ammonification, which suggested the importance of heterotrophic nitrification. The downward movement of N under effluent irrigation was dominated by NH4-N rather than NO3-N. Improving the capacity of

  16. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    their neighboring mountain slopes. The interest of orange groves is not only economic, but also environmental. Although the traditional farming developed a beautiful man made landscape of terraces and irrigation ditches, the development of new irrigation systems by means of drips contributed to new plantations that removed the ditches and the terraces. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). This research evaluates the production and the cost of production, the economic investment in the establishment of the new citrus plantations and the revenues of 5 farms in the Canyoles river watershed in Eastern Spain. The soil erosion rates measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1) and by five-year survey by means of topographical measurements. The results show that the soil losses in the new plantation are extremely high, that the investments in the new plantation reached 18352 € ha-1 and that the revenues do not cover the expenses of production. Soil erosion measured since 2007 to 2011 show values that range from 7.54 to 56.76 Mg ha-1 year-1 and show a mean value of 28.45 Mg ha-1 year-1. Rainfall simulation experiments shown that the soil losses were very high as other researched found in new citrus plantations. The comparison with other land uses and agriculture crop and managements shown that soil erosion is higher in then new chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002), and even higher that on road embankments (Cerdà, 2007) and rainfed agriculture soil (García Orenes et al., 2009), although the water repellency found was very low in comparison to organic farming orange plantations (González et al., 2012). The current situation of a high

  17. [Effects of nitrogen addition on red soil microbes in the Cinnamomum camphora plantation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei-Yi; Zhu, Fan; Su, Shao-Feng; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Wen-De

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen addition on the red soil microbial communities in Cinnamomum camphora plantation, three treatments of nitrogen addition were designated as control (N0: 0 g x m(-2)), low nitrogen (N1: 5 g x m(-2)) and high nitrogen (N2 :15 g x m(-2)). Soil microbial numbers, microbial biomass carbon (C), biomass N and microbial community functional diversity were analyzed using the methods of plate counting, chloroform fumigation and BIOLOG system, respectively. The results showed that the numbers of bacteria in N1 and N2 were significantly higher than the control 1 month after nitrogen addition, but significantly lower than the control 13 months after nitrogen addition, and the number of fungi and actinomycetes were not significantly changed after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass C, N increased with the increase of nitrogen at 1 month, but the soil microbial biomass C increased significantly 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition. The soil microbial biomass N was lower 13 months after nitrogen addition when compared with 1 month after nitrogen addition, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). The variation of the carbon utilization efficiency of soil microbial communities was resulted from the nitrogen addition. The indices of Shannon index, Simpson index and McIntosh index were calculated to show the differences in nitrogen treatments and in times, which turned out to be insignificant.

  18. [Content of soil heavy metals and characteristics of environmental quality in tea plantations of Changsha Baili Tea Zone].

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-yan; Zhou, Wei-jun; Zhang, Yang-zhu; Huang, Yun-xiang; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Xiong; Zhang, Jian-xin; Chen, Qiang-chun; Mao, Chang-ming

    2008-08-01

    The distributing and changing characteristics and content of soil heavy metals was studied using methods of field survey and sampling, indoor analysis, and pollution index were used to investigate the soil environmental quality in the tea plantations of Changsha Baili Tea Zone. The results showed that the content of soil total Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr, As, Ni basically was in the soil background value, their averages were 42.7, 0.068, 0.074, 92.2, 12.4 and 19.5 mg/kg respectively. The content of heavy metals was lower than the standard of Environmental Qualification of Nuisance Free Tea Producing Area (NY 5020-2001). Simultaneity, soil environmental quality in tea plantations of Baili Tea Zone, it answered for the second grade of State Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995), achieved safe class, and the content of soil Hg, Cd, Ni accorded to the first grade of GB 15618-1995, these results showed the Changsha Baili Tea Zone were propitious to develop nuisance free tea production. Besides the single pollution index of Cr was 0.837 and in warning class at the tea plantation of Xiangfeng, the others were all less than 0.7, and in the safe class. The integrated index of 6 tea bases was all less than 0.7, in the safe class, the soil environmental quality was cleanness on the whole at Changsha Baili Tea Zone, and the soils were suitable for non-polluted agricultural production.

  19. Soil-atmosphere trace gas exchange from tropical oil palm plantations on peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arn Teh, Yit; Manning, Frances; Zin Zawawi, Norliyana; Hill, Timothy; Chocholek, Melanie; Khoon Kho, Lip

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is the largest agricultural crop in the tropics, accounting for 13 % of all tropical land cover. Due to its large areal extent, oil palm cultivation may have important implications not only for terrestrial stores of C and N, but may also impact regional and global exchanges of material and energy, including fluxes of trace gases and water vapor. In particular, recent expansion of oil palm into tropical peatlands has raised concerns over enhanced soil C emissions from degradation of peat, and elevated N-gas fluxes linked to N fertilizer application. Here we report our preliminary findings on soil carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from a long-term, multi-scale project investigating the C, N and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics of oil palm ecosystems established on peat soils in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Flux chamber measurements indicate that soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes averaged 20.0 ± 16.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1, 37.4 ± 29.9 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and 4.7 ± 4.2 g N2O-N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Soil CO2 fluxes were on par with other drained tropical peatlands; whereas CH4 fluxes exceeded observations from similar study sites elsewhere. Nitrous oxide fluxes were in a similar range to fluxes from other drained tropical peatlands, but lower than emissions from mineral-soil plantations by up to three orders of magnitude. Fluxes of soil CO2 and N2O were spatially stratified, and contingent upon the distribution of plants, deposited harvest residues, and soil moisture. Soil CO2 fluxes were most heavily influenced by the distribution of palms and their roots. On average, autotrophic (root) respiration accounted for approximately 78 % of total soil CO2 flux, and total soil respiration declined steeply away from palms; e.g. soil CO2 fluxes in the immediate 1 m radius around palms were up to 6 times greater than fluxes in inter-palm spaces due to higher densities of roots. Placement of harvest residues played an important - but secondary

  20. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N•ha‑1•yr‑1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations.

  1. Nitrogen deposition and management practices increase soil microbial biomass carbon but decrease diversity in Moso bamboo plantations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Quan; Song, Xinzhang; Gu, Honghao; Gao, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Because microbial communities play a key role in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, changes in the soil microbial community may directly affect ecosystem functioning. However, the effects of N deposition and management practices on soil microbes are still poorly understood. We studied the effects of these two factors on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and community composition in Moso bamboo plantations using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Plantations under conventional (CM) or intensive management (IM) were subjected to one of four N treatments for 30 months. IM and N addition, both separately and in combination, significantly increased soil MBC while decreasing bacterial diversity. However, increases in soil MBC were inhibited when N addition exceeded 60 kg N∙ha−1∙yr−1. IM increased the relative abundances of Actinobacteria and Crenarchaeota but decreased that of Acidobacteria. N addition increased the relative abundances of Acidobacteria, Crenarchaeota, and Actinobacteria but decreased that of Proteobacteria. Soil bacterial diversity was significantly related to soil pH, C/N ratio, and nitrogen and available phosphorus content. Management practices exerted a greater influence over regulation of the soil MBC and microbial diversity compared to that of N deposition in Moso bamboo plantations. PMID:27302857

  2. Simulated biomass and soil carbon of loblolly pine and cottonwood plantations across a thermal gradient in southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, Robert J; Tharp, M Lynn; Post, Wilfred M

    2008-01-01

    Changes in biomass and soil carbon with nitrogen fertilization were simulated for a 25-year loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation and for three consecutive 7-year short-rotation cottonwood (Populus deltoides) stands. Simulations were conducted for 17 locations in the southeastern United States with mean annual temperatures ranging from 13.1 to 19.4 C. The LINKAGES stand growth model, modified to include the "RothC" soil C and soil N model, simulated tree growth and soil C status. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased cumulative cottonwood aboveground biomass in the three rotations from a site average of 106 to 272 Mg/ha in 21 years, whereas the equivalent site averages for loblolly pine were unchanged at 176 and 184 Mg/ha in 25 years. Location results, compared on the annual sum of daily mean air temperatures above 5.5 C (growing-degree-days), showed contrasts. Loblolly pine biomass increased whereas cottonwood decreased with increasing growing-degree-days, particularly in cottonwood stands receiving N fertilization. The increment of biomass due to N addition per unit of control biomass (relative response) declined in both plantations with increase in growing-degree-days. Average soil C in loblolly pine stands increased from 24.3 to 40.4 Mg/ha in 25 years and in cottonwood soil C decreased from 14.7 to 13.7 Mg/ha after three 7-year rotations. Soil C did not decrease with increasing growing-degree-days in either plantation type suggesting that global warming may not initially affect soil C. Nitrogen fertilizer increased soil C slightly in cottonwood plantations and had no significant effect on the soil C of loblolly stands.

  3. Soil Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Activity of Pinus elliottii Plantations across Different Stand Ages in a Subtropical Area

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeyan; Haack, Stacey Elizabeth; Lin, Wenxiong; Li, Bailian; Wu, Linkun; Fang, Changxun; Zhang, Zhixing

    2015-01-01

    Soil microbes play an essential role in the forest ecosystem as an active component. This study examined the hypothesis that soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity would vary with the increasing stand ages in long-term pure plantations of Pinus elliottii. The phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) combined with community level physiological profiles (CLPP) method was used to assess these characteristics in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii. We found that the soil microbial communities were significantly different among different stand ages of P. elliottii plantations. The PLFA analysis indicated that the bacterial biomass was higher than the actinomycic and fungal biomass in all stand ages. However, the bacterial biomass decreased with the increasing stand ages, while the fungal biomass increased. The four maximum biomarker concentrations in rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii for all stand ages were 18:1ω9c, 16:1ω7c, 18:3ω6c (6,9,12) and cy19:0, representing measures of fungal and gram negative bacterial biomass. In addition, CLPP analysis revealed that the utilization rate of amino acids, polymers, phenolic acids, and carbohydrates of soil microbial community gradually decreased with increasing stand ages, though this pattern was not observed for carboxylic acids and amines. Microbial community diversity, as determined by the Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Richness index and McIntosh index, significantly decreased as stand age increased. Overall, both the PLFA and CLPP illustrated that the long-term pure plantation pattern exacerbated the microecological imbalance previously described in the rhizospheric soils of P. elliottii, and markedly decreased the soil microbial community diversity and metabolic activity. Based on the correlation analysis, we concluded that the soil nutrient and C/N ratio most significantly contributed to the variation of soil microbial community structure and metabolic activity in different stand ages of P

  4. Losses of soil organic carbon by converting tropical forest to plantations: Assessment of erosion and decomposition by new δ13C approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Thomas; Muhammad, Damris; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia lost more tropical forest than all of Brazil in 2012, mainly driven by the rubber, oil palm and timber industries. Nonetheless, the effects of converting forest to oil palm and rubber plantations on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks remain unclear. We analyzed SOC losses after lowland rainforest conversion to oil palm, intensive rubber and extensive rubber plantations in Jambi province on Sumatra Island. We developed and applied a new δ13C based approach to assess and separate two processes: 1) erosion and 2) decomposition. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber plantations (41%). The C content in the subsoil was similar in the forest and the plantations. We therefore assumed that a shift to higher δ13C values in the subsoil of the plantations corresponds to the losses of the upper soil layer by erosion. Erosion was estimated by comparing the δ13C profiles in the undisturbed soils under forest with the disturbed soils under plantations. The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35±8 cm) and rubber (33±10 cm) plantations. The 13C enrichment of SOC used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOC decomposition rate in the Ah horizon under oil palm plantations after forest conversion. SOC availability, measured by microbial respiration rate and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy, was lower under oil palm plantations. Despite similar trends in C losses and erosion in intensive plantations, our results indicate that microorganisms in oil palm plantations mineralized mainly the old C stabilized prior to conversion, whereas microorganisms under rubber plantations mineralized the fresh C from the litter, leaving the old C pool mainly untouched. Based on the lack of C input from litter, we expect further losses of SOC under oil palm plantations, which therefore are a less sustainable land

  5. Responses of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, F. S.; Wang, H. M.; Sun, X. M.; Wen, X. F.

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions to forest ecosystems are known to influence various above-ground properties, such as plant productivity and composition, and below-ground properties, such as soil nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their functions respond to nutrient additions in subtropical plantations is still not complete. In this study, we added N and P to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China to examine how nutrient additions influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities. The results showed that most soil microbial properties were responsive to N and/or P additions, but responses often varied depending on the nutrient added and the quantity added. For instance, there were more than 30 % greater increases in the activities of β-Glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the treatments that received nutrient additions compared to the control plot, whereas acid phosphatase (aP) activity was always higher (57 and 71 %, respectively) in the P treatment. N and P additions greatly enhanced the PLFA abundanceespecially in the N2P treatment, the bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs), fungal PLFAs (funPLFAs) and actinomycic PLFAs (actPLFAs) were about 2.5, 3 and 4 times higher, respectively, than in the CK. Soil enzyme activities were noticeably higher in November than in July, mainly due to seasonal differences in soil moisture content (SMC). βG or NAG activities were significantly and positively correlated with microbial PLFAs. There were also significant relationships between gram-positive (G+) bacteria and all three soil enzymes. These findings indicate that G+ bacteria is the most important microbial community in C, N, and P transformations in Chinese fir plantations, and that βG and NAG would be useful tools for assessing the biogeochemical transformation and metabolic activity of soil microbes. We recommend combined additions of N and P fertilizer to promote soil

  6. Fungal soil communities in a young transgenic poplar plantation form a rich reservoir for fungal root communities

    PubMed Central

    Danielsen, L; Thürmer, A; Meinicke, P; Buée, M; Morin, E; Martin, F; Pilate, G; Daniel, R; Polle, A; Reich, M

    2012-01-01

    Fungal communities play a key role in ecosystem functioning. However, only little is known about their composition in plant roots and the soil of biomass plantations. The goal of this study was to analyze fungal biodiversity in their belowground habitats and to gain information on the strategies by which ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi form colonies. In a 2-year-old plantation, fungal communities in the soil and roots of three different poplar genotypes (Populus × canescens, wildtype and two transgenic lines with suppressed cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS) region. The results were compared with the dynamics of the root-associated ECM community studied by morphotyping/Sanger sequencing in two subsequent years. Fungal species and family richness in the soil were surprisingly high in this simple plantation ecosystem, with 5944 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 186 described fungal families. These findings indicate the importance that fungal species are already available for colonization of plant roots (2399 OTUs and 115 families). The transgenic modification of poplar plants had no influence on fungal root or soil communities. Fungal families and OTUs were more evenly distributed in the soil than in roots, probably as a result of soil plowing before the establishment of the plantation. Saprophytic, pathogenic, and endophytic fungi were the dominating groups in soil, whereas ECMs were dominant in roots (87%). Arbuscular mycorrhizal diversity was higher in soil than in roots. Species richness of the root-associated ECM community, which was low compared with ECM fungi detected by 454 analyses, increased after 1 year. This increase was mainly caused by ECM fungal species already traced in the preceding year in roots. This result supports the priority concept that ECMs present on roots have a competitive advantage over soil-localized ECM fungi. PMID:22957194

  7. Caesium-137 and caesium-134 levels in soil in a tea plantation in Turkey after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Yeşin, T; Cakir, N

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray scintillation spectrometry has been used to measure the 137Cs and 134Cs levels and depth distributions in soil of a tea plantation in the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey. Soil samples were collected in November 1987. The depth distribution was found to be exponential with alpha = 0.16 cm-1 and the exposure rate arising therefrom is calculated as 17.46 mu R/h over ground surface.

  8. [Variations of ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of artificial sand-fixing Caragana intermedia plantations in desert steppe].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren-Tao; Chai, Yong-Qing; Xu, Kun; Zhu, Fan

    2012-11-01

    To study the variation characteristics of ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of Caragana intermedia plantations in desert steppe is of scientific significance in revealing the ecological effect of the plantations on the restoration of desertified grassland ecosystem. In this paper, an investigation was conducted on the ground vegetation and soil properties in 6-, 15-, 24-, and 36-yr artificial sand-fixing C. intermedia plantations in desert steppe of Ningxia, Northwest China, with the variation characteristics of the ground vegetation and soil properties during the growth process of the C. intermedia plantations analyzed. With the growth and development of the plantations, the shrub crown width, height, sprout number, and basal diameter all increased significantly, the contents of soil coarse sand and fine sand had significant decrease while those of very fine sand and clay silt were in adverse, the soil organic carbon, total N, and total P contents increased linearly, and the soil pH decreased significantly. During the growth process of the plantations, the species number and individual number of ground vegetation increased significantly, and the vegetation coverage and height presented the order of 24- > 15- > 6- > 36-yr plantation. The soil texture, bulk density, nutrient contents, and pH value were the main factors affecting the species and individual number as well as the coverage of ground vegetation in C. intermedia plantations. It was suggested that in desert steppe, the growth process of artificial sand-fixing C. intermedia plantation benefited the improvement of soil conditions and the recovery of ground vegetation, and promoted the restoration of degraded grassland ecosystem in desert steppe.

  9. Banana leaf and glucose mineralization and soil organic matter in microhabitats of banana plantations under long-term pesticide use.

    PubMed

    Blume, Elena; Reichert, José Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) and microbial activity are key components of soil quality and sustainability. In the humid tropics of Costa Rica 3 pesticide regimes were studied-fungicide (low input); fungicide and herbicide (medium input); and fungicide, herbicide, and nematicide (high input)-under continuous banana cultivation for 5 yr (young) or 20 yr (old) in 3 microhabitats-nematicide ring around plants, litter pile of harvested banana, and bare area between litter pile and nematicide ring. Soil samples were incubated sequentially in the laboratory: unamended, amended with glucose, and amended with ground banana leaves. Soil organic matter varied with microhabitat, being greatest in the litter pile, where microbes had the greatest basal respiration with ground banana leaf, whereas microbes in the nematicide ring had the greatest respiration with glucose. These results suggest that soil microbes adapt to specific microhabitats. Young banana plantations had similar SOM compared with old plantations, but the former had greater basal microbial respiration in unamended and in glucose-amended soil and greater first-order mineralization rates in glucose-amended soil, thus indicating soil biological quality decline over time. High pesticide input did not decrease microbial activity or mineralization rate in surface soil. In conclusion, microbial activity in tropical volcanic soil is highly adaptable to organic and inorganic inputs. PMID:25703385

  10. [Changes of carbon storage and carbon sequestration in plantation ecosystems on purple soil].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhanyuan; Yang, Yusheng; Chen, Guangshui

    2004-10-01

    This paper studied the carbon storages and carbon sequestration capacities of degraded plantation ecosystems in purple soil area. Using space-time replacement method, four ecological restoration treatments (I, II, III and IV) were selected on the basis of erosion intensions from high to low in Ninghua, Fujian. Treatment I was not treated with any other measures after afforestation. Treatment II adopted engineering soil and water conservation measure after afforestation. In treatment III, the engineering measure associated biological measure was taken after afforestation. As for treatment IV, enclosure was adopted to protect against anthropogenic disturbances after afforestation. We observed that the carbon sequestration potential was increased with weakening erosion degree, i.e., I < II < III < IV. The carbon storage of 4 treatments was 1.4, 8.5, 25.6 and 37.6 t x hm(-2), and the annual assimilation of CO2 was 712.87, 1458.01, 9718.10 and 11,109.56 kg x hm(-2), respectively. It was suggested that the restored forest ecosystem was one of the important carbon sinks in this area. Engineering soil and water conservation measure associated biological measure would be the main means of restoring degraded ecosystem. But presently, the reasonable strategy was to decrease human's disturbances, and hence, the enclosure for reforestation could be used to transform forest ecosystem into carbon sink.

  11. Analyzing the impact of climate and management factors on the productivity and soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Fan, Jiazhi; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Yong; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to investigate how climate and management factors impact poplar plantation production and soil carbon sequestration interactively. We extracted above-ground net primary production (ANPP), climate and management factors from peer-reviewed journal articles and analyzed impact of management factor and climate on the mean annual increment (MAI) of poplar ANPP statistically. Previously validated mechanistic model (ED) is used to perform case simulations for managed poplar plantations under different harvesting rotations. The meta-analysis indicate that the dry matter MAI was 6.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=641, sd=4.9) globally, and 5.1 (n=292, sd=4.0), 8.1 (n=224, sd=4.7) and 4.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=125, sd=3.2) in Europe, the US and China, respectively. Poplar MAI showed a significant response to GDD, precipitation and planting density and formed a quadratic relationship with stand age. The low annual production for poplar globally was probably caused by suboptimal water availability, rotation length and planting density. SEM attributes the variance of poplar growth rate more to climate than to management effects. Case simulations indicated that longer rotation cycle significantly increased soil carbon storage. Findings of this work suggests that management factor of rotation cycle alone could have dramatic impact on the above ground growth, as well as on the soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations and will be helpful to quantify the long-term carbon sequestration through short rotation plantation. The findings of this study are useful in guiding further research, policy and management decisions towards sustainable poplar plantations.

  12. Analyzing the impact of climate and management factors on the productivity and soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Fan, Jiazhi; Jing, Panpan; Cheng, Yong; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to investigate how climate and management factors impact poplar plantation production and soil carbon sequestration interactively. We extracted above-ground net primary production (ANPP), climate and management factors from peer-reviewed journal articles and analyzed impact of management factor and climate on the mean annual increment (MAI) of poplar ANPP statistically. Previously validated mechanistic model (ED) is used to perform case simulations for managed poplar plantations under different harvesting rotations. The meta-analysis indicate that the dry matter MAI was 6.3 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=641, sd=4.9) globally, and 5.1 (n=292, sd=4.0), 8.1 (n=224, sd=4.7) and 4.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1) (n=125, sd=3.2) in Europe, the US and China, respectively. Poplar MAI showed a significant response to GDD, precipitation and planting density and formed a quadratic relationship with stand age. The low annual production for poplar globally was probably caused by suboptimal water availability, rotation length and planting density. SEM attributes the variance of poplar growth rate more to climate than to management effects. Case simulations indicated that longer rotation cycle significantly increased soil carbon storage. Findings of this work suggests that management factor of rotation cycle alone could have dramatic impact on the above ground growth, as well as on the soil carbon sequestration of poplar plantations and will be helpful to quantify the long-term carbon sequestration through short rotation plantation. The findings of this study are useful in guiding further research, policy and management decisions towards sustainable poplar plantations. PMID:26531329

  13. Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from a poplar bioenergy plantation: How long does former land use type matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Kammann, Claudia; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2015-04-01

    The cultivation of fast-growing tree species for the production of bioenergy -- known as short rotation woody crops (SRWC) -- is considered to be carbon-neutral because biomass combustion releases only carbon which has previously been extracted from the atmosphere via photosynthesis. The true greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of SRWC, however, remains largely unknown due to limited knowledge on the amount of GHG released from the soil during cultivation, and the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rate over time. Especially measurements of the complete GHG balance of SRWC plantations which have already been managed for several years are lacking. The aim of this study was to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of soil GHG fluxes in a SRWC plantation with poplar located in Lochristi, Belgium (POPFULL, http://uahost.uantwerpen.be/popfull/). The plantation has been established in April 2010 partly on former cropland and partly on former pasture, enabling us to study the dependency of soil GHG fluxes on former land use type under identical climate and management conditions. Furthermore, spatial differences in the SOC content created by alternating row spacings between poplars were studied. The plantation was harvested in February 2012, and in February 2014. Soil CO_2, CH_4, N_2O and CO fluxes were simultaneously monitored with automated closed dynamic chamber systems from May 2013 until August 2014, embracing a pre- and post-harvest period. The chamber measurements were accompanied by fortnightly measurements of soil gas concentrations in the top- and subsoil (2013: CO2 and O_2, 2014: CO_2, CH_4, and N_2O). Preliminary results show that former pasture and cropland areas were still distinguishable within the plantation based on properties such as weed composition, dry bulk density and SOC content. During a drought period in August 2013, soil CO2 fluxes seemed to be slightly higher from the former cropland area, but no apparent effect of former land

  14. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  15. Soil-plant-atmosphere conditions regulating convective cloud formation above southeastern US pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Novick, Kimberly; Oishi, Andrew Christopher; Noormets, Asko; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) occupy more than 20% of the forested area in the southern United States, represent more than 50% of the standing pine volume in this region, and remove from the atmosphere about 500 g C m-2 per year through net ecosystem exchange. Hence, their significance as a major regional carbon sink can hardly be disputed. What is disputed is whether the proliferation of young plantations replacing old forest in the southern United States will alter key aspects of the hydrologic cycle, including convective rainfall, which is the focus of the present work. Ecosystem fluxes of sensible (Hs) and latent heat (LE) and large-scale, slowly evolving free atmospheric temperature and water vapor content are known to be first-order controls on the formation of convective clouds in the atmospheric boundary layer. These controlling processes are here described by a zero-order analytical model aimed at assessing how plantations of different ages may regulate the persistence and transition of the atmospheric system between cloudy and cloudless conditions. Using the analytical model together with field observations, the roles of ecosystem Hs and LE on convective cloud formation are explored relative to the entrainment of heat and moisture from the free atmosphere. Our results demonstrate that cloudy-cloudless regimes at the land surface are regulated by a nonlinear relation between the Bowen ratio Bo=Hs/LE and root-zone soil water content, suggesting that young/mature pines ecosystems have the ability to recirculate available water (through rainfall predisposition mechanisms). Such nonlinearity was not detected in a much older pine stand, suggesting a higher tolerance to drought but a limited control on boundary layer dynamics. These results enable the generation of hypotheses about the impacts on convective cloud formation driven by afforestation/deforestation and groundwater depletion projected to increase following increased human population in the

  16. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium contaminated soils under cacao plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils...

  17. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Fertilized L. Plantations across a Gradient of Soil Drainage Classes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Strahm, Brian D; Sucre, Eric B

    2014-11-01

    The effect of fertilizer management on nitrous oxide (NO) fluxes in agricultural ecosystems is well documented; however, our knowledge of these effects in managed forests is minimal. We established a comprehensive research study to address this knowledge gap across a range of soil drainage classes (poorly, moderately, and well drained) common in southern pine plantation management. Fertilizer treatments in each drainage class comprised of control (no fertilizer), urea + phosphorus (P), and P-coated urea fertilizer (CUF). Fertilization (168 kg N ha) occurred independently during the spring, summer, and fall to assess the effects of application timing. Nitrous oxide sampling, using vented static chambers, started immediately after seasonal fertilizer application and was performed every 6 wk for more than 1 yr. Time-integrated net annual NO emissions increased with urea (1.15 kg NO-N ha) and CUF (0.88 kg NO-N ha) application compared with unfertilized control (0.22 kg NO-N ha). Mean annual NO flux was significantly increased with fall fertilization (1.17 kg NO-N ha) relative to spring (0.73 kg NO-N ha) or summer (0.33 kg NO-N ha). Similarly, average annual NO flux was higher in poorly drained soils (1.40 kg NO-N ha) than in moderately drained (0.46 kg NO-N ha) and well-drained soils (0.39 kg NO-N ha). This study suggests that NO emissions after fertilization can be minimized by avoiding fall fertilization and poorly drained soils and by selecting enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers over urea. PMID:25602199

  18. Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Fertilized L. Plantations across a Gradient of Soil Drainage Classes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Raj K; Strahm, Brian D; Sucre, Eric B

    2014-11-01

    The effect of fertilizer management on nitrous oxide (NO) fluxes in agricultural ecosystems is well documented; however, our knowledge of these effects in managed forests is minimal. We established a comprehensive research study to address this knowledge gap across a range of soil drainage classes (poorly, moderately, and well drained) common in southern pine plantation management. Fertilizer treatments in each drainage class comprised of control (no fertilizer), urea + phosphorus (P), and P-coated urea fertilizer (CUF). Fertilization (168 kg N ha) occurred independently during the spring, summer, and fall to assess the effects of application timing. Nitrous oxide sampling, using vented static chambers, started immediately after seasonal fertilizer application and was performed every 6 wk for more than 1 yr. Time-integrated net annual NO emissions increased with urea (1.15 kg NO-N ha) and CUF (0.88 kg NO-N ha) application compared with unfertilized control (0.22 kg NO-N ha). Mean annual NO flux was significantly increased with fall fertilization (1.17 kg NO-N ha) relative to spring (0.73 kg NO-N ha) or summer (0.33 kg NO-N ha). Similarly, average annual NO flux was higher in poorly drained soils (1.40 kg NO-N ha) than in moderately drained (0.46 kg NO-N ha) and well-drained soils (0.39 kg NO-N ha). This study suggests that NO emissions after fertilization can be minimized by avoiding fall fertilization and poorly drained soils and by selecting enhanced-efficiency N fertilizers over urea.

  19. Responses of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, F. S.; Wang, H. M.; Sun, X. M.; Wen, X. F.

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions to forest ecosystems are known to influence various above-ground properties, such as plant productivity and composition, and below-ground properties, such as soil nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their functions respond to nutrient additions in subtropical plantations is still not complete. In this study, we added N and P to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China to examine how nutrient additions influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities. The results showed that most soil microbial properties were responsive to N and/or P additions, but responses often varied depending on the nutrient added and the quantity added. For instance, there were more than 30 % greater increases in the activities of β-glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the treatments that received nutrient additions compared to the control plot, whereas acid phosphatase (aP) activity was always higher (57 and 71 %, respectively) in the P treatment. N and P additions greatly enhanced the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) abundance especially in the N2P (100 kg ha-1 yr-1 of N +50 kg ha-1 yr-1 of P) treatment; the bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs), fungal PLFAs (funPLFAs) and actinomycic PLFAs (actPLFAs) were about 2.5, 3 and 4 times higher, respectively, than in the CK (control). Soil enzyme activities were noticeably higher in November than in July, mainly due to seasonal differences in soil moisture content (SMC). βG or NAG activities were significantly and positively correlated with microbial PLFAs. These findings indicate that βG and NAG would be useful tools for assessing the biogeochemical transformation and metabolic activity of soil microbes. We recommend combined additions of N and P fertilizer to promote soil fertility and microbial activity in this kind of plantation.

  20. [Effects of mulching and intercropping on temporal-spatial variation of soil temperature in tea plantation in subtropical hilly region].

    PubMed

    Peng, Wanxia; Song, Tongqing; Xiao, Runlin; Yang, Zhijian; Wang, Jiurong; Li, Shenghua; Xia, Yanjun

    2006-05-01

    The study of four years straw mulching and white clover intercropping in a tea plantation in subtropical hilly region showed that the soil temperature in the plantation presented a distinct dynamic temporal-spatial variation and hysteresis, which was greatly accorded with the fittest temperature of tea growth. Straw mulching and white clover intercropping altered the nature of soil thermal exchanging layer (soil surface), decreased daily temperature difference, enhanced the temperature stability in the same soil layer, and had duplex effects of lowering temperature when it went up and increasing and keeping temperature when it went down. The effectiveness was in the order of white clover intercropping > straw mulching > control, 13:00 > 19:00 >7:00,and lowering temperature > increasing and keeping temperature, and decreased with soil depth. Straw mulching and white clover intercropping adjusted the switching point of the temporal-spatial variation of soil temperature, and evidently decreased the emergence of harmful high temperature. During the period of continual high temperature, these measures markedly lowered soil temperature, and effectively shortened the duration of this period.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen status of litterfall, litter decomposition and soil in even-aged larch, red pine and rigitaeda pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choonsig; Jeong, Jaeyeob; Cho, Hyun-Seo; Son, Yowhan

    2010-07-01

    The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status in forest ecosystems can change upon establishment of plantations because different tree species have different nutrient cycling mechanisms. This study was carried out to evaluate C and N status of litterfall, litter decomposition and soil in three adjacent plantations consisting of one deciduous (larch: Larix leptolepis) and two evergreen (red pine: Pinus densiflora; rigitaeda pine: P. rigida x P. taeda) species planted in the same year (1963). Both the pine plantations showed comparatively higher C input from needle litter but significantly lower N concentration and input than the larch plantation (P < 0.05). During the decomposition process, the deciduous larch needle litter showed low C concentration and C remaining in soil, but high N concentration and N remaining in soil compared to the two evergreen pine needle litters. However, the soil C and N concentration and their content at a soil depth of 0-10 cm were not affected significantly (P > 0.05) by the plantation type. These results demonstrate the existence of considerable variation in C and N status resulting from needle litter input and litter decomposition in these three plantations grown at sites with similar environmental conditions.

  2. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils. PMID:27234831

  3. Evaluation of soil amendments as a remediation alternative for cadmium-contaminated soils under cacao plantations.

    PubMed

    Chavez, E; He, Z L; Stoffella, P J; Mylavarapu, R; Li, Y; Baligar, V C

    2016-09-01

    Elevated plant-available cadmium (Cd) in soils results in contamination to cacao (Theobroma cacao L) beans. Effectiveness of vermicompost and zeolite in reducing available Cd in three cacao-growing soils was studied under laboratory conditions. Sorption-desorption experiments were conducted in soils and amendments. Cadmium was added at 0 or 5 mg kg(-1) (spiked), then, amendments were incorporated at 0, 0.5, or 2 %. Amended soils were incubated at room temperature for 28 days. Plant-available Cd was determined using 0.01 M CaCl2 (WSE) and Mehlich 3 (M3) extraction procedures in subsamples taken from individual bags at six time intervals. Soils and amendments displayed different sorption characteristics and a better fit was attained with Freundlich model (R (2) > 0.82). Amendments were ineffective in reducing extractable Cd in non-spiked soils. In Cd-spiked soils, vermicompost at 2 % significantly reduced WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.36, 0.54, and 0.38 mg kg(-1) to values lower that instrument's detection in all the three soils and significantly diminished M3-extractable Cd (P < 0.05) from 4.62 to 4.11 mg kg(-1) in only one soil. Vermicompost at 0.5 % significantly decreased WSE-Cd (P < 0.01) from 3.04 and 0.31 to 1.69 and 0.20 mg kg(-1), respectively, in two soils with low sorption capacity for Cd. In contrast, zeolite failed to reduce WSE- or M3-extractable Cd in all studied soils. A negative correlation occurred between soil pH and WSE-Cd (r > -0.89, P < 0.01). The decrease in WSE-Cd appears to be associated with the increase in pH of the vermicompost-amended soils.

  4. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2011-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere. As a result, commercial rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass in proportion to above ground biomass. With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, shifting the C balance of the system and providing a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of an E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. The study has two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation. Above ground biomass C was calculated from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 40-67 Mg C/ha. Below ground biomass C was estimated from published allometric equations and was 16-27 Mg C/ha. 55 preliminary soil cores from 0-30 cm were collected in a 400 m2 plot in the plantation. Strong spatial dependence was observed in a sample variogram constructed from this data, and cumulative organic C in the top 0.4 t ranged from 120-580 Mg C/ha. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design with six sites. The paired plots constrained elevation, climate, and soil series, so that the effects of conversion from pasture to E. grandis plantation could be evaluated. Soil is physically separated into fractions that have different C turnover times: the labile pool which decomposes rapidly, the intermediate (or intra-aggregate) pool which turns over on a decadal scale, and the mineral-associated pool, which can reside in the soil for

  5. [Effects of the conversion from native shrub forest to Chinese chestnut plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools].

    PubMed

    Shang, Su-Yun; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan; Wu, Jia-Sen; Lin, Lin

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of the conversion from native shrub forest (NF) to Chinese chestnut plantation (CP) on the soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, soil samples were collected from the adjacent NF and CP in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, with their water-soluble organic C (WSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), readily oxidizable C (ROC), water-soluble organic N (WSON), and microbial biomass N (MBN) determined. The spectral characteristics of soil organic C were also determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. After the conversion from NF to CP, the soil alkalyzable N, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents increased significantly, while the soil WSOC, MBC, ROC, WSON, and MBN were in adverse. The soil organic C in both NF and CP was dominated by alkyl C and O-alkyl C, but the proportions of O-alkyl C and carbonyl C in soil organic C decreased while the proportions of alkyl C and aromatic C as well as the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and the aromaticity of soil organic C all increased significantly after the conversion from NF to CP, indicating that this conversion increased the stability of soil organic C pool significantly. In conclusion, the conversion from NF to CP and the intensive management of CP decreased the contents of soil labile C and soil N but increased the stability of soil C pool significantly.

  6. [Effects of the conversion from native shrub forest to Chinese chestnut plantation on soil carbon and nitrogen pools].

    PubMed

    Shang, Su-Yun; Li, Yong-Fu; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Zhou, Guo-Mo; Liu, Juan; Wu, Jia-Sen; Lin, Lin

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of the conversion from native shrub forest (NF) to Chinese chestnut plantation (CP) on the soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools, soil samples were collected from the adjacent NF and CP in Anji County of Zhejiang Province, with their water-soluble organic C (WSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), readily oxidizable C (ROC), water-soluble organic N (WSON), and microbial biomass N (MBN) determined. The spectral characteristics of soil organic C were also determined by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. After the conversion from NF to CP, the soil alkalyzable N, available phosphorus, and available potassium contents increased significantly, while the soil WSOC, MBC, ROC, WSON, and MBN were in adverse. The soil organic C in both NF and CP was dominated by alkyl C and O-alkyl C, but the proportions of O-alkyl C and carbonyl C in soil organic C decreased while the proportions of alkyl C and aromatic C as well as the alkyl C/O-alkyl C ratio and the aromaticity of soil organic C all increased significantly after the conversion from NF to CP, indicating that this conversion increased the stability of soil organic C pool significantly. In conclusion, the conversion from NF to CP and the intensive management of CP decreased the contents of soil labile C and soil N but increased the stability of soil C pool significantly. PMID:22720608

  7. [Effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes in Eucalyptus plantations with different soil organic carbon content].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Da; Zhang, Kai; Su, Dan; Lu, Fei; Wan, Wu-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Zheng, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilization or nitrogen deposition on soil greenhouse gases fluxes has been well studied, while little has been piloted about the effects of nitrogen application on soil greenhouse gas fluxes and its discrepancy with different soil organic carbon content. In our study, we conducted field control experiment in a young Eucalyptus plantation in Southeast China. We compared the effects of 4 levels of nitrogen fertilization (Control: 0 kg · hm(-2); Low N: 84.2 kg · hm(-2); Medium N: 166.8 kg · hm(-2); High N: 333.7 kg · hm(-2)) on soil GHGs fluxes from 2 sites (LC and HC) with significantly different soil organic carbon (SOC) content (P < 0.05). The results showed: (1) Fertilization had significant priming effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes. One month after fertilization, both CO2 and N2O had the flux peak and decreased gradually, and the difference among the treatments disappeared at the end of the growing season. However, fertilization had no significant effect on CH4 oxidation between the 2 sites. (2) Fertilization and SOC were two crucial factors that had significant effects on CO2 and N2O emission. Fertilization had a significant positive effect on CO2 and N2O emission fluxes (P < 0.001). CH4 oxidation rates decreased with the increasing N addition, but there was no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The CO2 and N2O emission fluxes were significantly higher in HC than those in LC (P < 0.01). (3) Fertilization and SOC had great interactive effect on CO2 and N2O emission (P < 0.05). Compared with fluxes in LC, the fluxes in HC were much more sensitive to N input: low N could remarkably stimulate the CO2 and N2O emission. In conclusion, the effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil GHGs fluxes were not only in connection with the intensify of nitrogen, but also closely tied to the SOC content. When we assess the effects of nitrogen on soil GHGs fluxes, the difference induced by SOC should not be ignored.

  8. [Allelopathic effects of the humus soils from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations on 9 kinds of common shrubs and herbs].

    PubMed

    Huang, Liang-Jia; Liu, Zeng-wen; Zhu, Bo-Chao; Bing, Yuan-Hao; Zhang, Xiao-Xi; Lü, Chen

    2014-06-01

    The humus soils were collected from Betula platyphylla and Quercus liaotungensis pure plantations and woodless land separately where the site conditions were basically the same, and taken as medium for potting culture test of 9 kinds of shrubs or herbs in plastic greenhouse to assess the allelopathic effects of humus soils of pure plantations on shrubs or herbs. Humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation significantly inhibited the seed germinations of Medicago sativa and Melilotus officinalis, decreased the catalase (CAT) activity of M. officinalis, Coronilla varia, M. sativa and Lespedeza davurica, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Caragana kor-shinskii, C. varia and Astragalus adsurgens. The biomass growths of C. varia, Amorpha fruticosa, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens in humus soils from B. platyphylla plantation were significantly decreased by 48.2%, 45.1%, 44.3%, 37.3% and 36.0%, respectively. In addition, humus soil of Q. liaotungensis plantation significantly decreased the germination rates of M. sativa and A. adsurgens, the chlorophyll contents of Vicia villosa, A. fruticosa and M. sativa, and improved malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in seedlings of Lespedeza davurica, Caragana korshinskii, M. officinalis and A. adsurgens. The biomass growths of A. adsurgens, M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa were significantly decreased by 52.6% , 43.8%, 35.5% and 34.6%, respective- ly. B. platyphylla plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, M. officinalis and A. fruticosa, while Q. liaotungensis plantation humus soil had obvious inhibition effects on M. sativa, A. adsurgens and A. fruticosa.

  9. Ecosystem carbon balance and vulnerability of soil carbon in a drained lower coastal plain loblolly pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormets, A.; McNulty, S. G.; Gavazzi, M.; Domec, J.; Sun, G.; King, J. S.; Chen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal plain ecosystems comprise only about 5% of total U.S. land area, but the soil carbon density in these ecosystems is about 10-fold higher than in upland ecosystems and they may therefore play a disproportionately large role in ecosystem-climate feedbacks. The role of these ecosystems in continental carbon exchange is largely unclear because they have been underrepresented in flux monitoring networks. We monitored ecosystem carbon fluxes and pools for three years in two lower coastal plain loblolly pine plantations (3 and 17 years of age). The contribution of soil to ecosystem respiration decreased from over 90% immediately following a harvest to about 50% by age 17. The replenishment of soil C through litterfall exceeded heterotrophic respiration (Rh) by 2-9% in two years, but was 30% lower than Rh in the third year, highlighting the vulnerability of soil carbon stocks to interannual climate variability.

  10. Effect of monospecific and mixed sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) plantations on the structure and activity of soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Zhong; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Shunxiang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different afforestation models on soil microbial composition in the Loess Plateau in China. In particular, we determined soil physicochemical properties, enzyme activities, and microbial community structures in the top 0 cm to 10 cm soil underneath a pure Hippophae rhamnoides (SS) stand and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC), H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabulaeformis (SY), and H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB). Results showed that total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen, and ammonium (NH4(+)) contents were higher in SY and SB than in SS. The total microbial biomass, bacterial biomass, and Gram+ biomass of the three mixed stands were significantly higher than those of the pure stand. However, no significant difference was found in fungal biomass. Correlation analysis suggested that soil microbial communities are significantly and positively correlated with some chemical parameters of soil, such as TOC, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, NH4(+) content, nitrate content (NH3(-)), and the enzyme activities of urease, peroxidase, and phosphatase. Principal component analysis showed that the microbial community structures of SB and SS could clearly be discriminated from each other and from the others, whereas SY and SC were similar. In conclusion, tree species indirectly but significantly affect soil microbial communities and enzyme activities through soil physicochemical properties. In addition, mixing P. tabulaeformis or P. orientalis in H. rhamnoides plantations is a suitable afforestation model in the Loess Plateau, because of significant positive effects on soil nutrient conditions, microbial community, and enzyme activities over pure plantations.

  11. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (P<0.05). In bulk soil, compared with the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation

  12. [Responses of rhizosphere nitrogen and phosphorus transformations to different acid rain intensities in a hilly red soil tea plantation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Fu-sheng; Ye, Su-qiong; Yu, Su-qin; Fang, Xiang-min; Hu, Xiao-fei

    2015-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) plantation in hilly red soil region has been long impacted by acid deposition, however its effects on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) transformations in rhizosphere soils remain unclear. A 25-year old tea plantation in a typical hilly red soil region was selected for an in situ simulation experiment treated by pH 4.5, pH 3.5, pH 2.5 and control. Rhizosihere and bulk soils were collected in the third year from the simulated acid deposition experiment. Soil mineral N, available P contents and major enzyme activities were analyzed using the chemical extraction and biochemical methods, and N and P mineralization rates were estimated using the indoor aerobic incubation methods. Our results showed that compared to the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5, respectively decreased 7.1%, 42.1% and 49.9% NO3(-)-N, 6.4%, 35.9% and 40.3% mineral N, 10.5%, 41.1% and 46.9% available P, 18.7%, 30.1% and 44.7% ammonification rate, 3.6%, 12.7% and 38.8% net N-mineralization rate, and 31.5%, 41.8% and 63.0% P mineralization rate in rhizosphere soils; however, among the 4 treatments, rhizosphere soil nitrification rate was not significantly different, the rhizosphere soil urease and acid phosphatase activities generally increased with the increasing intensity of acid rain (P<0.05). In bulk soil, compared with the control, the treatments of pH 4.5, pH 3.5 and pH 2.5 did not cause significant changes in NO3(-)-N, mineral N, available P as well as in the rates of nitrification, ammonification, net N-mineralization and P mineralization. With increasing the acid intensity, the rhizosphere effects of NH4+-N, NO3(-)-N, mineral N, ammonification and net N-mineralization rates were altered from positive to negative effects, those of urease and acid phosphatease showed the opposite trends, those of available P and P mineralization were negative and that of nitrification was positive. In sum, prolonged elevated acid rain could reduce N and P transformation

  13. Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus v.

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest. PMID:25970791

  14. Effects of manipulated above- and belowground organic matter input on soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Juan; Wang, Jinsong; Zhao, Bo; Wu, Lianhai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhao, Xiuhai; Gadow, Klaus V

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and litter addition (LA). We found that either aboveground litter removal or root trenching decreased soil respiration. On average, soil respiration rate was significantly decreased in the LRRT treatment, by about 38.93% ± 2.01% compared to the control. Soil respiration rate in the LR treatment was 30.65% ± 1.87% and in the RT treatment 17.65% ± 1.95% lower than in the control. Litter addition significantly increased soil respiration rate by about 25.82% ± 2.44% compared to the control. Soil temperature and soil moisture were the main factors affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 59.7% to 82.9% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by integrating soil temperature and soil moisture within each of the various organic matter treatments. The temperature sensitivity parameter, Q10, was higher in the RT (2.72) and LA (3.19) treatments relative to the control (2.51), but lower in the LRRT (1.52) and LR treatments (1.36). Our data suggest that manipulation of soil organic matter input can not only alter soil CO2 efflux, but also have profound effect on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon decomposition in a temperate pine forest.

  15. Fertilizer regime impacts on abundance and diversity of soil fauna across a poplar plantation chronosequence in coastal Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojun; Chen, Han Y H; Tan, Yan; Fan, Huan; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    Soil fauna are critical for ecosystem function and sensitive to the changes of soil fertility. The effects of fertilization on soil fauna communities, however, remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of fertilization form and quantity on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil fauna across an age-sequence of poplar plantations (i.e., 4-, 9- and 20-yr-old) in the coastal region of eastern China. We found that the effects of fertilization on faunal abundance, diversity, and composition differed among stand ages. Organic fertilizers increased the total abundance of soil fauna, whereas low level inorganic fertilizers imparted increases only in the 4- and 9-yr-old stands. The number of faunal groups did not change with fertilization, but Shannon's and Margalef diversity indices increased under low level organic fertilization, and decreased under inorganic fertilization in the 9- and 20-yr-old stands. Community composition of soil fauna differed strongly with fertilization and stand age. The changes in soil fauna were strongly associated with the changes in microbial biomass carbon, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium. Our findings suggest that the responses of soil fauna to fertilization may be mediated through the fertilization effects on soil nutrient availability. PMID:26857390

  16. Fertilizer regime impacts on abundance and diversity of soil fauna across a poplar plantation chronosequence in coastal Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojun; Chen, Han Y. H.; Tan, Yan; Fan, Huan; Ruan, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    Soil fauna are critical for ecosystem function and sensitive to the changes of soil fertility. The effects of fertilization on soil fauna communities, however, remain poorly understood. We examined the effects of fertilization form and quantity on the abundance, diversity and composition of soil fauna across an age-sequence of poplar plantations (i.e., 4-, 9- and 20-yr-old) in the coastal region of eastern China. We found that the effects of fertilization on faunal abundance, diversity, and composition differed among stand ages. Organic fertilizers increased the total abundance of soil fauna, whereas low level inorganic fertilizers imparted increases only in the 4- and 9-yr-old stands. The number of faunal groups did not change with fertilization, but Shannon’s and Margalef diversity indices increased under low level organic fertilization, and decreased under inorganic fertilization in the 9- and 20-yr-old stands. Community composition of soil fauna differed strongly with fertilization and stand age. The changes in soil fauna were strongly associated with the changes in microbial biomass carbon, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium. Our findings suggest that the responses of soil fauna to fertilization may be mediated through the fertilization effects on soil nutrient availability. PMID:26857390

  17. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon

    PubMed Central

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D.; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B.; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion—the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  18. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses. PMID:26217000

  19. Conversion of lowland tropical forests to tree cash crop plantations loses up to one-half of stored soil organic carbon.

    PubMed

    van Straaten, Oliver; Corre, Marife D; Wolf, Katrin; Tchienkoua, Martin; Cuellar, Eloy; Matthews, Robin B; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-08-11

    Tropical deforestation for the establishment of tree cash crop plantations causes significant alterations to soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Despite this recognition, the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) tier 1 method has a SOC change factor of 1 (no SOC loss) for conversion of forests to perennial tree crops, because of scarcity of SOC data. In this pantropic study, conducted in active deforestation regions of Indonesia, Cameroon, and Peru, we quantified the impact of forest conversion to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), and cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforestry plantations on SOC stocks within 3-m depth in deeply weathered mineral soils. We also investigated the underlying biophysical controls regulating SOC stock changes. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we compared SOC stocks from paired forests (n = 32) and adjacent plantations (n = 54). Our study showed that deforestation for tree plantations decreased SOC stocks by up to 50%. The key variable that predicted SOC changes across plantations was the amount of SOC present in the forest before conversion--the higher the initial SOC, the higher the loss. Decreases in SOC stocks were most pronounced in the topsoil, although older plantations showed considerable SOC losses below 1-m depth. Our results suggest that (i) the IPCC tier 1 method should be revised from its current SOC change factor of 1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 for oil palm and cacao agroforestry plantations and 0.8 ± 0.3 for rubber plantations in the humid tropics; and (ii) land use management policies should protect natural forests on carbon-rich mineral soils to minimize SOC losses.

  20. Impact of interspecific interactions on the soil water uptake depth in a young temperate mixed species plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Berger, Sigrid; Bréchet, Claude; Hentschel, Rainer; Hommel, Robert; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bonal, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between tree species in forests can be beneficial to ecosystem functions and services related to the carbon and water cycles by improving for example transpiration and productivity. However, little is known on below- and above-ground processes leading to these positive effects. We tested whether stratification in soil water uptake depth occurred between four tree species in a 10-year-old temperate mixed species plantation during a dry summer. We selected dominant and co-dominant trees of European beech, Sessile oak, Douglas fir and Norway spruce in areas with varying species diversity, competition intensity, and where different plant functional types (broadleaf vs. conifer) were present. We applied a deuterium labelling approach that consisted of spraying labelled water to the soil surface to create a strong vertical gradient of the deuterium isotope composition in the soil water. The deuterium isotope composition of both the xylem sap and the soil water was measured before labelling, and then again three days after labelling, to estimate the soil water uptake depth using a simple modelling approach. We also sampled leaves and needles from selected trees to measure their carbon isotope composition (a proxy for water use efficiency) and total nitrogen content. At the end of the summer, we found differences in the soil water uptake depth between plant functional types but not within types: on average, coniferous species extracted water from deeper layers than did broadleaved species. Neither species diversity nor competition intensity had a detectable influence on soil water uptake depth, foliar water use efficiency or foliar nitrogen concentration in the species studied. However, when coexisting with an increasing proportion of conifers, beech extracted water from progressively deeper soil layers. We conclude that complementarity for water uptake could occur in this 10-year-old plantation because of inherent differences among functional groups (conifers

  1. Phosphorus applications improved the soil microbial responses under nitrogen additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Li, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Yuqian; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Fusheng; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and low soil phosphorus (P) content aggravate the P limitation in subtropical forest soils. However, the responses of soil microbial communities, enzyme kinetics, and N cycling genes to P additions in subtropical plantations are still not clear. The hypothesis that P application can alleviate the limitation and improve the soil microbial properties was tested by long term field experiment in the Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China. Thirty 20m×20m plots were established in November 2011 and six different treatments were randomly distributed with five replicates. The treatments are control (CK, no N and P application), low N addition (N1: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), high N addition (N2: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (P: 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1), low N and P addition (N1P: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1) and high N and P addition (N2P: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1). A suite of responses of soil microorganism across four years (2012-2015) during three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) were measured. Following 4 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic and had lower soil microbial biomass carbon contents than CK. However, P alleviated the soil acidification and increased the soil microbial biomass carbon contents. Increases in microbial PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics in N fertilized plots were observed in the initial year (2013) but reduced since then (2014 and 2015). Whereas P amendments increased the soil PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics through the four years except that the acid phosphatase activities declined after 3 years applications. P applications enhanced the soil N cycling by increases the abundances of nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidizing archea) and denitrifiers (nos Z, norG, and nirK). The bacterial and fungal residue carbons (calculated by amino sugar indicators) were higher under NP fertilizations than the other treatments. Our results suggest that P application could improve the soil

  2. [Soil enzyme activities in a Pleioblastus amurus plantation in Rainy Area of West China under simulated nitrogen deposition].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ren-hong; Dai, Hong-zhong; Luo, Shou-hua; Xiang, Yuan-bin; Huang, Li-hua

    2009-12-01

    From November 2007 to May 2009, a simulation test was conducted in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in Rainy Area of West China to study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the activities of soil enzymes. Four treatments were installed, i.e., control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). Half year after N deposition, 0-20 cm soil samples were collected monthly, and the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, cellulase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase were determined. All test enzyme activities had apparent, seasonal variation, with the peak of cellulase, suerase, and acid phosphatase activities in spring, of urease activity in autumn, and of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in winter. Nitrogen deposition stimulated the activities of polyphenol oxidase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase, inhibited cellulase activity, but had no significant effects on peroxidase activity. The test P. amurus plantation ecosystem was N-limited, and nitrogen deposition stimulated the decomposition of soil organic matter by microbe-enzyme system.

  3. [Soil enzyme activities in a Pleioblastus amurus plantation in Rainy Area of West China under simulated nitrogen deposition].

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-hua; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Ren-hong; Dai, Hong-zhong; Luo, Shou-hua; Xiang, Yuan-bin; Huang, Li-hua

    2009-12-01

    From November 2007 to May 2009, a simulation test was conducted in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation in Rainy Area of West China to study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the activities of soil enzymes. Four treatments were installed, i.e., control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). Half year after N deposition, 0-20 cm soil samples were collected monthly, and the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, cellulase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase were determined. All test enzyme activities had apparent, seasonal variation, with the peak of cellulase, suerase, and acid phosphatase activities in spring, of urease activity in autumn, and of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities in winter. Nitrogen deposition stimulated the activities of polyphenol oxidase, sucrase, urease, and acid phosphatase, inhibited cellulase activity, but had no significant effects on peroxidase activity. The test P. amurus plantation ecosystem was N-limited, and nitrogen deposition stimulated the decomposition of soil organic matter by microbe-enzyme system. PMID:20353060

  4. Hydrological components of a young loblolly pine plantation on a sandy soil with estimates of water use and loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahamson, Deborah A.; Dougherty, P. M.; Zarnoch, S. J.

    1998-12-01

    Fertilizer and irrigation treatments were applied in a 7- to 10-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation on a sandy soil near Laurinburg, North Carolina. Rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, and soil water content were measured throughout the study period. Monthly interception losses ranged from 4 to 15% of rainfall. Stemflow ranged from 0.2 to 6.5% of rainfall. Rainfall, leaf area index (LAI), basal area (BA), and the interactions of rainfall with LAI or BA influenced prediction models of throughfall, but not stemflow, on a stand level. We found significant differences due to the effects of treatments in the soil water of the top 0.5- and 1-m soil layers by the beginning of the second growing season and throughout the remainder of the study period. Average daily water use and loss from a 1-m soil layer reflected the low water-holding capacity of the sand. Soil water in a 1-m layer was rapidly depleted to within 10% of available water during periods of little or no rainfall. Irrigation did not significantly affect productivity and created a greater potential for loss of water to drainage below 1 m. On the basis of Zahner's [1966] method of soil water depletion in a sandy soil under forest cover, total drainage to below l m was 55% of evapotranspiration in unirrigated plots and 150% of evapotranspiration in irrigated plots.

  5. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  6. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  7. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Lima, Amanda B; Muniz, Aleksander W; Dumont, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol) and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume) were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC) were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations. PMID:25374565

  8. Activity and abundance of methane-oxidizing bacteria in secondary forest and manioc plantations of Amazonian Dark Earth and their adjacent soils

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Amanda B.; Muniz, Aleksander W.; Dumont, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidation of atmospheric CH4 in upland soils is mostly mediated by uncultivated groups of microorganisms that have been identified solely by molecular markers, such as the sequence of the pmoA gene encoding the β-subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase enzyme. The objective of this work was to compare the activity and diversity of methanotrophs in Amazonian Dark Earth soil (ADE, Hortic Anthrosol) and their adjacent non-anthropic soil. Secondly, the effect of land use in the form of manioc cultivation was examined by comparing secondary forest and plantation soils. CH4 oxidation potentials were measured and the structure of the methanotroph communities assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes. The oxidation potentials at low CH4 concentrations (10 ppm of volume) were relatively high in all the secondary forest sites of both ADE and adjacent soils. CH4 oxidation by the ADE soil only recently converted to a manioc plantation was also relatively high. In contrast, both the adjacent soils used for manioc cultivation and the ADE soil with a long history of agriculture displayed lower CH4 uptake rates. Amplicon pyrosequencing of pmoA genes indicated that USCα, Methylocystis and the tropical upland soil cluster (TUSC) were the dominant groups depending on the site. By qPCR analysis it was found that USCα pmoA genes, which are believed to belong to atmospheric CH4 oxidizers, were more abundant in ADE than adjacent soil. USCα pmoA genes were abundant in both forested and cultivated ADE soil, but were below the qPCR detection limit in manioc plantations of adjacent soil. The results indicate that ADE soils can harbor high abundances of atmospheric CH4 oxidizers and are potential CH4 sinks, but as in other upland soils this activity can be inhibited by the conversion of forest to agricultural plantations. PMID:25374565

  9. Carbon Stocks and Soil C Dynamics: an Investigation of C Sequestration Potential in a Eucalyptus grandis Plantation in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, M. I.; Crow, S. E.; Yost, R.; Turn, S.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical forests are important for many reasons, one of which is their ability to transfer large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere to living biomass thereby potentially offsetting climate change. If the biomass is then harvested for commercial use, the stored carbon (C) is released back to the atmosphere and as a result, rotational forestry is generally considered C neutral. However, the growth and harvest of forests also affects the soil C cycle through inputs of below ground biomass (BG) in proportion to above ground biomass (ABG). With sustainable management practices, soil can be a long-term sink for C, and provide a climate offset. This study examines the C stocks and dynamics of a E. grandis plantation located in Hawaii. There are two parts: 1) A snapshot of C resources in the plantation, including live biomass C (both BG and ABG) as well as soil C stock, and 2) An investigation of change in soil C stock and pool size with afforestation in E. grandis plantation. ABG C was calculated using published allometric equations and from measurements of the E. grandis trees and ranged from 41-68 Mg C/ha, while BG C ranged from 7-12 Mg C/ha. Added together, the biomass C stocks constitute a mere ≈10% of the soil C stock. To identify the effect of E. grandis afforestation on changes in soil C stock and pools, we compared adjacent pastureland and forested plots in a paired design. Soil C stocks were measured by taking five 1m soil cores in each of the plots. In the pasture, soil C ranged from 431-723 Mg C/ha, while in the E. grandis, it ranged from 544-692 Mg C/ha, an average percent change of 16%. In all plots, soil C decreased by depth. As expected, the surface (0-18) cm cores in the pasture contained more C on average, as grasses tend to input larger amounts of root biomass C in the surface soil. However, in the 20-70 cm depth, the E. grandis plots contained 20-30% more soil C. It is hypothesized that this is due to large differences in rooting depth. The greater

  10. Soil fertility controls soil-atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a tropical landscape converted from lowland forest to rubber and oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; Tjoa, A.; Damris, M.; Utami, S. R.; Veldkamp, E.

    2015-06-01

    Expansion of palm oil and rubber production, for which global demand is increasing, causes rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia and is expected to continue in the next decades. Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with land-use change, and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes on heavily weathered soils that differ mainly in texture: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated the reference land uses: forest and secondary forest with regenerating rubber, and the converted land uses: rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). We measured soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes monthly from December 2012 to December 2013. Annual soil CO2 fluxes from the reference land uses were correlated with soil fertility: low extractable phosphorus (P) coincided with high annual CO2 fluxes from the loam Acrisol soil that had lower fertility than the clay Acrisol soil (P < 0.05). Soil CO2 fluxes from the oil palm decreased compared to the other land uses (P < 0.01). Across land uses, annual CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with soil organic carbon (C) and negatively correlated with 15N signatures, extractable P and base saturation. This suggests that the reduced soil CO2 fluxes from oil palm was a result of strongly decomposed soil organic matter due to reduced litter input, and possible reduction in C allocation to roots due to improved soil fertility from liming and P fertilization in these plantations. Soil CH4 uptake in the reference land uses was negatively correlated with net nitrogen (N) mineralization and soil mineral N, suggesting N limitation of CH4 uptake, and positively correlated with exchangeable aluminum (Al), indicating decrease in methanotrophic activity at high Al saturation. Reduction in soil CH4 uptake in the converted land uses compared to the reference land uses (P < 0.01) was due to decrease in soil N availability in the converted

  11. Deep Soil Carbon Influenced Following Forest Organic Matter Manipulation In A Loblolly Pine Plantation In The Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J. A.; Mack, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.; Roberts, S.; Dewey, J.

    2013-12-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of the removal and addition of harvest residual and forest-floor on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil, size/density fractionation, and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO)-oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations in managed forests can have significant effects on deep soil carbon that may be resistant to mineralization or the effects of

  12. Soil Carbon Losses after Rainforest Conversion to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations: Processes and Sensitivity of Soil Fertility Indicators Assessed by a New Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, T.; Maranguit, D.; Murtilaksono, K.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest conversion to agricultural land leads to strong decrease of soil organic matter (SOM). Nonetheless, the magnitude of SOM losses and their impacts on soil fertility in oil palm and rubber plantations remain unclear, despite the large scale extension of such land-use types. We quantified SOM losses, and estimated soil erosion and changes in SOM turnover using SOM δ13C values in forest, oil palm plantations, extensive rubber plantations and rubber monocultures on Sumatra Island (Indonesia). Further, we assessed the response of biological (basal respiration, microbial biomass, acid phosphatase) and chemical fertility indicators (light fraction, DOC, total N, available P) to SOM losses. We used a new approach based on (non-)linear regressions between SOM losses and the indices standardized to natural ecosystem. Carbon contents in the Ah horizon under oil palm and rubber plantations were strongly reduced: up to 70% and 62%, respectively. The decrease was lower under extensive rubber (41%). The estimated erosion was the strongest in oil palm (35±8 cm) and rubber (33±10 cm) plantations. The SOM 13C enrichment used as a proxy of its turnover indicates a decrease of SOM turnover under oil palm after forest conversion. The negative impact of land-use changes on all measured indicators increased in the following sequence: forest > extensive rubber > rubber > oil palm. The basal respiration, microbial biomass and nutrients were comparatively resistant to SOM losses, whereas the light fraction was lost faster than the SOM. The resistance of the microbial activity to SOM losses is an indication that the microbial functions sustain SOM losses. However, responses of basal respiration and microbial biomass to SOM losses were non-linear. Below 2.7 % C content, the relationship was reversed. The basal respiration decreased faster than the SOM, resulting in a stronger drop of microbial activity under oil palm compared to rubber despite small difference in C content

  13. [Effects of fertilization method and nitrogen application rate on soil nitrogen vertical migration in a Populus xeuramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation].

    PubMed

    Dai, Teng-fei; Xi, Ben-ye; Yan, Xiao-li; Jia, Li-ming

    2015-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilization methods, i.e., drip (DF) and furrow fertilization (GF), and nitrogen (N) application rates (25, 50, 75 g N · plant(-1) · time(-1)) on the dynamics of soil N vertical migration in a Populus x euramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation. The results showed that soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents decreased with the increasing soil depth under different fertilization methods and N application rates. In the DF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-40 cm soil layer, and their contents ascended firstly and then descended, reaching their maximum values at the 5th day (211.1 mg · kg(-1)) and 10th day (128.8 mg · kg(-1)) after fertilization, respectively. In the GF treatment, soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N were mainly concentrated in the 0-20 cm layer, and the content of soil NO3(-)-N rose gradually and reached its maximum at the 20th day (175.7 mg · kg(-1)) after fertilization, while the NH4(+)-N content did not change significantly after fertilization. Overall, N fertilizer had an effect within 20 days in the DF treatment, and more than 20 days in the GF treatment. In the DF treatment, the content and migration depth of soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N increased with the N application rate. In the GF treatment, the NO3(-)-N content increased with the N application rate, but the NH4(+)-N content was not influenced. Under the DF treatment, the hydrolysis rate, nitrification rate and migration depth of urea were higher or larger than that under the GF treatment, and more N accumulated in deep soil as the N application rate increased. Considering the distribution characteristics of fine roots and soil N, DF would be a better fertilization method in P. xeuramericana cv. 'Guariento' plantation, since it could supply N to larger distribution area of fine roots. When the N application rate was 50 g · tree(-1) each time, nitrogen mainly distributed in the zone of fine roots and

  14. Functional Assays and Metagenomic Analyses Reveals Differences between the Microbial Communities Inhabiting the Soil Horizons of a Norway Spruce Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Uroz, Stéphane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cébron, Aurélie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buée, Marc; Martin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the

  15. Effect of litter layer on soil-atmosphere N2O flux of a subtropical pine plantation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yidong; Wang, Huimin; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Ma, Zeqing; Dai, Xiaoqin; Wen, Xuefa; Liu, Yunfen

    2014-01-01

    Forest soils are important sources for nitrous oxide (N2O), but how the surface litter layer affects these sources is still unclear. Seasonal rainfall in the subtropical monsoon climate provides a unique opportunity to examine soil-atmosphere N2O flux under a wide range of soil water content. We studied this question over 3 years using a litter removal method in a 20-year-old pine plantation (Pinus elliottii) in subtropical China. Annual mean chamber-based soil-atmosphere N2O fluxes of the control (FCK) and litter-free (FLF) treatments were 6.07 and 5.17 μg N2O m-2 h-1, respectively. Removal of the litter layer reduced 15% of soil N2O emissions, suggesting the mineral soil as the dominant factor that determines soil N2O emissions. Seasonal FCK and FLF were both significantly influenced by water-filled pore space (WFPS) but not by soil temperature (TS). However, FCK and FLF were both correlated with TS during the wet season (January-June) but not during the dry season (July-December). During the wet season, FCK and FLF were 84% and 132% higher than during the dry season, respectively. In contrast, seasonal litter-based N2O fluxes (FCK-LF = FCK - FLF) were not correlated with WFPS and TS. During the dry season, however, a positive relationship was observed for FCK-LF and WFPS. In the context of climate change and human activities, future changes in soil environment and surface litter management will alter the strength of soil N2O emissions of the subtropical pine forests in China.

  16. Impacts of afforestation and silviculture on the soil C balance of tropical tree plantations: belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epron, D.; Koutika, L.; Mareschal, L.; Nouvellon, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forest plantations will provide a large part of the global wood supply which is anticipated to increase sharply in the next decades, becoming a valuable source of income in many countries, where they also contribute to land use changes that impact the global carbon (C) cycle. Tropical forest plantations established on previous grasslands are potential C sinks offsetting anthropogenic CO2 emissions. When they are managed on short rotations, the aboveground biomass is frequently removed and transformed into wood products with short lifetimes. The soil is thus the only compartment for durable C sequestration. The soil C budget results from the inputs of C from litterfall, root turnover and residues left at logging stage, balanced by C losses through heterotrophic respiration and leaching of organic C with water flow. Intensive researches have been conducted these last ten years in eucalypt plantations in the Congo on the effects of management options on soil fertility improvement and C sequestration. Our aim is to review important results regarding belowground C allocation, soil CO2 efflux and C accretion in relation to management options. We will specifically address (i) the soil C dynamics after afforestation of a tropical savannah, (ii) the impact of post-harvest residue management, and (iii) the beneficial effect of introducing nitrogen fixing species for C sequestration. Our results on afforestation of previous savannah showed that mechanical soil disturbance for site preparation had no effect on soil CO2 efflux and soil C balance. Soil C increased after afforestation despite a rapid disappearance of the labile savannah-derived C because a large fraction of savannah-derived C is stable and the aboveground litter layer is as the major source of CO2 contributing to soil CO2 efflux. We further demonstrated that the C stock in and on the soil slightly increased after each rotation when large amounts of residues are left at logging stage and that most of

  17. Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus Communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis Roots and Soils in Thailand Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyasen, Amornrat; Young, J. Peter W.; Teaumroong, Neung; Gavinlertvatana, Paiboolya; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil) but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts. PMID:25397675

  18. Assessment of 10 years of CO2 fumigation on soil microbial communities and function in a sweetgum plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, Emily E; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Sides, Katherine E; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Classen, Aimee T

    2009-01-01

    Increased vegetative growth and soil carbon (C) storage under elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) has been demonstrated in a number of experiments. However, the ability of ecosystems, either above- or belowground, to maintain increased carbon storage relies on the response of soil processes, such as nitrogen (N) availability, to climatic change. These soil processes are mediated by microbial communities whose activity and structure may also respond to increasing atmospheric [CO2]. We took advantage of a long-term (ca 10 year) CO2 enrichment experiment in a sweetgum plantation located in Tennessee to test the hypothesis that observed increases in root production in elevated relative to ambient CO2 plots would alter microbial community structure, increase microbial activity, and increase soil nutrient cycling. We found that elevated [CO2] had no detectable effect on microbial community structure using 16S rRNA gene cloning libraries, on microbial activity measured with extracellular enzyme activity, or on potential soil N mineralization and nitrification rates. These results are similar to those found at other sites and are consistent with continued C storage in forest ecosystems in the near future.

  19. [Effects of bio-mulching on rhizosphere soil microbial population, enzyme activity and tree growth in poplar plantation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiu-Jun; Fang, Sheng-Zuo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Hao, Juan-Juan

    2008-06-01

    Coriaria nepalensis, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiuscukum, Imperata cylindrical var. major, and Quercus fabric were used as mulching materials to study their effects on the rhizosphere soil microbial population and enzyme activity and the tree growth in poplar plantation. The results showed that after mulching with test materials, the populations of both bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were more than those of the control. Of the mulching materials, I. cylindrical and Q. fabric had the best effect, with the numbers of bacteria and fungi being 23.56 and 1.43 times higher than the control, respectively. The bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil increased with increasing mulching amount. When the mulching amount was 7.5 kg m(-2), the numbers of bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were 0.5 and 5.14 times higher than the control, respectively. Under bio-mulching, the bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil had a similar annual variation trend, which was accorded with the annual fluctuation of soil temperature and got to the maximum in July and the minimum in December. The urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil also increased with increasing mulching amount. As for the effects of different mulching materials on the enzyme activities, they were in the order of C. nepalensis > P. aquilinum > I. cylindrical > Q. fabric. The annual variation of urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil was similar to that of bacterial and fungal populations, being the highest in July and the lowest in December. Bio-mulching promoted the tree height, DBH, and biomass of poplar trees significantly.

  20. Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Damris, Muhammad; Tjoa, Aiyen; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    Demand for palm oil has increased strongly in recent decades. Global palm oil production quadrupled between 1990 and 2009, and although almost half of the global supply is already produced in Indonesia, a doubling of current production is planned for the next ten years. This agricultural expansion is achieved by conversion of rainforest. Land-use conversion affects soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes through changes in nutrient availability and soil properties which, in turn, influence plant productivity, microbial activity and gas diffusivity. Our study was aimed to assess changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations. Our study area was Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes using vented static chamber method with monthly sampling from November 2012 to December 2013. There were no differences in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes (all P > 0.05) between soil landscapes for each land-use type. For soil CO2 fluxes, in both clay and loam Acrisol soil landscapes oil palm were lower compared to the other land uses (P < 0.007). In the clay Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 107.2 ± 7.2 mg C m-2 h-1 for oil palm, and 195.9 ± 13.5 mg C m-2 h-1for forest, 185.3 ± 9.4 mg C m-2 h-1for jungle rubber and 182.8 ± 16.2 mg C m2 h-1for rubber. In the loam Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 115.7 ± 11.0 mg CO2-C m2 h-1 for oil palm, and 186.6 ± 13.7, 178.7 ± 11.2, 182.9 ± 14.5 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 for forest, jungle rubber and rubber, respectively. The seasonal patterns of soil CO2 fluxes

  1. Soil properties in different types of Eucalypt Plantations in a small forested watershed, north-central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. M.; van Beersum, S.; van Hall, I.; Bernard-Jannin, L.; Rial-Rivas, M. E.; Nunes, J. P.; Keizer, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    The main aim of the HIDRIA project is to improve the knowledge and understanding of factors and processes that determine the hydrological behaviour of forested foothills in the Caramulo mountain range, North-Central Portugal. The changes from natural forest cover to Eucalyptus plantations in the last decades in Portugal is present in Serra de Cima catchment, one of the four experimental catchments monitored within the framework of the project. The objectives of the present study are to determine the effects of these changes on soil properties, and to improve the parameterization of the SWAT model to simulate the impact of land-use changes associated with forestry practices on hydrological processes. The study catchment (Serra de Cima) is located in the Águeda Basin, draining the foothills of the Caramulo mountains east of Águeda (40°36'N, -8°20'E). The climate is wet Mediterranean with a mean annual precipitation of about 1600 mm at 445 m a.s.l. Soils are generally Umbric Leptosols (<30 cm depth) and Humic Cambisols. The Serra de Cima catchment has an area of 0.52 km2 and is covered by commercial eucalypt plantations (73% of the total area) and natural/degraded pine forest (27% of the total area). Eucalypts are managed as Short Rotation Coppices, with each stand growing during 30-36 years; trees are cut every 10-12 years and stems re-grow from roots afterwards. The eucalypt stands in the study area differ in tree age, undergoing their first, second or third rotations. Climate, soil moisture and streamflow are monitored at the catchment. The presentation will focus on the results of a field campaign done on June 2011 to characterize soil and vegetation properties for six points on eucalypt stands in different stages of growth, as well as pine stands. The parameters sampled in this campaign were selected based on a sensitivity analysis of the SWAT model, and included: tree density and diameter; Leaf Area Index (LAI); ground cover; profile description; dry bulk

  2. [Fine root biomass and carbon storage in surface soil of Cinnamomum camphora plantation in rainy area of West China].

    PubMed

    Wei, Peng; Li, Xian-Wei; Fan, Chuan; Zhang, Teng-Fei; Liu, Yun-Ke; Su, Yu; Yang, Zheng-Ju

    2013-10-01

    Fine root in forest ecosystems plays an important role in global C cycle. In this study, a measurement was made on the fine root biomass and carbon storage in the surface soil (0-30 cm) of a 31 year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the Rainy Area of West China in November, 2010-December, 2011. The total biomass and carbon storage of the fine roots (living and dead) in the surface soil were 1592.29 kg x hm(-2) and 660.68 kg C x hm(-2), in which, living fine roots accounted for 91.1% and 91.8% respectively. The total biomass and carbon storage of the first five order living roots and dead roots decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, and the living root biomass and carbon storage increased significantly with root order. The sum of the biomass and carbon storage of living and dead fine roots was the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter, but the biomass and carbon storage of the dead fine roots were the largest in winter and the smallest in summer. The biomass and carbon storage of the first two order roots were the largest in summer and the smallest in winter, while those of the last three order roots were the largest in autumn and the smallest in winter. The spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and nutrients was the main factor affecting the fine root biomass and carbon storage.

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen cycling and storage throughout the soil profile in a sweetgum plantation after 11 years of CO2-enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Keller, Dr. Jason K.; Garten Jr, Charles T; Norby, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Increased partitioning of carbon (C) to fine roots under elevated [CO2], especially deep in the soil profile, could alter soil C and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests. After more than 11 years of free-Air CO2 enrichment in a Liquidambar styraciflua L. (sweetgum) plantation in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, greater inputs of fine roots resulted in the incorporation of new C (i.e., C with a depleted 13C) into root-derived particulate organic matter (POM) pools to 90-cm depth. Even though production in the sweetgum stand was limited by soil N availability, soil C and N content increased over time, and were greater throughout the soil profile under elevated [CO2] at the conclusion of the experiment. However, greater C inputs under elevated [CO2] did not result in increased net N immobilization or C mineralization rates in long-term laboratory incubations, and did not appear to prime the decomposition of older SOM. The 13CO2 of the C mineralized from the incubated soil closely tracked the 13C of the labile POM pool in the elevated [CO2] treatment, especially in shallower soil, and did not indicate the decomposition of older (i.e., pre-experiment) SOM. While potential C mineralization rates were positively and linearly related to total soil organic matter (SOM) C content in the top 30 cm of soil, this relationship did not hold in deeper soil. Taken together with an increased mean residence time of C in deeper soil pools, these findings indicate that C inputs from relatively deep roots under elevated [CO2] may have increased potential for long-term storage. Expanded representation of biogeochemical cycling throughout the soil profile may improve model projections of future forest responses to rising atmospheric [CO2].

  4. [Short-term effects of low intensity thinning simulated by gap on ground microclimate and soil nutrients of pure spruce plantation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Pang, Xue-Yong; Bao, Wei-Kai

    2010-03-01

    Taking a dense spruce pure plantation as test object and simulating the formation of natural forest gap, this paper studied the effects of low intensity thinning by gap creation on the ground temperature, ground humidity, and nutrient contents in different soil layers of the plantation. In the first year of gap creation, the mean diurnal temperature in the gap across the growth season (May - September) increased, while the mean diurnal humidity decreased. The soil organic matter (SOM) and NH4(+) -N contents in O-horizon (humus layer) increased by 19.62% and 283.85%, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and NO3(-) -N contents decreased by 77.86% and 23.60%, respectively. The SOM, total nitrogen (TN), and NO3(-) -N contents in 0-10 cm soil layer increased by 45.77%, 37.14%, and 75.11%, and the NH4(+) -N, DOC, and total phosphorus (TP) contents decreased by 48.56%, 33.33%, and 13.11%, respectively. All the results suggested that low intensity thinning by gap creation could rapidly improve the ground microclimate of the plantation, and consequently, promote the soil microbial activity and mineralization processes in O-horizon, the release of soil nutrients, and the restoration of soil fertility. PMID:20560305

  5. Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

    2014-05-01

    We use to accept the idea that the best oranges are coming from Valecia Region in Eastern Spain. Although the oranges are originally from Eastern Asia, Valencia is having a mild climate in winter, with a low recurrency of frost and is strategically located close to the largest market of citrus: Western Europe. This resulted in a continuous growth of production and trade of citrus, and contributed to make the Valencia Region the largest World exporter (Bono, 2010). This economical success reached the highest point after the EU and Spain agreement in 1986. This expansion of citrus plantations were done on steep slopes allowed by the drip irrigation systems that does not need leveling the land as it was done by new farmers with large properties. The traditional farming of oranges was done in small properties, flood irrigation and leveled land. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). Land This research evaluate the relations between the investment (economic wealth) of the owners of citrus plantations and the soil erosion rates on their orchards. The economic wealth of the onwers was measured on the size of their properties and after an interview. The soil erosion rates were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1). The results show that the soil losses in the new plantations are extremely high (> 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), and that we can show three types of orchards: < 0.99 ha; 1-10 ha and > 10.1. The soil erosion rates where positively related to the size of the farms. The higher erosion rates are shown also by the scientific literature review. Chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002) show high erosion rates due to the road construction too

  6. Sewage sludge application in a plantation: effects on trace metal transfer in soil-plant-snail continuum.

    PubMed

    Bourioug, Mohamed; Gimbert, Frédéric; Alaoui-Sehmer, Laurence; Benbrahim, Mohammed; Aleya, Lotfi; Alaoui-Sossé, Badr

    2015-01-01

    We studied the potential bioaccumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by the snail Cantareus aspersus and evaluated the risk of leaching after application of sewage sludge to forest plantation ecosystems. Sewage sludge was applied to the soil surface at two loading rates (0, and 6 tons ha(-1) in dry matter) without incorporation into the soil so as to identify the sources of trace metal contamination in soil and plants and to evaluate effects on snail growth. The results indicated a snail mortality rate of less than 1% during the experiment, while their dry weight decreased significantly (<0.001) in all treatment modalities. Thus, snails showed no acute toxicity symptoms after soil amendment with sewage sludge over the exposure period considered. Additions of sewage sludge led to higher levels of trace metals in forest litter compared to control subplots, but similar trace metal concentrations were observed in sampling plants. Bioaccumulation study demonstrated that Zn had not accumulated in snails compared to Cu which accumulated only after 28 days of exposure to amended subplots. However, Pb and Cd contents in snails increased significantly after 14 and 28 days of exposure in both the control and amended subplots. At the last sampling date, in comparison to controls the Cd increase was higher in snails exposed to amended subplots. Thus, sludge spread therefore appears to be responsible for the observed bioaccumulation for Cu and Cd after 28days of exposure. Concerning Pb accumulation, the results from litter-soil-plant compartments suggest that soil is this metal's best transfer source.

  7. Biosolids and distillery effluent amendment to Irish Miscanthus ×giganteus plantations: impacts on groundwater and soil.

    PubMed

    Galbally, P; Fagan, C; Ryan, D; Finnan, J; Grant, J; McDonnell, K

    2012-01-01

    It is necessary to determine the risk of water pollution arising from amendment of organic by-products (OBs) to energy crops under Irish conditions. Therefore, the impact of landspreading two OBs on the quality of groundwater underlying plantations of Miscanthus X giganteus was assessed. Municipal biosolids and distillery effluent (DE) were spread annually (for 4 yr) on six 0.117-ha treatment plots at rates of 100, 50, and 0%. The 100% rate represented a maximum P load of 15 t ha(-1) as per Irish EPA regulation. Groundwater was sampled for 25 mo and tested for pH, electrical conductivity, NO(3)(-), orthophosphate (PO(4)(3-)), total soluble P, K(+), Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Assessment of quality was based on comparison with Irish groundwater threshold values (GTVs). The study was limited to within-plot using a "well bottom" approach and did not investigate movement of groundwater plumes or vectors of percolation through the soil profile. Mean groundwater concentrations did not exceed GTVs during the sampling period for any species, with the exception of groundwater PO(4)(3-) in the 100% DE plot, which was almost double the GTV of 0.035 mg L(-1). There was no significant build-up of nutrients or heavy metals in groundwater (or soil) for any plot. Excessive PO(4)(3-) in the 100% DE plot groundwater is likely due to high background soil P, soil characteristics, and the occurrence of macropore/soil pore flow. These factors (particularly background soil P) should be assessed when determining suitable sites for land-spreading OBs.

  8. Quality of trace element contaminated soils amended with compost under fast growing tree Paulownia fortunei plantation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Xiong, J; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

    2014-11-01

    The use of fast growing trees could be an alternative in trace element contaminated soils to stabilize these elements and improve soil quality. In this study we investigate the effect of Paulownia fortunei growth on trace element contaminated soils amended with two organic composts under semi-field conditions for a period of 18 months. The experiment was carried out in containers filled with tree different soils, two contaminated soils (neutral AZ and acid V) and a non contaminated soil, NC. Three treatments per soil were established: two organic amendments (alperujo compost, AC, and biosolid compost, BC) and a control without amendment addition. We study parameters related with fertility and contamination in soils and plants. Paulownia growth and amendments increased pH in acid soils whereas no effect of these factors was observed in neutral soils. The plant and the amendments also increased organic matter and consequently, soil fertility. Positive results were also found in soils that were only affected by plant growth (without amendment). A general improvement of "soil biochemical quality" was detected over time and treatments, confirming the positive effect of amendments plus paulownia. Even in contaminated soils, except for Cu and Zn, trace element concentrations in leaves were in the normal range for plants. Results of this mid-term study showed that Paulownia fortunei is a promising species for phytoremediation of trace element polluted soils. PMID:24950211

  9. Quality of trace element contaminated soils amended with compost under fast growing tree Paulownia fortunei plantation.

    PubMed

    Madejón, P; Xiong, J; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

    2014-11-01

    The use of fast growing trees could be an alternative in trace element contaminated soils to stabilize these elements and improve soil quality. In this study we investigate the effect of Paulownia fortunei growth on trace element contaminated soils amended with two organic composts under semi-field conditions for a period of 18 months. The experiment was carried out in containers filled with tree different soils, two contaminated soils (neutral AZ and acid V) and a non contaminated soil, NC. Three treatments per soil were established: two organic amendments (alperujo compost, AC, and biosolid compost, BC) and a control without amendment addition. We study parameters related with fertility and contamination in soils and plants. Paulownia growth and amendments increased pH in acid soils whereas no effect of these factors was observed in neutral soils. The plant and the amendments also increased organic matter and consequently, soil fertility. Positive results were also found in soils that were only affected by plant growth (without amendment). A general improvement of "soil biochemical quality" was detected over time and treatments, confirming the positive effect of amendments plus paulownia. Even in contaminated soils, except for Cu and Zn, trace element concentrations in leaves were in the normal range for plants. Results of this mid-term study showed that Paulownia fortunei is a promising species for phytoremediation of trace element polluted soils.

  10. Soil fertility controls soil-atmosphere carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a tropical landscape converted from lowland forest to rubber and oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; Tjoa, A.; Damris, M.; Utami, S. R.; Veldkamp, E.

    2015-10-01

    Expansion of palm oil and rubber production, for which global demand is increasing, causes rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia, and is expected to continue in the next decades. Our study aimed to (1) quantify changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with land-use change and (2) determine their controlling factors. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, we selected two landscapes on heavily weathered soils that differ mainly in texture: loam and clay Acrisol soils. In each landscape, we investigated the reference land-use types (forest and secondary forest with regenerating rubber) and the converted land-use types (rubber, 7-17 years old, and oil palm plantations, 9-16 years old). We measured soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes monthly from December 2012 to December 2013. Annual soil CO2 fluxes from the reference land-use types were correlated with soil fertility: low extractable phosphorus (P) coincided with high annual CO2 fluxes from the loam Acrisol soil that had lower fertility than the clay Acrisol soil (P < 0.05). Soil CO2 fluxes from the oil palm (107.2 to 115.7 mg C m-2 h-1) decreased compared to the other land-use types (between 178.7 and 195.9 mg C m-2 h-1; P < 0.01). Across land-use types, annual CO2 fluxes were positively correlated with soil organic carbon (C) and negatively correlated with 15N signatures, extractable P and base saturation. This suggests that the reduced soil CO2 fluxes from oil palm were the result of strongly decomposed soil organic matter and reduced soil C stocks due to reduced litter input as well as being due to a possible reduction in C allocation to roots due to improved soil fertility from liming and P fertilization in these plantations. Soil CH4 uptake in the reference land-use types was negatively correlated with net nitrogen (N) mineralization and soil mineral N, suggesting N limitation of CH4 uptake, and positively correlated with exchangeable aluminum (Al), indicating a decrease in methanotrophic activity at high Al saturation. Reduction in

  11. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil “fertile islands” were formed, and the “fertile islands” were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous

  12. Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nutrients after the Establishment of Caragana intermedia Plantation on Sand Dunes in Alpine Sandy Land of the Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxue; Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Wang, Yongsheng; Li, Hong; Yang, Defu; Zhao, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    The Gonghe Basin region of the Tibet Plateau is severely affected by desertification. Compared with other desertified land, the main features of this region is windy, cold and short growing season, resulting in relatively difficult for vegetation restoration. In this harsh environment, identification the spatial distribution of soil nutrients and analysis its impact factors after vegetation establishment will be helpful for understanding the ecological relationship between soil and environment. Therefore, in this study, the 12-year-old C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes was selected as the experimental site. Soil samples were collected under and between shrubs on the windward slopes, dune tops and leeward slopes with different soil depth. Then analyzed soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total potassium (TK), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK). The results showed that the spatial heterogeneity of soil nutrients was existed in C. intermedia plantation on sand dunes. (1) Depth was the most important impact factor, soil nutrients were decreased with greater soil depth. One of the possible reasons is that windblown fine materials and litters were accumulated on surface soil, when they were decomposed, more nutrients were aggregated on surface soil. (2) Topography also affected the distribution of soil nutrients, more soil nutrients distributed on windward slopes. The herbaceous coverage were higher and C. intermedia ground diameter were larger on windward slopes, both of them probably related to the high soil nutrients level for windward slopes. (3) Soil "fertile islands" were formed, and the "fertile islands" were more marked on lower soil nutrients level topography positions, while it decreased towards higher soil nutrients level topography positions. The enrichment ratio (E) for TN and AN were higher than other nutrients, most likely because C. intermedia is a leguminous shrub.

  13. Temporal dynamics of runoff and soil loss on a plot scale under a coffee plantation on steep soil (Ultisol), Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villatoro-Sánchez, Mario; Le Bissonnais, Yves; Moussa, Roger; Rapidel, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a serious threat for cultivated soils on steep slopes under tropical conditions. In Costa Rica, coffee plantations are widespread on such steep slopes in several basins used for hydroelectric generation, which are affected by soil erosion and sedimentation in dam reservoirs. For this study, surface runoff and soil loss rate were measured during three years on large experimental plots installed within a coffee field on a steep slope (60% average). The time interval for rainfall and runoff measurements was 5 min. A simple infiltration model presented by Diskin and Nazimov (1995) was used to estimate runoff during a rainfall event showing the relevance of initial soil water content in order to estimate runoff base on rainfall intensity variations. Three complementary embedded time scales were analyzed: annual-monthly, event and intra-event. The rainy seasons included 581 rainfall events giving a total depth of 2206, 1778 and 2220 mm in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. Total runoff was 103 ± 55, 54 ± 14 and 33 ± 6.4 mm in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. Annual average sediment concentration was about 1.3 ± 0.3 g l-1 with reduced temporal variations between years or rainfall events. The total soil loss was 1686 ± 784, 914 ± 306 and 575 ± 140 kg ha-1 for 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. Around 60% of rainfall and 90% of runoff and soil loss respectively came from the August-October period and more than half of it from October. Total rainfall event and soil water content explained most of surface runoff and soil loss dynamics at three time scales analyzed. Inherited soil water storage from previous year played an important role on the relationship between rainfall and runoff dynamics the following year. Soil and coffee coverage did not have a significant effect on runoff and soil loss variability due to permanently good soil coverage (even in the rainy season). This good coverage over the rainy season prevented crust development. The presence of

  14. [Effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition on the soil chemical and biological properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Lin, Gui-Gang; Zhao, Qiong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Hui-Chao; Zeng, De-Hui

    2012-05-01

    A full factorial experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal and nitrogen addition (8 g x m(-2)) on the soil NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N concentrations, potential net nitrogen mineralization rate (PNM) and nitrification rate (PNN), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), MBC/MBN, urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities, and Olsen-P concentration in a Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantation in Keerqin Sandy Land during a growth season. Understory removal decreased the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, PNM, MBC, and MBN/MBN significantly, increased the soil Olsen-P concentration, but had little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNN, and urease and acid phosphomonoesterase activities. Nitrogen addition increased the soil NO(3-)-N concentration, PNM and PNN significantly, but had little effects on the other test properties. The interaction between understory removal and nitrogen addition had significant effects on the soil NH(4+)-N concentration, but little effects on the soil NO(3-)-N concentration. However, the soil NO(3-)-N concentration in the plots of understory removal with nitrogen addition was increased by 27%, compared with the plots of nitrogen addition alone, which might lead to the leaching of NO3-. It was suggested that understory vegetation could play an important role in affecting the soil chemical and biological properties in Mongolian pine plantations, and hence, the importance of understory vegetation should not be neglected when the forest management and restoration were implemented. PMID:22919826

  15. Impact of tapping and soil water status on fine root dynamics in a rubber tree plantation in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chairungsee, Naruenat; Gay, Frederic; Thaler, Philippe; Kasemsap, Poonpipope; Thanisawanyangkura, Sornprach; Chantuma, Arak; Jourdan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Fine roots (FR) play a major role in the water and nutrient uptake of plants and contribute significantly to the carbon and nutrient cycles of ecosystems through their annual production and turnover. FR growth dynamics were studied to understand the endogenous and exogenous factors driving these processes in a 14-year-old plantation of rubber trees located in eastern Thailand. FR dynamics were observed using field rhizotrons from October 2007 to October 2009. This period covered two complete dry seasons (November to March) and two complete rainy seasons (April to October), allowing us to study the effect of rainfall seasonality on FR dynamics. Rainfall and its distribution during the two successive years showed strong differences with 1500 and 950 mm in 2008 and 2009, respectively. FR production (FRP) completely stopped during the dry seasons and resumed quickly after the first rains. During the rainy seasons, FRP and the daily root elongation rate (RER) were highly variable and exhibited strong annual variations with a total FRP of 139.8 and 40.4 mm-2 and an average RER of 0.16 and 0.12 cm day-1 in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The significant positive correlations found between FRP, RER, the appearance of new roots, and rainfall at monthly intervals revealed the impact of rainfall seasonality on FR dynamics. However, the rainfall patterns failed to explain the weekly variations of FR dynamics observed particularly during the rainy seasons. At this time step, FRP, RER, and the appearance of new FR were negatively correlated to the average soil matric potential measured at a depth of between 30 and 60 cm. In addition, our study revealed a significant negative correlation between FR dynamics and the monthly production of dry rubber. Consequently, latex harvesting might disturb carbon dynamics in the whole tree, far beyond the trunk where the tapping was performed. These results exhibit the impact of climatic conditions and tapping system in the carbon budget of

  16. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  17. Humic Acid Composition and Characteristics of Soil Organic Matter in Relation to the Elevation Gradient of Moso Bamboo Plantations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Ching; Chou, Chiao-Ying; Chiou, Chyi-Rong; Tian, Guanglong; Chiu, Chih-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the influence of climatic and/or site-specific factors on soil organic matter (SOM) along an elevation gradient is important for understanding the response of SOM to global warming. We evaluated the composition of SOM and structure of humic acids along an altitudinal gradient from 600 to 1400 m in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantations in central Taiwan using NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis. Total organic C and total nitrogen (N) content increased with increasing elevation. Aromaticity decreased and ΔlogK (the logarithm of the absorbance ratio of humic acids at 400 and 600 nm) increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification decreased with increasing elevation. High temperature at low elevations seemed to enhance the decomposition (less accumulation of total organic C and N) and humification (high aromaticity and low ΔlogK). The alkyl-C/O-alkyl-C (A/O-A) ratio of humic acids increased with increasing elevation, which suggests that SOM humification increased with increasing elevation; this finding was contrary to the trend observed for ΔlogK and aromaticity. Such a discrepancy might be due to the relatively greater remaining of SOM derived from high alkyl-C broadleaf litter of previous forest at high elevations. The ratio of recalcitrant C to total organic C was low at low elevations, possibly because of enhanced decomposition of recalcitrant SOM from the previous broadleaf forest during long-term intensive cultivation and high temperature. Overall, the change in SOM pools and in the rate of humification with elevation was primarily affected by changes in climatic conditions along the elevation gradient in these bamboo plantations. However, when the composition of SOM, as assessed by NMR spectroscopy and photometric analysis was considered, site-specific factors such as residual SOM from previous forest and intensive cultivation history could also have an important effect on the humic acid composition and

  18. Radiocarbon measurements of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil CO2 efflux provide unique insights into the SOM dynamics of managed loblolly pine plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, J. G.; Schuur, E. A.; Bracho, R.; Jokela, E. J.

    2011-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) cycling between soils and the atmosphere affects a wide range of important ecosystem functions. However the key processes controlling this cycle, fine root inputs and heterotrophic respiration, are poorly understood primarily because they are difficult to directly measure in the field. Radiocarbon measurements and simple models can be used to evaluate the relative influence of these processes on SOM cycling. Here we used radiocarbon measurements of density separated SOM, and root respiration, microbial respiration, and soil CO2 efflux to examine the relative effect of two forestry practices, fertilization and the genetic control of planted seedlings, on SOM cycling in two loblolly pine plantation forests in north central Florida. Our primary hypothesis was that greater aboveground growth would correspond to increased inputs of C to the soil as root biomass, and a greater efflux of CO2 from roots and soil microbes. For the density separated fractions, the light fraction (LF) (<1.6 g cm-3) was nearly 98% of the SOM in these sandy soils, and the LF decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of fertilization for the A horizon (~0-30 cm). Light fraction radiocarbon values ranged from 66-127% and tended to be more enriched in bomb carbon, or older, with increasing levels of fertilization. Based on a significant reduction in fine root biomass with fertilization, we estimate that the smaller mass of the LF and its older age were the result of less fine root contributions of C to the LF pool. The alternative hypothesis, that fertilization increased SOM turnover, was not supported. To determine if changes in root biomass reflected changes in root respiration in soil CO2 efflux, we estimated radiocarbon values for root and microbial respiration, and soil CO2 efflux in order to partition the components in soil CO2 efflux. Radiocarbon estimates of microbial respiration (0-15 cm depth) and root respiration fractions ranged from 55-67% and

  19. Soil carbon stock and total nitrogen in Hawaiian sugarcane commercial plantations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been a recent, renewed interest in Hawaiian sugarcane as a biofuel feedstock. However, there is little information on how much soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) is stored in Hawaiian sugarcane fields under normal, monoculture operations. Soil C and N data are needed to assess the life cycl...

  20. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    three sites the soil erosion is reduced in one order of magnitude in average as a consequence of the cover of the chipped pruned branches (78.45 % in average cover) in comparison to the bare (control) soils. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S. 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18 (5), 881-888. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9869-6 Biswas H., Raizada A., Mandal D., Kumar S., Srinivas S., Mishra P. K. 2015. Identification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methods. Solid Earth, 6 (4), pp. 1247-1257. DOI: 10. 5194/se-6-1247-2015v Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, 2015. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. 2009.Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Colazo, J.C., Buschiazzo, D. 2015. The Impact of Agriculture on Soil Texture Due to Wind Erosion.Land Degradation and Development, 26 (1), 62-70 DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2297 Decock, C.,J. Lee, M. Necpalova, E. I. P. Pereira, D. M. Tendall, J. Six. 2015 Mitigating N2O emissions from soil: from patching leaks to transformative action. SOIL, 1, 687-694, doi:10

  1. Changes to Extractable Soil Amino Compounds Under Elevated CO2 and Ozone in an Aspen Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Zhang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Forests growing under elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and ozone exhibit changes to root and foliar chemistry and quality that are related to changes in physiology, N limitation, and leaf damage. Additionally, there are documented changes to the activity of some understory invertebrate populations, and a variety of responses to soil organic matter ranging from accrual in the upper few centimeters to loss of soil C and N over the upper 20 cm. Under such conditions, however, the cycling of specific amino compounds is poorly understood. Knowledge of the role that new plant N plays in supporting soil microbial populations and soil C and N dynamics is important to fully understand relationships between N limitation under elevated CO2-induced productivity increases and available organic N pools in soil. We investigated the composition and concentration of hydrolysable amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars) in litter, roots, soil, and earthworm fecal matter from the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) sites at Rhinelander, WI. Under elevated CO2 amino acids, when normalized to total N, exhibited change in both amount (decrease) and composition among roots (<2mm) with depth over the upper 25 cm, however, root amino acids showed only minor changes with depth in the ambient and ozone treatments. Ozonated rings exhibited a lower release of amino compounds (with respect to total N) compared to ambient and elevated CO2, which may suggest poorer quality input. For soil organic matter extractable amino acids (normalized to total soil N) exhibited changes similar to roots among the treatment. These results indicate that CO2 and ozone significantly influence amino compound dynamics in both soil and input which should impact the overall ability to decompose and preserve soils in such environments.

  2. The use of chipped pruned branches to control the soil and water losses in citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Ritsema, Coen J.; Burguet, María

    2016-04-01

    three sites the soil erosion is reduced in one order of magnitude in average as a consequence of the cover of the chipped pruned branches (78.45 % in average cover) in comparison to the bare (control) soils. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S. 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18 (5), 881-888. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9869-6 Biswas H., Raizada A., Mandal D., Kumar S., Srinivas S., Mishra P. K. 2015. Identification of areas vulnerable to soil erosion risk in India using GIS methods. Solid Earth, 6 (4), pp. 1247-1257. DOI: 10. 5194/se-6-1247-2015v Brevik, E. C., Cerdà, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Pereg, L., Quinton, J. N., Six, J., and Van Oost, K.: The interdisciplinary nature of SOIL, SOIL, 1, 117-129, doi:10.5194/soil-1-117-2015, 2015. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. 2009.Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Colazo, J.C., Buschiazzo, D. 2015. The Impact of Agriculture on Soil Texture Due to Wind Erosion.Land Degradation and Development, 26 (1), 62-70 DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2297 Decock, C.,J. Lee, M. Necpalova, E. I. P. Pereira, D. M. Tendall, J. Six. 2015 Mitigating N2O emissions from soil: from patching leaks to transformative action. SOIL, 1, 687-694, doi:10

  3. Temperature response of soil respiration in a Chinese pine plantation: hysteresis and seasonal vs. diel Q10.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xin; Zha, Tianshan; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Wenjing; Wang, Xiaoping; Yu, Haiqun; He, Guimei

    2013-01-01

    Although the temperature response of soil respiration (Rs ) has been studied extensively, several issues remain unresolved, including hysteresis in the Rs -temperature relationship and differences in the long- vs. short-term Rs sensitivity to temperature. Progress on these issues will contribute to reduced uncertainties in carbon cycle modeling. We monitored soil CO2 efflux with an automated chamber system in a Pinus tabulaeformis plantation near Beijing throughout 2011. Soil temperature at 10-cm depth (Ts ) exerted a strong control over Rs , with the annual temperature sensitivity (Q10) and basal rate at 10°C (Rs10) being 2.76 and 1.40 µmol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Both Rs and short-term (i.e., daily) estimates of Rs10 showed pronounced seasonal hysteresis with respect to Ts , with the efflux in the second half of the year being larger than that early in the season for a given temperature. The hysteresis may be associated with the confounding effects of microbial population dynamics and/or litter input. As a result, all of the applied regression models failed to yield unbiased estimates of Rs over the entire annual cycle. Lags between Rs and Ts were observed at the diel scale in the early and late growing season, but not in summer. The seasonality in these lags may be due to the use of a single Ts measurement depth, which failed to represent seasonal changes in the depth of CO2 production. Daily estimates of Q10 averaged 2.04, smaller than the value obtained from the seasonal relationship. In addition, daily Q10 decreased with increasing Ts , which may contribute feedback to the climate system under global warming scenarios. The use of a fixed, universal Q10 is considered adequate when modeling annual carbon budgets across large spatial extents. In contrast, a seasonally-varying, environmentally-controlled Q10 should be used when short-term accuracy is required. PMID:23469089

  4. Temperature Response of Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation: Hysteresis and Seasonal vs. Diel Q10

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xin; Zha, Tianshan; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Wenjing; Wang, Xiaoping; Yu, Haiqun; He, Guimei

    2013-01-01

    Although the temperature response of soil respiration (Rs) has been studied extensively, several issues remain unresolved, including hysteresis in the Rs–temperature relationship and differences in the long- vs. short-term Rs sensitivity to temperature. Progress on these issues will contribute to reduced uncertainties in carbon cycle modeling. We monitored soil CO2 efflux with an automated chamber system in a Pinus tabulaeformis plantation near Beijing throughout 2011. Soil temperature at 10-cm depth (Ts) exerted a strong control over Rs, with the annual temperature sensitivity (Q10) and basal rate at 10°C (Rs10) being 2.76 and 1.40 µmol m−2 s−1, respectively. Both Rs and short-term (i.e., daily) estimates of Rs10 showed pronounced seasonal hysteresis with respect to Ts, with the efflux in the second half of the year being larger than that early in the season for a given temperature. The hysteresis may be associated with the confounding effects of microbial population dynamics and/or litter input. As a result, all of the applied regression models failed to yield unbiased estimates of Rs over the entire annual cycle. Lags between Rs and Ts were observed at the diel scale in the early and late growing season, but not in summer. The seasonality in these lags may be due to the use of a single Ts measurement depth, which failed to represent seasonal changes in the depth of CO2 production. Daily estimates of Q10 averaged 2.04, smaller than the value obtained from the seasonal relationship. In addition, daily Q10 decreased with increasing Ts, which may contribute feedback to the climate system under global warming scenarios. The use of a fixed, universal Q10 is considered adequate when modeling annual carbon budgets across large spatial extents. In contrast, a seasonally-varying, environmentally-controlled Q10 should be used when short-term accuracy is required. PMID:23469089

  5. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using 13C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems. PMID:25944542

  6. [Effect of afforestation modes on soil microbial community and nitrogen functional genes in Hippophae rhamnoides plantation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Jin-liana; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Yu, Ze-qun

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of different afforestation modes on microbial composition and nitrogen functional genes in soil. Soil samples from a pure Hippophae rhamnoides stand (SS) and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabuliformis (SY), H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB), H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC) were selected. The results showed that the total PLFA (TPLFA), bacterial PLFA, gram positive bacterial PLFA (G⁺PLFA) were significantly higher in soil samples from other three stands than those of the pure one. However, no significant difference was found for fungal PLFA among them. The abundance of nifH, amoA, nirK and narG genes were higher in SY and SC than in SS. The TPLFA, G⁺PLFA, gram negative bacterial PLFA (G⁻PLFA), and all of the detected gene abundance were significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available potassium. Afforestation modes affected indirectly soil microbial composition and functional genes through soil properties. Mixing P. tabuliformis or P. orientalis with H. rhamnoides might be suitable afforestation modes, which might improve soil quality. PMID:27111999

  7. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-05-05

    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using (13)C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems.

  8. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using (13)C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems. PMID:25944542

  9. Rice (Oryza sativa L) plantation affects the stability of biochar in paddy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Feng, Qibo; Sun, Xue; Wang, Hailong; Gielen, Gerty; Wu, Weixiang

    2015-05-01

    Conversion of rice straw into biochar for soil amendment appears to be a promising method to increase long-term carbon sequestration and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The stability of biochar in paddy soil, which is the major determining factor of carbon sequestration effect, depends mainly on soil properties and plant functions. However, the influence of plants on biochar stability in paddy soil remains unclear. In this study, bulk and surface characteristics of the biochars incubated without rice plants were compared with those incubated with rice plants using a suite of analytical techniques. Results showed that although rice plants had no significant influence on the bulk characteristics and decomposition rates of the biochar, the surface oxidation of biochar particles was enhanced by rice plants. Using 13C labeling we observed that rice plants could significantly increase carbon incorporation from biochar into soil microbial biomass. About 0.047% of the carbon in biochar was incorporated into the rice plants during the whole rice growing cycle. These results inferred that root exudates and transportation of biochar particles into rice plants might decrease the stability of biochar in paddy soil. Impact of plants should be considered when predicting carbon sequestration potential of biochar in soil systems.

  10. [Effect of afforestation modes on soil microbial community and nitrogen functional genes in Hippophae rhamnoides plantation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Dan; Yu, Xuan; Liu, Xu; Liu, Jin-liana; Zhang, Shun-xiang; Yu, Ze-qun

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of different afforestation modes on microbial composition and nitrogen functional genes in soil. Soil samples from a pure Hippophae rhamnoides stand (SS) and three mixed stands, namely, H. rhamnoides and Pinus tabuliformis (SY), H. rhamnoides and Platycladus orientalis (SB), H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseucdoacacia (SC) were selected. The results showed that the total PLFA (TPLFA), bacterial PLFA, gram positive bacterial PLFA (G⁺PLFA) were significantly higher in soil samples from other three stands than those of the pure one. However, no significant difference was found for fungal PLFA among them. The abundance of nifH, amoA, nirK and narG genes were higher in SY and SC than in SS. The TPLFA, G⁺PLFA, gram negative bacterial PLFA (G⁻PLFA), and all of the detected gene abundance were significantly and positively correlated with soil pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and available potassium. Afforestation modes affected indirectly soil microbial composition and functional genes through soil properties. Mixing P. tabuliformis or P. orientalis with H. rhamnoides might be suitable afforestation modes, which might improve soil quality.

  11. Land-use history and management intensity as drivers of spatial variability in soil greenhouse gas fluxes in a poplar bioenergy plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görres, Carolyn-Monika; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2014-05-01

    Bioenergy crops are considered to be carbon-neutral because biomass combustion releases only carbon which has previously been extracted from the atmosphere by the plants. However, during crop growth, a significant amount of the greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O can be produced by soil microorganisms and released to the atmosphere. Depending on crop type and management intensity, soil GHG fluxes might be so substantial that bioenergy crops could overall emit more GHG than the same amount of fossil fuels. The present knowledge about soil GHG fluxes from bioenergy crops is not sufficient to accurately quantify them. This is especially true for short rotation woody crops (SRWC) which might become more important in the future because they have a relatively high GHG mitigation potential. However, before pursuing the use of SRWC plantations for carbon sequestration and fossil fuel replacement, it is necessary to accurately assess their uptake and release of all major GHG to prevent the unconscious widespread deployment of unsustainable cultivation practices. The aim of this project is to identify drivers of spatial variability in soil GHG fluxes in a poplar SRWC plantation with special emphasis on the legacy effect of former land-use. The plantation has been established partly on former pasture and partly on former cropland, offering the unique opportunity to study soil GHG flux dynamics with respect to their dependency on former land-use type under identical climate and management conditions. The plantation is currently in its fifth vegetation season and in the first year of its third rotation. Simultaneous monitoring of soil CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes will take place with a custom-made automated chamber system throughout the entire third rotation (three years) accompanied by soil gas concentration profile measurements. In parallel, community composition of functional groups of soil microorganisms (denitrifiers, ammonia oxidizers, methanogens) and total soil microbial

  12. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed. PMID:26466886

  13. Reducing the infectivity and richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a calcareous Quercus ilex forest through soil preparations for truffle plantation establishment: A bioassay study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Barreda, Sergi; Molina-Grau, Sara; Reyna, Santiago

    2015-11-01

    In the early years of a black truffle plantation, the field proliferation of the nursery-inoculated fungi can be hampered by native ectomycorrhizal fungi colonising the seedling roots. Reducing the soil ectomycorrhizal infectivity in the planting hole before introducing the inoculated seedling could be an effective strategy to reduce this problem. Three bioassays were conducted to evaluate the impact of several soil preparations on the ectomycorrhizal infectivity and richness of a Quercus ilex soil in a truffle-producing region. Microwaves, quicklime, and acetic acid significantly decreased the percent root colonisation and morphotype richness of the native ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, they also decreased seedling survival or growth. Peracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite did not show a significant negative effect on the soil ectomycorrhizal community. The results support the potential of soil preparation for reducing the ectomycorrhizal infectivity of forest soils, thus being a promising strategy to reduce the early colonisation by native fungi in truffle plantations. However, the indications of damage to the seedling development must be addressed.

  14. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    PubMed

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P < 0.01). The unprotected soil organic carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) after 7-11 years' restoration but stabilized after 27 and 30 years of restoration. It suggested that soil organic carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration. PMID:24765840

  15. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    PubMed

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P < 0.01). The unprotected soil organic carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P < 0.05) after 7-11 years' restoration but stabilized after 27 and 30 years of restoration. It suggested that soil organic carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration.

  16. [Effects of Different Plantation Type on the Abundance and Diversity of Soil Microbes in Subtropical Red Soils].

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing-jie; Zhu, Zhen-ke; Yuan, Hong-zhao; Ge, Ti-da; Wang, Jiu-rong; Chen, Ming-li; Wu, Xiao-fu; Wu, Jin-shui

    2015-10-01

    Soil microbe plays an important role in carbon cycling, however, the effect of land use on soil microbe remain unclear. In present study, soil samples were collected from a long-term field experiment (Pantang Agroecosystem) in subtropical China (established in 1989), including paddy-rice (PR), upland-crop (UC), and paddy rice-upland crop rotation (PU) on soil bacterial (bacteria and Archaea) community structures. The effects of long-term different land uses were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. The abundance of soil microbial 16S rRNA genes ranged from 2.5 x 10(9)-1.5 x 10(10) copies x g(-1) dry soil. Compared with the PR, UP and UC led to a significant reduction in 16S rRNA genes abundance (P < 0.05). The soil microbial communities were dominated by bacteria such as Proteobacteria (76 and 90 and 327 bp; relative abundance of 47% - 53%) and Chloroflexi (65 bp; relative abundance of 10% - 12%). RDA statistical analyses demonstrated that there were significant differences in the microbial community composition in PR, UC, and PU treated soils. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content were the most highly statistically significant factors which positively influenced the soil microbial population. Taken together, our findings prove the long-term different land uses significantly influence the microbial diversity and community structure. The rice planting is an effective way of sustainable utilization of subtropical red soil, and it is more advantageous to the accumulation of soil organic matter, soil fertility and microbial diversity.

  17. [Effects of Different Plantation Type on the Abundance and Diversity of Soil Microbes in Subtropical Red Soils].

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing-jie; Zhu, Zhen-ke; Yuan, Hong-zhao; Ge, Ti-da; Wang, Jiu-rong; Chen, Ming-li; Wu, Xiao-fu; Wu, Jin-shui

    2015-10-01

    Soil microbe plays an important role in carbon cycling, however, the effect of land use on soil microbe remain unclear. In present study, soil samples were collected from a long-term field experiment (Pantang Agroecosystem) in subtropical China (established in 1989), including paddy-rice (PR), upland-crop (UC), and paddy rice-upland crop rotation (PU) on soil bacterial (bacteria and Archaea) community structures. The effects of long-term different land uses were determined using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) of the 16S rRNA gene. The abundance of soil microbial 16S rRNA genes ranged from 2.5 x 10(9)-1.5 x 10(10) copies x g(-1) dry soil. Compared with the PR, UP and UC led to a significant reduction in 16S rRNA genes abundance (P < 0.05). The soil microbial communities were dominated by bacteria such as Proteobacteria (76 and 90 and 327 bp; relative abundance of 47% - 53%) and Chloroflexi (65 bp; relative abundance of 10% - 12%). RDA statistical analyses demonstrated that there were significant differences in the microbial community composition in PR, UC, and PU treated soils. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content were the most highly statistically significant factors which positively influenced the soil microbial population. Taken together, our findings prove the long-term different land uses significantly influence the microbial diversity and community structure. The rice planting is an effective way of sustainable utilization of subtropical red soil, and it is more advantageous to the accumulation of soil organic matter, soil fertility and microbial diversity. PMID:26841620

  18. [Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Respiration in a Larch Plantation of North China at Different Sampling Scales].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun-xia; Liang, Ya-nan; Li, Hong-jian; Li, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations of soil respiration rate (Rs) and both biotic and abiotic factors in Pangquangou Nature Reserve at three sampling scales (4, 2, and 1 m), we studied the spatial heterogeneity of Rs and the factors, and analyzed impacts of soil temperature at the 5, 10 and 15 cm depth (T5, T10, T15), soil moisture over the depth of 0-10 cm (Ws), and soil total nitrogen (N), soil total organic carbon (C), ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N), soil total sulfur (S), litter fall mass (Lw) and litter fall moisture (Lm) on the spatial heterogeneity of Rs, respectively. We also calculated the minimum sampling number of all the factors at different confidence levels and under the responding estimation accuracy. The results showed that: (1) the spatial heterogeneity of C/N at 4 m sampling scale, Ws at 2 m sampling scale and T10, T15 at 1 m sampling scale had low variability, while the spatial variation of Rs and other related factors had medium variability. Coefficients of variation of Rs, C/N and S decreased with the increase of the sampling scales, but those of N, C, Ws, T₅, T₁₀, T₁₅, Lw and Lm showed contrary trend; (2) the spatial autocorrelation of Rs, Ws, T₅, T₁₀, T₁₅, Lw and Lm decreased with the decrease of sampling scales but the spatial autocorrelation of C, N, C/N increased with the decrease of sampling scales, and the spatial autocorrelation of S decreased with the decrease of the sampling scales at initial stage and then increased; (3) the key factors that influenced the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration were different at different sampling scales. Soil temperature was the key factor influencing the spatial heterogeneity of Rs at a larger scale. However, at a smaller scale, the spatial heterogeneity of Rs was influenced by C, Lw and Lm; (4) the minimum sampling number for soil respiration measurement and its influencing factors reduced greatly with the decrease of confidence level and responding estimation accuracy. The sampling

  19. [Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Respiration in a Larch Plantation of North China at Different Sampling Scales].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun-xia; Liang, Ya-nan; Li, Hong-jian; Li, Jun-jian

    2015-12-01

    Based on observations of soil respiration rate (Rs) and both biotic and abiotic factors in Pangquangou Nature Reserve at three sampling scales (4, 2, and 1 m), we studied the spatial heterogeneity of Rs and the factors, and analyzed impacts of soil temperature at the 5, 10 and 15 cm depth (T5, T10, T15), soil moisture over the depth of 0-10 cm (Ws), and soil total nitrogen (N), soil total organic carbon (C), ratio of carbon and nitrogen (C/N), soil total sulfur (S), litter fall mass (Lw) and litter fall moisture (Lm) on the spatial heterogeneity of Rs, respectively. We also calculated the minimum sampling number of all the factors at different confidence levels and under the responding estimation accuracy. The results showed that: (1) the spatial heterogeneity of C/N at 4 m sampling scale, Ws at 2 m sampling scale and T10, T15 at 1 m sampling scale had low variability, while the spatial variation of Rs and other related factors had medium variability. Coefficients of variation of Rs, C/N and S decreased with the increase of the sampling scales, but those of N, C, Ws, T₅, T₁₀, T₁₅, Lw and Lm showed contrary trend; (2) the spatial autocorrelation of Rs, Ws, T₅, T₁₀, T₁₅, Lw and Lm decreased with the decrease of sampling scales but the spatial autocorrelation of C, N, C/N increased with the decrease of sampling scales, and the spatial autocorrelation of S decreased with the decrease of the sampling scales at initial stage and then increased; (3) the key factors that influenced the spatial heterogeneity of soil respiration were different at different sampling scales. Soil temperature was the key factor influencing the spatial heterogeneity of Rs at a larger scale. However, at a smaller scale, the spatial heterogeneity of Rs was influenced by C, Lw and Lm; (4) the minimum sampling number for soil respiration measurement and its influencing factors reduced greatly with the decrease of confidence level and responding estimation accuracy. The sampling

  20. Simulated Nitrogen Deposition Reduces CH4 Uptake and Increases N2O Emission from a Subtropical Plantation Forest Soil in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongsheng; Cheng, Shulan; Fang, Huajun; Yu, Guirui; Xu, Minjie; Dang, Xusheng; Li, Linsen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies are conducted to quantify the effects of reduced ammonium (NH4+) and oxidized nitrate (NO3−) on soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission in the subtropical forests. In this study, NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers were applied at three rates: 0, 40 and 120 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined twice a week using the static chamber technique and gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture were simultaneously measured. Soil dissolved N concentration in 0–20 cm depth was measured weekly to examine the regulation to soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. Our results showed that one year of N addition did not affect soil temperature, soil moisture, soil total dissolved N (TDN) and NH4+-N concentrations, but high levels of applied NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers significantly increased soil NO3−-N concentration by 124% and 157%, respectively. Nitrogen addition tended to inhibit soil CH4 uptake, but significantly promoted soil N2O emission by 403% to 762%. Furthermore, NH4+-N fertilizer application had a stronger inhibition to soil CH4 uptake and a stronger promotion to soil N2O emission than NO3−-N application. Also, both soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were driven by soil temperature and moisture, but soil inorganic N availability was a key integrator of soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission. These results suggest that the subtropical plantation soil sensitively responses to atmospheric N deposition, and inorganic N rather than organic N is the regulator to soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission. PMID:24714387

  1. Simulated nitrogen deposition reduces CH4 uptake and increases N2O emission from a subtropical plantation forest soil in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongsheng; Cheng, Shulan; Fang, Huajun; Yu, Guirui; Xu, Minjie; Dang, Xusheng; Li, Linsen; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    To date, few studies are conducted to quantify the effects of reduced ammonium (NH4+) and oxidized nitrate (NO3-) on soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission in the subtropical forests. In this study, NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers were applied at three rates: 0, 40 and 120 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined twice a week using the static chamber technique and gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture were simultaneously measured. Soil dissolved N concentration in 0-20 cm depth was measured weekly to examine the regulation to soil CH4 and N2O fluxes. Our results showed that one year of N addition did not affect soil temperature, soil moisture, soil total dissolved N (TDN) and NH4+-N concentrations, but high levels of applied NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers significantly increased soil NO3(-)-N concentration by 124% and 157%, respectively. Nitrogen addition tended to inhibit soil CH4 uptake, but significantly promoted soil N2O emission by 403% to 762%. Furthermore, NH4+-N fertilizer application had a stronger inhibition to soil CH4 uptake and a stronger promotion to soil N2O emission than NO3(-)-N application. Also, both soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were driven by soil temperature and moisture, but soil inorganic N availability was a key integrator of soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission. These results suggest that the subtropical plantation soil sensitively responses to atmospheric N deposition, and inorganic N rather than organic N is the regulator to soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission.

  2. [Changes in soil organic carbon and soil microbial functional diversity of Carya cathayensis plantations under intensive managements].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Sen; Qian, Jin-Fang; Tong, Zhi-Peng; Huang, Jian-Qin; Zhao, Ke-Li

    2014-09-01

    The change characteristics of soil organic carbon and microbial function diversity in Chinese hickory Carya cathayensis stands with different intensive-management durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 years) were studied. The results showed that soil total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) decreased significantly, while the stability of soil C pool increased significantly after the conversion from evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest to intensively-managed forest (IMF). TOC, MBC and WSOC in the hickory forest soil decreased by 28.4%, 34.1% and 53.3% with 5-year intensive management, and by 38.6%, 48.9% and 64.1% with 20-year intensive management, respectively. The proportions of carboxyl C, phenolic C and aromatic C in the hickory forest soil all increased significantly, and the aromaticity of soil organic C increased by 23.0%. Soil microbial functional diversity decreased greatly af- ter intensive management of Chinese hickory forest. Significant differences in average well color development (AWCD) were found between the 0- and 5-year treatments and the 10-, 15- and 20- year treatments. The microbial diversity indexes (H) and evenness indexes (E) in the 0- and 5-year treatments were much greater than in the 10- and 20-year treatments. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations among soil TOC, WSOC, MBC, AWCD, H and E.

  3. Humus characteristics and seasonal changes of soil arthropod communities in a natural sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Meric; Makineci, Ender

    2013-11-01

    In order to assess the effects of conversion of natural stands into plantations, soil invertebrate micro- and macroarthropod communities were evaluated for their abundance and richness in a sessile oak (SO; Quercus petraea L.) stand and adjacent Austrian pine (AP; Pinus nigra Arnold) plantation. Sites were sampled four times a year in 3-month intervals from May 2009 to February 2010. Humus characteristics such as total mass; carbon, lignin, and cellulose contents; and C/N ratio were significantly different between SO and AP. Statistically significant differences were detected on soil pH, carbon and nitrogen contents, and electrical conductivity between the two sites. The number of microarthropods was higher in AP than in the SO site. The annual mean abundance values of microarthropods in a square meter were 67,763 in AP and 50,542 in SO, and the annual mean abundance values of macroarthropods were 921 m(-2) in AP and 427 m(-2) in SO. Among the soil microarthropods, Acari and Collembola were the dominant groups. Shannon's diversity index was more affected by evenness than species number despite the species diversity (H') of soil arthropods being generally higher in the SO stand. The abundance of microarthropods showed clear seasonal trends depending upon the humidity of the soil.

  4. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuaifeng; Su, Jianrong; Liu, Wande; Lang, Xuedong; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Chengxinzhuo; Zhang, Zhijun; Tong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF) in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m). The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1) with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m) contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded.

  5. Changes in Biomass Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon Stocks following the Conversion from a Secondary Coniferous Forest to a Pine Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuaifeng; Su, Jianrong; Liu, Wande; Lang, Xuedong; Huang, Xiaobo; Jia, Chengxinzhuo; Zhang, Zhijun; Tong, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF) in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0–1 m). The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-year-old stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1) with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0–0.1 m) contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded. PMID:26397366

  6. Soil CO2, N2O and Nox Flux Responses to Biofuel Crop Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, L.; Eberwein, J.; Allsman, L.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, D.

    2014-12-01

    Biofuel crops in high temperature environments, e.g, sorghum in southern California, USA, have a high capacity to assimilate atmospheric CO2. Photosynthates from the canopy may provide extra labile carbon source to feed soil microorganisms and influence trace gas fluxes, including CO2, N2O and NOx. Understanding how soil microorganisms balance the carbon (energy) and nitrogen (nutrients) allocation between growing microbial biomass and respiration is critical for evaluating the GHG emissions and emissions of regional air quality pollutants. We conducted experiments in a high temperature agroecosystem both in fallow and sorghum production fields with an experimental nitrogen gradient (0,50 and 100 kg/ha, marked as control, low and high with triplicate repeat) to investigate the CO2, N2O and NOx flux responses. All gas fluxes were measured simultaneously from three replicate locations for each treatment in the field biweekly. Measurements were performed 2-5 days after irrigation. We found that planting sorghum has significant effects on soil CO2 (p<0.0001), N2O (p<0.0001) and NOx (p=0.04) fluxes, but nitrogen amendments only have marginally significant effects on CO2 flux (p=0.07). Surprisingly, no significant response of N2O (p=0.27) and NOx (p=0.61) were observed in responses to N amendments. Compared to the fallow field, the CO2 flux in sorghum field increased 77%, 134% and 202% in control, low and high N level amendments, respectively. N2O flux from the sorghum field are consistently higher than from fallow field, with 207%, 174% and 1064% increase in control, low and high N level amendments, respectively. For the NOx flux, no significant difference was found between fallow and sorghum field. Although nitrogen amendments did not show significant effects on CO2, N2O and NOx flux, the high N treatment in sorghum field continuously gains the highest flux rates. Our results suggested additional C inputs may be an important factor regulating CO2, N2O and NOx fluxes in

  7. The hydrochemistry of plantation spruce forest catchments with brown earth soils, Vyrnwy in mid-Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C.; Reynolds, B.; Neal, M.; Williams, B.

    At Vyrnwy, in mid-Wales, a study of the hydrogeochemistry of two small spruce forested catchments, one a control and one felled midway through the study, shows a classic picture of rainfall inputs damped by the catchment and stream waters the chemistry of which varies as functions of flow and particularly of the supply of more acidic and aluminium-bearing soil water and of more basic and calcic ground waters from the zone where weathering reactions with the bedrock are high. The ground waters are most alkaline although pH may be depressed due to high dissolved carbon dioxide pressures. Nitrate concentrations increase in the first year after felling and decrease thereafter below those of the control. Water quality changes due to the dominant hydrogeochemical processes show that harvesting raises no significant water quality management issues.

  8. Seasonal fluctuation of different edaphic microarthropod population densities in relation to soil moisture and temperature in a pine, Pinus kesiya Royle plantation ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Vikram

    1984-03-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of soil and litter microarthropod populations in a pine, Pinus kesiya Royle plantation of North Eastern India were investigated between November 1976 and November 1977. Three major groups were recognized: (a) Collembola, (b) Acarina and (c) miscellaneous. Collembola was the most abundant group and was dominated by Isotoma trispinata (MacGillivray). The total microarthropod density ranged from 26,800 per m2 to 145,200 per m2. Collembola densities ranged from 10,000 to 121,200 per m2, Acarina densities ranged from 8,800 to 41,600 per m2, and the miscellaneous group ranged from 1,200 to 6,400 per m2. Soil moisture was positively correlated with total arthropod, Collembola and Acarina densities. Soil temperature was positively correlated only with Acarina. Densities of Collembola and Acarina were negatively correlated.

  9. Changes in plant-soil feedback regulate ecosystem nitrogen retention during stand development of Japanese cedar plantation after clear-cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, K.; Tateno, R.; Katsuyama, M.; Tokuchi, N.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have documented the impacts of forest clear-cutting on nitrogen (N) cycling and retention, and most of them reported a large loss of N (mainly NO3--N) after cutting. However, the recovery process of N dynamics after clear-cutting and subsequent afforestation has been unclear. It is well known that internal N cycling creates ecosystem feedback between plant productivity (i.e. N uptake rate and nitrogen use efficiency) and soil N availability (i.e. soil N transformation rate and microorganism activities). Therefore, we focused on the relationship between hydrological N loss and internal N cycling during development of monoculture Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stands. In our study site, stand age of planted trees is even within a watershed, but is various among watersheds. The use of these watersheds as chronosequence can help to isolate the effects of stand development processes after clear-cutting. We aimed to elucidate the factors regulating ecosystem N retention during forest development after clear-cutting. Our study site is located in Nara Prefecture, central Japan, which received 2,900 mm precipitation in annual means and 13 - 14 kg N ha-1 year-1 as mean bulk N deposition (2004-2007). Stream NO3- concentration, annual N export, litterfall, plant N uptake, soil N availability and transformation rates, carbon (C) and N content in forest-floor, mineral soil, and soil microbial biomass were examined in 1-, 6-, 17-, 32-, 43,- and 90-year-old-stand watersheds. After clear-cutting, early growth of Japanese cedar seedlings can be supported by higher soil N availability, resulting from enhanced decomposition processes by canopy opening. Thereafter in the 32-year-old stand, we found that the crucial increase in newly supplied litterfall on the forest floor can enhance N immobilization by C-limited soil microbes and decrease soil N availability, which can trigger a decline in net primary production and the increase in nitrogen use

  10. Effect of O horizon and Forest Harvest Residue Manipulations on Soil Organic Matter Content and Composition of a Loblolly Pine Plantation in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatten, J.; Mack, J.; Dewey, J.; Sucre, E.; Leggett, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Forest harvest residues and forest floor materials are significant sources of mineral soil organic matter and nutrients for regenerating and establishing forests. Harvest residues in particular are occasionally removed, piled, or burned following harvesting. While the forest floor is never purposely removed during operational harvesting and site preparation, they could become in high demand as bioenergy markets develop. Weyerhaeuser Company established an experimental study to evaluate the effect of forest-floor manipulation on site productivity and soil carbon. This study was installed in a loblolly pine plantation near Millport, Alabama, USA on the Upper Gulf Coastal Plain to test both extremes from complete removal of harvest residues and forest floor to doubling of these materials. This study has been continuously monitored since its establishment in 1994. We have examined the effects of varying forest floor levels on the biomass, soil carbon content, and soil carbon composition in the context of these management activities. Above- and below-ground productivity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and nutrient dynamics have been related to soil organic carbon in mineral soil size/density fractionation and lignin and cutin biomarkers from the cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation technique. We have found that while removing litter and harvest residues has little effect on biomass production and soil carbon, importing litter and harvest residues increases forest productivity and soil carbon content. Interestingly, increased carbon was observed in all depths assessed (O horizon, 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60cm) suggesting that this practice may sequester organic carbon in deep soil horizons. Our biomarker analysis indicated that importing litter and harvest residues increased relative contributions from above ground sources at the 20-40cm depth and increased relative contributions from belowground sources at the 40-60cm depth. These results suggest that organic matter manipulations

  11. Ecosystem-based greenhouse budgets in oil palm plantations differ with plantation age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Hassler, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; June, Tania; Veldkamp, Edzo; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Global increase in demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia. Oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia, together with those in Kalimantan, are responsible for half of the world's palm oil production. Available studies point to plantations being large carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks due to the high photosynthetic rates of oil palm as a result of high fertilizer inputs, especially in large-scale plantations. However, methane (CH4) uptake in the soil of oil palm plantations is reduced and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions increased right after nitrogen (N) fertilization. Greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets at the ecosystem level are still missing, and the few available information was derived from mature plantations, pointing to a lack of knowledge on the changes of these GHG budgets with plantation age. With the aim of quantifying CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2-year old (non-productive) oil palm plantation and was subsequently moved to a 12-year old (productive) plantation. Both sites were on Acrisol soils and were located in Jambi province, Sumatra. Chamber-based measurements of soil GHG fluxes were also carried out along the EC footprint. Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), based on EC measurement, showed that the non-productive plantation was a strong CO2 source (990 g C m-2 yr-1) whereas the productive plantation was a CO2 sink (-790 g C m-2 yr-1). For CH4 fluxes, both plantations showed similar soil CH4 uptake that led to a small carbon sink of (~1.3 g C m-2 yr-1). Soil N2O fluxes were high in the productive plantation (3.26 ± 1.73 kg N ha-1 yr-1), as measurements were carried out in a plantation with high fertilization rates. In the non-productive plantation, soil N2O fluxes were lower and were associated with fertilization events. Our results show that the global warming potential of a non-productive oil

  12. Soil processes evolved by the establishment of tree plantations on croplands/grasslands - evaluation of afforestation effect on the Great Plain (Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, Kitti; Szabó, András; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Tóth, Tibor

    2016-04-01

    In Hungary, there was a great increase in the acreage of forested areas during the last century (1.1 to 1.8 million ha). Most of the plantations were established on non-profitable grasslands/croplands (National Forest Strategy, 2009). The forests affect hydrologic and climatic elements of the physical habitat and induce alterations in the soil properties, as well. Soil and groundwater of 70 plantations (Poplar, Common oak and Black locust) and nearby control plots (grassland/cropland) - representing former land use - were investigated over the Great Hungarian Plain. Sampling sites were located by a gradient of climatic water balance, initial water table depth and salinity, soil layering, tree species and plantation age. Short- and long-term effects in groundwater levels (GWL) were found under the woody vegetation. GWL depression evolved beneath forests (poplar and oak provably) compared to control, in 78.8% of the cases. GWL depression was the most significant in the growing season, then the difference between GWLs decreased. Since evapotranspiration (ET) is the main driving force for water consumption of trees, and the ET of trees can be three times higher than that of the grassy control in the growing season, greater (ground)water uptake could be measured, giving rise to higher GWL depression. Short-term effect of the plantation was the daily fluctuation of GWL in the woods that can be twice as much as that of the control. Water uptake is influenced by the type of the groundwater zone (recharge/discharge), where the sample area is located, and by tree species (diverse water demands). Afforestation raised the salt content of the groundwater slightly. In 52.9 % of the cases, salt content of groundwater was higher under the forest, than under the control. Below the forests, salts concentrated in the soil profile and formed a salt accumulation zone surrounding the root zone. In 52.9 % of the cases, salts accumulated in the profile: in the subsoil under the trees (3

  13. Natural vegetation restoration is more beneficial to soil surface organic and inorganic carbon sequestration than tree plantation on the Loess Plateau of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Dong, Yunshe; Wang, Yunqiang; Wei, Xiaorong; Wang, Yafeng; Cui, Buli; Zhou, Weijian

    2014-07-01

    Natural vegetation restoration and tree plantation are the two most important measures for ecosystem restoration on the Loess Plateau of China. However, few studies have compared the effects of the two contrasting measures on soil organic and inorganic carbon (SOC and SIC) sequestration or have further used SOC and SIC isotopes to analyze the inherent sequestration mechanism. This study examined a pair of neighboring small watersheds with similar topographical and geological backgrounds. Since 1954, natural vegetation restoration has been conducted in one of these watersheds, and tree plantation has been conducted in the other. The two watersheds have now formed completely different landscapes (naturally restored grassland and artificial forestland). Differences in soil bulk density, SOC and SIC content and storage, and SOC and SIC δ(13)C values were investigated in the two ecosystems in the upper 1m of the soil. We found that SOC storage was higher in the grassland than in the forestland, with a difference of 14.90 Mg ha(-1). The vertical changes in the δ(13)CSOC value demonstrated that the two ecosystems have different mechanisms of soil surface organic carbon accumulation. The SIC storage in the grassland was lower than that in the forestland, with a difference of 38.99 Mg ha(-1). The δ(13)CSIC values indicated that the grassland generates more secondary carbonate than the forestland and that SIC was most likely transported to the rivers from the grassland as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The biogeochemical characteristics of the grassland were favorable for the formation of bicarbonate. Thus, more DIC derived from the dissolution of root and microbial respired CO2 into soil water could have been transported to the rivers through flood runoff. It is necessary to study further the transportation of DIC from the grassland because this process can produce a large potential carbon sink.

  14. [Effects of litterfall and root input on soil physical and chemical properties in Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China].

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Gai; Huang, Zhi-Lin; Cheng, Rui-Mei; Zeng, Li-Xiong; Xiao, Wen-Fa; Tan, Ben-Wang

    2012-12-01

    An investigation was made on the soil physical and chemical properties in different-aged Pinus massoniana plantations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area under effects of litterfall and roots. The annual litter production in mature stand was 19.4% and 65.7% higher than that in nearly mature and middle-aged stands, respectively. The litter standing amount was in the sequence of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, while the litter turnover coefficient was in the order of nearly mature stand (0.51) > mature stand (0.40) > middle-aged stand (0.36). The total root biomass, live root biomass, and dead root biomass were the highest in middle-aged stand, and the lowest in nearly mature stand. In middle-aged stand, soil total porosity was the highest, and soil bulk density was the lowest. Soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents were in the order of mature stand > middle-aged stand > nearly mature stand, soil nitrate nitrogen occupied a larger proportion of soil mineral N in nearly mature stand, while ammonium nitrogen accounted more in middle-aged and mature stands. In nearly mature stand, litter production was moderate but turnover coefficient was the highest, and soil nutrient contents were the lowest. In middle-aged stand, root biomass and soil total porosity were the highest, and soil bulk density were the lowest. In mature stand, root biomass was lower while soil nutrient contents were the highest. The increase of root biomass could improve soil physical properties. PMID:23479870

  15. Recovery of a soil degraded by deep excavation using plantation of tree species and a cellulose by-product as amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimarães Giácomo, Rômulo; Alves, Marlene Cristina; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Organic by-products obtained from the cellulose industry have been used as costs effective fertilizers in agricultural and forest soils and also as amendments for recovery of abandoned land. The construction of a power plant in the Paraná River (Brazil) motivates the deep excavation of a soil profile under native forest. Once exposed, the saprolite beneath the natural soil was abandoned, without any reclamation measure. The land left after engineering works was a harsh environment, where secondary vegetation hardly or not at all recovered. The objective of this study was to tests the efficiency of recycling a composted product obtained from cellulose waste to reclaim the abandoned saprolite material. A field trial was carried out following a classical split-split plot experimental design. In this design plantations plantations of Eucalyptus urograndis (a hybrid Eucalyptus species, considered here as exotic) and Mabea fistulifera (a native species) were the main plots. Within each main plot, subplots were six fertilizer treatments including an external control treatment, without any intervention, a control treatment, without fertilization, a mineral fertilizer treatment and three treatments amended with compost from cellulose applied at the rates of 10, 15 and 20 Mg ha-1. There were four replications per treatment. The recovery of the soil profile under the different treatments studied was assessed by indices obtained from analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Variables such as tree species development, litter and plant debris fall, return of nutrients from vegetation to soil and epigeal fauna were also characterized. Increasing dose of amendment with cellulose by-product showed a trend to improve water infiltration and soil resistance to penetration. Treatment with 20 Mg ha-1of cellulose compost showed the highest nutrient availability, but also exhibited an important increase in soil pH. The greatest development of planted trees was recorded in the

  16. Hydraulic Redistribution of Soil Water in a Drained Loblolly Pine Plantation: Quantifying Patterns and Controls over Soil-to-Root and Canopy-to-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domec, J.; Noormets, A.; King, J. S.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Gavazzi, M. J.; Strickland, S.; Boggs, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The conversion of wetlands to intensively managed forest lands in eastern North Carolina is widespread and the consequences on water and carbon balances are not well studied. Quantification of evapotranspiration (ET), tree transpiration and their biophysical regulation are needed for assessing forest water management options. We characterized vertical variation in the diurnal and seasonal soil volumetric water content at 10 cm intervals to evaluate changes in water availability for root uptake and monitored eddy covariance ET and tree transpiration (sap flux) in a drained Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation. We also quantified the magnitude of hydraulic redistribution (HR), the passive movement of soil water from deep to shallow roots, to identify factors affecting the seasonal dynamics of root water uptake, root and plant water potentials and stomatal conductance. Soil water content varied with soil depth and total water use from the upper 1m peaked between 4 and 6.5 mm/day during the growing season and was strongly correlated and similar to ET (ET represented 90-95% of total water depletion). After periods of more than 10 days without rain, water extraction shifted to the deeper layers, and recharge from HR approached 0.5 mm/day in the upper 60 cm. However, the upper 30cm accounted for 40% of total water depletion from the upper 1m at peak water uptake (>4 mm/day), and increased to 65% during days of low water uptake (<2 mm/day), illustrating the contribution of deeper roots to water uptake during days of high evaporative demand. This result was supported by the fact that deep roots (from 30-50cm) accounted for 65% of the total water redistributed. Because of stomatal regulation to prevent water potentials from reaching critical values that would cause significant loss of tree hydraulic conductivity, maximum tree transpiration during high evaporative demand remained constant at around 3 mm/day. Tree transpiration represented on average 60% of ET. However

  17. Change in lignin content during litter decomposition in tropical forest soils (Congo): comparison of exotic plantations and native stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhard-Reversat, France; Schwartz, Dominique

    1997-09-01

    Fast-growing tree plantations are being extended in tropical countries resulting in new forest ecosystems, the functioning of which is yet not well known. In particular, few data are available concerning lignin decay rate. Lignin, nitrogen and tannin contents of fresh and decaying litter were measured in natural rain forest and in planted stands of Eucalyptus hybrids. Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformisin Congo, together with litter-fall and forest-floor accumulation. Lignin evolution in aging litter exhibited different patterns. Lignin was accumulated under Eucalyptus plantation, but disappeared under natural forest, and was intermediate under Acaciaplantations. The relationships with decomposition rates and lignin degradation factors, such as white rot fungi and termites, are also discussed.

  18. Residue determination and levels of glyphosate in surface waters, sediments and soils associated with oil palm plantation in Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana-Jansar, K.; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    Levels of glyphosate and its main metabolite were determined in surface water, soil and sediment samples from an oil palm plantation area located at Tasik Chini, Pahang, Malaysia. The optimization analytical method has been developed for the determination of glyphosate herbicide and its metabolite amino-methyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA) in surface waters to a level of 0.1μg/L, while in sediments and soils to a level of 0.5μg/g with a good linearity in the calibration range of 1-100μg/L. The procedure involves a pre-columnderivatization step with 9-fluorenyl-methyl-chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) yielding highly fluorescent derivatives of the analytes which can be determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. In the field, levels of glyphosate in surface waters ranges from not detected to 1.0mg/L, while in soils and sediments were from not detected to 6.0mg/kg. For AMPA, the residues in surface waters were between not detected to 2.0mg/L, while in soil and sediment samples were from not detected to 5mg/kg. This variation of glyphosate and AMPA levels depended directly on time of pesticide application and the season.

  19. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    PubMed

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased. PMID:25485934

  20. The influence of liming on soil chemical properties and on the alleviation of manganese and copper toxicity in Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations.

    PubMed

    Chatzistathis, T; Alifragis, D; Papaioannou, A

    2015-03-01

    Juglans regia, Robinia pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus sp. plantations, suffering from Mn and Cu toxicity, were limed in order to reduce Cu and Mn solubility in soil. The purposes of the present work were: i) to study the changes in soil chemical properties after the addition of CaCO3, ii) to investigate the influence of liming on the reduction of Mn and Cu toxicity. After the addition of CaCO3 (three applications, during three successive years), pH and CaCO3 content were significantly increased, while organic C and N were significantly reduced. Exchangeable Ca concentrations have been slightly, or significantly, increased, while those of Mg have been decreased; in addition, ratios Ca/Mg and C/N have been significantly increased after liming. Impressive reductions of DTPA extractable Cu and Mn concentrations (more than 10 times in most cases) were recorded. It was also found that trees without Mn and Cu toxicity symptoms (healthy tress) before liming did not have, in many cases, significantly greater leaf Mn, Cu and Fe concentrations, than trees after soil liming (all the trees were healthy). This probably happened because excess Mn and Cu quantities had been accumulated into their root system. Finally, leaf Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations of trees suffering from toxicity were significantly decreased after soil liming, while leaf Fe concentrations, in all the plant species studied, were increased.

  1. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wenjie; He, Xingyuan; Zhang, Wentian; Song, Kaishan; Han, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and bulk density) and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements). Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05). The primary forest had a 2.35–2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C–H, C–O, and O–H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N) in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05). However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes. PMID:26430896

  2. Role and Variation of the Amount and Composition of Glomalin in Soil Properties in Farmland and Adjacent Plantations with Reference to a Primary Forest in North-Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wenjie; He, Xingyuan; Zhang, Wentian; Song, Kaishan; Han, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein known as glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) is abundantly produced on the hyphae and spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in soil and roots. Few studies have focused on its amount, composition and associations with soil properties and possible land-use influences, although the data hints at soil rehabilitation. By choosing a primary forest soil as a non-degraded reference, it is possible to explore whether afforestation can improve degraded farmland soil by altering GRSP. In this paper, close correlations were found between various soil properties (soil organic carbon, nitrogen, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and bulk density) and the GRSP amount, between various soil properties and GRSP composition (main functional groups, fluorescent substances, and elements). Afforestation on farmland decreased the EC and bulk density (p < 0.05). The primary forest had a 2.35-2.56-fold higher GRSP amount than those in the plantation forest and farmland, and GRSP composition (tryptophan-like and fulvic acid-like fluorescence; functional groups of C-H, C-O, and O-H; elements of Al, O, Si, C, Ca, and N) in primary forest differed from those in plantation forest and farmland (p < 0.05). However, no evident differences in GRSP amount and composition were observed between the farmland and the plantation forest. Our finding highlights that 30 years poplar afforestation on degraded farmland is not enough to change GRSP-related properties. A longer period of afforestation with close-to-nature managements may favor the AMF-related underground recovery processes.

  3. Soil CO2 Efflux and Its Components Responded Differently to Throughfall Exclusion and Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Luedtke, C.; Akers, K.; McGuire, M.; Aubrey, D. P.; Teskey, R. O.

    2014-12-01

    Soil CO2 efflux (RS) is an important component of forest ecosystem carbon budgets and net ecosystem CO2 exchange, but little is known about how RS and its components respond to decreasing soil moisture and changes in soil fertility. The experiment design was a 2 X 2 factorial combination of fertilization (2 levels) and precipitation (throughfall exclusion, 2 levels) replicated in four blocks. We measured RS along with soil temperature (Ts) and soil moisture (WS) from 2012 to 2014 in a loblolly pine plantation in Washington, GA. The autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic (RH) components of soil CO2 efflux were separated using trenched plots. Our objectives were to (1) quantify impacts of throughfall exclusion and fertilization on RS and its components (RA, RH).and (2) determine soil CO2efflux and its components individually response to environmental factors and biological factors in throughfall exclusion and fertilization treatments. Annual mean RS was 2.11, 1.73, 2.09 and 1.92 for treatments of control, fertilization, throughfall exclusion and combination of fertilization and throughfall exclusion, respectively, from 2012 to 2013. The apparent Q10 for RS was 2.26, 2.25, 2.12 and 2.35 in the four treatments, respectively. There were no significant differences in RS among treatments except between the Ws treatments. However, there was slight reduction in RS and RA in fertilization and the fertilization plus throughfall exclusion treatment. In all treaments, Ts explained more than 80% of variation in RS. The contribution of CO2-derived from ectomycorrhizal hyphae was less than 15%. RS and RH was better predicted by TS in the dormant season than the growing season, indicating that additional factors such as root growth and photosynthesis became more important contributors to RS during the growing season. Fertilization slightly decreased RS mainly from a decrease in RH. Throughfall exclusion increased the contribution of RA to RS. We concluded that soil moisture had more

  4. Distinct bacterial community structure of 3 tropical volcanic soils from banana plantations contaminated with chlordecone in Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Mercier, Anne; Dictor, Marie-Christine; Harris-Hellal, Jennifer; Breeze, Dominique; Mouvet, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    In the French West Indies (FWI), the soil, andosols, ferralsols and nitisols, is highly polluted by chlordecone, although this organochlorine insecticide extensively applied to banana crops has been banned for 20years. This contamination has led to a major human health concern inducing the need for remediation of the contaminated soils. Work was conducted to help to evaluate the impact of remediation processes on the microbial communities from these soils. Microbial biomass was estimated after direct DNA extraction from three chlordecone-contaminated soils (an andosol, a ferralsol and a nitisol) and the bacterial community analyzed using t-RFLP. The FWI volcanic andosol was particularly recalcitrant to usual direct DNA extraction protocols hampering analysis of soil microbial communities until now, in contrast with the 2 other soils. For the first time, DNA was directly extracted from a FWI andosol based on yeast RNA addition at the lysis step. Differences in microbial biomass were thus observed between the 3 FWI soils. Moreover, the bacterial community structure was significantly distinct from each other's and related to soil physico-chemical characteristics. Interestingly, differences in bacterial diversity could not be exclusively attributed to the level of chlordecone contamination.

  5. Degradation of Triazine-2-14C Metsulfuron–Methyl in Soil from an Oil Palm Plantation

    PubMed Central

    B. S., Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Triazine-2-14C metsulfuron–methyl is a selective, systemic sulfonylurea herbicide. Degradation studies in soils are essential for the evaluation of the persistence of pesticides and their breakdown products. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degradation of triazine-2-14C metsulfuron–methyl in soil under laboratory conditions. A High Performance Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC) equipped with an UV detector and an on-line radio-chemical detector, plus a Supelco Discovery column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 μm), and PRP–1 column (305 x 7.0 mm, 10 μm) was used for the HPLC analysis. The radioactivity was determined by a Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) in scintillation fluid. The soil used was both sterilized and non-sterilized in order to observe the involvement of soil microbes. The estimated DT50 and DT90 values of metsulfuron-methyl in a non-sterile system were observed to be 13 and 44 days, whereas in sterilized soil, the DT50 and DT90 were 31 and 70 days, respectively. The principal degradation product after 60 days was CO2. The higher cumulative amount of 14CO2 in 14C- triazine in the non-sterilized soil compared to that in the sterile system suggests that biological degradation by soil micro-organisms significantly contributes to the dissipation of the compound. The major routes of degradation were O-demethylation, sulfonylurea bridge cleavage and the triazine “ring-opened.” PMID:26437264

  6. Hemipteran diversity in Endau-Rompin plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, Asraf; Rahim, Faszly

    2015-09-01

    Study on hemipteran at Endau Rompin Plantation (LER), Pahang was conducted at oil palm plantation planted at different type of soils. The aim of the study was to determine hemipteran diversity in oil palm ecosystem. Sampling was done from April 2012 to September 2012 by using Malaise and impact traps. Cicadellidae was the most abundance and dominance family with 105 individuals and 6 species (=morphospecies) recorded. The rarefaction curve becomes flatter to the right indicating a reasonable number of individual samples have been taken. Peat area show high Shannon index and Margalef index values compared to clay area.There were significant differences in hemipteran community between three type of soils (χ2=98.751,df=58,p<0.05). As such, hemipteran abundance in oil palm plantation is affected by the type of soil.

  7. Impact of copper application on soil metabolism, energy budget and formation of stable aggregates by anecic earthworm in tea plantations.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Aliva

    2002-02-01

    The preparation of daily energy budget of earth worm Lampito mauritii showed (i) decrease in consumption by about 66%, (ii) decrease of egestion 97%, (iii) decrease in growth by 80%, and (iv) enhancement in maintenance cost by about 31.5% on exposure to 8 ppm copper in comparison to zero level exposure. The stable aggregate formations also decreased by 67.6% at 8 ppm copper as compared to zero level exposure. Two way ANOVA showed significant decrease in stable aggregate formation and biomass at 5% level of significance on exposure to 8 ppm copper. The soil metabolism also increased under the negative impact of copper. PMID:12622187

  8. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthetic responses are related to intensity of root severance and soil moisture conditions in the plantation tree Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Zhang, Sheng; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-07-01

    We employed the warm temperate conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. as a model of plantation forest species to investigate ecophysiological responses to root treatments (control (0%), and ∼25, 50 or 75% of the initial root mass) under well-watered and water-limited conditions. Our results indicated that total root dry mass accumulation was negatively associated with the severity of root pruning, but there was evidence of multiple compensatory responses. The plants exhibited higher instantaneous and long-term (assessed by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C) water-use efficiency in pruning treatments, especially under low water availability. Root pruning also increased the fine root/total root mass ratio, specific root length and fine root vitality in both water availability treatments. As a result of the compensatory responses, under well-watered conditions, height, stem dry mass accumulation, leaf/fine root biomass ratio (L/FR), transpiration rate, photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (EN) were the highest under 25% pruning. Yet, all these traits except L/FR and foliage nitrogen content were severely reduced under 75% pruning. Drought negatively affected growth and leaf gas exchange rates, and there was a greater negative effect on growth, water potential, gas exchange and EN when >25% of total root biomass was removed. The stem/aboveground mass ratio was the highest under 25% pruning in both watering conditions. These results indicate that the responses to root severance are related to the excision intensity and soil moisture content. A moderate root pruning proved to be an effective means to improve stem dry mass accumulation. PMID:27122365

  9. Uptake and Hydraulic Redistribution of Soil Water in a Natural Forested Wetland and in two Contrasting Drained Loblolly Pine Plantations: Quantifying Patterns over Soil-to-Root and Canopy-to-Atmosphere Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domec, J.; King, J. S.; Noormets, A.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Gavazzi, M. G.; Treasure, E.; Boggs, J. L.

    2009-05-01

    The conversion of wetlands to intensively managed forest lands in eastern North Carolina is widespread and the consequences on water and carbon balances are not well studied. Quantification of evapotranspiration (ET), tree transpiration and their biophysical regulation are needed for assessing forest water management options. We characterized vertical variation in the diurnal and seasonal soil volumetric water content at 10 cm intervals to evaluate changes in water availability for root uptake and monitored eddy covariance ET and tree transpiration (sap flux) in three contrasting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands. Those stands included a 50- yr-old wetland natural regeneration (NG), a 17-yr-old drained mid-rotation plantation (MP) and a 5-yr-old drained plantation (YP) in eastern North Carolina. We also quantified the magnitude of hydraulic redistribution (HR), the passive movement of soil water from deep to shallow roots, to identify factors affecting the seasonal dynamics of root water uptake, root and plant water potentials and stomatal conductance. In NG, soil water content was always at full saturation and total tree water use peaked between 6-7 mm/day, and this stand was used as reference. In MP, soil water content varied with soil depth and total water use from the upper 1m peaked between 4 and 6.5 mm/day during the growing season and was strongly correlated and similar to ET (ET represented 90-95% of total water depletion). In YP, soil water used was limited to the upper 30 cm and was strongly affected by summer drought by declining progressively from 0.9 mm/day in spring to 0.4 m/day in September. After periods of more than 10 days without rain, water extraction in MP shifted to the deeper layers, and recharge from HR approached 20% of ET. During days of high evaporative demand, water use in MP was comparable to NG thanks to HR and to the contribution of deeper roots to water uptake. In YP, HR never contributed for more than 8% of ET. There was no HR

  10. The water quality of streams draining a plantation forest on gley soils: the Nant Tanllwyth, Plynlimon mid-Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C.; Reynolds, B.; Neal, M.; Wickham, H.; Hill, L.; Williams, B.

    The water quality of the Nant Tanllwyth stream in the Plynlimon region of mid-Wales is related to the key hydrobiogeological controls and the effects of conifer harvesting based on an analysis of rain, cloud, stream and groundwater measurements. The results show the normal patterns of stream water quality response to hydrology. Thus, there is a high damping of atmospheric inputs due to storage in a highly heterogeneous soil and groundwater system. Correspondingly, there is a highly dynamic response for components such as calcium, bicarbonate and aluminium. This response links to the relative inputs of acidic and aluminium-bearing soil waters under high flow conditions and base enriched bicarbonate bearing waters from the groundwater areas under baseflow conditions. The introduction of a deep borehole near the main stem of the river opened up a groundwater flow route to the stream and other parts of the catchment. There were two aspects to this. Firstly, it caused a change to the stream water quality, particularly under baseflow conditions, by increasing the concentrations of calcium and magnesium and by reducing the acidity. The monitoring shows that this change has persisted for over eight years and that there is no sign of reversion to pre-borehole times. Secondly, it caused a change in the groundwater level and chemistry at a borehole on the other side of the river. This feature shows that the fracture system is of hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological complexity. The effects of conifer harvesting are remarkable. At the local scale, felling leads to the expected short term increase in nitrate, ammonium and phosphate from the disturbance of the soil and the reduction in uptake into the vegetation. Correspondingly, there is a reduction in sodium and chloride linked to reduced scavenging of atmospheric inputs from cloud water by the vegetation and also due to increased dilution potential due to reductions in transpiration by the trees. However, within the main

  11. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  12. Observations of evapotranspiration in a break of slope plantation susceptible to periodic drought stress.

    PubMed

    McJannet, D. L.; Vertessy, R. A.; Clifton, C. A.

    2000-02-01

    Break of slope (BOS) plantations are advocated as a means of water table control in areas where groundwater flows through colluvial deposits overlying low permeability bedrock. It is also believed that BOS plantations can supplement their water use requirements by exploiting shallow groundwater at the breaks in topographic slope. We compared measurements of BOS plantation and pasture evapotranspiration during spring, when the weather was warm and soils moist, and late summer when drought conditions prevailed. Microlysimeters and ventilated chambers were used to determine pasture and plantation floor evaporation, and heat pulse sensors were used to determine transpiration of the plantation. In spring, pasture evapotranspiration was 65% of that of the plantation, whereas, in summer, pasture evapotranspiration was equivalent to only 35% of that of the plantation. Rainfall interception by the canopy of the plantation was twice that of the pasture, reinforcing the notion that trees can help reduce groundwater recharge and alleviate dryland salinity and waterlogging. During the summer drought period, daily plantation transpiration was only 20% of that measured during spring, suggesting that the plantation was not utilizing groundwater supplies but was instead drawing from soil water supplies. This hypothesis was supported by the comparison of relative abundances of the isotopes of water ((2)H and (18)O) in soil and wood samples. We conclude that the BOS plantation is not behaving in the manner predicted, and our findings raise doubts about the predicted advantages of establishing plantations in break of slope positions.

  13. Space Farm 7 Belvedere Plantation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space theme maze and NASA exhibits turned a Virginia farm into an out-of-this-world experience for families and visitors at the Belvedere Plantation in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Belvedere Plantat...

  14. [Comparison of heavy metal elements between natural and plantation forests in a subtropical Montane forest].

    PubMed

    Nie, Ming; Wan, Jia-Rong; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Li; Li, Bo; Chen, Jia-Kuan

    2011-11-01

    Heavy metals as one of major pollutants is harmful to the health of forest ecosystems. In the present paper, the concentrations of thirteen heavy metals (Fe, Al, Ti, Cr, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se and Cd) were compared between natural and plantation forests in the Mt. Lushan by ICP-AES and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results suggest that the soil of natural forest had higher concentrations of Fe, Al, Ti, Cu, Mn, V, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Se, and Cd than the plantation forest except for Cr. The soil of natural forest had a higher level of heavy metals than that of the plantation forest as a whole. This might be due to that the natural forest has longer age than the plantation forest, and fixed soil heavy metals take a longer period of time than the plantation forest.

  15. Quantification and site-specification of the support practice factor when mapping soil erosion risk associated with olive plantations in the Mediterranean island of Crete.

    PubMed

    Karydas, Christos G; Sekuloska, Tijana; Silleos, Georgios N

    2009-02-01

    Due to inappropriate agricultural management practices, soil erosion is becoming one of the most dangerous forms of soil degradation in many olive farming areas in the Mediterranean region, leading to significant decrease of soil fertility and yield. In order to prevent further soil degradation, proper measures are necessary to be locally implemented. In this perspective, an increase in the spatial accuracy of remote sensing datasets and advanced image analysis are significant tools necessary and efficient for mapping soil erosion risk on a fine scale. In this study, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was implemented in the spatial domain using GIS, while a very high resolution satellite image, namely a QuickBird image, was used for deriving cover management (C) and support practice (P) factors, in order to map the risk of soil erosion in Kolymvari, a typical olive farming area in the island of Crete, Greece. The results comprised a risk map of soil erosion when P factor was taken uniform (conventional approach) and a risk map when P factor was quantified site-specifically using object-oriented image analysis. The results showed that the QuickBird image was necessary in order to achieve site-specificity of the P factor and therefore to support fine scale mapping of soil erosion risk in an olive cultivation area, such as the one of Kolymvari in Crete. Increasing the accuracy of the QB image classification will further improve the resulted soil erosion mapping.

  16. Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation.

    PubMed

    Maestre, Fernando T; Escolar, Cristina; Bardgett, Richard D; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change. PMID:26379642

  17. Warming reduces the cover and diversity of biocrust-forming mosses and lichens, and increases the physiological stress of soil microbial communities in a semi-arid Pinus halepensis plantation

    PubMed Central

    Maestre, Fernando T.; Escolar, Cristina; Bardgett, Richard D.; Dungait, Jennifer A. J.; Gozalo, Beatriz; Ochoa, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Soil communities dominated by lichens and mosses (biocrusts) play key roles in maintaining ecosystem structure and functioning in drylands worldwide. However, few studies have explicitly evaluated how climate change-induced impacts on biocrusts affect associated soil microbial communities. We report results from a field experiment conducted in a semiarid Pinus halepensis plantation, where we setup an experiment with two factors: cover of biocrusts (low [<15%] versus high [>50%]), and warming (control versus a ∼2°C temperature increase). Warming reduced the richness and cover (∼45%) of high biocrust cover areas 53 months after the onset of the experiment. This treatment did not change the ratios between the major microbial groups, as measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Warming increased the physiological stress of the Gram negative bacterial community, as indicated by the cy17:0/16:1ω7 ratio. This response was modulated by the initial biocrust cover, as the increase in this ratio with warming was higher in areas with low cover. Our findings suggest that biocrusts can slow down the negative effects of warming on the physiological status of the Gram negative bacterial community. However, as warming will likely reduce the cover and diversity of biocrusts, these positive effects will be reduced under climate change. PMID:26379642

  18. Ecosystem Carbon Stock Influenced by Plantation Practice: Implications for Planting Forests as a Measure of Climate Change Mitigation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha−1 in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (<25 years vs. ≥25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation. PMID:20523733

  19. Ecosystem carbon stock influenced by plantation practice: implications for planting forests as a measure of climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chengzhang; Luo, Yiqi; Fang, Changming; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainties remain in the potential of forest plantations to sequestrate carbon (C). We synthesized 86 experimental studies with paired-site design, using a meta-analysis approach, to quantify the differences in ecosystem C pools between plantations and their corresponding adjacent primary and secondary forests (natural forests). Totaled ecosystem C stock in plant and soil pools was 284 Mg C ha(-1) in natural forests and decreased by 28% in plantations. In comparison with natural forests, plantations decreased aboveground net primary production, litterfall, and rate of soil respiration by 11, 34, and 32%, respectively. Fine root biomass, soil C concentration, and soil microbial C concentration decreased respectively by 66, 32, and 29% in plantations relative to natural forests. Soil available N, P and K concentrations were lower by 22, 20 and 26%, respectively, in plantations than in natural forests. The general pattern of decreased ecosystem C pools did not change between two different groups in relation to various factors: stand age (< 25 years vs. > or = 25 years), stand types (broadleaved vs. coniferous and deciduous vs. evergreen), tree species origin (native vs. exotic) of plantations, land-use history (afforestation vs. reforestation) and site preparation for plantations (unburnt vs. burnt), and study regions (tropic vs. temperate). The pattern also held true across geographic regions. Our findings argued against the replacement of natural forests by the plantations as a measure of climate change mitigation.

  20. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and

  1. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  2. Significant Increase in Ecosystem C Can Be Achieved with Sustainable Forest Management in Subtropical Plantation Forests

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500–2500 trees ha−1. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir – Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr−1, offsetting 1.9% of China’s annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber

  3. Effects of young poplar plantations on understory plant diversity in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Youzhi; Chen, Xinsheng; Xie, Yonghong; Li, Xu; Li, Feng; Hou, Zhiyong

    2014-09-11

    This study evaluated the effects of young poplar plantations on understory plant diversity in the Dongting Lake wetlands, China. Poplar plantations resulted in a higher species number and Shannon's diversity. Species compositions were different between areas with poplar and reed populations: a lower ratio of hygrophytes but a higher ratio of mesophytes, and a higher ratio of heliophytes but a lower ratio of neutrophilous or shade plants in poplar areas compared to reed areas. Poplar plantations supported a higher ratio of ligneous plants in the entire Dongting Lake area, but there was no difference in the monitored plots. Unlike reedy areas, poplar plantations had higher light availability but lower soil water content during the growing seasons. These data suggest that young poplar plantations generally increased species richness and plant diversity, but significantly changed species composition due to the reduced soil water and increased light availability.

  4. [Nutrient accumulation and cycling in pure and mixed plantations of Azadirachta indica and Acacia auriculiformis in a dry-hot valley, Yunnan Province, southwest China].

    PubMed

    Gao, Cheng-Jie; Li, Kun; Tang, Guo-Yong; Zhang, Chun-Hua; Li, Bin

    2014-07-01

    To ease the implementation of effective nutrient management for plantations with different vegetation restoration patterns and to assist in the selection of appropriate species and forestation patterns, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) accumulation and cycling were investigated and compared in three plantations (10-year-old Azadirachta indica, Acacia auriculiformis and mixed A. indica--A. auriculiformis plantations) in Yuanmou Valley, a dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwestern China. The result showed that total nutrient accumulations were 333.05, 725.61 and 533.85 kg x hm(-2) in pure plantations of A. indica and A. auriculiformis, and in A. indica--A. auriculiformis mixed plantation, respectively. The nutrient accumulation of various organs was ranked as branches > stems > roots > leaves > bark in the A. indica plantation and branches > stems > leaves > roots > bark both in the A. auriculiformis plantation and in the mixed plantation. Changes in accumulation of various nutrients in the mixed plantation were similar to that in the A. auriculiformis plantation (Ca > N > K > Mg > P), which were different from the A. indica plantation (Ca > K > N > Mg > P). Annual net nutrient accumulation, return and absorption in these plantations ranged from 62.72 to 162.19 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), 48.82 to 88.86 kg x hm-2 a-1 and 111.54 to 251.05 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, which were all the highest in the A. auriculiformis planta- tion, followed by the mixed plantation, and were the lowest in the A. indica plantation. The nutrient utilization coefficient, the cycling coefficient and the recycling period were estimated to be from 0.34 to 0.39, 0.35 to 0.44, and 6.54 to 8.17 a, respectively. The lower nutrient return and circulation rate of N or P in the A. indica plantation showed that this plantation had a poor ability to maintain soil fertility, while the highest nutrient circulation rate of N or P was observed in the A. auriculiformis plantation that displayed the

  5. Carbon-based stock feed additives: a research methodology that explores ecologically delivered C biosequestration, alongside live weights, feed use efficiency, soil nutrient retention, and perennial fodder plantations.

    PubMed

    McHenry, Mark P

    2010-01-30

    There is considerable interest in reliable and practical methods to sequester carbon (C) into agricultural soils to both reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and improve conventional productivity. This article outlines a research methodology to refine the efficacy and economics of using long-lived C species (biochars) as stock feed additives, produced from farm waste biomass, for ecologically delivered soil biosequestration, while generating renewable bioenergy. This article also draws attention to potential parallel outputs including annual feed use efficiency, fodder species expansion, soil nutrient retention, aquatic habitat protection, and forestry revegetation, using nitrogen-fixing perennial fodder plant species. A methodology to generate parallel results including standing fodder tree C sequestration, optimised production of Acacia spp. biochar, animal growth on high-tannin fodder with biochar feed additives, soil nutrient and stable C fractions, and economics of Acacia spp. bioenergy production. This form of research is contextually dependent on the regional agricultural production system, legislation, and surrounding ecosystem. Therefore, this article suggests the use of a scenario approach to include regionally specific levels of biochar integration with respect to the local prices for C, fossil fuels, meat and livestock, fertilisers, fodder, feed additives, water, renewable energy, revegetation and capital.

  6. Soil fungal cellobiohydrolase I gene (cbhI) composition and expression in a loblolly pine plantation under conditions of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Weber, Carolyn F; Balasch, Monica Moya; Gossage, Zachary; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Kuske, Cheryl R

    2012-06-01

    The simultaneous increase of atmospheric CO(2) and nitrogen (N) deposition to terrestrial ecosystems is predicted to alter plant productivity and, consequently, to change the amount and quality of above- and belowground carbon entering forest soils. It is not known how such changes will impact the composition and function of soil fungal communities that play a key role in degrading complex carbon. We sequenced the fungal cellobiohydrolase I gene (cbhI) from soil DNA and cDNA to compare the richness and composition of resident and expressed cbhI genes at a U.S. Department of Energy free air-carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) site (NC), which had been exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) and/or N fertilization treatment for several years. Our results provide evidence that the richness and composition of the cellulolytic fungi surveyed in this study were distinct in the DNA- and cDNA-based gene surveys and were dominated by Basidiomycota that have low or no representation in public databases. The surveys did not detect differences in richness or phylum-level composition of cbhI-containing, cellulolytic fungi that correlated with elevated CO(2) or N fertilization at the time of sampling.

  7. Carbon emissions from forest conversion by Kalimantan oil palm plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Pittman, Alice Mcdonald; Trigg, Simon N.; Marion Adeney, J.

    2013-03-01

    Oil palm supplies >30% of world vegetable oil production. Plantation expansion is occurring throughout the tropics, predominantly in Indonesia, where forests with heterogeneous carbon stocks undergo high conversion rates. Quantifying oil palm's contribution to global carbon budgets therefore requires refined spatio-temporal assessments of land cover converted to plantations. Here, we report oil palm development across Kalimantan (538,346km2) from 1990 to 2010, and project expansion to 2020 within government-allocated leases. Using Landsat satellite analyses to discern multiple land covers, coupled with above- and below-ground carbon accounting, we develop the first high-resolution carbon flux estimates from Kalimantan plantations. From 1990 to 2010, 90% of lands converted to oil palm were forested (47% intact, 22% logged, 21% agroforests). By 2010, 87% of total oil palm area (31,640km2) occurred on mineral soils, and these plantations contributed 61-73% of 1990-2010 net oil palm emissions (0.020-0.024GtCyr-1). Although oil palm expanded 278% from 2000 to 2010, 79% of allocated leases remained undeveloped. By 2020, full lease development would convert 93,844km2 (~ 90% forested lands, including 41% intact forests). Oil palm would then occupy 34% of lowlands outside protected areas. Plantation expansion in Kalimantan alone is projected to contribute 18-22% (0.12-0.15GtCyr-1) of Indonesia's 2020 CO2-equivalent emissions. Allocated oil palm leases represent a critical yet undocumented source of deforestation and carbon emissions.

  8. Decoupling the Influence of Leaf and Root Hydraulic Conductances on Stomatal Conductance and its Sensitivity to Vapor Pressure Deficit as Soil Dries in a Drained Loblolly Pine Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domec, J.; Noormets, A.; King, J. S.; McNulty, S. G.; Sun, G.; Gavazzi, M. J.; Boggs, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    The conversion of wetlands to intensively managed forest lands in eastern North Carolina is widespread and the consequences on plant hydraulic properties and water balances are not well studied. Precipitation and soil moisture in North America will be modified in the future and forest trees in the US will be challenged by warmer temperature, higher leaf-to-air water vapor pressure deficit (D), and more frequent summer droughts. Many studies have examined the relationships between whole tree hydraulic conductance (Ktree) and stomatal conductance (gs), but Ktree remains an ill-defined quantity because it depends on a series of resistances, mainly controlled by the conductance in roots (Kroot) and leaves (Kleaf). To explain the variation in Ktree, we characterized Kroot and Kleaf and how they responded to environmental drivers such as soil moisture availability and D. In addition, the role of dynamic variations in Kroot and Kleaf in mediating stomatal control of transpiration and its response to D was studied. The 2007 summer drought was used as a means to challenge the hydraulic system, allowing testing how broadly predictions about its behaviour hold outside the range of typical conditions. Roots and leaves were the weakest points in the whole tree hydraulic system, and contributed for more than 75% of the total tree hydraulic resistance. Effects of drought on Ktree altered the partitioning of the resistance between roots and leaves and as soil moisture declined below 50% relative extractable water (REW), Kroot declined faster than Kleaf and became the dominant hydraulic fuse regulating Ktree. Although Ktree depended on soil moisture, its dynamics was tempered by current-year needle elongation that increased significantly Kleaf during the dry months when REW was below 50%. To maintain the integrity of the xylem hydraulic continuum from roots to leaves, stomata were highly responsive in coordinating transpiration with dynamic variation in Ktree. Daily maximum gs and

  9. Different Water Use Strategies of Juvenile and Adult Caragana intermedia Plantations in the Gonghe Basin, Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Zhiqing; Zhu, Yajuan; Liu, Liying

    2012-01-01

    Background In a semi-arid ecosystem, water is one of the most important factors that affect vegetation dynamics, such as shrub plantation. A water use strategy, including the main water source that a plant species utilizes and water use efficiency (WUE), plays an important role in plant survival and growth. The water use strategy of a shrub is one of the key factors in the evaluation of stability and sustainability of a plantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Caragana intermedia is a dominant shrub of sand-binding plantations on sand dunes in the Gonghe Basin in northeastern Tibet Plateau. Understanding the water use strategy of a shrub plantation can be used to evaluate its sustainability and long-term stability. We hypothesized that C. intermedia uses mainly deep soil water and its WUE increases with plantation age. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen were used to determine the main water source and leaf carbon isotope discrimination was used to estimate long-term WUE. The root system was investigated to determine the depth of the main distribution. The results showed that a 5-year-old C. intermedia plantation used soil water mainly at a depth of 0–30 cm, which was coincident with the distribution of its fine roots. However, 9- or 25-year-old C. intermedia plantations used mainly 0–50 cm soil depth water and the fine root system was distributed primarily at soil depths of 0–50 cm and 0–60 cm, respectively. These sources of soil water are recharged directly by rainfall. Moreover, the long-term WUE of adult plantations was greater than that of juvenile plantations. Conclusions The C. intermedia plantation can change its water use strategy over time as an adaptation to a semi-arid environment, including increasing the depth of soil water used for root growth, and increasing long-term WUE. PMID:23029303

  10. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha−1 yr−1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming. PMID:27324813

  11. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4(+)-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest's carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming. PMID:27324813

  12. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on N2O emissions from a rubber plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Ji, Hong-Li; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Sha, Li-Qing; Liu, Yun-Tong; Zhang, Xiang; Zhao, Wei; Dong, Yu-Xin; Bai, Xiao-Long; Lin, You-Xin; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Zheng, Xun-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To gain the effects of N fertilizer applications on N2O emissions and local climate change in fertilized rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations in the tropics, we measured N2O fluxes from fertilized (75 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1) and unfertilized rubber plantations at Xishuangbanna in southwest China over a 2-year period. The N2O emissions from the fertilized and unfertilized plots were 4.0 and 2.5 kg N ha‑1 yr‑1, respectively, and the N2O emission factor was 1.96%. Soil moisture, soil temperature, and the area weighted mean ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4+-N) content controlled the variations in N2O flux from the fertilized and unfertilized rubber plantations. NH4+-N did not influence temporal changes in N2O emissions from the trench, slope, or terrace plots, but controlled spatial variations in N2O emissions among the treatments. On a unit area basis, the 100-year carbon dioxide equivalence of the fertilized rubber plantation N2O offsets 5.8% and 31.5% of carbon sink of the rubber plantation and local tropical rainforest, respectively. When entire land area in Xishuangbanna is considered, N2O emissions from fertilized rubber plantations offset 17.1% of the tropical rainforest’s carbon sink. The results show that if tropical rainforests are converted to fertilized rubber plantations, regional N2O emissions may enhance local climate warming.

  13. [Phase-directional management of protective plantations. I. Fundamentals].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fengqi; Zhu, Jiaojun

    2002-10-01

    In order to ensure the higher effectiveness, more stability and sustainability of Protective plantations, the definition of phase-directional management (PDM) of protective plantations was brought forward on the basis of management researches and practices for protective plantations. The basics of PDM is protective maturity, which is defined as the time when the protective plantations attain to the state that the protective plantations can provide effective and complete protection to the objects needed to be protected. Protective maturity has two points, initial protective maturity age (IPMA), the age of protective maturity started, and terminal protective maturity age (TPMA), the age of protective maturity ended. Three management phases of protective plantation, i.e., prematurity phase, the period from sapling or establishment to initial protective maturity, protective maturity phase, the period of protective maturity lasting, and regeneration phase, the period during regeneration and before the establishment, are divided based on the fundamental of protective maturity. Directional management of protective plantation means that all of the management techniques in each phase are directed at the aim of protective maturity, i.e., protective maturity is the direction of management of protective forests, and protective maturity is the final objective for the management of protective forests. In order to sustain the protective maturity state, corresponding measures should be conducted in each phase, according to the classification of protective plantations. In pre-maturity phase, the purpose of managing is to accelerate the protective maturity, therefore, the measures such as weed clearing, soil cultivation, irrigation, fertilization, intercropping and branch cutting etc. should be conducted in protective plantations. In maturity phase, the aim of managing is to sustain the protective maturity, i.e., the techniques (tending and thinning) of controlling the structure of

  14. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2014-11-15

    The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts, sorbents and instrumental conditions. Analyte extraction with NaCl and MgSO4 in acidified acetonitrile followed by cleanup with primary secondary amine (PSA) presented the optimum conditions for extraction. Quantification was performed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI). Validation of the procedure showed average recoveries ranging from 72.0 to 104.8% for all analytes at all fortification levels with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 15.0. Limits of quantitation were <10 μg kg(-1) for all neonicotinoids studied. The results obtained from the analysis of 52 samples from cocoa farms revealed imidacloprid as the predominant neonicotinoid with concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 251.4 μg kg(-1) in >50% of samples analyzed.

  15. Nitrogen Deposition Enhances Carbon Sequestration by Plantations in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Zhihong; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Zeng, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and its ecological effects on forest ecosystems have received global attention. Plantations play an important role in mitigating climate change through assimilating atmospheric CO2. However, the mechanisms by which increasing N additions affect net ecosystem production (NEP) of plantations remain poorly understood. A field experiment was initialized in May 2009, which incorporated additions of four rates of N (control (no N addition), low-N (5 g N m−2 yr−1), medium-N (10 g N m−2 yr−1), and high-N (15 g N m−2 yr−1)) at the Saihanba Forestry Center, Hebei Province, northern China, a locality that contains the largest area of plantations in China. Net primary production (NPP), soil respiration, and its autotrophic and heterotrophic components were measured. Plant tissue carbon (C) and N concentrations (including foliage, litter, and fine roots), microbial biomass, microbial community composition, extracellular enzyme activities, and soil pH were also measured. N addition significantly increased NPP, which was associated with increased litter N concentrations. Autotrophic respiration (AR) increased but heterotrophic respiration (HR) decreased in the high N compared with the medium N plots, although the HR in high and medium N plots did not significantly differ from that in the control. The increased AR may derive from mycorrhizal respiration and rhizospheric microbial respiration, not live root respiration, because fine root biomass and N concentrations showed no significant differences. Although the HR was significantly suppressed in the high-N plots, soil microbial biomass, composition, or activity of extracellular enzymes were not significantly changed. Reduced pH with fertilization also could not explain the pattern of HR. The reduction of HR may be related to altered microbial C use efficiency. NEP was significantly enhanced by N addition, from 149 to 426.6 g C m−2 yr−1. Short-term N addition may significantly enhance the

  16. A water use and growth model for Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, I.R.

    1992-12-31

    To investigate the environmental impact of plantation forestry using fast-growing tree species in southern India, a program of field studies was initiated in 1987 specifically to measure the water use, nutrient uptake and growth rates of the plantations. A water use and growth (WAG) model is proposed for calculating transpiration and growth of Eucalyptus plantation in water-limited conditions. The model is based on the measured relationships between transpiration rate and basal cross-sectional area and soil moisture availability. The volume growth rate (in water-limited conditions) is assumed to be proportional to the volume of water transpired. The model is calibrated using (deuterium tracing) measurements of transpiration and measurements of growth recorded at the Puradal experimental plantation, Karnataka, southern India.

  17. Hybrid poplar plantations are suitable habitat for reintroduced forest herbs with conservation status.

    PubMed

    Boothroyd-Roberts, Kathleen; Gagnon, Daniel; Truax, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Plantations of fast-growing tree species may be of use in conservation by accelerating the restoration of forest habitat on abandoned farmland and increasing connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The objective of this study was to determine if hybrid poplar plantations can be suitable habitats for the reintroduction of native forest plant species and, if so, which abiotic factors predict successful reintroduction. Four species of forest herb species (Trillium grandiflorum, Sanguinaria canadensis, Maianthemum racemosum, Asarum canadense), of which three have legal conservation status, were transplanted into experimental plantations of two hybrid poplar clones and nearby second-growth woodlots at six sites in southern Quebec, Canada. The transplanted individuals were protected from deer browsing with exclusion cages. After two years, the plant responses of all four species were stable or increased over two years in both types of hybrid poplar plantations. Sanguinaria showed a better response in the plantations than in the woodlots, preferring the rich post-agricultural soils of the plantations with low C:N ratios. Asarum and Maianthemum showed no significant difference between stand types, while Trillium grew better in the woodlots than in the plantations. Much of the variability in the response of the latter three species was unexplained by the measured environmental variables. These results suggest that certain forest herb species can be reintroduced as juvenile plants into plantations, knowing that their spontaneous recolonization is often limited by dispersal and/or seedling establishment. Plantations could also contribute to the conservation of biodiversity by providing an environment for the cultivation of forest herb species as an alternative to their destructive harvest from natural populations.

  18. Biomass Accumulation and Carbon Sequestration in Four Different Aged Casuarina equisetifolia Coastal Shelterbelt Plantations in South China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bi; Guo, Zhihua; Li, Zhian; Zhu, Weixing

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of kilometers of shelterbelt plantations of Casuarina equisetifolia have been planted to protect the southeast coastline of China. These plantations also play an important role in the regional carbon (C) cycling. In this study, we examined plant biomass increment and C accumulation in four different aged C. equisetifolia plantations in sandy beaches in South China. The C accumulated in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass increased markedly with stand age. The annual rate of C accumulation in the C. equisetifolia plant biomass during 0–3, 3–6, 6–13 and 13–18 years stage was 2.9, 8.2, 4.2 and 1.0 Mg C ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Soil organic C (SOC) at the top 1 m soil layer in these plantations was 17.74, 5.14, 6.93, and 11.87 Mg C ha−1, respectively, with SOC density decreasing with increasing soil depth. Total C storage in the plantation ecosystem averaged 26.57, 38.50, 69.78, and 79.79 Mg C ha−1 in the 3, 6, 13 and 18- yrs plantation, with most of the C accumulated in the aboveground biomass rather than in the belowground root biomass and soil organic C. Though our results suggest that C. equisetifolia plantations have the characteristics of fast growth, high biomass accumulation, and the potential of high C sequestration despite planting in poor soil conditions, the interactive effects of soil condition, natural disturbance, and human policies on the ecosystem health of the plantation need to be further studied to fully realize the ecological and social benefits of the C equisetifolia shelterbelt forests in South China. PMID:24143236

  19. Biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar plantation

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year study measured the effects of ground cover treatments and nitrogen fertilization on biomass and nitrogen dynamics in an irrigated hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. x P. trichocarpa Torr. and Gray, clone NC-9922) plantation in northern Wisconsin. Annually fertilized (112 kg N/ha/yr) and unfertilized plots were either maintained weed-free (bare soil), allowed to revegetate with native weeds, or seeded to birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). Trees in bare soil plots responded to fertilization primarily in the third growing season, but total biomass of 3-year-old trees was not increased by annual fertilization. High nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the soil solution suggested significant leaching in both unfertilized and fertilized bare soil plots in the first growing season, and in fertilized plots the second season. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations declined sharply in fertilized bare soil plots during the third growing season. Cover crop biomass was greatest in the second year and declined thereafter due to declines in below-ground components. Fertilization increased tree growth in these plots, but cover crop treatments had no effect. Results of this study suggest that, under irrigated conditions, a cover crop can substantially reduce leaching losses of nutrients and serve as a slow-release pool of nitrogen after the trees achieve crown closure. Fertilization is not recommended in these plantations until the second growing season if a cover crop is present and the third growing season if complete weed control is practiced.

  20. Age and thinning effects on the temperature sensitivities of respiration in loblolly pine plantations in eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, G.; Noormets, A.

    2014-12-01

    Age and silvicultural interventions are two important factors to characterize the development of commercial plantations. Effects of the two factors are of importance in quantifying the carbon dynamics in these artificial systems, but remain unclear. From 9 years (2005-2013) of carbon exchange observations in a mature (13 years old in 2005) and a young (2 years old in 2005) loblolly pine plantations located on the lower coastal plain in eastern North Carolina, we investigated the difference in temperature sensitivities (Q10) of ecosystem respiration (ER) of the two plantations of different ages. The mature plantation was thinned in August 2009, therefore, we compared the ER before and after thinning to estimate the potential response of Q10 to thinning in the mature plantation. Before thinning (years of 2005 - early half year of 2009), Q10 of ER in the mature plantation was similar across years. Even during a severe drought (e.g. 2007), Q10 did not differ from other years (p = 0.2 - 0.8 between years). The mean Q10 before harvesting was 2.33±0.05 (mean±SE). After thinning (years of 2010-2013), there was significant inter-annual variation in Q10 with an overall estimate at 2.23±0.05. The young plantation also exhibited significant inter-annual variations in Q10, and the overall Q10 was 2.99±0.11, higher than that of the mature plantation. The increased variability of temperature sensitivity after thinning in the mature plantation might be associated with the altered physical environment by thinning such as soil bulk density and soil water content, whereas the similar pattern in the young plantation might result from the primary contribution of heterotrophic respiration and also be confounded with the fast growth of young seedlings.

  1. Restoration of mangrove plantations and colonisation by native species in Leizhou bay, South China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ren, H.; Jian, S.; Lu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Shen, W.; Han, W.; Yin, Z.; Guo, Q.

    2008-01-01

    To examine the natural colonisation of native mangrove species into remediated exotic mangrove stands in Leizhou Bay, South China, we compared soil physical-chemical properties, community structure and recruitments of barren mangrove areas, native mangrove species plantations, and exotic mangrove species-Sonneratia apetala Buch.Ham-between plantations and natural forest. We found that severely degraded mangrove stands could not regenerate naturally without human intervention due to severely altered local environments, whereas some native species had been recruited into the 4-10 year S. apetala plantations. In the first 10 years, the exotic species S. apetala grew better than native species such as Rhizophora stylosa Griff and Kandelia candel (Linn.) Druce. The mangrove plantation gradually affected soil physical and chemical properties during its recovery. The exotic S. apetala was more competitive than native species and its plantation was able to restore soil organic matter in about 14 years. Thus, S. apetala can be considered as a pioneer species to improve degraded habitats to facilitate recolonisation by native mangrove species. However, removal to control proliferation may be needed at late stages to facilitate growth of native species. To ensure sustainability of mangroves in South China, the existing mangrove wetlands must be managed as an ecosystem, with long-term scientific monitoring program in place. ?? 2007 The Ecological Society of Japan.

  2. Water use by fast-growing Eucalyptus urophylla plantations in southern China.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jim; Ningnan, Zhang; Zengjiang, Yang; Collopy, John; Daping, Xu

    2004-09-01

    Tree growth, water use, climate and soil water conditions were monitored over 12 months in two 3-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake plantations on the Leizhou Peninsula of southern China. The Hetou plantation was established on a sandy soil of sedimentary origin with low water storage capacity, and the Jijia plantation was established on a clay soil formed on basalt. Sapwood area was approximately 50% higher at Jijia than at Hetou because of differences in plant spacing (1994 versus 1356 stems ha(-1)). Annual water use, assessed by heat pulse measurements, was 542 mm at Hetou and 559 mm at Jijia, with mean sap flux densities of 2772 and 1839 l m(-2) day(-1), respectively. Limitations to water use, imposed by climatic and soil factors, were quantified by analysis of daily canopy conductance in relation to daytime vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil water content. Similar annual water use at the two sites was a result of higher VPD and soil water availability at Hetou compensating for the greater sapwood area at Jijia. Potential annual water use in the absence of soil water limitation was estimated at 916 mm at Jijia and 815 mm at Hetou. Higher water availability during the dry season and early wet season at Hetou than at Jijia was the result of deep root systems. The results imply that water use by plantations on soils with high water availability and in areas of high VPD may be reduced by establishment at wider spacing. The environmental cost of water use by plantations must be weighed against their economic and environmental values to determine an appropriate mix of forestry, agriculture and other land uses in regions where water resources are limited.

  3. Tree Plantation Systems Influence Nitrogen Retention and the Abundance of Nitrogen Functional Genes in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Bai, Shahla H.; Liu, Xian; Blumfield, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Tree mono-plantations are susceptible to soil nutrient impoverishment and mixed species plantations have been proposed as a way of maintaining soil fertility while enhancing biodiversity. In the Solomon Islands, mixed species plantations where teak (Tectona grandis) is inter-planted with a local tree species (Flueggea flexuosa) have been used as an alternative to teak mono-plantations and are expected to increase soil microbial diversity and modify microbial biogeochemical processes. In this study, we quantified the abundance of microbial functional genes involved in the nitrogen (N) cycle from soil samples collected in teak, flueggea, and mixed species plantations. Furthermore, we measured soil properties such as pH, total carbon (C) and total N, stable N isotope composition (δ15N), and inorganic N pools. Soil pH and δ15N were higher under teak than under flueggea, which indicates that intercropping teak with flueggea may decrease bacterial activities and potential N losses. Higher C:N ratios were found under mixed species plantations than those under teak, suggesting an enhancement of N immobilization that would help preventing fast N losses. However, inorganic N pools remained unaffected by plant cover. Inter-planting teak with flueggea in mixed species plantations generally increased the relative abundance of denitrification genes and promoted the enrichment of nosZ-harboring denitrifiers. However, it reduced the abundance of bacterial amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) genes compared to teak mono-plantations. The abundance of most denitrification genes correlated with soil total N and C:N ratio, while bacterial and archeal nitrification genes correlated positively with soil NH4+ concentrations. Altogether, these results show that the abundance of bacterial N-cycling functional guilds vary under teak and under mixed species plantations, and that inter-planting teak with flueggea may potentially alleviate N losses associated with nitrification and denitrification

  4. Tree Plantation Systems Influence Nitrogen Retention and the Abundance of Nitrogen Functional Genes in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Bai, Shahla H; Liu, Xian; Blumfield, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Tree mono-plantations are susceptible to soil nutrient impoverishment and mixed species plantations have been proposed as a way of maintaining soil fertility while enhancing biodiversity. In the Solomon Islands, mixed species plantations where teak (Tectona grandis) is inter-planted with a local tree species (Flueggea flexuosa) have been used as an alternative to teak mono-plantations and are expected to increase soil microbial diversity and modify microbial biogeochemical processes. In this study, we quantified the abundance of microbial functional genes involved in the nitrogen (N) cycle from soil samples collected in teak, flueggea, and mixed species plantations. Furthermore, we measured soil properties such as pH, total carbon (C) and total N, stable N isotope composition (δ(15)N), and inorganic N pools. Soil pH and δ(15)N were higher under teak than under flueggea, which indicates that intercropping teak with flueggea may decrease bacterial activities and potential N losses. Higher C:N ratios were found under mixed species plantations than those under teak, suggesting an enhancement of N immobilization that would help preventing fast N losses. However, inorganic N pools remained unaffected by plant cover. Inter-planting teak with flueggea in mixed species plantations generally increased the relative abundance of denitrification genes and promoted the enrichment of nosZ-harboring denitrifiers. However, it reduced the abundance of bacterial amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) genes compared to teak mono-plantations. The abundance of most denitrification genes correlated with soil total N and C:N ratio, while bacterial and archeal nitrification genes correlated positively with soil NH4 (+) concentrations. Altogether, these results show that the abundance of bacterial N-cycling functional guilds vary under teak and under mixed species plantations, and that inter-planting teak with flueggea may potentially alleviate N losses associated with nitrification and

  5. System analysis of a bio-energy plantation: full greenhouse gas balance and energy accounting (POPFULL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Berhongaray, G.; Broeckx, L.; De Groote, T.; ElKasmioui, O.; Fichot, R.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Verlinden, M.; Zona, D.

    2011-12-01

    In recent year the environmental impact of fossil fuels and their reduced availability are leading to an increasing interest in renewable energy sources, among them bio-energy. However, the cost/benefit in establishing, managing, and using these plantations for energy production should be quantified together with their environmental impact. In this project we are performing a full life cycle analysis (LCA) balance of the most important greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O and O3), together with full energy accounting of a short-rotation coppice (SRC) plantation with fast-growing trees. We established the plantation two years ago and we have been monitoring net fluxes of CO2, N2O, CH4, and O3, in combination with biomass pools (incl. soil) and fluxes, and volatile organic carbon (VOCs). This poplar plantation will be monitored for another two years then harvested and transformed into bio-energy. For the energy accounting we are performing a life cycle analysis and energy efficiency assessments over the entire cycle of the plantation until the production of electricity and heat. Here we present an overview of the results from the first two years from the plantation establishment, and some of the projections based on these first results.

  6. A New Ecological Model Oriented Forest Plantation Map of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Q.; Hurtt, G. C.; Zhao, M.; Chini, L. P.; Fisk, J. P.; Liang, S.

    2012-12-01

    China has been implementing unprecedented afforestation programs since the middle 1980s to restore ecosystem services and mitigate climate change by sequestering carbon from atmosphere to biosphere. Over the past three decades, China has planted 120-160 million hectares of trees, accounting for about 70% of its current forested area. Planted forest ecosystems are different in biophysical and biochemical characteristics from natural forests. To accurately estimate regional carbon storage change in China, the spatio-temporal information of planted forests must be taken into account and distinguished from natural forests. The goal of this research is to create the first ecological model-oriented plantation map of China using coupled remote sensing data and statistical data. We divided our research into three steps. Firstly, to quantitatively characterize forest-plantation area, we proposed a Plantation Potential Index (PPI) that demonstrated the possibility of artificial forest establishment in a 1km by 1km grid. MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) data produced by the Global Land Cover Facility (GLCF) were employed to distinguish forest and non-forest area for each year from 2001-2010. Then time series of Normalized Differences Vegetation Index (NDVI) from MODIS were utilized to identify new growth forests and their establishment time by using a logistic growth function. With the identified new forests, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), NDVI variance, soil degradation level and the ratio of annual Land Surface Temperature maximum (LSTmax) to Enhanced Vegetation Index maximum (EVImax) were combined to construct PPI for each grid. Secondly, we built up a spatial allocation model to automatically assign statistical data from each province to map pixels based on their PPI values. Finally, we validated our plantation map at locations where independent field or documentary data were available and depicted plantation classification accuracy. After careful examination, we

  7. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P < 0.001). Their biomass increased during post-monsoon, summer and monsoon in the plantation ( P < 0.001), but not in forest ( P > 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  8. Evapotranspiration components determined by eddy covariance and sap flux measurements in oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; June, Tania; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of oil palm cultivation fueled by the increasing global demand for palm oil is leading to massive land transformations in tropical areas, particularly in South-East Asia. Conversions of forest land to oil palm plantations likely affect ecosystem water fluxes. However, there is a lack of information on water fluxes from oil palm plantations as well as on the partitioning of these fluxes into its different components such as transpiration and evaporation. It is expected that water fluxes from oil palm plantations vary temporally, both long-term, i.e. between different age-classes of plantations, and short-term, i.e. from day to day within a certain plantation (e.g. during or after periods of rainfall). A proper evaluation of water fluxes from oil palm plantations thus requires an experimental design encompassing these types of variability. To assess evapotranspiration (ET) rates, an eddy covariance tower was installed in a 2-year-old oil palm plantation in the lowlands of Jambi, Sumatra; it was subsequently moved to a 12-year-old oil palm plantation located in the same region. In parallel to the ET, sap flux density was measured on 16 leaf petioles on four oil palms; stand transpiration rates were derived from these measurements with stand inventory data. The parallel measurements ran for several weeks in both plantations. Preliminary results for our period of study show that the average ET rate of the 2-year-old oil palm plantation was 5.2 mm day-1; values up to 7.0 mm day-1 were observed on dry, sunny days with non-limiting soil moisture. Stand transpiration (T) by the young oil palms was very low, 0.3 mm day-1on average, and only showed a small variation between days. Under optimal environmental conditions, the ratio of T to total ET was up to 0.08 in the young plantation, while in the mature, 12-year-old plantation, it was significantly higher and reached 0.5. Transpiration rates in the mature oil palm plantation were about six- to seven-fold higher

  9. Responses of nitrous oxide emissions to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in two tropical plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, X.; Luo, Y.; Rafique, R.; Chen, H.; Huang, J.; Mo, J.

    2014-01-01

    Leguminous tree plantations at phosphorus (P) limited sites may result in higher rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, however, the effects of nitrogen (N) and P applications on soil N2O emissions from plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species has rarely been studied in the field. We conducted an experimental manipulation of N and P additions in two tropical plantations with Acacia auriculiformis (AA) and Eucalyptus urophylla (EU) tree species in South China. The objective was to determine the effects of N- or P-addition alone, as well as NP application together on soil N2O emissions from tropical plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species. We found that the average N2O emission from control was greater in AA (2.26 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) than in EU plantation (1.87 ± 0.05 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). For the AA plantation, N-addition stimulated the N2O emission from soil while P-addition did not. Applications of N with P together significantly decreased N2O emission compared to N-addition alone, especially in high level treatment plots (decreased by 18%). In the EU plantation, N2O emissions significantly decreased in P-addition plots compared with the controls, however, N- and NP-additions did not. The differing response of N2O emissions to N- or P-addition was attributed to the higher initial soil N status in the AA than that of the EU plantation, due to symbiotic N fixation in the former. Our results suggest that atmospheric N deposition potentially stimulates N2O emissions from leguminous tree plantations in the tropics, whereas P fertilization has the potential to mitigate N deposition-induced N2O emissions from such plantations.

  10. Responses of nitrous oxide emissions to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in two tropical plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Zhu, X.; Luo, Y.; Rafique, R.; Chen, H.; Huang, J.; Mo, J.

    2014-09-01

    Leguminous tree plantations at phosphorus (P) limited sites may result in excess nitrogen (N) and higher rates of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. However, the effects of N and P applications on soil N2O emissions from plantations with N-fixing vs. non-N-fixing tree species have rarely been studied in the field. We conducted an experimental manipulation of N and/or P additions in two plantations with Acacia auriculiformis (AA, N-fixing) and Eucalyptus urophylla (EU, non-N-fixing) in South China. The objective was to determine the effects of N or P addition alone, as well as NP application together on soil N2O emissions from these tropical plantations. We found that the average N2O emission from control was greater in the AA (2.3 ± 0.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1) than in EU plantation (1.9 ± 0.1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1). For the AA plantation, N addition stimulated N2O emission from the soil while P addition did not. Applications of N with P together significantly decreased N2O emission compared to N addition alone, especially in the high-level treatments (decreased by 18%). In the EU plantation, N2O emissions significantly decreased in P-addition plots compared with the controls; however, N and NP additions did not. The different response of N2O emission to N or P addition was attributed to the higher initial soil N status in the AA than that of EU plantation, due to symbiotic N fixation in the former. Our result suggests that atmospheric N deposition potentially stimulates N2O emissions from leguminous tree plantations in the tropics, whereas P fertilization has the potential to mitigate N-deposition-induced N2O emissions from such plantations.

  11. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  12. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  13. Short-rotation management of Eucalyptus: Guidelines for plantations in Hawaii. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesell, C.D.; DeBell, D.S.; Schubert, T.H.; Strand, R.F.; Crabb, T.B.

    1992-11-01

    A 10-year research and development program was conducted on the island of Hawaii, where nearly 230,000 acres are suitable for growing biomass in short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations. Successful techniques are described for seedling production, plantation establishment (site preparation, weed control, planting), maintenance (weed control, fertilization), biomass yield estimation, and harvest. Basic biological relationships are described to aid decisions on site selection, initial spacing, fertilizer schedules, and rotation length. Environmental issues likely to be faced by growers of Eucalyptus plantations are discussed, including soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and monocultures. Continuing programs for tree improvement, monitoring, and silviculture research are recommeded. Production costs for biomass yields are estimated for three promising management regimes, representing pure Eucalyptus plantings at dense and wide spacings and a mixed species plantation where Albizia is used as a nurse crop to provide nitrogen needed for optimum Eucalyptus growth.

  14. Monitoring expansion of plantations in Lao tropical forests using Landsat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phompila, Chittana; Lewis, Megan; Clarke, Kenneth; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2014-11-01

    Clearing of native forest for plantation expansion is a significant component of land use change in many tropical regions. The continuing expansion of plantations has many environmental consequences, including the loss and fragmentation of habitat, alteration of nutrient cycling processes, reduction in environmentally sequestered carbon, increased soil erosion and land degradation, and loss of biodiversity. The primary goal of this research was to develop and test remote sensing methods to detect the expansion of plantations in the southern part of the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). We used Landsat satellite imagery acquired between 2003 and 2012. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat temporal image pairs (2003-2006, 2006-2009 and 2009-2012) to identify areas of change. Change identification accuracy was evaluated by comparison against 1,240 random sample locations which had been independently classified from Google Earth imagery from 2006 and 2012. It was found that one of the principal components detected change in areas of plantation in the study area, with producer's accuracy of 92% and user's accuracy of 79%. This method was relatively easy to implement, involved no image purchase costs, and could be used by ecologists or forestry managers seeking to monitor forest loss or plantation expansion.

  15. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  16. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha(-1) and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha(-1), respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha(-1)). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential.

  17. Effects of Successive Rotation Regimes on Carbon Stocks in Eucalyptus Plantations in Subtropical China Measured over a Full Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqiong; Ye, Duo; Liang, Hongwen; Zhu, Hongguang; Qin, Lin; Zhu, Yuling; Wen, Yuanguang

    2015-01-01

    Plantations play an important role in carbon sequestration and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a dilemma in that most plantations are managed on short rotations, and the carbon sequestration capacities of these short-rotation plantations remain understudied. Eucalyptus has been widely planted in the tropics and subtropics due to its rapid growth, high adaptability, and large economic return. Eucalyptus plantations are primarily planted in successive rotations with a short rotation length of 6~8 years. In order to estimate the carbon-stock potential of eucalyptus plantations over successive rotations, we chose a first rotation (FR) and a second rotation (SR) stand and monitored the carbon stock dynamics over a full rotation from 1998 to 2005. Our results showed that carbon stock in eucalyptus trees (TC) did not significantly differ between rotations, while understory vegetation (UC) and soil organic matter (SOC) stored less carbon in the SR (1.01 vs. 2.76 Mg.ha-1 and 70.68 vs. 81.08 Mg. ha-1, respectively) and forest floor carbon (FFC) conversely stored more (2.80 vs. 2.34 Mg. ha-1). The lower UC and SOC stocks in the SR stand resulted in 1.13 times lower overall ecosystem carbon stock. Mineral soils and overstory trees were the two dominant carbon pools in eucalyptus plantations, accounting for 73.77%~75.06% and 20.50%~22.39%, respectively, of the ecosystem carbon pool. However, the relative contribution (to the ecosystem pool) of FFC stocks increased 1.38 times and that of UC decreased 2.30 times in the SR versus FR stand. These carbon pool changes over successive rotations were attributed to intensive successive rotation regimes of eucalyptus plantations. Our eight year study suggests that for the sustainable development of short-rotation plantations, a sound silvicultural strategy is required to achieve the best combination of high wood yield and carbon stock potential. PMID:26186367

  18. Malaria-associated rubber plantations in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Kaewwaen, Wuthichai; Maneekan, Pannamas; Pimnon, Suntorn

    2013-01-01

    Rubber forestry is intentionally used as a land management strategy. The propagation of rubber plantations in tropic and subtropic regions appears to influence the economical, sociological and ecological aspects of sustainable development as well as human well-being and health. Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries are the world's largest producers of natural rubber products; interestingly, agricultural workers on rubber plantations are at risk for malaria and other vector-borne diseases. The idea of malaria-associated rubber plantations (MRPs) encompasses the complex epidemiological settings that result from interactions among human movements and activities, land cover/land use changes, agri-environmental and climatic conditions and vector population dynamics. This paper discusses apparent issues pertaining to the connections between rubber plantations and the populations at high risk for malaria. The following questions are addressed: (i) What are the current and future consequences of rubber plantations in Thailand and Southeast Asia relative to malaria epidemics or outbreaks of other vector-borne diseases? (ii) To what extent is malaria transmission in Thailand related to the forest versus rubber plantations? and (iii) What are the vulnerabilities of rubber agricultural workers to malaria, and how contagious is malaria in these areas?

  19. Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity.

    PubMed

    Yue, Sam; Brodie, Jedediah F; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more "wildlife friendly." The degree to which plantations create edge effects that degrade habitat quality in adjacent forest also remains unclear, limiting our ability to predict wildlife persistence in mixed-use landscapes. We used systematic camera trapping to investigate mammal occurrence and diversity in oil palm plantations and adjacent forest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammals within plantations were largely constrained to locations near native forest; the occurrence of most species and overall species richness declined abruptly with decreasing forest proximity from an estimated 14 species at the forest ecotone to -1 species 2 km into the plantation. Neither tree height nor canopy cover within plantations strongly affected mammal diversity or occurrence, suggesting that manipulating tree spacing or planting cycles might not make plantations more wildlife friendly. Plantations did not appear to generate strong edge effects; mammal richness within forest remained high and consistent up to the plantation ecotone. Our results suggest that land-sparing strategies, as opposed to efforts to make plantations more wildlife-friendly, are required for regional wildlife conservation in biodiverse tropical ecosystems.

  20. Oil palm plantations fail to support mammal diversity.

    PubMed

    Yue, Sam; Brodie, Jedediah F; Zipkin, Elise F; Bernard, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural expansion is the largest threat to global biodiversity. In particular, the rapid spread of tree plantations is a primary driver of deforestation in hyperdiverse tropical regions. Plantations tend to support considerably lower biodiversity than native forest, but it remains unclear whether plantation traits affect their ability to sustain native wildlife populations, particularly for threatened taxa. If animal diversity varies across plantations with different characteristics, these traits could be manipulated to make plantations more "wildlife friendly." The degree to which plantations create edge effects that degrade habitat quality in adjacent forest also remains unclear, limiting our ability to predict wildlife persistence in mixed-use landscapes. We used systematic camera trapping to investigate mammal occurrence and diversity in oil palm plantations and adjacent forest in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Mammals within plantations were largely constrained to locations near native forest; the occurrence of most species and overall species richness declined abruptly with decreasing forest proximity from an estimated 14 species at the forest ecotone to -1 species 2 km into the plantation. Neither tree height nor canopy cover within plantations strongly affected mammal diversity or occurrence, suggesting that manipulating tree spacing or planting cycles might not make plantations more wildlife friendly. Plantations did not appear to generate strong edge effects; mammal richness within forest remained high and consistent up to the plantation ecotone. Our results suggest that land-sparing strategies, as opposed to efforts to make plantations more wildlife-friendly, are required for regional wildlife conservation in biodiverse tropical ecosystems. PMID:26910955

  1. [Characteristics of carbon storage and sequestration in different age beech (Castanopsis hystrix) plantations in south subtropical area of China].

    PubMed

    Liu, En; Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong

    2012-02-01

    To transform large area pure conifer plantations by planting indigenous and valuable broad-leaved tree species has been advocated as an effective close-to-nature forest management in sub-tropical China. Taking the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old Castanopsis hystrix plantations in Guangxi of South China as test objects and by the methods of plot investigation and biomass measurement, this paper studied the carbon content in different plant organs, litter layers, and soil layers and the carbon storage and its allocation in tree layer, litter layer and soil layer. For the test plantations, the carbon content in different C. hystrix organs ranged from 49.7% to 57.9%, and that in litter layer was 40.8%-50.5%, being higher in fresh litter layer than in semi-decomposed litter layer. The carbon storage in the soil profiles (0-60 cm) increased with plantation age but decreased with soil depth. The total carbon storage in the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 182. 42, 234.75 and 269. 75 t x hm(-2), respectively, among which, tree layer, litter layer and soil layer occupied 19.8%, 32.0% and 32.8%, 1.5%, 1.6% and 1.3%, and 78.7%, 66.4% and 65.9%, respectively. The annual net carbon sequestration of the 10-, 20- and 27-year-old plantations was 4.70, 5.64 and 5.18 t x hm(-2), respectively. It was considered that C. hystrix had a high capability in carbon sequestration, being able to be an ideal tree species for multi-purpose forest management with large and valuable timber production.

  2. [Dynamics of carbon and nitrogen storage of Cupressus chengiana plantations in the arid valley of Minjiang River, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Luo, Da; Feng, Qiu-hong; Shi, Zuo-min; Li, Dong-sheng; Yang, Chang-xu; Liu, Qian-li; He, Jian-she

    2015-04-01

    The carbon and nitrogen storage and distribution patterns of Cupressus chengiana plantation ecosystems with different stand ages in the arid valley of Minjiang River were studied. The results showed that carbon contents in different organs of C. chengiana were relatively stable, while nitrogen contents were closely related to different organs, and soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents increased with the stand age. Carbon and nitrogen storage in vegetation layer, soil layer, and the whole ecosystem of the plantation increased with the stand age. The values of total carbon storage in the 13-, 11-, 8-, 6- and 4-year-old C. chengiana plantation ecosystems were 190.90, 165.91, 144.57, 119.44, and 113.49 t x hm(-2), and the values of total nitrogen storage were 19.09, 17.97, 13.82, 13.42, and 12.26 t x hm(-2), respectively. Most of carbon and nitrogen were stored in the 0-60 cm soil layer in the plantation ecosystems and occupied 92.8% and 98.8%, respectively, and the amounts of carbon and nitrogen stored in the top 0-20 cm soil layer, accounted for 54.4% and 48.9% of those in the 0-60 cm soil layer, respectively. Difference in distribution of carbon and nitrogen storage was observed in the vegetation layer. The percentage of carbon storage in tree layer (3.7%) were higher than that in understory vegetation (3.5%), while the percentage of nitrogen storage in tree layer (0.5%) was lower than that in understory (0.7%). The carbon and nitrogen storage and distribution patterns in the plantations varied obviously with the stand age, and the plantation ecosystems at these age stages could accumulate organic carbon and nitrogen continuously.

  3. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  4. The impact of catchment conifer plantation forestry on the hydrochemistry of peatland lakes.

    PubMed

    Drinan, T J; Graham, C T; O'Halloran, J; Harrison, S S C

    2013-01-15

    The hydrochemistry of 26 small blanket bog lakes was examined to assess the impact of conifer plantation forestry on lake water chemistry. Lakes were selected from three distinct catchment land use categories: i) unplanted blanket bog only present in the catchment, ii) mature (closed-canopy) conifer plantation forests only present in the catchment and iii) catchments containing mature conifer plantation forests with recently clearfelled areas. All three catchment land uses were replicated across two geologies: sedimentary (sandstone) and igneous (granite). Lakes with afforested catchments across both geologies had elevated concentrations of phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N), total dissolved organic carbon (TDOC), aluminium (Al) and iron (Fe), with the highest concentrations of each parameter recorded from lakes with catchment clearfelling. Dissolved oxygen was also significantly reduced in the afforested lakes, particularly the clearfell lakes. Analysis of runoff from a nearby recently clearfelled site revealed high biological and chemical oxygen demands, consistent with at least part of the elevated concentrations of TDOC emanating from clearfelled sites having higher biochemical lability. Inorganic fertilisers applied at the start of the forest cycle, the decay of the underlying peat soil and accumulated surface tree litter, and leachate from felled trees are the likely sources of the elevated concentrations of plant nutrients, TDOC, heavy metals and major ions, with excessive peat soil disturbance during clearfelling likely exacerbating the runoff into lakes. Our study has demonstrated a clear, deleterious impact of conifer plantations on the water quality draining from blanket bog catchments, with major implications for the management of afforested peatlands.

  5. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions. PMID:26276276

  6. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    PubMed

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  7. Aggregate stability in citrus plantations. The impact of drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Arcenegui, V.

    2012-04-01

    Soil aggregate stability is a key property for soil and water conservation, and a synthetic parameter to quantify the soil degradation. Aggregation is relevant in soils where vegetation cover is scarce (Cerdà, 1996). Most of the research carried out to determine the soil aggregate stability was done in forest soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011) and little is done on farms (Cerdà, 2000). The research have show the effect of vegetation cover on soil aggregate stability (Cerdà, 1998) but little is known when vegetation is scarce, rare or not found such it can be seeing in agriculture soils. Then, aggregation is the main factor to control the soil losses and to improve the water availability. Moreover, agriculture management can improve the soil aggregate characteristics and the first step in this direction should be to quantify the aggregate stability. There is no information about the aggregate stability of soils under citrus production, although the research did show that the soil losses in the farms with citrus plantations is very high (Cerdà et al., 2009), and that aggregation should play a key role as the soils are bare due to the widespread use of herbicides. From 2009 to 2011, samples were collected in summer and winter in a chemically managed farm in Montesa, Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Ten irrigated patches and ten non-irrigated patches were selected to compare the effect of the drip irrigation on the soil aggregate stability. The Ten Drop Impacts (TDI) and the Counting the number of drops (CND) tests were applied at 200 aggregates (10 samples x 10 aggregates x 2 sites) in winter and summer in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The results show that the irrigated patches had TDI values that ranged from 43 to 56 % and that the non-irrigated reached values of 41 to 54 %. The CND samples ranged from 29 to 38 drops in the non-irrigated patches to 32 to 42 drop-impacts in the irrigated soil patches. No trends were found from winter to summer during the three years time period

  8. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang; Chen, Shiji

    2016-03-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ˜0.128 and 0.47 m, and ˜0.223 and 0.01 m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47 × 10-2 and 7.13 × 10-3, and 2.91 × 10-3 and 1.96 × 10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively.

  9. Energy plantations: a future source of biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, D.J.; Williford, M.

    1980-01-01

    Woody biomass can furnish a significant portion of alternative energy sources in the future. Mill and logging residues and biomass derived from existing forests will supply most of this wood energy in the next decade. Energy plantations have good potential for providing a dependable and sustained supply of woody biomass in the long term. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting a substantial research effort to develop fuels and chemical foodstocks from woody biomass. Seventeen projects are currently active and encompass four major research areas: species selection; stand establishment; cultural treatments and management alternatives;, and harvest, collection, transport, and storage. Research at N.C. State University shows loblolly pine, numerous indigeneous hardwoods, and the exotics: European black alder and numerous Eucalyptus species to have good potential for energy plantation culture on selected sites. Major consideration in evaluating energy plantations are land availability, site impacts, and competion for alternative land uses.

  10. Measurements of transpiration from Eucalyptus plantations, India, using deuterium tracing

    SciTech Connect

    Calder, I.R.; Swaminath, M.H.; Kariyappa, G.S.; Srinivasalu, N.V.; Murthy, K.V.; Mumtaz, J.

    1992-12-31

    Measurements of transpiration from individual trees in Eucalyptus plantations at four different sites in Karnataka, southern India, are presented. These show large (as much as tenfold) differences in the transpiration between pre and post monsoon periods; a reflection of the effects of soil moisture stress in the pre monsoon periods. For trees with diameters at breast height (DBH) less than 10 cm the transpiration rate of individual trees is proportional to the square of the DBH. For trees which are not experiencing soil water stress the daily transpiration rate of individual trees, q, is well represented by the relation: q= (6.6 {+-} 0.3)g m{sup 3}d{sup {minus}1} where g (m{sup 2}) is the tree basal area. On a unit ground area basis the transpiration rate, expressed as a depth per day, is given by the relation: E{sub t}= (0.66 {+-} 0.03)G (mm d{sup {minus}1}) where G (m{sup 2} ha{sup {minus}1}) is the total basal area per hectare. For all the sites studied, although there is evidence for the mining of soil water as roots penetrate deeper depths in the soil each year, there is no evidence for direct abstraction from the watertable.

  11. Cover crops for erosion control in bioenergy hardwood plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, R.K.; Green, T.H.; Mays, D.

    1996-12-31

    The use of cover crops between tree rows has been suggested as a means of reducing soil erosion in short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) plantations for bioenergy production. This study is designed to test whether cover crops could reduce erosion without significantly reducing the growth and biomass yield of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) planted as the SRWC at a 1.5 X 3 in spacing. Four cover crops, winter rye grass (Lolium multigeonum L., a winter annual grass); tall fescue (Fescuta eliator L., a winter perennial grass); crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L., a winter annual legume); and interstate sericea (Lespedeza ameata L., a growing season perennial legume), are tested at two different strip widths (1.22 and 2.44 m) as well as a control with complete competition control. Small berms were built to direct runoff to a sediment fence installed at the down slope ends of each plot. Soil erosion is measured by sediment accumulation near the fence. Height, ground-line diameter and crown width of trees were measured on a monthly basis. During the first growing season all cover crops reduced growth of trees. There were some significant differences among cover crop regimes. Slight differences in soil erosion were detected during the first growing season. The control plots lost more soil per hectare than cover crops, however, strip widths and cover crops did not show any significant difference.

  12. [Soil microbes functional diversity in sand-fixing Caragana microphylla communities in Horqin Sandy Land].

    PubMed

    Cao, Cheng-you; Yag, Jin-dong; Han, Xiao-shu; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-01

    Aimed to understand the soil microbes functional diversity in sand-fixing Caragana microphylla communities in Horqin Sandy Land, the soil microbial carbon sources metabolism diversity in 9-, 16-, and 26-yr-old C. microphylla plantations, natural C. microphylla community, and mov-ture, the average well color development (AWCD) and the capabilities of soil microbes in metabo-lizing carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, polymers, amino acids, amines, and aromatics were obvi-ously higher in moving sand dune than in the plantations. The carbon source types metabolized by soil microbes increased with the increasing age of the plantations, and the carbon source metabolic pattern of the soil microbes in 26-yr-old C. microphylla plantation was similar to that in natural C. microphylla community. The functional diversity and evenness index of soil microbes decreased after the establishment of C. microphylla on moving sand dune, whereas the functional diversity of soil microbes increased with increasing age of C. microphylla plantation.

  13. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    conditions. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of the rock fragment cover on soil and water losses in citrus plantations. Within the Corral Roig Soil Erosion Research Station, located in the Municipality of Montesa, 82 plots were selected with different rock fragment cover. In each circular plot of 0.25 m2, a rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour under dry conditions in the Summer of 2013 under very dry conditions. It was found that the soil erosion rates are related to percentage of bare soil, and negatively correlated to the rock fragment covers. A cover of 30 % of rock fragments reduces the loss of soil with 81%. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1999. Parent material and vegetation affect soil erosion in eastern Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63 (2), 362-368. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. 2009. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approachCatena, 85 (3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008.The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in

  14. CO2 and energy fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Herbst, Mathias; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding in Indonesia due to global increased demand of palm oil. Such plantations are usually set in previously forested land and in Sumatra, massive transformation of lowland forest into oil palm plantations is taking place. These land transformations have been identified as a potential driver of climate change, as they might result in changes of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, very limited information is available on GHG fluxes from oil palm plantations and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale is yet unknown. An eddy covariance tower was therefore installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, Sumatra (1° 50' 7'S, 103° 17' 44'E), with the aim of studying carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes during the non-productive phase of oil palm cultivation. The canopy was not yet closed and trees were around 2m high. The eddy covariance system consists of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek Anemometer, operating at 10 Hz and installed on a 7m tower. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, the site is equipped with a weather station, measuring short and long wave radiation, PAR, rainfall, profiles of air temperature, air humidity and wind speed, soil temperature and moisture and soil heat fluxes. Measurements started in July 2013 until January 2014, in order to capture possible differences which may happen during the dry (July-October) and wet (November-February) seasons. A large CO2 uptake would have been expected at this young oil palm plantation, as palm trees during this period of their cultivation are growing fast. However, our preliminary results show that during the first 5 months of measurements, the ecosystem was a small carbon source (below 10 g CO2 m-2). Latent heat flux was higher than sensible heat flux during the period of study, indicative of the high evaporation taking place. Our results show that both for CO2 and energy fluxes, large differences were observed between the

  15. [Formation causes of wind damage to Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Cao, Bang-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Mao, Pei-Li; Li, Cheng-Bo

    2012-08-01

    Based on the investigation of the gale-caused damage to the Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in the Yellow River Delta in June-July 2010, this paper measured the morphological indexes and root system characteristics of fallen trees, gap sizes, and soil compactness, aimed to analyze the formation causes of the wind damage to the plantation. Wind-falling was the main form of the wind damage to the R. pseudoacacia plantation, and the damage was more serious for the trees with the diameter at breast height of 15-20 cm. For the fallen trees, their tree height and their crown width, height, and taper degree increased significantly with the increase of the diameter at breast height, while the height under branch, the ratio of crown width to height, and the ratio of the height under branch to tree height showed no significant change. With the increase of diameter class, root length had a rapid increase first but a slow increase then, while root mass increased gradually. With increasing forest gap area, the number of fallen trees decreased after an initial increase, being the maximum in the gap areas of 100-150 m2. Soil compactness increased with soil depth, but did not show significant changes with the stand diameter class. Increased tree shape factors and suppressed root growth resulting from the increased diameter could be the main factors causing wind-falling, and forest gap played a promotion role. PMID:23189678

  16. [Formation causes of wind damage to Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in Yellow River Delta].

    PubMed

    Cao, Bang-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Juan; Mao, Pei-Li; Li, Cheng-Bo

    2012-08-01

    Based on the investigation of the gale-caused damage to the Robinia pseudoacacia plantation in the Yellow River Delta in June-July 2010, this paper measured the morphological indexes and root system characteristics of fallen trees, gap sizes, and soil compactness, aimed to analyze the formation causes of the wind damage to the plantation. Wind-falling was the main form of the wind damage to the R. pseudoacacia plantation, and the damage was more serious for the trees with the diameter at breast height of 15-20 cm. For the fallen trees, their tree height and their crown width, height, and taper degree increased significantly with the increase of the diameter at breast height, while the height under branch, the ratio of crown width to height, and the ratio of the height under branch to tree height showed no significant change. With the increase of diameter class, root length had a rapid increase first but a slow increase then, while root mass increased gradually. With increasing forest gap area, the number of fallen trees decreased after an initial increase, being the maximum in the gap areas of 100-150 m2. Soil compactness increased with soil depth, but did not show significant changes with the stand diameter class. Increased tree shape factors and suppressed root growth resulting from the increased diameter could be the main factors causing wind-falling, and forest gap played a promotion role.

  17. Contrasting nitrate adsorption in Andisols of two coffee plantations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Graham, G R; Rudolph, D L

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer use in coffee plantations is a suspected cause of rising ground water nitrate concentrations in the ground water-dependent Central Valley of Costa Rica. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated beneath two coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations in the Central Valley. Previous work at one site had identified unsaturated zone nitrate retardation relative to a tritium tracer. Differences in nitrate adsorption were assessed in cores to 4 m depth in Andisols at this and one other plantation using differences in KCl- and water-extractable nitrate as an index. Significant adsorption was confirmed at the site of the previous tracer test, but not at the second site. Anion exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction data, extractable Al and Si, and soil pH in NaF corroborated that differences in adsorption characteristics were related to subtle differences in clay mineralogy. Soils at the site with significant nitrate adsorption showed an Al-rich allophane clay content compared with a more weathered, Si-rich allophane and halloysite clay mineral content at the site with negligible adsorption. At the site with significant nitrate adsorption, nitrate occupied less than 10% of the total anion adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption may provide long-term potential for mitigation or delay of nitrate leaching. Evaluation of nitrate sorption potential of soil at local and landscape scales would be useful in development of nitrogen management practices to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water. PMID:11577895

  18. Contrasting nitrate adsorption in Andisols of two coffee plantations in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ryan, M C; Graham, G R; Rudolph, D L

    2001-01-01

    Fertilizer use in coffee plantations is a suspected cause of rising ground water nitrate concentrations in the ground water-dependent Central Valley of Costa Rica. Nitrate adsorption was evaluated beneath two coffee (Coffea arabica L.) plantations in the Central Valley. Previous work at one site had identified unsaturated zone nitrate retardation relative to a tritium tracer. Differences in nitrate adsorption were assessed in cores to 4 m depth in Andisols at this and one other plantation using differences in KCl- and water-extractable nitrate as an index. Significant adsorption was confirmed at the site of the previous tracer test, but not at the second site. Anion exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction data, extractable Al and Si, and soil pH in NaF corroborated that differences in adsorption characteristics were related to subtle differences in clay mineralogy. Soils at the site with significant nitrate adsorption showed an Al-rich allophane clay content compared with a more weathered, Si-rich allophane and halloysite clay mineral content at the site with negligible adsorption. At the site with significant nitrate adsorption, nitrate occupied less than 10% of the total anion adsorption capacity, suggesting that adsorption may provide long-term potential for mitigation or delay of nitrate leaching. Evaluation of nitrate sorption potential of soil at local and landscape scales would be useful in development of nitrogen management practices to reduce nitrate leaching to ground water.

  19. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  20. Environmental controls of evapotranspiration in a mixed plantation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Li, Jun; Zheng, Ning

    2016-07-01

    The mixed plantation plays an important role in the water cycle in the hilly area of North China. To evaluate the effect of afforestation on the water balance in this region, the temporal variation of evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental controls were investigated based on the eddy flux measurement of water vapor in a 31-year-old mixed plantation from 2006 to 2010. During 5 years, annual ET ranged from 513 to 680 mm, with an average of 579 mm. Growing season ET accounted for 72-82 % of annual ET during the 5-year period and its interannual variation was determined by the number of rainy days. In the non-growing and growing seasons, monthly ET was primarily dependent on monthly mean soil water content and monthly mean net radiation, respectively. Annual mean Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α) was 0.64, and the decoupling factor (Ω) was 0.48. High values of α and Ω implied that ET was energy limited in the growing seasons of 2006-2010. The mean annual ratio of ET to precipitation (ET/P) was 1.10. The density of the mixed plantation was around 50 % higher than the optimal value determined by local water capacity, leading to a large ET/P ratio. The dense plantation needs to be thinned to prevent excessive water loss in the hilly area of North China.

  1. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment.

  2. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  3. Plantation medicine in Hawaii 1840 to 1964: a patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Goodell, L M

    1995-11-01

    The first contract laborers arrived from China in 1852, but little attention was paid to their medical needs. In 1886 a physician from Japan arrived to minister to the health and medical needs of the Japanese immigrants. After 1900 most physicians caring for immigrant plantation workers were Western trained from the Mainland. Many advances in medicine were started on plantations such as the second x-ray machine in Hawaii. The 1950s brought rapid changes in plantation medicine with the closing of plantation facilities on Oahu. The author describes her personal experience as a patient in the plantation medical system. PMID:8586550

  4. Strategy for child immunization in Malaysian plantations.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B; Harun, F; Maniam, C R

    1994-01-01

    An outline is given of a simple cost-effective strategy aimed at the immunization of all children and pregnant women residing in the plantation sector of Malaysia. It is based on a partnership between government, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector, and is supported by UNICEF. PMID:7945748

  5. Strategy for child immunization in Malaysian plantations.

    PubMed

    Sinniah, D; Rajeswari, B; Harun, F; Maniam, C R

    1994-01-01

    An outline is given of a simple cost-effective strategy aimed at the immunization of all children and pregnant women residing in the plantation sector of Malaysia. It is based on a partnership between government, nongovernmental organizations and the private sector, and is supported by UNICEF.

  6. The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Mutual Help Association, Abbeville, LA.

    The Plantation Adult Basic Education Program started in 1970 as an alternative to poverty for sugar cane workers in Louisiana. The document discusses the various aspects of the poverty conditions that exist in the area, such as: housing, diet, health, education, and lack of consumer information, and how these existing conditions are to be changed…

  7. Ritual Kinship in a Dominican Republic Plantation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alum, Rolando A., II

    This paper presents an anthropological description of "compadrazgo" (cogodparenthood) as a sociocultural institution in a state owned sugar cane plantation in the southeastern part of the Dominican Republic. The enthnohistory of the compadrazgo cultural complex is outlined and the institution's roots in ancient Europe before its establishment in…

  8. Nutrient leaching losses in lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Syahrul; Corre, Marife D.; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, Sumatra, Indonesia is experiencing rapid expansion of oil palm and rubber plantations by conversion of rainforest. This is evident from the 2.9 thousand km2 decrease in forest area in this region over the last 15 years. Such rapid land-use change necessitates assessment of its environmental impacts. Our study was aimed to assess the impact of forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations on nutrient leaching losses. Land-use conversion increases nutrient leaching losses due to changes in vegetation litter input, rooting depth, nutrient cycling and management (e.g. fertilization) practices. Our study area was in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each soil landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured leaching losses using suction lysimeters installed at 1.5-m soil depth, which was well below the rooting depth, with bi-weekly to monthly sampling from February to December 2013. In general, the loam Acrisol landscape, particularly the forest and oil palm plantations, had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of dissolved organic N, Na, Ca, Mg, total Al, total S and Cl than the clay Acrisol of the same land uses (all P ≤ 0.05). Among land uses in the loam Acrisol landscape, oil palm had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of NH4+, NO3-, dissolved organic C, total P, total S and Cl than rubber plantation whereas forest and jungle rubber showed intermediate fluxes (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for total P); oil palm had also higher Na, Ca, Mg and total Al leaching fluxes than all the other land uses (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for Na

  9. Structure and composition of vegetation of longleaf pine plantations compared to natural stands occurring along an environmental gradient at the Savannah River Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Gregory, P.; Shelburne, Victor, B.; Walker, Joan, L.

    2001-12-30

    Study plots in 33-43 year old longleaf pine plantations were compared to remnant longleaf plots on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Within these stands, the structure and composition of primarily the herb layer relative to a presumed soil moisture or soil texture gradient was studied using the North Carolina Vegetation Survey methodology. Data were also collected on soils and landform variables. Based on ordination and cluster analyses, both plantation plots and natural stand plots were separated into three distinct site units (xeric, sub-xeric, and sub-mesic). Lack of a major compositional difference between xeric plantation and natural longleaf sites suggests that restoration of the herbaceous layer may not be as complex as once thought. This provides reasonable encouragement for the restoration of the longleaf pine ecosystem.

  10. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained.

  11. Assessing the environmental costs and benefits of plantations under future carbon pricing scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. B.; Barrett, D. J.; Farley, K.; Guenther, A.; Jobbágy, E. G.; Murray, B. C.; McCarl, B. A.; Schlesinger, W. H.

    2004-12-01

    Carbon sequestration programs are gaining attention globally as a means to offset increasing fossil fuel emissions and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. We are examining scenarios of C sequestration in four regions of the world: the U.S., South America, China, and Australia. The analysis uses economic models to predict where the plantations will be grown and then categorizes the other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. The goals of the project include: 1) Evaluating the assumptions behind C sequestration programs for plantations, including the importance of rotation rates, a full accounting of carbon costs (e.g., planting and site preparation), and how the C would be stored and safeguarded. 2) Examining the scale of the process needed to make a substantial contribution to offset fossil fuel emissions (see below). The scenario we have chosen to evaluate is one that addresses the consequences of storing 1 PgC yr-1 for 50 years. 3) Determining and summarizing the evidence for other biogeochemical changes that will likely occur. Some of the factors to be evaluated include soil acidification, changes in water fluxes and water-table dynamics, nutrient losses, changes in soil fauna and biodiversity, volatile organic carbon emissions, and erosion. 4) A final goal of the project is to make concrete recommendations for where plantations may be the most beneficial in terms of C storage and other environmental benefits, such as the amelioration of salinity and groundwater upwelling in Australia.

  12. Estimating aboveground biomass in Avicennia marina plantation in Indian Sundarbans using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Sudip; Nandy, Subrata; Chanda, Abhra; Akhand, Anirban; Hazra, Sugata; Dadhwal, Vinay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Mangroves are active carbon sequesters playing a crucial role in coastal ecosystems. In the present study, aboveground biomass (AGB) was estimated in a 5-year-old Avicennia marina plantation (approximate area ≈190 ha) of Indian Sundarbans using high-resolution satellite data in order to assess its carbon sequestration potential. The reflectance values of each band of LISS IV satellite data and the vegetation indices, viz., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI), and transformed difference vegetation index (TDVI), derived from the satellite data, were correlated with the AGB. OSAVI showed the strongest positive linear relationship with the AGB and hence carbon content of the stand. OSAVI was found to predict the AGB to a great extent (r=0.72) as it is known to nullify the background soil reflectance effect added to vegetation reflectance. The total AGB of the entire plantation was estimated to be 236 metric tons having a carbon stock of 54.9 metric tons, sequestered within a time span of 5 years. Integration of this technique for monitoring and management of young mangrove plantations will give time and cost effective results.

  13. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  14. [Storage and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Robinia pseudoacacia plantation at different ages in the loess hilly region, China].

    PubMed

    Ai, Ze-Min; Chen, Yun-Ming; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    The 9-, 17-, 30- and 37-year-old Robinia pseudoacacia plantations in the loess hilly region were investigated to study the dynamics and allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen storage. The results showed that the ranges of carbon and nitrogen contents were 435.9-493.4 g x kg(-1) and 6.8-21.0 g x kg(-1) in the arbor layer, 396.3-459.2 g x kg(-1) and 14.2-23.5 g x kg(-1) in the herb and litter layer, and 2.7-10.7 g x kg(-1) and 0.2-0.7 g x kg(-1) in the soil layer, respectively. The branch was the major carbon and nitrogen pool in the arbor layer, accounting for 46.9%-63.3% and 39.3%-57.8%, respectively. The maximum storage values were 30.1 and 1.8 Mg x hm(-2) for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, in the 0-20 cm soil layer in the 37-year-old R. pseudoacacia plantation. The total carbon and nitrogen storage in the R. pseudoacacia plantation ecosystem increased with increasing forest age, and the maximum values were 127.9 Mg x hm(-2) and 6512.8 kg x hm(-2) for carbon and nitrogen storage, respectively, in the 37-year-old R. pseudoacacia plantation. Soil layer was the major carbon and nitrogen pool of R. pseudoacacia plantation ecosystem, accounting for 63.3%-83.3% and 80.3%-91.4%, respectively.

  15. Rock fragment cover controls the sediment detachment in citrus plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Brevik, Eric; Giménez Morera, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Masto, Reginald E.; Jordán, Antonio; Wang, Juan

    2016-04-01

    conditions. The objective of this research is to determine the impact of the rock fragment cover on soil and water losses in citrus plantations. Within the Corral Roig Soil Erosion Research Station, located in the Municipality of Montesa, 82 plots were selected with different rock fragment cover. In each circular plot of 0.25 m2, a rainfall simulation experiments was carried out at 55 mm h-1 of rainfall intensity during 1 hour under dry conditions in the Summer of 2013 under very dry conditions. It was found that the soil erosion rates are related to percentage of bare soil, and negatively correlated to the rock fragment covers. A cover of 30 % of rock fragments reduces the loss of soil with 81%. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1999. Parent material and vegetation affect soil erosion in eastern Spain. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63 (2), 362-368. Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and Bodí, M.B. Soil and water losses from new citrus orchards growing on sloped soils in the western Mediterranean basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 34, 1822-1830. 2009. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1889 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E.C., Prosdocimi, M., Mahmoodabadi, M., Keesstra, S., García Orenes, F., Ritsema, C., 2015. The use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in Eastern Spain under low frequency - high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Res. (In press) Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2011. Ant mounds as a source of sediment on citrus orchard plantations in eastern Spain. A three-scale rainfall simulation approachCatena, 85 (3), 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008 Cerdà, A., Jurgensen, M.F. 2008.The influence of ants on soil and water losses from an orange orchard in

  16. Biomass in conifer plantations of northeastern Minnesota. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmann, L.F.

    1985-10-01

    The report provides biomass estimates for vegetative strata and herb-low shrub species for 53 conifer plantations in NE Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  17. Changes in ecosystem carbon and nitrogen in a loblolly pine plantation over the first 18 years

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dale W.; Todd Jr, Donald E; Tolbert, Virginia R

    2003-09-01

    Eighteen years after the establishment of a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation, ecosystem C content had approximately tripled (from 54 to 161 Mg C ha{sup -1}) primarily because of increases in tree biomass. Ninety-three percent of the net ecosystem C accumulated in biomass (100 Mg C ha{sup -1}) and 6% of net ecosystem C accumulated in the forest floor (13 Mg C ha{sup -1}). No statistically significant changes in soil C were found. Growth responses to fertilization noted in Year 4 were no longer statistically significant in Year 18. Nitrogen accumulation in aboveground biomass and forest floor were approximately equal (averaging approximately 270 kg N ha{sup -1} each) and could have come from a combination of atmospheric deposition, soil N mineralization, and, in the treated plots, fertilizer input. No statistically significant changes in soil N content were found. The results of this study are similar to those from a previous study in a loblolly pine plantation in South Carolina but contrast with those in nearby deciduous forests where substantial changes in soil C and N over similar time periods have been noted.

  18. Seasonality on the rainfall partitioning of a fast-growing tree plantation under Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    molina, antonio; llorens, pilar; biel, carme

    2014-05-01

    Studies on rainfall interception in fast-growing tree plantations are less numerous than those in natural forests. Trees in these plantations are regularly distributed, and the canopy cover is clumped but changes quickly, resulting on high variability in the volume and composition of water that reach the soil. In addition, irrigation supply is normally required in semiarid areas to get optimal wood production; consequently, knowing rainfall interception and its yearly evolution is crucial to manage the irrigation scheme properly. This work studies the rainfall partitioning seasonality in a cherry tree (Prunus avium) plantation orientated to timber production under Mediterranean conditions. The monitoring design started on March 2012 and consists of a set of 58 throughfall tipping buckets randomly distributed (based on a 1x1 m2 grid) in a plot of 128 m2 with 8 trees. Stemflow is measured in all the trees with 2 tipping buckets and 6 accumulative collectors. Canopy cover is regularly measured throughout the study period, in leaf and leafless periods, by mean of sky-orientated photographs taken 50 cm above the center of each tipping bucket. Others tree biometrics are also measured such as diameter and leaf area index. Meteorological conditions are measured at 2 m above the forest cover. This work presents the first analyses describing the rainfall partitioning and its dependency on canopy cover, distance to tree and meteorological conditions. The modified Gash' model for rainfall interception in dispersed vegetation is also preliminary evaluated.

  19. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    PubMed

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs. PMID:27463805

  20. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs. PMID:27463805

  1. Changes in Structure and Functioning of Protist (Testate Amoebae) Communities Due to Conversion of Lowland Rainforest into Rubber and Oil Palm Plantations.

    PubMed

    Krashevska, Valentyna; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Large areas of tropical rainforest are being converted to agricultural and plantation land uses, but little is known of biodiversity and ecological functioning under these replacement land uses. We investigated the effects of conversion of rainforest into jungle rubber, intensive rubber and oil palm plantations on testate amoebae, diverse and functionally important protists in litter and soil. Living testate amoebae species richness, density and biomass were all lower in replacement land uses than in rainforest, with the impact being more pronounced in litter than in soil. Similar abundances of species of high and low trophic level in rainforest suggest that trophic interactions are more balanced, with a high number of functionally redundant species, than in rubber and oil palm. In contrast, plantations had a low density of high trophic level species indicating losses of functions. This was particularly so in oil palm plantations. In addition, the relative density of species with siliceous shells was >50% lower in the litter layer of oil palm and rubber compared to rainforest and jungle rubber. This difference suggests that rainforest conversion changes biogenic silicon pools and increases silicon losses. Overall, the lower species richness, density and biomass in plantations than in rainforest, and the changes in the functional composition of the testate amoebae community, indicate detrimental effects of rainforest conversion on the structure and functioning of microbial food webs.

  2. Effects of mountain tea plantations on nutrient cycling at upstream watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.-C.; Shaner, P.-J. L.; Wang, L.-J.; Shih, Y.-T.; Wang, C.-P.; Huang, G.-H.; Huang, J.-C.

    2015-11-01

    The expansion of agriculture to rugged mountains can exacerbate negative impacts of agricultural activities on ecosystem function. In this study, we monitored streamwater and rainfall chemistry of mountain watersheds at the Feitsui Reservoir Watershed in northern Taiwan to examine the effects of agriculture on watershed nutrient cycling. We found that the greater the proportion of tea plantation cover, the higher the concentrations of fertilizer-associated ions (NO3-, K+) in streamwater of the four mountain watersheds examined; on the other hand, the concentrations of the ions that are rich in soils (SO42-, Ca2+, Mg2+) did not increase with the proportion of tea plantation cover, suggesting that agriculture enriched fertilizer-associated nutrients in streamwater. Of the two watersheds for which rainfall chemistry was available, the one with higher proportion of tea plantation cover had higher concentrations of ions in rainfall and retained less nitrogen in proportion to input compared to the more pristine watershed, suggesting that agriculture can influence atmospheric deposition of nutrients and a system's ability to retain nutrients. As expected, we found that a forested watershed downstream of agricultural activities can dilute the concentrations of NO3- in streamwater by more than 70 %, indicating that such a landscape configuration helps mitigate nutrient enrichment in aquatic systems even for watersheds with steep topography. We estimated that tea plantation at our study site contributed approximately 450 kg ha-1 yr-1 of NO3-N via streamwater, an order of magnitude greater than previously reported for agricultural lands around the globe, which can only be matched by areas under intense fertilizer use. Furthermore, we constructed watershed N fluxes to show that excessive leaching of N, and additional loss to the atmosphere via volatilization and denitrification can occur under intense fertilizer use. In summary, this study demonstrated the pervasive impacts of

  3. ORCHIDEE-SRC v1.0: an extension of the land surface model ORCHIDEE for simulating short rotation coppice poplar plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Groote, T.; Zona, D.; Broeckx, L. S.; Verlinden, M. S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vuichard, N.; Ceulemans, R.; Gobin, A.; Janssens, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    Modelling biomass production and the environmental impact of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations is necessary for planning their deployment, as they are becoming increasingly important for global energy production. This paper describes the modification of the widely used land surface model ORCHIDEE for stand-scale simulations of SRC plantations. The model uses weather data, soil texture and species-specific parameters to predict the aboveground (harvestable) biomass production, as well as carbon and energy fluxes of an SRC plantation. Modifications to the model were made to the management, growth, and allocation modules of ORCHIDEE. The modifications presented in this paper were evaluated using data from two Belgian poplar-based SRC sites, for which multiple measurements and meteorological data were available. Biomass yield data were collected from 23 other sites across Europe and compared to 22 simulations across a comparable geographic range. The simulations show that the model predicts very well aboveground (harvestable) biomass production (within measured ranges), ecosystem photosynthesis (R2 = 0.78, NRMSE = 0.064, PCC = 0.89) and ecosystem respiration (R2 = 0.95, NRMSE = 0.078 PCC = 0.91). Also soil temperature and soil moisture are simulated adequately, but due to the simplicity of the soil moisture simulation, there are some discrepancies, which also influence the simulation of the latent heat flux. Overall, the extended model, ORCHIDEE-SRC, proved to be a tool suitable for predicting biomass production of SRC plantations.

  4. Performance of Planted Herbaceous Species in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) Plantations: Overstory Effects of Competition and Needlefall

    SciTech Connect

    Dagley, C.M.

    2001-07-03

    Research to determine the separate effects of above-ground and below-ground competition and needlefall of over-story pines on under-story plant performance. Periodic monitoring of over-story crown closure, soil water content, temperature, and nutrients were conducted. Results indicate competition for light had a more determental effect on performance of herbaceous species in longleaf pine plantations than that resulting from competition for below-ground resources.

  5. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  6. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species.

  7. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  8. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. PMID:27136172

  9. Species trials for biomass plantations in Hawaii: a first appraisal. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, T.H.; Whitesell, C.D.

    1985-08-01

    Fast-growing trees producing high-density wood are required to justify from an exonomic standpoint short rotation biomass plantations. Nine species trials were established on five sub-tropical sites on the island of Hawaii. Survival and growth of 27 introduced species and the native Acacia koa were appraised at one or more locations, for periods from 24 to 60 months. Performance varied greatly, within, and between all species tested. Eucalyptus saligna and E. grandis usually proved to be the species best adapted to well drained sites. Most failures a-d unsatisfactory performances related to harsh site conditions, such as low soil fertility, droughts, and high winds.

  10. Quantifying nitrogen losses in oil palm plantations: models and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardon, Lénaïc; Bessou, Cécile; Saint-Geours, Nathalie; Gabrielle, Benoît; Khasanah, Ni'matul; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Nelson, Paul N.

    2016-09-01

    Oil palm is the most rapidly expanding tropical perennial crop. Its cultivation raises environmental concerns, notably related to the use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers and the associated pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. While numerous and diverse models exist to estimate N losses from agriculture, very few are currently available for tropical perennial crops. Moreover, there is a lack of critical analysis of their performance in the specific context of tropical perennial cropping systems. We assessed the capacity of 11 models and 29 sub-models to estimate N losses in a typical oil palm plantation over a 25-year growth cycle, through leaching and runoff, and emissions of NH3, N2, N2O, and NOx. Estimates of total N losses were very variable, ranging from 21 to 139 kg N ha-1 yr-1. On average, 31 % of the losses occurred during the first 3 years of the cycle. Nitrate leaching accounted for about 80 % of the losses. A comprehensive Morris sensitivity analysis showed the most influential variables to be soil clay content, rooting depth, and oil palm N uptake. We also compared model estimates with published field measurements. Many challenges remain in modelling processes related to the peculiarities of perennial tropical crop systems such as oil palm more accurately.

  11. Spatial Pattern of Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia and Cotton Plants with Wilt Symptoms in Commercial Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Spatial patterns of pathogen inoculum in field soils and the resulting patterns of disease may reflect the underlying mechanisms of pathogen dispersal. This knowledge can be used to design more efficient sampling schemes for assessing diseases. Spatial patterns of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia were characterized in commercial cotton fields through quadrat and point sampling in 1994 and 2013, respectively. Furthermore, cotton plants with wilt symptoms, caused by V. dahliae, were assessed in six commercial cotton fields in 2013. Soil samples were assayed for the density of microsclerotia (expressed as CFU g-1 of soil) using a wet-sieving plating method and a real-time quantitative PCR method for the 1994 and 2013 study, respectively. The estimated inoculum threshold for causing wilt development on individual plants varied with the three fields: ca. 1.6 CFU g-1 of soil for one field, and 7.2 CFU g-1 of soil for the other two. Both quadrat and point sampling spatial analyses showed that aggregation of V. dahliae inoculum in soils was usually not detected beyond 1.0 m. Similarly, the spatial patterns of wilted cotton plants indicated that spatial aggregation of diseased plants were only observed below the scale of 1.0 m in six commercial cotton plantations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of both V. dahliae inoculum and cotton plants with wilt symptoms is not likely to be detected above the scale of 1.0 m for most commercial cotton plantations. When designing schemes for assessing wilt inoculum and wilt development, this scale needs to be taken into consideration. PMID:26167868

  12. Spatial Pattern of Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia and Cotton Plants with Wilt Symptoms in Commercial Plantations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Shang, Wenjing; Yang, Jiarong; Hu, Xiaoping; Xu, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Spatial patterns of pathogen inoculum in field soils and the resulting patterns of disease may reflect the underlying mechanisms of pathogen dispersal. This knowledge can be used to design more efficient sampling schemes for assessing diseases. Spatial patterns of Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia were characterized in commercial cotton fields through quadrat and point sampling in 1994 and 2013, respectively. Furthermore, cotton plants with wilt symptoms, caused by V. dahliae, were assessed in six commercial cotton fields in 2013. Soil samples were assayed for the density of microsclerotia (expressed as CFU g-1 of soil) using a wet-sieving plating method and a real-time quantitative PCR method for the 1994 and 2013 study, respectively. The estimated inoculum threshold for causing wilt development on individual plants varied with the three fields: ca. 1.6 CFU g-1 of soil for one field, and 7.2 CFU g-1 of soil for the other two. Both quadrat and point sampling spatial analyses showed that aggregation of V. dahliae inoculum in soils was usually not detected beyond 1.0 m. Similarly, the spatial patterns of wilted cotton plants indicated that spatial aggregation of diseased plants were only observed below the scale of 1.0 m in six commercial cotton plantations. Therefore, spatial aggregation of both V. dahliae inoculum and cotton plants with wilt symptoms is not likely to be detected above the scale of 1.0 m for most commercial cotton plantations. When designing schemes for assessing wilt inoculum and wilt development, this scale needs to be taken into consideration.

  13. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    World persimmon production is 4 Millions tones and China produce more than 80 % of the total world yield. Korea and Japan are the second and the third producers respectively with 0.4 and 0.2 millions tones, and all three Asian countries concentrate more than 95 % of the world production. Spain produce less than 0.1 million tones but there is a sudden increase in new plantations due to the high prices and the new marked developed in Europe, Brazil and Arabic countries. The new chemically managed and highly mechanized plantations in Eastern Spain are using high doses of herbicides and the lack of vegetation is triggering high erosion rates. This paper aims to contribute with information about the soil losses on this new persimmon plantations and to develop strategies to reduce the soil and water losses. A 15 years old plantation of persimmon (Dyospirus lotus) was selected in Eastern Spain (Canals Municipality, La Costera District) to measure the soil losses on No-Tillage bare (herbicide treatments) management and on barley straw covered plots. The straw cover was applied 3 days before the expereriments at at doses that cover more than 50 % of the soil surface using 75 gr of straw per m2. Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0.25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The measurements were carried out during July 2014 on paired plots, under very dry soil moisture contents ranging from 4.65 to 7.87 %. The results show that the 3% cover of vegetation of the control plots moved to more than 60% due to the application of the straw. This induced a delayed ponding (from 60 to 309 seconds) and surface runoff (from 262 to 815 seconds) and runoff outlet (418 to 1221 seconds). The runoff coefficients moved from 60 % in the control plots to 29 % in the straw covered and the runoff sediment concentration was dramatically reduced from 11 to 1 g l-1. The total soil losses were higher that 1 Kg per plot in

  14. Evaluation of splash erosion at forest floor in mature Japanese cypress plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanko, K.; Mizugaki, S.; Onda, Y.; Hiramatsu, S.

    2005-12-01

    Poorly managed mature Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa) plantations in Japan have bared floor with little surface cover because cypress litter readily decomposes small pieces and weak penetration of sunlight results in poor growth of forest undergrowth, therefore suffered from surface erosion. In surface erosion process at forest floor, the effect of raindrop-impact-induced erosion would be high because the canopy produces large raindrops and promotes raindrops' erosive potential by increasing their kinetic energy. In this study, we evaluated the effect of slopes and transition of the splash erosion in order to investigate the process of surface erosion at bared forest floor. This study area is a mature Japanese cypress plantation in Taisho town, Shikoku Island, Japan. The splash erosion was observed by 27 splash cups (exposed soil area with 10cm in diameter) at forest slope with the inclination from 9 to 39°, respectively. The splash cups were divided five slope classes; each class value was 12.5, 20.5, 25.5, 29.5, and 37°. The splashed soil was separately collected in three split periods; each period had 86.2, 68.0, and 84.0 mm throughfall precipitation. Raindrop kinetic energy was simultaneously monitored by 2 laser raindrop-sizing instruments. Throughfall had similar drop size distribution and kinetic energy during each period and mean drop kinetic energy was 15.0 J m-2 mm-1. The splash rate during all observation period was 14.5, 11.4, 12.2, 9.1, and 4.6 g m-2 mm-1 at the each slope class, respectively. The splashed soil was found to reduce as time. Particularly the gentlest slope class had marked decrease for the splash rate; 25.2, 10.4, and 6.9 g m-2 mm-1 during 1st, 2nd, and 3rd period, respectively. On the other hand the steepest slope class had little change of the splash rate; 3.3, 6.7, and 4.2 g m-2 mm-1 . Some earlier studies using cultivated soil showed the splash rate increased with slopes, but this study showed contrary results. Although

  15. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    be corresponded to the reflectance from the bare land part (soil) and forest crown in the Acacia forest, respectively. In accordance with this spectral characteristic, we can estimate the proportional areas of the bare land and crown cover of the tree in the acacia plantation forest that will provide essential information for evaluating the forest ecosystem. We will define Bare land and Tree Crown Ratio Index (BTRI) that represent ratio of the areas of tree crown to areas of their access roads. Such information will delineate the characteristics of Acacia plantation and natural forest in mountainous region, and enable us to compare them with the plantation and forest in flat and low land.

  16. A STELLA Model to Estimate Water and Nitrogen Dynamics in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Plantation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jiaen; Leininger, Theodor D; Frey, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Although short-rotation woody crop biomass production technology has demonstrated a promising potential to supply feedstocks for bioenergy production, the water and nutrient processes in the woody crop planation ecosystem are poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to estimate the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) species (e.g., NH-N, NO-N, particulate organic N, and soluble organic N [SON]) in a woody crop plantation using STELLA (tructural hinking and xperiential earning aboratory with nimation) software. A scenario was performed to estimate diurnal and monthly water and N variations of a 1-ha mature cottonwood plantation over a 1-yr simulation period. A typical monthly variation pattern was found for soil water evaporation, leaf water transpiration, and root water uptake, with an increase from winter to summer and a decrease from summer to the following winter. Simulations further revealed that the rate of soil water evaporation was one order of magnitude lower than that of leaf water transpiration. In most cases, the relative monthly water loss rates could be expressed as evapotranspiration > root uptake > percolation > runoff. Leaching of NO-N and SON depended not only on soil N content but also on rainfall rate and duration. Leaching of NO-N from the cottonwood plantation was about two times higher than that of SON. The relative monthly rate of N leaching was NO-N > SON > NH-N. This study suggests that the STELLA model developed is a useful tool for estimating water and N dynamics from a woody crop plantation. PMID:25602335

  17. Organic productivity, nutrient cycling and small watershed hydrology of natural forests and monoculture plantations in Chikmagalur district, Karnataka

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, H.R.

    1992-12-31

    Tree measurement in representative, undisturbed 1 ha plots of pre-montane Shola, high-altitude evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests have thrown light on the understanding of forest structure. Standing biomass and productivity were estimated and found to be similar to those of other tropical rain forests. Measurement in a 58-year-old teak, a 22-year-old Eucalyptus and a 13-year-old Acacia plantation showed that teak was the most naturalized and Acacia most productive; Eucalyptus performed poorly among the monocultures. Soil studies indicated that topsoils were less acidic than the deeper horizons, and that high rainfall areas had more acidic soils. Cation exchange capacities were lower in grasslands and in monocultures than in natural forests. They also decreased down through the soil profiles indicating ion-exchange chiefly on organic sites. N was higher and more easily available in high rainfall areas. Irrespective of higher organic C in these sites, the C/N ratios in plantations and drier areas were still higher, indicating a faster eluviation of N, K, P, Ca and Mg levels were higher in the low rainfall areas. Micro-nutrient deficiencies were not indicated anywhere. Nutrient cycling was studied by litter dynamics, live tissue analysis and assessment of standing biomass. Nutrient cycling was more efficient in plantations and in Shola than in natural forests. Although nutrient capital of Eucalyptus plantation was only 29% of that in natural forests, it was found to be the most efficient nutrient utilizer. The hydrology of a small watershed harbouring a semi-evergreen forest indicating that surface run-off depends not only on precipitation but also on its distribution, indicating significant subsurface underflow.

  18. A STELLA Model to Estimate Water and Nitrogen Dynamics in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Plantation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ying; Zhang, Jiaen; Leininger, Theodor D; Frey, Brent R

    2015-01-01

    Although short-rotation woody crop biomass production technology has demonstrated a promising potential to supply feedstocks for bioenergy production, the water and nutrient processes in the woody crop planation ecosystem are poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to estimate the dynamics of water and nitrogen (N) species (e.g., NH-N, NO-N, particulate organic N, and soluble organic N [SON]) in a woody crop plantation using STELLA (tructural hinking and xperiential earning aboratory with nimation) software. A scenario was performed to estimate diurnal and monthly water and N variations of a 1-ha mature cottonwood plantation over a 1-yr simulation period. A typical monthly variation pattern was found for soil water evaporation, leaf water transpiration, and root water uptake, with an increase from winter to summer and a decrease from summer to the following winter. Simulations further revealed that the rate of soil water evaporation was one order of magnitude lower than that of leaf water transpiration. In most cases, the relative monthly water loss rates could be expressed as evapotranspiration > root uptake > percolation > runoff. Leaching of NO-N and SON depended not only on soil N content but also on rainfall rate and duration. Leaching of NO-N from the cottonwood plantation was about two times higher than that of SON. The relative monthly rate of N leaching was NO-N > SON > NH-N. This study suggests that the STELLA model developed is a useful tool for estimating water and N dynamics from a woody crop plantation.

  19. Application of composted pulp and paper mill sludge to a young pine plantation

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.J.; Line, M.A.; Wilson, S.; Hetherington, S.J.

    2000-04-01

    Disposing of sludge recovered from the effluent stream of pulp and paper mills has traditionally involved landfilling. Shortages in landfill space and increasingly stringent environmental regulations in many countries have forced the industry to seek alternative disposal options. The authors assessed the feasibility of compost-recycling a primary pulp and paper mill sludge (PMS) for use as a nutrient-releasing mulch in plantation forestry. The effects of the composted PMS on the growth, nutrition, water relations, and week suppression in a 3-yr-old plantation of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D.Don) on an infertile sandy soil in southern Tasmania were assessed. Compost was applied to the surface without incorporation in 0.5-m wide bands in tree rows at rates of 0, 20, 40, and 60 metric t ha{sup {minus}1} (dry matter). One year after application of compost, the percentage increase in stem diameter was 40 to 66% greater than that achieved in untreated plots, with better growth at the highest compost application rate. Improved growth of radiata pine after application of compost was primarily attributable to a 17 to 37% increase in the concentration of foliar N and to decreased water stress in amended plots. Nitrogen released from the compost was mostly absorbed by plant roots within the first 20 cm of the soil profile, with no significant movement beyond this depth range. Application of compost prepared from PMS to young stands of radiata pine was found to be acceptable recycling alternative for this material, capable of improving plantation productivity.

  20. [Population density of Eucalyptus urophylla plantation].

    PubMed

    Huang, B; Lu, C

    2000-02-01

    This paper dealt with the relationships and correlation models of the population density of 5.6 years old Eucalyptus urophylla plantation with its crown width, diamter at breast height(DBH), tree height, individual standing volume, stand volume, wood properties and survital rate. The results showed that the population density remarkably affected DBH, individual standing volume, crown width, live branch height, stand volume and wood fiber width; but not affect tree height, basic density of wood, and length of wood fibers. It had a positive relationship with stand volume, live branch height and wood fibers width, and a negative relationship with DBH, individual standing volume and crown width. In addition, E. urophylla had a wide range of reasonable density. For short-rotation puplwoods, the optimum planting density of E. urophylla is 2000 individuals per hectare. PMID:11766582

  1. Biomass and Carbon Sequestration in Community Mangrove Plantations and a Natural Regeneration Stand in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thant, Y. M.; Kanzaki, M.; nil

    2011-12-01

    Mg C ha-1 in Am plantation and 18 Mg C ha-1 in Ao plantation respectively. The averaged total soil carbon stock up to 1 m soil depth in plantation site was estimated to be 167 ± 58 Mg C ha-1 which was nearly two times higher than that of current paddy fields 85 ± 17 Mg C ha-1. These facts suggest the feasibility of the mangrove plantation and induced natural regeneration as a carbon sequestration tool. The establishment of mangrove plantations appeared to be one measure for reducing the risk of cyclone damage after the Cyclone Nargis. This may reduce future human loss by cyclones and also improve the life of local people by increasing timber resources and environmental services.

  2. Sampling open-top chambers and plantations for live fine-root biomass of loblolly pine. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnoch, S.J.; Marx, D.H.; Ruehle, J.L.; Baldwin, V.C.

    1993-09-08

    A soil-core sampling protocol was developed for estimating the standing crop of live fine-root biomass in young loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.). Some of the pines were in ozone experiments in open-top chambers. Others were in young plantations. Attempts were made to find strata that would reduce the variability of estimates. With the pilot study estimates of variability, sampling designs were developed to meet specified criteria of precision. Estimates of fine-root biomass based on three soil-core sizes increased monotonically with core size.

  3. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Asner, Gregory P.; Trigg, Simon N.; Gaveau, David A.; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O.

    2012-01-01

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989–2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007–2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994–2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008–2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet <10% of lease area was planted. Projecting business as usual (BAU), by 2020 ∼40% of regional and 35% of community lands are cleared for oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings. PMID:22523241

  4. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-01

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet <10% of lease area was planted. Projecting business as usual (BAU), by 2020 ∼40% of regional and 35% of community lands are cleared for oil palm, generating 26% of net carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  5. [Soil carbon and nitrogen storage of different land use types in northwestern Shanxi Loess Plateau].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Zhong; Wang, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Zhi-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) storage under five different land use patterns, i. e. , poplar and Caragana microphylla plantation, C. microphylla artificial shrubland, poplar plantation, bare land and cropland were studied in the hilly [ness Plateau of northwestern Shanxi. The results showed that the contents, densities and storage of SOC and TN varied remarkably under the different land-use patterns. Soil carbon and nitrogen contents and storage in the 0-20 cm soil layer were significantly higher in the 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil layers under each of the five land use patterns. In the same soil layer, the contents and densities of SOC and TN under the five land use patterns were in the order of poplar and C. microphylla plantation > C. microphylla artificial shrubland > poplar plantation > bare land > cropland. The SOC storage in the 0-60 cm soil layer was in the order of poplar and C. microphylla plantation (30.09 t x hm(-2)) > C. microphylla artificial shrubland (24.78 t x hm(-2)) > poplar plantation (24.14 t x hm(-2)) > bare land (22.06 t x hm(-2)) > cropland (17.59 t x hm(-2)). Soil TN storage had the same trend as SOC storage, and TN storage in the 0-60 cm soil layer was the highest (4.94 t x hm(-2)) in poplar and Caragana microphylla plantation, followed by C. microphylla artificial shrubland (3.53 t x hm(-2)), poplar plantation (3.51 t x hm(-2)), bare land (3.40 t x hm(-2)), and cropland (2.71 t x hm(-2)). Poplar and C. microphylla plantation and C. microphylla artificial shrubland were the good land use patterns in the process of vegetation construction and ecological restoration in the hilly Loess Plateau of northwestern Shanxi.

  6. The abundance and diversity of legume-nodulating rhizobia in 28-year-old plantations of tropical, subtropical, and exotic tree species: a case study from the Forest Reserve of Bandia, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Sene, Godar; Thiao, Mansour; Samba-Mbaye, Ramatoulaye; Khasa, Damase; Kane, Aboubacry; Mbaye, Mame Samba; Beaulieu, Marie-Ève; Manga, Anicet; Sylla, Samba Ndao

    2013-01-01

    Several fast-growing and multipurpose tree species have been widely used in West Africa to both reverse the tendency of land degradation and restore soil productivity. Although beneficial effects have been reported on soil stabilization, there still remains a lack of information about their impact on soil microorganisms. Our investigation has been carried out in exotic and native tree plantations of 28 years and aimed to survey and compare the abundance and genetic diversity of natural legume-nodulating rhizobia (LNR). The study of LNR is supported by the phylogenetic analysis which clustered the isolates into three genera: Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, and Sinorhizobium. The results showed close positive correlations between the sizes of LNR populations estimated both in the dry and rainy seasons and the presence of legume tree hosts. There were significant increases in Rhizobium spp. population densities in response to planting with Acacia spp., and high genetic diversities and richness of genotypes were fittest in these tree plantations. This suggests that enrichment of soil Rhizobium spp. populations is host specific. The results indicated also that species of genera Mesorhizobium and Sinorhizobium were lacking in plantations of non-host species. By contrast, there was a widespread distribution of Bradyrhizobium spp. strains across the tree plantations, with no evident specialization in regard to plantation type. Finally, the study provides information about the LNR communities associated with a range of old tree plantations and some aspects of their relationships to soil factors, which may facilitate the management of man-made forest systems that target ecosystem rehabilitation and preservation of soil biota. PMID:22864803

  7. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    PubMed

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  8. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations.

    PubMed

    Sahner, Josephine; Budi, Sri Wilarso; Barus, Henry; Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems.

  9. Degradation of Root Community Traits as Indicator for Transformation of Tropical Lowland Rain Forests into Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Edy, Nur; Meyer, Marike; Corre, Marife D.; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into intensely managed plantations is a threat to ecosystem functions. On Sumatra, Indonesia, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations are rapidly expanding, displacing rain forests and extensively used rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) agro-forests. Here, we tested the influence of land use systems on root traits including chemical traits (carbon, nitrogen, mineral nutrients, potentially toxic elements [aluminium, iron] and performance traits (root mass, vitality, mycorrhizal colonization). Traits were measured as root community-weighed traits (RCWTs) in lowland rain forests, in rubber agro-forests mixed with rain forest trees, in rubber and oil palm plantations in two landscapes (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan, Sumatra). We hypothesized that RCWTs vary with land use system indicating increasing transformation intensity and loss of ecosystem functions. The main factors found to be related to increasing transformation intensity were declining root vitality and root sulfur, nitrogen, carbon, manganese concentrations and increasing root aluminium and iron concentrations as well as increasing spore densities of arbuscular mycorrhizas. Mycorrhizal abundance was high for arbuscular and low for ectomycorrhizas and unrelated to changes in RCWTs. The decline in RCWTs showed significant correlations with soil nitrogen, soil pH and litter carbon. Thus, our study uncovered a relationship between deteriorating root community traits and loss of ecosystem functionality and showed that increasing transformation intensity resulted in decreasing root nutrition and health. Based on these results we suggest that land management that improves root vitality may enhance the ecological functions of intense tropical production systems. PMID:26366576

  10. Results of the 2000 Creek Plantation Swamp Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Fledderman, P.D.

    2000-10-30

    This report is a survey of the Creek Plantation located along the Savannah River and borders the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site. The land is primarily undeveloped and agricultural; its purpose is to engage in equestrian-related operations. A portion of Creek Plantation along the Savannah River is a low-lying swamp, known as the Savannah River Swamp, which is uninhabited and not easily accessible.

  11. [Seasonal dynamics of quantitative and morphological traits of poplar fine roots and their differences between successive rotation plantations].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-ping; Xu, Tan; Zhu, Wan-rui; Wang, Qi-tong; Liu, Meng-ling; Wang, Hua-tian; Li, Chuan-rong; Dong, Yu-feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on the fine root samples of the first and second generations of poplar (Populus x euramericana ' Neva'), this study examined the response of quantitative and morphological traits of fine roots of different orders and the difference between generations. The results showed that, the quantitative traits of fine roots, such as root length, root surface area and root biomass, presented obvious seasonal variation, and the fine root traits had obvious difference among root orders. The quantitative traits of lower-order fine roots showed significant seasonal difference, and the fine root biomass increased in the growing season and then decreased significantly. The specific root length (SRL) of higher-order roots also showed significant change with season, while the root length density (RLD) and root tissue density (RTD) changed a little. The successive rotation resulted in the significant increase of root length, root biomass, SRL and RLD of 1-2 orders in the growing season. The quantitative traits of first order root significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, and significantly negatively correlated with the soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, the quantitative traits of second order root only showed significant correlation with soil nutrient content. The seasonal dynamics of poplar fine roots and the difference between successive rotation plantations implied carbon investment change of poplar to roots. Soil nutrient deficiency induced more carbon investment into roots, and this carbon allocation pattern might affect the aboveground productivity of poplar plantation.

  12. Shifts in microbial biomass indicators track changes in carbon and nitrogen cycles during tree plantation development to 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, A. D.; Maillard, E.; Paré, D.

    2010-12-01

    In the context increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, there is a growing interest for using afforestation and reforestation to claim emissions reductions. Establishment of plantations necessarily involves silvicultural treatments that affect environmental conditions and hence soil microbial communities, influencing carbon and nitrogen cycles and potential soil carbon sequestration. We have monitored soil microbial indicators during a twenty year period of ecosystem recovery from disturbance at the Petawawa Research Forest (Ontario, Canada), in plantations of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca). The first ten years was marked by important changes in Cmic:Corg and Cmic:Nmic, related to vegetation control that provoked modification of bacteria:fungi ratios, accelerated N cycling and loss, as well as shifts in vegetation composition that are still quite marked after twenty years. After another 10 years (at 20 yrs) we note a closing of the N cycle and again important shifts in microbial indicators. In the humus, biomass C has recovered over time, but the Cmic:Nmic is decreasing constantly from 4 to 20 years, with increases in the Nmic pool; in the surface mineral soil, this increase in the Nmic pool is even more striking. Plots treated to control vegetation are dominated by conifers versus deciduous vegetation after twenty years, provoking a higher Cmic:Nmic in the humus layer. We attempt to interpret differences in the labile carbon fraction in the humus and mineral soil at twenty years in light of these observed dynamics.

  13. [Seasonal dynamics of quantitative and morphological traits of poplar fine roots and their differences between successive rotation plantations].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-ping; Xu, Tan; Zhu, Wan-rui; Wang, Qi-tong; Liu, Meng-ling; Wang, Hua-tian; Li, Chuan-rong; Dong, Yu-feng

    2016-02-01

    Based on the fine root samples of the first and second generations of poplar (Populus x euramericana ' Neva'), this study examined the response of quantitative and morphological traits of fine roots of different orders and the difference between generations. The results showed that, the quantitative traits of fine roots, such as root length, root surface area and root biomass, presented obvious seasonal variation, and the fine root traits had obvious difference among root orders. The quantitative traits of lower-order fine roots showed significant seasonal difference, and the fine root biomass increased in the growing season and then decreased significantly. The specific root length (SRL) of higher-order roots also showed significant change with season, while the root length density (RLD) and root tissue density (RTD) changed a little. The successive rotation resulted in the significant increase of root length, root biomass, SRL and RLD of 1-2 orders in the growing season. The quantitative traits of first order root significantly positively correlated with soil temperature and moisture, and significantly negatively correlated with the soil organic matter and soil available nitrogen content. However, the quantitative traits of second order root only showed significant correlation with soil nutrient content. The seasonal dynamics of poplar fine roots and the difference between successive rotation plantations implied carbon investment change of poplar to roots. Soil nutrient deficiency induced more carbon investment into roots, and this carbon allocation pattern might affect the aboveground productivity of poplar plantation. PMID:27396110

  14. Estimating relationships among water use, nitrogen uptake and biomass production in a short-rotation woody crop plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Short-rotation woody crop has been identified as one of the best feedstocks for bioenergy production due to their fast-growth rates. However, the biomass production, nutrient uptake, and water use efficiency under adverse environmental condition are still poorly understood. In this study, a computer model was developed to undertake these issues using STELLA (Structural Thinking and Experiential Learning Laboratory with Animation) software. Two simulation scenarios were employed: one was to quantify the mechanisms of water use, nitrogen uptake and biomass production in a eucalypt plantation under the normal soil conditions, the other was to estimate the same mechanisms under the wet and dry soil conditions. In general, the rates of evaporation, transpiration, evapotranspiration (ET), and root water uptake were in the following order: ET > root uptake > leaf transpiration > soil evaporation. A profound discrepancy in water use was observed between the wet and dry soil conditions. Leaching of nitrate-N and soluble organic N depended not only on soil N content but also on rainfall rate and duration. The yield of biomass from the eucalypt was primarily regulated by water availability in a fertilized plantation.

  15. Effects of the Interception of Litterfall by the Understory on Carbon Cycling in Eucalyptus Plantations of South China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuhui; Hui, Dafeng; Wen, Meili

    2014-01-01

    For the purposes of forest restoration, carbon (C) fixation, and economic improvement, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla) has been widely planted in South China. The understory of eucalyptus plantations is often occupied by a dense community of the fern Dicranopteris dichotoma, which intercepts tree canopy leaf litter before it reaches the ground. To understand the effects of this interception of litterfall on C cycling in eucalyptus plantations, we quantified the mass of intercepted litter and the influences of litterfall interception on litter decomposition and soil respiration. The total mass of E. urophylla litterfall collected on the understory was similar to that collected by the traditional litter trap method. All of the eucalyptus litterfall is intercepted by the D. dichotoma canopy. Of the litterfall that was intercepted by D. dichotoma, 20–40% and 60–80% was intercepted by the top (50–100 cm) and bottom (0–50 cm) of the understory canopy, respectively. Intercepted litterfall decomposed faster at the bottom of understory canopy (at the base of the plants) than at the top, and decomposition was slower on the soil surface in the absence of understory than on any location in the understory canopy. Soil respiration was highest when both the understory and litter were present and was lowest when both the understory and litter were absent. These results indicate that litterfall interception changed carbon flow between aboveground and belowground through litter decomposition and soil respiration, which changed carbon cycling in eucalyptus plantations. The effects of the understory on litter decomposition and soil respiration should be considered in ecosystem carbon models. PMID:24959853

  16. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  17. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  18. [Evaluation of soil quality under different land use types in Naban River watershed, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Li, Zhao-Li; Li, Yong-Mei; Guo, Fang-Fang

    2011-12-01

    Eighty-six topsoil (0-20 cm) samples were collected from 8 land use types (natural forest land, maize field, tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, flax field, banana plantation, and sugarcane field) in the Naban River Watershed National Nature Reserve and its surrounding areas, and the soil physical and chemical properties were analyzed, aimed to study the effects of land use type on the soil quality by the method of soil quality index (SQI). Comparing with natural forest land, all the cultivated lands had somewhat decreased soil organic matter content and higher soil bulk density, and the soil bulk density was significantly higher in tea garden, paddy field, rubber plantation, and banana plantation. In cultivated lands, fertilization and reclamation made the soil available potassium and phosphorus contents maintained at a higher level, probably due to the input of mineral potassium and phosphorus and the decomposition of soil organic matter. The SQI of the 8 land use types was in the order of flax field (0.595) > natural forest land (0.532) > maize field (0.516) > banana plantation (0.485) tea garden (0.480) sugarcane field (0.463) > paddy field (0.416) > rubber plantation (0.362). The soils in higher altitude production demonstration areas (1614 +/-115 m) had significant higher SQI, compared to the soils in lower altitude buffer areas (908 +/- 98 m) and junction areas (926 +/- 131 m). Among the 8 land use types, the rubber plantation in lower altitude areas had the lowest SQI, due to the lower soil organic matter and available potassium and phosphorus contents and the highest soil bulk density. Application of organic manure or intercropping with leguminous plants could be an available practice to improve the soil quality of the rubber plantation.

  19. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Bruce; Oliveria, Emerson Barbosa de; Haigh, Emily; Almeida, Lourenço Leal de

    2002-07-01

    Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations. PMID:12219123

  20. Depauperate Avifauna in Plantations Compared to Forests and Exurban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Haskell, David G.; Evans, Jonathan P.; Pelkey, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    Native forests are shrinking worldwide, causing a loss of biological diversity. Our ability to prioritize forest conservation actions is hampered by a lack of information about the relative impacts of different types of forest loss on biodiversity. In particular, we lack rigorous comparisons of the effects of clearing forests for tree plantations and for human settlements, two leading causes of deforestation worldwide. We compared avian diversity in forests, plantations and exurban areas on the Cumberland Plateau, USA, an area of global importance for biodiversity. By combining field surveys with digital habitat databases, and then analyzing diversity at multiple scales, we found that plantations had lower diversity and fewer conservation priority species than did other habitats. Exurban areas had higher diversity than did native forests, but native forests outscored exurban areas for some measures of conservation priority. Overall therefore, pine plantations had impoverished avian communities relative to both native forests and to exurban areas. Thus, reports on the status of forests give misleading signals about biological diversity when they include plantations in their estimates of forest cover but exclude forested areas in which humans live. Likewise, forest conservation programs should downgrade incentives for plantations and should include settled areas within their purview. PMID:17183694

  1. Organically fertilized tea plantation stimulates N2O emissions and lowers NO fluxes in subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Wei, Y.; Liu, C.; Zheng, X.; Xie, B.

    2015-07-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, but so far there are very few studies including direct measurements on nitrogenous gases fluxes from tea plantations. On the basis of 2 year field measurements from 2012 to 2014, we provided an insight into the assessment of annual nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes from Chinese subtropical tea plantations under three practices of conventional urea application, alternative oilcake incorporation and no nitrogen fertilization. Clearly, the N2O and NO fluxes exhibited large intra- and inter-annual variations, and furthermore their temporal variability could be well described by a combination of soil environmental factors including soil mineral N, water-filled pore space and temperature, based on a revised "hole-in-the-pipe" model. Averaged over 2 years, annual background N2O and NO emissions were approximately 4.0 and 1.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Compared to no nitrogen fertilization, both urea and oilcake application significantly stimulated annual N2O and NO emissions, amounting to 14.4-32.7 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 and at least 12.3-19.4 kg NO-N ha-1 yr-1. In comparison with conventional urea treatment, on average, the application of organic fertilizer significantly increased N2O emission by 71 % but decreased NO emission by 22 %. Although the magnitude of N2O and NO fluxes was substantially influenced by N source, the annual direct emission factors of fertilizer N were estimated to be 2.8-5.9, 2.7-4.0 and 6.8-9.1 % for N2O, NO and N2O + NO, respectively, which are significantly higher than those defaults for global upland croplands. This indicated that the rarely determined N2O and NO formation appeared to be a significant pathway in the nitrogen cycle of tea plantations, which are a potential source of national nitrogenous gases inventory.

  2. Organically fertilized tea plantation stimulates N2O emissions and lowers NO fluxes in subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Wei, Y.; Liu, C.; Zheng, X.; Xie, B.

    2015-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, but so far there are very few studies including direct measurements of nitrogenous gas fluxes from tea plantations. On the basis of 2-year field measurements from 2012 to 2014, we provided an insight into the assessment of annual nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) fluxes from Chinese subtropical tea plantations under three practices of conventional urea application, alternative oilcake incorporation and no nitrogen fertilization. Clearly, the N2O and NO fluxes exhibited large intra- and inter-annual variations, and furthermore, their temporal variability could be well described by a combination of soil environmental factors including soil mineral N, water-filled pore space and temperature, based on a revised "hole-in-the-pipe" model. Averaged over a 2-year study, annual background N2O and NO emissions were approximately 4.0 and 1.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Compared to no nitrogen fertilization, both urea and oilcake application significantly stimulated annual N2O and NO emissions, amounting to 14.4-32.7 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 and at least 12.3-19.4 kg NO-N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. In comparison with conventional urea treatment, on average, the application of organic fertilizer significantly increased N2O emission by 71 % but decreased NO emission by 22 %. Although the magnitude of N2O and NO fluxes was substantially influenced by the source of N, the annual direct emission factors of N fertilizer were estimated to be 2.8-5.9, 2.7-4.0 and 6.8-9.1 % for N2O, NO and N2O+NO, respectively, which are significantly higher than those defaults for global upland croplands. This indicated that the rarely determined N2O and NO formation appeared to be a significant pathway in the nitrogen cycle of tea plantations, which are a potential source of national nitrogenous gases inventory.

  3. [A site index model for Larix principis-rupprechtii plantation in Saihanba, north China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-zhi; Zhang, Dong-yan; Jiang, Feng-ling; Bai, Ye; Zhang, Zhi-dong; Huang, Xuan-rui

    2015-11-01

    It is often difficult to estimate site indices for different types of plantation by using an ordinary site index model. The objective of this paper was to establish a site index model for plantations in varied site conditions, and assess the site qualities. In this study, a nonlinear mixed site index model was constructed based on data from the second class forest resources inventory and 173 temporary sample plots. The results showed that the main limiting factors for height growth of Larix principis-rupprechtii were elevation, slope, soil thickness and soil type. A linear regression model was constructed for the main constraining site factors and dominant tree height, with the coefficient of determination being 0.912, and the baseline age of Larix principis-rupprechtii determined as 20 years. The nonlinear mixed site index model parameters for the main site types were estimated (R2 > 0.85, the error between the predicted value and the actual value was in the range of -0.43 to 0.45, with an average root mean squared error (RMSE) in the range of 0.907 to 1.148). The estimation error between the predicted value and the actual value of dominant tree height for the main site types was in the confidence interval of [-0.95, 0.95]. The site quality of the high altitude-shady-sandy loam-medium soil layer was the highest and that of low altitude-sunny-sandy loam-medium soil layer was the lowest, while the other two sites were moderate. PMID:26915198

  4. Effects of Eucalyptus plantations on detritus, decomposers, and detritivores in streams.

    PubMed

    Graça, Manuel A S; Pozo, Jesús; Canhoto, Cristina; Elosegi, Arturo

    2002-04-30

    retarded or suppressed fungal growth. Streams bordered by Eucalyptus had lower diversity of fungal spores (but similar spore densities) in Portugal; less consistent patterns were found in similar experiments in Spain. Eucalyptus leaves proved to be poor food for shredders. Under laboratory conditions leaves of Eucalyptus ranked low in food selection experiments using native shredders. The same shredders failed to grow and died when fed exclusively eucalypt leaves. The removal of oils from eucalypt leaves resulted in increased feeding rates, whereas the transfer of oils to alder leaves resulted in decreased feeding rates. The effect of eucalypt plantations on stream invertebrate communities is not very consistent. In nutrient-poor waters, fewer invertebrates colonized eucalypt than alder leaves, but this effect was mitigated after a microbial conditioning period in nutrient-rich waters. Portuguese streams bordered by Eucalyptus had lower numbers of invertebrates than streams surrounded by deciduous forests. In Spanish streams differences were less marked and nonexistent when looking at the composition of the communities, which change more from year to year than from site to site. Most of the eucalypt streams studied in Portugal and Spain dried up in summer, a fact that might reflect an increase in soil hydrophobity produced by Eucalyptus plantations. The very short planting-to-harvest period of eucalypt plantations results in additional impacts, such as soil loss, siltation of streams, or reduced amounts of woody debris in stream channels, which affects their capacity to retain leaf-litter, as well as the availability of habitat for invertebrates and fish. The studies by the Portuguese and Spanish research teams confirm the importance of maintaining riparian buffer strips to reduce human impact on streams and rivers. PMID:12805976

  5. Effects of Eucalyptus plantations on detritus, decomposers, and detritivores in streams.

    PubMed

    Graça, Manuel A S; Pozo, Jesús; Canhoto, Cristina; Elosegi, Arturo

    2002-04-30

    retarded or suppressed fungal growth. Streams bordered by Eucalyptus had lower diversity of fungal spores (but similar spore densities) in Portugal; less consistent patterns were found in similar experiments in Spain. Eucalyptus leaves proved to be poor food for shredders. Under laboratory conditions leaves of Eucalyptus ranked low in food selection experiments using native shredders. The same shredders failed to grow and died when fed exclusively eucalypt leaves. The removal of oils from eucalypt leaves resulted in increased feeding rates, whereas the transfer of oils to alder leaves resulted in decreased feeding rates. The effect of eucalypt plantations on stream invertebrate communities is not very consistent. In nutrient-poor waters, fewer invertebrates colonized eucalypt than alder leaves, but this effect was mitigated after a microbial conditioning period in nutrient-rich waters. Portuguese streams bordered by Eucalyptus had lower numbers of invertebrates than streams surrounded by deciduous forests. In Spanish streams differences were less marked and nonexistent when looking at the composition of the communities, which change more from year to year than from site to site. Most of the eucalypt streams studied in Portugal and Spain dried up in summer, a fact that might reflect an increase in soil hydrophobity produced by Eucalyptus plantations. The very short planting-to-harvest period of eucalypt plantations results in additional impacts, such as soil loss, siltation of streams, or reduced amounts of woody debris in stream channels, which affects their capacity to retain leaf-litter, as well as the availability of habitat for invertebrates and fish. The studies by the Portuguese and Spanish research teams confirm the importance of maintaining riparian buffer strips to reduce human impact on streams and rivers.

  6. Evapotranspiration of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivated at two plantation sites in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Mudd, Ryan G.; Liu, Wen; Ziegler, Alan D.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the effects of expanding rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) cultivation on water cycling in Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA), evapotranspiration (ET) was measured within rubber plantations at Bueng Kan, Thailand, and Kampong Cham, Cambodia. After energy closure adjustment, mean annual rubber ET was 1211 and 1459 mm yr-1 at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively, higher than that of other tree-dominated land covers in the region, including tropical seasonal forest (812-1140 mm yr-1), and savanna (538-1060 mm yr-1). The mean proportion of net radiation used for ET by rubber (0.725) is similar to that of tropical rainforest (0.729) and much higher than that of tropical seasonal forest (0.595) and savanna (0.548). Plant area index (varies with leaf area changes), explains 88.2% and 73.1% of the variance in the ratio of latent energy flux (energy equivalent of ET) to potential latent energy flux (LE/LEpot) for midday rain-free periods at the Thailand and Cambodia sites, respectively. High annual rubber ET results from high late dry season water use, associated with rapid refoliation by this brevideciduous species, facilitated by tapping of deep soil water, and by very high wet season ET, a characteristic of deciduous trees. Spatially, mean annual rubber ET increases strongly with increasing net radiation (Rn) across the three available rubber plantation observation sites, unlike nonrubber tropical ecosystems, which reduce canopy conductance at high Rn sites. High water use by rubber raises concerns about potential effects of continued expansion of tree plantations on water and food security in MSEA.

  7. Predicting dissolved organic nitrogen export from a drained loblolly pine plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shiying; Youssef, Mohamed A.; Skaggs, R. Wayne; Chescheir, G. M.; Amatya, Devendra M.

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) export from terrestrial ecosystems influences the ecology of receiving surface waters. The soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) model, DRAINMOD-N II, was modified to simulate key processes associated with DON transformations and transport in the soil profile. DON production is modeled by tracking dynamic C:N ratios of dissolved organic matter originating from various organic matter pools. The Langmuir isotherm was used to quantify the assumed instantaneous equilibrium between potentially soluble organic N in solid and aqueous phases. DON transport with soil water was simulated using a numerical solution to the advection-dispersion reaction equation. The modified model was used for simulating temporal variations of DON export from three loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations located in eastern North Carolina. Results showed that the model can accurately predict DON export dynamics during storm events with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (E) of 0.5, seasonal DON losses with E above 0.6, and annual DON losses with E above 0.7. In addition to the well-recognized role of hydrological processes, reasonable quantifications of the seasonal changes in the potentially soluble soil organic matter, the DON sorption to soil particles, and the dynamic C:N ratios of dissolved organic matter were found to be essential for mechanistic representation of DON export dynamics. Specifically, adapting the dynamic C:N ratios enabled the model to reasonably describe the temporal variations of correlations between DON and dissolved organic carbon in drainage water.

  8. FATE AND EFFECTS OF PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONS IN SOILS UNDER N2-FIXING RED ALDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil phosphorus (P) dynamics are controlled by the interaction of geochemical, biochemical and biological processes, and changing species composition or management may alter the relative importance of these processes. We examined the role of these processes in two plantations of...

  9. The barley straw residues avoid high erosion rates in persimmon plantations. Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    World persimmon production is 4 Millions tones and China produce more than 80 % of the total world yield. Korea and Japan are the second and the third producers respectively with 0.4 and 0.2 millions tones, and all three Asian countries concentrate more than 95 % of the world production. Spain produce less than 0.1 million tones but there is a sudden increase in new plantations due to the high prices and the new marked developed in Europe, Brazil and Arabic countries. The new chemically managed and highly mechanized plantations in Eastern Spain are using high doses of herbicides and the lack of vegetation is triggering high erosion rates. This paper aims to contribute with information about the soil losses on this new persimmon plantations and to develop strategies to reduce the soil and water losses. A 15 years old plantation of persimmon (Dyospirus lotus) was selected in Eastern Spain (Canals Municipality, La Costera District) to measure the soil losses on No-Tillage bare (herbicide treatments) management and on barley straw covered plots. The straw cover was applied 3 days before the expereriments at at doses that cover more than 50 % of the soil surface using 75 gr of straw per m2. Rainfall simulations under 55 mm h-1 rainfall intensity during one hour on 0.25 m2 plots were carried out on plots paired plots: bare and covered with straw. The measurements were carried out during July 2014 on paired plots, under very dry soil moisture contents ranging from 4.65 to 7.87 %. The results show that the 3% cover of vegetation of the control plots moved to more than 60% due to the application of the straw. This induced a delayed ponding (from 60 to 309 seconds) and surface runoff (from 262 to 815 seconds) and runoff outlet (418 to 1221 seconds). The runoff coefficients moved from 60 % in the control plots to 29 % in the straw covered and the runoff sediment concentration was dramatically reduced from 11 to 1 g l-1. The total soil losses were higher that 1 Kg per plot in

  10. [Biogeochemical cycles in natural forest and conifer plantations in the high mountains of Colombia].

    PubMed

    León, Juan Diego; González, María Isabel; Gallardo, Juan Fernando

    2011-12-01

    Plant litter production and decomposition are two important processes in forest ecosystems, since they provide the main organic matter input to soil and regulate nutrient cycling. With the aim to study these processes, litterfall, standing litter and nutrient return were studied for three years in an oak forest (Quercus humboldtii), pine (Pinus patula) and cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) plantations, located in highlands of the Central Cordillera of Colombia. Evaluation methods included: fine litter collection at fortnightly intervals using litter traps; the litter layer samples at the end of each sampling year and chemical analyses of both litterfall and standing litter. Fine litter fall observed was similar in oak forest (7.5 Mg ha/y) and in pine (7.8 Mg ha/y), but very low in cypress (3.5 Mg ha/y). Litter standing was 1.76, 1.73 and 1.3 Mg ha/y in oak, pine and cypress, respectively. The mean residence time of the standing litter was of 3.3 years for cypress, 2.1 years for pine and 1.8 years for oak forests. In contrast, the total amount of retained elements (N, P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in the standing litter was higher in pine (115 kg/ha), followed by oak (78 kg/ha) and cypress (24 kg/ha). Oak forests showed the lowest mean residence time of nutrients and the highest nutrients return to the soil as a consequence of a faster decomposition. Thus, a higher nutrient supply to soils from oaks than from tree plantations, seems to be an ecological advantage for recovering and maintaining the main ecosystem functioning features, which needs to be taken into account in restoration programs in this highly degraded Andean mountains.

  11. Dominance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea community induced by land use change from Masson pine to eucalypt plantation in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang-Qiu; Pan, Wen; Gu, Ji-Dong; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Wei-Hua; Zhu, Bao-Zhu; Wang, Yu-Xia; Wang, Yong-Feng

    2016-08-01

    A considerable proportion of Masson pine forests have been converted into eucalypt plantations in the last 30 years in Guangdong Province, subtropical China, for economic reasons, which may affect the ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) community and the process of ammonia transformation. In order to determine the effects of forest conversion on AOA community, AOA communities in a Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) plantation and a eucalypt (Eucalyptus urophylla) plantation, which was converted from the Masson pine, were compared. Results showed that the land use change from the Masson pine to the eucalypt plantation decreased soil nutrient levels. A significant decrease of the potential nitrification rates (PNR) was also observed after the forest conversion (p < 5 %, n = 6). AOA were the only ammonia oxidizers in both plantations (no ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were detected). The detected AOA are affiliated with the genera Nitrosotalea and Nitrososphaera. A decrease of AOA abundance and an increase of the diversity were evident with the plantation conversion in the surface layer. AOA amoA gene diversity was negatively correlated with organic C and total N, respectively (p < 0.05, n = 12). AOA amoA gene abundance was negatively correlated with NH4 (+) and available P, respectively (p < 0.05, n = 12). However, AOA abundance was positively correlated with PNR, but not significantly (p < 0.05, n = 6), indicating AOA community change was only a partial reason for the decrease of PNR. PMID:27094186

  12. Above- and belowground competition from longleaf pine plantations limits performance of reintroduced herbaceous species.

    SciTech Connect

    T.B. Harrington; C.M. Dagley; M.B. Edwards.

    2003-10-01

    Although overstory trees limit the abundance and species richness of herbaceous vegetation in longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) plantations, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood because of confounding among limiting factors. In fall 1998, research was initiated to determine the separate effects of above- and belowground competition and needlefall from overstory pines on understory plant performance. Three 13- to 15-yr-old plantations near Aiken, SC, were thinned to 0, 25, 50, or 100% of nonthinned basal area (19.5 m2 ha-1). Combinations of trenching (to eliminate root competition) and needlefall were applied to areas within each plot, and containerized seedlings of 14 perennial herbaceous species and longleaf pine were planted within each. Overstory crown closure ranged from 0 to 81%, and soil water and available nitrogen varied consistently with pine stocking, trenching, or their combination. Cover of planted species decreased an average of 16.5 and 14.1% as a result of above- and below-ground competition, respectively. Depending on species, needlefall effects were positive, negative, or negligible. Results indicate that understory restoration will be most successful when herbaceous species are established within canopy openings (0.1-0.2 ha) managed to minimize negative effects from above- and belowground competition and needlefall.

  13. Diversity and potential impact of Calonectria species in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Alfenas, R.F.; Lombard, L.; Pereira, O.L.; Alfenas, A.C.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Species in the genus Calonectria (Hypocreales) represent an important group of plant pathogenic fungi that cause serious losses to plant crops in tropical and subtropical climates. Calonectria leaf blight is currently one of the main impediments to Eucalyptus cultivation in Brazil, and various species of Calonectria have been associated with this disease. Since most previous identifications were solely based on morphological characters, much of the published literature needs to be re-evaluated. The aim of this study was thus to identify and determine the phylogenetic relationships among species that occur in the Eucalyptus growing regions of Brazil by using partial sequences of the β-tubulin, calmodulin, translation elongation factor 1-α and histone H3 gene regions. Based on extensive collections from soil and infected eucalypt leaf samples from plantations, phylogenetic inference revealed the Ca. pteridis complex to be the most common species complex present in Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. By elucidating taxa in the Ca. pteridis, Ca. cylindrospora and Ca. candelabra species complexes, 20 novel Calonectria species were identified, and a new name in Calonectria provided for Cylindrocladium macrosporum as Ca. pseudopteridis. PMID:26955192

  14. Development of oak plantations established for wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive areas that are currently in agricultural production within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley are being restored to bottomland hardwood forests. Oaks (Quercus sp.), sown as seeds (acorns) or planted as seedlings, are the predominant trees established on most afforested sites. To compare stand development and natural invasion on sites afforested by planting seedlings or by sowing acorns, we sampled woody vegetation on ten 14- to 18-year-old oak plantations established to provide wildlife habitat. Stem densities of about 900 oaks/ha were comparable between stands established by sowing 4000 acorns/ha and stands established by planting 900 seedlings/ha. Densities of oaks in stands established from seedlings increased 38% from densities detected when these stands were 4- to 8-year-old. Densities of oaks established from field-sown acorns increased >100% during this same 10-year span. Oaks that were planted as seedlings were larger than those established from acorns, but trees resulting from either afforestation method were larger than trees naturally colonizing these sites. Natural invasion of woody species varied greatly among afforested sites, but was greater and more diverse on sites sown with acorns. Afforested stands were dominated by planted species, whereas naturally invading species were rare among dominant canopy trees. When afforestation objectives are primarily to provide wildlife habitat, we recommend, sowing acorns rather than planting seedlings. Additionally, planting fewer seeds or seedlings, diversifying the species planted, and leaving non-planted gaps will increase diversity of woody species and promote a more complex forest structure that enhances the suitability of afforested sites for wildlife.

  15. Water balance analysis of a watershed dominated by Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in Felixlandia (MG, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian-Gamba, Otávio; Cristina-Tonello, Kelly; Garcia-Leite, Hélio; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Texeira-Dias, Herly C.

    2015-04-01

    Commercial eucalyptus plantations are commonly associated to excessive water use despite the fact that numerous studies have demonstrated significant differences among species and environmental systems. In fact, the analysis of its impact on water balance depending on specific environmental conditions is essential to guarantee its sustainability. The water balance of Eucalyptus grandis hybrid plantations in the Basin Creek of Riacho Fundo in Felixlândia, Minas Gerais (Brazil) is presented through a study of 2.6 years of measurements in a catchment of 719.9 ha. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships among precipitation, interception and evapotranspiration of eucalyptus plantations, for evaluating the weight on flow and effective precipitation. A triangular weir with a set of level- and baro-logger were used for measuring flow. Rainfall was measured with 2 pluviometers and evaporation using two evapotranspirometers Soil Control, Model JR-200mm. For througfall, eight plots of 136.5 m² each were installed with twelve pluviometers. To estimate the stemflow, the empirical equation Et = - 0.060 + 0.053 (P) was used, where P is the precipitation. The effective precipitation was calculated by summing of the througfall value plus the stemflow. The losses by interception were obtained by the difference between precipitation and effective precipitation. The analysis was carried out on the monthly and annual scales. The results showed that the measured rainfall was close to the average for the region, reaching values close to 1200 mm. The interception of the eucalyptus plantation for the period was approximately 12% of the external precipitation. There were neither significant relationships between flow and evapotranspiration nor between flow and effective precipitation, which shows the complexity of water components at the catchment scale. This is likely associated to the delay effect of the subsurface flow. The average flow for the period of study was

  16. AmeriFlux CA-TP2 Ontario - Turkey Point 1989 Plantation White Pine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP2 Ontario - Turkey Point 1989 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - Plantation established in 1989 over sandy agriculture land

  17. AmeriFlux CA-TP3 Ontario - Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine

    SciTech Connect

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP3 Ontario - Turkey Point 1974 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - White pine plantation established in 1974 over sandy abandoned land

  18. AmeriFlux CA-TP4 Ontario - Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Arain, M. Altaf [McMaster University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TP4 Ontario - Turkey Point 1939 Plantation White Pine. Site Description - White pine plantation established in 1939 over sandy abandoned land

  19. Classifying Indonesian Plantation And Natural Forest Cover And Measuring Changes With C-And L-Band SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xichao; Quegan, Shaun; Uryu, Yumiko; Zeng, Tao

    2013-12-01

    Tropical coverage by Envisat is sparse in space and time and has limited value for monitoring deforestation. The only available APG multi-temporal dataset over Riau province, Indonesia (9 images in a single year), is used to distinguish and monitor tropical plantations and their dynamics and is compared with L-band PALSAR data. For Envisat APG data, both VV and VH are important in discriminating different types of forest cover, while at L-band most of the relevant information is in the cross- polarised channel. Whether the underlying soil is peat or non-peat in acacia plantations has important effects on backscatter and classification. Supervised classification of the C-band data gave overall accuracies of 86.2% and kappa coefficient of 0.78 by comparison with land cover maps derived from optical data. Classifications from separate phases in the C-band time series allow the changes occurring in acacia plantations due to management to be tracked.

  20. Responses of a non N-limited forest plantation to the application of alkaline-stabilized dewatered dairy factory sludge.

    PubMed

    Omil, Beatriz; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa; Merino, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Amendment of forest soils with dewatered dairy factory sludge (DDFS), characterized by low heavy metal contents and high amounts of degradable C, can prevent the depletion of soil nutrients that results from intensive harvesting in forest plantations. However, this practice involves environmental risks when N supplies exceed the demand of plants or when the strong acidity of the soil favors the mobility of trace metals. These aspects were assessed in a young radiata pine plantation growing in a sandy, acidic, and organic N-rich soil for the 7 yr after application of a DDFS. The supply of limiting nutrients (mainly P, Mg, and Ca) provided by application of the DDFS, along with control of the ground vegetation, improved the nutritional status of the stand and led to increases in timber volume of more than 60 to 100%. Increases in soil inorganic N were observed during the first months after amendment. Data from soil incubation experiments revealed that some of the additional N was immobilized and, to a lesser extent, denitrified due to the readily available organic C content of the DDFS. Leaching and increased plant uptake of N were prevented by a combination of the latter processes and the low rate of nitrification. The strong acidity of the soil enhanced the availability of Mn and Zn to plants, although the maximum concentrations did not reach levels harmful to organisms. We conclude that although application of DDFS has positive effects on tree nutrition and growth and the environmental risks are low, repeated application may favor mobility of N and availability of heavy metals. PMID:17965379

  1. Responses of a non N-limited forest plantation to the application of alkaline-stabilized dewatered dairy factory sludge.

    PubMed

    Omil, Beatriz; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa; Merino, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Amendment of forest soils with dewatered dairy factory sludge (DDFS), characterized by low heavy metal contents and high amounts of degradable C, can prevent the depletion of soil nutrients that results from intensive harvesting in forest plantations. However, this practice involves environmental risks when N supplies exceed the demand of plants or when the strong acidity of the soil favors the mobility of trace metals. These aspects were assessed in a young radiata pine plantation growing in a sandy, acidic, and organic N-rich soil for the 7 yr after application of a DDFS. The supply of limiting nutrients (mainly P, Mg, and Ca) provided by application of the DDFS, along with control of the ground vegetation, improved the nutritional status of the stand and led to increases in timber volume of more than 60 to 100%. Increases in soil inorganic N were observed during the first months after amendment. Data from soil incubation experiments revealed that some of the additional N was immobilized and, to a lesser extent, denitrified due to the readily available organic C content of the DDFS. Leaching and increased plant uptake of N were prevented by a combination of the latter processes and the low rate of nitrification. The strong acidity of the soil enhanced the availability of Mn and Zn to plants, although the maximum concentrations did not reach levels harmful to organisms. We conclude that although application of DDFS has positive effects on tree nutrition and growth and the environmental risks are low, repeated application may favor mobility of N and availability of heavy metals.

  2. The expansion of farm-based plantation forestry in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Sandewall, Mats; Ohlsson, Bo; Sandewall, R Kajsa; Viet, Le Sy

    2010-12-01

    This study targets plantation forestry by farm households (small holders), which is increasing globally and most rapidly in China and Vietnam. By use of an interdisciplinary approach on three study sites in Vietnam, we examined the trends in farmers' tree planting over time, the various pre-requisites for farm-based plantation forestry and its impact on rural people's livelihood strategies, socioeconomic status, income and security. The findings indicated a change from subsistence to cash-based household economy, diversification of farmers' incomes and a transformation of the landscape from mainly natural forests, via deforestation and shifting cultivation, to a landscape dominated by farm-based plantations. The trend of transformation, over a period of some 30 years, towards cash crops and forestry was induced by a combination of policy, market, institutional, infrastructural and other conditions and the existence of professional farming communities, and was most rapid close to the industrial market.

  3. [Filamentous and phosphate solubilizing fungi relationships with some edaphic parameters and coffee plantations management].

    PubMed

    Posada, Raúl Hernando; Sánchez de Prager, Marina; Sieverding, Ewald; Aguilar Dorantes, Karla; Heredia-Abarca, Gabriela Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Soil properties and the environment have multiple outcomes on fungal communities. Although, the interaction effects between management intensity, pH, available phosphorus, organic carbon, soil texture and different fractions of water stable macro-aggregates on the communities of microscopic filamentous fungi (MFF), iron phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-Fe), and iron and calcium phosphate solubilizing fungi (PSF-(Fe+Ca)), have been previously evaluated in field conditions, this has never been performed in terms of their combined effects, neither with phosphate solubilizing fungi. To assess this, we collected 40 composite soil samples from eight Mexican and Colombian coffee plantations, with different management intensities and physico-chemical edaphic parameters, during 2008-2009. We isolated different communities of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca), by wet sieving and soil particles culture in Potato-Dextrose-Agar from soil samples, and we classified isolates in terms of their phosphate solubilizing ability. Following the principal component analysis results, we decided to analyze fungal communities and abiotic factors interactions for each country separately. Structural Equation Models revealed that organic carbon was positively associated to MFF richness and number of isolates (lambda>0.58), but its relationship with PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were variable; while the available phosphorus, pH and water stable macro-aggregate fractions did not show a clear pattern. Management intensity was negatively related to PSF-Fe (lambda < or = -0.21) morphotype richness and the number of isolates in Colombian coffee plantations. We found that the relationships of clay and organic carbon content, and available phosphorus and soil pH, with the species richness and number of isolates of MFF, PSF-Fe and PSF-(Fe+Ca) were highly variable; this made impossible to generalize the responses between saprotrophic fungal groups and geographic zones. The management intensity was not related to

  4. A simple framework to analyze water constraints on seasonal transpiration in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sopharat, Jessada; Gay, Frederic; Thaler, Philippe; Sdoodee, Sayan; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Tanavud, Charlchai; Hammecker, Claude; Do, Frederic C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and fast extension in climatically suboptimal areas threaten the sustainability of rubber tree cultivation. A simple framework based on reduction factors of potential transpiration was tested to evaluate the water constraints on seasonal transpiration in tropical sub-humid climates, according pedoclimatic conditions. We selected a representative, mature stand in a drought-prone area. Tree transpiration, evaporative demand and soil water availability were measured every day over 15 months. The results showed that basic relationships with evaporative demand, leaf area index and soil water availability were globally supported. However, the implementation of a regulation of transpiration at high evaporative demand whatever soil water availability was necessary to avoid large overestimates of transpiration. The details of regulation were confirmed by the analysis of canopy conductance response to vapor pressure deficit. The final objective of providing hierarchy between the main regulation factors of seasonal and annual transpiration was achieved. In the tested environmental conditions, the impact of atmospheric drought appeared larger importance than soil drought contrary to expectations. Our results support the interest in simple models to provide a first diagnosis of water constraints on transpiration with limited data, and to help decision making toward more sustainable rubber plantations. PMID:25610443

  5. A simple framework to analyze water constraints on seasonal transpiration in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.

    PubMed

    Sopharat, Jessada; Gay, Frederic; Thaler, Philippe; Sdoodee, Sayan; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Tanavud, Charlchai; Hammecker, Claude; Do, Frederic C

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and fast extension in climatically suboptimal areas threaten the sustainability of rubber tree cultivation. A simple framework based on reduction factors of potential transpiration was tested to evaluate the water constraints on seasonal transpiration in tropical sub-humid climates, according pedoclimatic conditions. We selected a representative, mature stand in a drought-prone area. Tree transpiration, evaporative demand and soil water availability were measured every day over 15 months. The results showed that basic relationships with evaporative demand, leaf area index and soil water availability were globally supported. However, the implementation of a regulation of transpiration at high evaporative demand whatever soil water availability was necessary to avoid large overestimates of transpiration. The details of regulation were confirmed by the analysis of canopy conductance response to vapor pressure deficit. The final objective of providing hierarchy between the main regulation factors of seasonal and annual transpiration was achieved. In the tested environmental conditions, the impact of atmospheric drought appeared larger importance than soil drought contrary to expectations. Our results support the interest in simple models to provide a first diagnosis of water constraints on transpiration with limited data, and to help decision making toward more sustainable rubber plantations.

  6. Nitrogen limitation in a sweetgum plantation: Implications for carbon storage at ORNL FACE

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M; Norby, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    N availability may constrain long-term increases in forest productivity and subsequent increases in C storage in response to CO2-fertilization. Fumigation with elevated [CO2] resulted in increased fine-root production in the sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Free-Air CO2-Enrichment (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Fine roots turn over quickly at ORNL FACE and C storage in sweetgum biomass was limited. To examine the premise that increased root production at ORNL FACE was a physiological response to N-limitation, we fertilized a sweetgum plantation adjacent to ORNL FACE on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP). Annual additions of 200 kg ha-1 of N as urea in 2004 and 2005 increased inorganic soil N availability, which in turn increased stand net primary production (NPP) by approximately 25%. Fertilization increased leaf N concentration and canopy leaf area production, which facilitated a greater than 30% increase in stem production and shifted C partitioning aboveground. We conclude that sweetgum production on the Oak Ridge NERP is limited by soil N availability, and we suggest that N-limitation may have caused increased belowground partitioning in ORNL FACE. Current soil nutrient status and changes in soil N availability mediated by changes in forest C partitioning will shape future forest responses to elevated [CO2].

  7. The role of tree age in triggering convective clouds: implications for plantation forestry expansion in the Southeastern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, G.; Domec, J. C.; Novick, K. A.; Oishi, A. C.; Marani, M.; Katul, G. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Southeastern United States includes some of the most intensively managed forests worldwide and conversion from natural forests to pine plantations is projected to increase. Currently, natural and unmanaged forests are being replaced with young, fast growing loblolly pine plantations to cope with an increasing demand for timber. These large scale land cover/management changes can impact key features of the hydrological cycle such as the generation of convective rainfall (i.e. thermodynamic precipitation). The role of stand age in regulating land-atmosphere feedback mechanisms is here investigated by the combined use of field observations and modeling. We use simple analytical solutions to describe the diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the lifting condensation level so as to derive relations for cloudy/cloudless conditions (a proxy for the predisposition of the system to trigger convective rainfall) as a function of soil water content (SWC) and free atmosphere (FA) conditions. Results from four study sites suggest that young pine plantations maximize soil water depletion while minimizing rainfall suppression, thereby reducing the risk of water stress. In contrast, mature pine stands are more tolerant to drought, and cloud formation becomes nearly independent of the soil conditions. Our findings suggest that the impact of land cover, and therefore management practices, on ABL processes is encoded in the non-linear response of the Bowen ratio to changes in the SWC. Given the observed FA conditions in the Southeastern US, age-related changes in the surface energy fluxes can modify cloud cover and rainfall recycling mechanisms.

  8. Revegetation impacts soil nitrogen dynamics in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Wenzhi; Zhang, Quanfa

    2015-06-01

    Revegetations in riparian ecosystem are important in regulating soil nitrogen (N) dynamics. However, impacts of revegetation on soil N cycling and thereby on ecosystem functioning are not fully understood. We conducted an in situ incubation in the water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) of the Three Gorges Reservoir region to evaluate soil N transformation including net N mineralization rate, net ammonification rate, net nitrification rate, net denitrification rate, N leaching and plant N uptake as well as the soil inorganic N (NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N) concentration in the top soils (0-20 cm) following revegetations (implementing tree, shrub and herb plantations) over two years. The soil inorganic N concentration and N leaching were lower in the tree soils than in herb and shrub soils. Tree plantations decreased net N mineralization rate and net ammonification rate compared to herb and shrub soils, possibly due to lower soil organic carbon (SOC) input and soil temperatures. Whereas tree plantations increased soil net denitrification rate compared to herb and shrub soils because of higher tree NO3(-)-N uptake together with higher net nitrification rate. The inorganic N in the tree and shrub soils were lower in fall and summer, respectively, which was dependent on the seasonal variations in plant N uptake, soil N transformation, and N leaching. Thus, our results suggest that tree plantations could decrease soil inorganic N concentration and N leaching by altering both the quantity and quality of SOC and thereby potentially improve water quality in the riparian zone.

  9. [Characteristics of canopy stomatal conuctance in plantations of three re-vegetation tree species and its sensitivity to environmental factors].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan-ting; Zhao, Ping; Niu, Jun-feng; Sun, Zhen-wei; Zhu, Li-wei

    2015-09-01

    In plantations of three different re-vegetation tree species (Schima superba, Acacia auriculaeformis and Eucalyptus citriodora) in southern China, the stem sap flow of individuals at different DBH classes were monitored using Granier's thermal dissipation probes. With synchronously-measured meteorological data, the canopy stomatal conductance (g(c)) was determined and the responses of g(c) to environmental variables were analyzed. We found that daytime mean g(c) in S. superba forest on average was significantly higher than those of A. auriculaeformis and E. citriodora plantations during a year (except in March). In the three plantations, g(c) was positively logarithmically correlated with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (P < 0.001), with a higher sensitivity of g(c) to PAR during wet season than that of dry season. By contrast, a negative logarithmical correlation between g(c) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) was observed, with a higher sensitivity of g(c) to VPD during the wet season. Additionally, a higher partial correlation coefficient between g(c) and VPD was observed during wet season, indicating that VPD played a more important role in regulating the behavior of stomata during wet season. In general, the sensitivity of g(c) to VPD decreased with the decreases of soil water content, but more manifest decreases were found in S. superba and E. citriodora forests than in A. auriculaeformis plantation, while the descend degree in S. superba and E. citriodora forests were equal. Overall, our results demonstrated that the native species S. superba is more suitable for re-vegetation in southern China than the exotic species A. auriculaeformis and E. citriodora. PMID:26785542

  10. Canopy transpiration of two black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) plantations with different ages in semi-arid Loess Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, L.

    2015-12-01

    Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) was widely planted to control soil erosion and restore degraded ecosystem in Loess Plateau. The water use of the plantations was concerned due to its potential effects on hydrological cycle and regional water resource. Although some studies estimated canopy transpiration (Ec) of the mature black locust plantation, variation in Ec in plantations with different ages was not clear. In this study, we selected two plantations with different ages (12 years and 27 years, denoted as young stand and mature stand, respectively) in similar topographical conditions in Yangjuangou catchment in the central of Loess Plateau. Sap flux density (Fd) and tree biometrics were measured in each stand during the growing season in 2014. Soil water content (SWC) in each plot and meteorological variables in the catchment were simultaneously monitored. Tree transpiration (Et) was derived from Fd and tree sapwood area (As). Canopy transpiration (Ec) was estimated by a product of mean stand sap flux density (Js) and stand total sapwood area (AST). The mean Fd of mature trees was 2-fold larger than that of young trees.However, tree-to-tree variation in Fd among sampled trees within mature stand was evident compared to that within young stand. Mean Et in mature stand was higher than that in young stand. Ec in mature stand was significant higher than that in young stand,with cumulative value of 54 mm and 27 mm respectively. This is attributed to higher Js in mature stand although AST in young is slightly higher than that in mature stand. The patterns of daily Ec during the growing season were similar in both stands during the study period. A exponential saturation model can explain the responses of Ec to vapor deficit pressure (VPD) and solar radiation (Rs) in both stands.The relationship between Ec and SWC was not detected. Our finding suggested that stand age should be taken into consideration when estimated vegetation water use in this region. Further

  11. [Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Flórez-Flórez, Claudia Patricia; León-Peláez, Juan Diego; Osorio-Vega, Nelson Walter; Restrepo-Llano, Manuel Fernando

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient dynamics in forest plantations of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) established for restoration of degraded lands in Colombia. Azadirachta indica is a tree species which use is steadily increasing for restoration of tropical and subtropical arid and degraded lands throughout the world. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the potential of these plantations as an active restoration model for the recovery of soils under desertification in arid lands of Colombia. Litter traps and litter-bags were installed in twenty 250m2 plots. Green leaves and soil samples inside and outside this species plantations were taken, and their elemental concentrations were determined. Litterfall, leaf litter decomposition and foliar nutrient resorption were monitored for one year. The annual contributions of organic material, such as fine litterfall, represented 557.54kg/ha, a third of which was A. indica leaves. The greatest potential returns of nutrients per foliar litterfall were from Ca (4.6kg/ha) and N (2.4kg/ha), and the smallest potential returns came from P (0.06kg/ha). A total of 68% of the foliar material deposited in litter-bags disappeared after one year. The greatest release of nutrients was that of K (100%), and the least was that of N (40%). P was the most limiting nutrient, with low edaphic availability and high nutrient use efficiency from Vitousek's index (IEV = 3176) and foliar nutrient resorption (35%). Despite these plantations are young, and that they have not had forestry management practices, as an active restoration model, they have revitalized the biogeochemical cycle, positively modifying the edaphic parameters according to the increases in organic material, P and K of 72%, 31% and 61%, respectively. Furthermore, they improved the stability of aggregates and the microbe respiration rates. The forest plantation model with exotic species has been opposed by different sectors; however, it has been acknowledged that these projects derive many

  12. Simulation of semi-arid biomass plantations and irrigation using the WRF-NOAH model - a comparison with observations from Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, O.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Cohen, S.

    2014-05-01

    A 10 × 10 km irrigated biomass plantation was simulated in an arid region of Israel to simulate diurnal energy balances during the summer of 2012 (JJA). The goal is to examine daytime horizontal flux gradients between plantation and desert. Simulations were carried out within the coupled WRF-NOAH atmosphere/land surface model. MODIS land surface data was adjusted by prescribing tailored land surface and soil/plant parameters, and by adding a controllable sub-surface irrigation scheme to NOAH. Two model cases studies were compared - Impact and Control. Impact simulates the irrigated plantation. Control simulates the existing land surface, where the predominant land surface is bare desert soil. Central to the study is parameter validation against land surface observations from a desert site and from a 400 ha Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba) plantation. Control was validated with desert observations, and Impact with Jojoba observations. Model evapotranspiration was validated with two Penman-Monteith estimates based on the observations. Control simulates daytime desert conditions with a maximum deviation for surface 2 m air temperatures (T2) of 0.2 °C, vapour pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.25 hPa, wind speed (U) of 0.5 m s-1, surface radiation (Rn) of 25 W m-2, soil heat flux (G) of 30 W m-2 and 5 cm soil temperatures (ST5) of 1.5 °C. Impact simulates irrigated vegetation conditions with a maximum deviation for T2 of 1-1.5 °C, VPD of 0.5 hPa, U of 0.5 m s-1, Rn of 50 W m-5, G of 40 W m-2 and ST5 of 2 °C. Latent heat curves in Impact correspond closely with Penman-Monteith estimates, and magnitudes of 160 W m-2 over the plantation are usual. Sensible heat fluxes, are around 450 W m-2 and are at least 100-110 W m-2 higher than the surrounding desert. This surplus is driven by reduced albedo and high surface resistance, and demonstrates that high evaporation rates may not occur over Jojoba if irrigation is optimized. Furthermore, increased daytime T2 over plantations

  13. Longevity of contributions to SOC stocks from roots and aboveground plant litter below a Miscanthus plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however the longevity and origin of this 'new' SOC must be assessed. Consequently, we combined an input manipulation experiment with physio-chemical soil fractionation to quantify new SOC and CO2 emissions from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually. Further, fractionation of SOC from the top 30 cm gave insight into the longevity of that SOC. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and soil fractionation was then used to establish the longevity of that Miscanthus-derived SOC. Ongoing results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2

  14. ORCHIDEE-SRC v1.0: an extension of the land surface model ORCHIDEE for simulating short rotation coppice poplar plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Groote, T.; Zona, D.; Broeckx, L. S.; Verlinden, M. S.; Luyssaert, S.; Bellassen, V.; Vuichard, N.; Ceulemans, R.; Gobin, A.; Janssens, I. A.

    2014-06-01

    Modelling biomass production and the environmental impact of short rotation coppice (SRC) plantations is necessary for planning their deployment, as they are becoming increasingly important for global energy production. This paper describes the modification of the widely used land surface model ORCHIDEE for stand scale simulations of SRC plantations. The model uses weather data, soil texture and species-specific parameters to predict the aboveground (harvestable) biomass production, as well as carbon and energy fluxes of an SRC plantation. Modifications to the model were made to the management, growth, and allocation modules of ORCHIDEE. The modifications presented in this paper were evaluated using data from two poplar based SRC sites. The simulations show that the model performs very well to predict aboveground (harvestable) biomass production (within measured ranges), ecosystem photosynthesis (R2 = 0.78, NRMSE = 0.064, PCC = 0.89) and ecosystem respiration (R2 = 0.95, NRMSE = 0.081, PCC = 0.91). Overall, the extended model, ORCHIDEE-SRC, proved to be a tool suitable for predicting biomass production of SRC plantations.

  15. Effect of Various Organic Matter stimulates Bacteria and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Plantations on Eroded Slopes in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha Vaidya, G.; Shrestha, K.; Wallander, H.

    2009-04-01

    Erosion resulting from landslides is a serious problem in mountainous countries such as Nepal. To restore such sites it is essential to establish plant cover that protects the soil and reduces erosion. Trees and shrubs on the lower hillsides in Nepal form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and these fungi are important for the uptake of mineral nutrients from the soil. In addition, the mycelia formed by these fungi have an important function in stabilizing the soil. The success of plantations of these eroded slopes is therefore highly dependent on the extent of mycorrhizal colonization of the plants. Mycorrhizal fungi growing in symbiosis with plants are essential in this respect because they improve both plant and nutrient uptake and soil structure. We investigated the influence of organic matter and P amendment on recently produced biomass of bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in eroded slopes in Nepal. Eroded soil mixed with different types of organic matter was placed in mesh bags which were buried around the trees of Bauhinia purpurea and Leucaena diversifolia .This experiment were done in two seasons ( (the wet and the dry season). Signature fatty acids were used to determine bacterial and AM fungal biomass after the six month intervals. The amount and composition of AM fungal spores were analyzed in the mesh bags from the wet and dry seasons. More microbial biomass was produced during wet season than during dry season. Further more, organic matter addition enhanced the production of AM fungal and bacterial biomass during both seasons. The positive influence of organic matter addition on AM fungi could be an important contribution to plant survival, growth and nutrient composition in the soil in plantations on eroded slopes. Different AM spore communities and bacterial profiles were obtained with different organic amendments and this suggests a possible way of selecting for specific microbial communities in the management of eroded

  16. Cover Cropping Alters the Diet of Arthropods in a Banana Plantation: A Metabarcoding Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey. PMID:24695585

  17. Cover cropping alters the diet of arthropods in a banana plantation: a metabarcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Mollot, Gregory; Duyck, Pierre-François; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Lescourret, Françoise; Martin, Jean-François; Piry, Sylvain; Canard, Elsa; Tixier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Plant diversification using cover crops may promote natural regulation of agricultural pests by supporting alternative prey that enable the increase of arthropod predator densities. However, the changes in the specific composition of predator diet induced by cover cropping are poorly understood. Here, we hypothesized that the cover crop can significantly alter the diet of predators in agroecosystems. The cover crop Brachiaria decumbens is increasingly used in banana plantations to control weeds and improve physical soil properties. In this paper, we used a DNA metabarcoding approach for the molecular analysis of the gut contents of predators (based on mini-COI) to identify 1) the DNA sequences of their prey, 2) the predators of Cosmopolites sordidus (a major pest of banana crops), and 3) the difference in the specific composition of predator diets between a bare soil plot (BSP) and a cover cropped plot (CCP) in a banana plantation. The earwig Euborellia caraibea, the carpenter ant Camponotus sexguttatus, and the fire ant Solenopsis geminata were found to contain C. sordidus DNA at frequencies ranging from 1 to 7%. While the frequencies of predators positive for C. sordidus DNA did not significantly differ between BSP and CCP, the frequency at which E. caraibea was positive for Diptera was 26% in BSP and 80% in CCP; the frequency at which C. sexguttatus was positive for Jalysus spinosus was 14% in BSP and 0% in CCP; and the frequency at which S. geminata was positive for Polytus mellerborgi was 21% in BSP and 3% in CCP. E. caraibea, C. sexguttatus and S. geminata were identified as possible biological agents for the regulation of C. sordidus. The detection of the diet changes of these predators when a cover crop is planted indicates the possible negative effects on pest regulation if predators switch to forage on alternative prey. PMID:24695585

  18. Using an input manipulation experiment to partition greenhouse gas fluxes from a commercial Miscanthus plantation in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andy; Davies, Christian; Smith, Pete; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic C4 crop that can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by reducing carbon (C) emissions associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC) however there is still considerable uncertainty surrounding estimates of net C exchange and the best management practices to achieve the best greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Using an input manipulation experiment, we monitored emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from living Miscanthus roots, aboveground plant litter and soil individually to quantify and partition these emissions and better understand the influence of abiotic factors on SOC and GHG dynamics under Miscanthus. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare commercial Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input (roots or senesced aboveground plant litter) to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. The delta 13C value of soil C and CO2 emitted from each treatment was measured monthly between March 2009 and March 2013. Measurements of CH4 and N2O emissions were also taken at the soil surface from each treatment. Miscanthus-derived emissions were determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and the treatments were compared to assess their effects on C inputs and outputs to the soil. Both CH4 and N2O emissions were below detection limits, mainly due to a lack of fertiliser additions and limited disturbance of the agricultural site. However, results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2 emissions in winter and spring whereas root respiration dominates the summer

  19. CANAMELAR, THE SUBCULTURE OF A RURAL SUGAR PLANTATION PROLETARIAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MINTZ, SIDNEY W.

    IN THIS ESSAY, A CHAPTER IN AN EXTENSIVE FIELD STUDY OF THE CULTURAL-HISTORICAL PATTERNS OF VARIOUS GROUPS IN PUERTO RICO, THE SUBCULTURE OF A SUGAR PLANTATION PROLETARIAT IS DESCRIBED. TOPICS OF DISCUSSION INCLUDE THE REGIONAL AND COMMUNITY SETTING, HISTORICAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, EMPLOYMENT PATTERNS, AND POLITICS. ALSO DESCRIBED ARE SOCIAL…

  20. Environmental Development cum Forest Plantation Planning and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katoch, C. D.

    This textbook covers environmental conservation through forest plantation planning and management for all levels of forestry professionals and non-professionals in India and abroad. The book is divided into six parts and 29 sections in sequential order. Part I contains details on site selection, site preparations, site clearance, layout, and…

  1. [Diversity of grasshopper community in lac plantation-farmland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Chen, You-qing; Chen, Yan-lin; Chen, Zhen

    2009-03-01

    The grasshopper communities in the paddy field, dry land, natural forest, and plantation forest of lac plantation-farmland ecosystem in Lvchun County, Yunnan were investigated by sweep netting. A total of 1426 grasshoppers belonging to 33 species, 22 genena, and 5 families were captured. In the paddy field, dry land, natural forest, and plantation forest of the ecosystem, the species richness S were 16.333, 13.000, 11.000, and 12.000, Margalef index was 2.873, 2.266, 2.335, and 2. 137, Shannon-Wiener index was 2.034, 1.976, 1.982, and 1.488, Simpson index was 0.196, 0.189, 0.174, and 0.323, and Pielou index was 0.728, 0.787, 0.829, 0.599, respectively. This ecosystem had a lower diversity of grasshopper communities, and different land use habitats in the ecosystem had different species component and diversity. In paddy field, grasshopper had a higher diversity than in dry land, but its evenness and stability were moderate; in natural forest, the diversity was high and the stability was strong; while in plantation forest, the diversity was low and the stability was weak. There existed species exchange in different land use habitats in the ecosystem.

  2. Irrigated plantations and their effect on energy fluxes in a semi-arid region of Israel - a validated 3-D model simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, O.; Warrach-Sagi, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Cohen, S.

    2013-11-01

    A large irrigated biomass plantation was simulated in an arid region of Israel within the WRF-NOAH coupled atmospheric/land surface model in order to assess land surface atmosphere feedbacks. Simulations were carried out for the 2012 summer season (JJA). The irrigated plantations were simulated by prescribing tailored land surface and soil/plant parameters, and by implementing a newly devised, controllable sub-surface irrigation scheme within NOAH. Two model cases studies were considered and compared - Impact and Control. Impact simulates a hypothetical 10 km × 10 km irrigated plantation. Control represents a baseline and uses the existing land surface data, where the predominant land surface type in the area is bare desert soil. Central to the study is model validation against observations collected for the study over the same period. Surface meteorological and soil observations were made at a desert site and from a 400 ha Simmondsia chinensis (Jojoba) plantation. Control was validated with data from the desert, and Impact from the Jojoba. Finally, estimations were made of the energy balance, applying two Penman-Monteith based methods along with observed meteorological data. These estimations were compared with simulated energy fluxes. Control simulates the daytime desert surface 2 m air temperatures (T2) with less than 0.2 °C deviation and the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) to within 0.25 hPa. Desert wind speed (U) is simulated to within 0.5 m s-1 and the net surface radiation (Rn) to 25 W m-2. Soil heat flux (G) is not so accurately simulated by Control (up to 30 W m-2 deviation) and 5 cm soil temperatures (ST5) are simulated to within 1.5 °C. Impact simulates daytime T2 over irrigated vegetation to within 1-1.5 °C, the VPD to 0.5 hPa, Rn to 50 W m-2 and ST5 to within 2 °C. Simulated Impact G deviates up to 40 W m-2, highlighting a need for re-parameterisation or better soil classification, but the overall contribution to the energy balance is small (5

  3. Biomass energy opportunities on former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, V.D.; Tvedten, A.E.; Lu, W.

    1995-11-01

    Electricity produced from burning sugarcane bagasse has provided as much as 10 percent of Hawaii`s electricity supply in the past. As sugarcane production has ceased on the islands of Oahu and Hawaii and diminished on Maui and Kauai, the role of biomass energy will be reduced unless economically viable alternatives can be identified. An empirical biomass yield and cost system model linked to a geographical information system has been developed at the University of Hawaii. This short-rotation forestry decision support system was used to estimate dedicated biomass feedstock supplies and delivered costs of tropical hardwoods for ethanol, methanol, and electricity production. Output from the system model was incorporated in a linear programming optimization model to identify the mix of tree plantation practices, wood processing technologies, and end-products that results in the highest economic return on investment under given market situations. An application of these decision-support tools is presented for hypothetical integrated forest product systems established at two former sugarcane plantations in Hawaii. Results indicate that the optimal profit opportunity exists for the production of medium density fibreboard and plywood, with annual net return estimates of approximately $3.5 million at the Hamakua plantation on the island of Hawaii and $2.2 million at the Waialua plantation on Oahu. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of different milling capacities, end-product market prices, increased plantation areas, and forced saw milling were performed. Potential economic credits for carbon sequestration and wastewater effluent management were estimated. While biofuels are not identified as an economical viable component, energy co-products may help reduce market risk via product diversification in such forestry ventures.

  4. Tree species effects on topsoil properties in an old tropical plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Marijn; Boeckx, Pascal; Ampoorter, Evy; Verbeeck, Hans; Döetterl, Sebastian; Baert, Geert; Verheyen, Kris

    2016-04-01

    Forest biogeochemistry is strongly linked to the functional strategies of the tree community and the topsoil. Research has long documented that tree species affect soil properties in forests. Our current understanding on this interaction is mainly based on common garden experiments in temperate forest and needs to be extended to other ecosystems if we want to understand this interaction in natural forests worldwide. Using a 77-year-old tropical experimental plantation from central Africa, we examined the relationship between canopy and litter chemical traits and topsoil properties. By the current diversity in this site, the unique setup allowed us to extend the current knowledge from temperate and simplified systems to near-natural tropical forests, and thus bridge the gap between planted monocultures in common gardens, and correlative studies in natural systems. We linked the species-specific leaf and litter chemical traits to the topsoil cation composition, acidity, pH and soil organic matter. We found that average canopy trait values were a better predictor for the topsoil than the litter chemistry. Canopy base cation content positively affected topsoil pH and negatively affected acidity. These, in turn strongly determined the soil organic carbon contents of the topsoil, which ranged a tree-fold in the experiment.

  5. Estimation of Carbon Balance in Young and Mature Stands of Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria Japonica) Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M.; Sode, N.; Koizumi, H.

    2006-12-01

    Two-thirds of Japan is covered by forests, and Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) plantations occupy approximately 45% of the plantation areas or 20% of total forested area in Japan. Since the 1950s, cedar plantation has been encouraged and managed for timber production. Therefore, it is important to study quantitatively and synthetically the balance of carbon in cedar plantation ecosystems according to forest development. The ecological process-based approach provides a detailed assessment of belowground compartment as one of the major compartment of carbon balance. Carbon net balance (NEP: net ecosystem production) in ecosystems by this approach is determined by the balance between net primary production (NPP) of vegetation and heterotrophic respiration (HR) of soil (NEP= NPP-HR). HR is the difference between total soil respiration (SR) and root respiration (RR) (HR= SR-RR). To estimate the NPP, we used to biometric method by allometric relationships and litter traps. To estimate the SR, we used a chamber system with automatic open and closing for measuring continuous CO2 efflux from soil surface based on an open-flow method (AOCC) and a portable system for measuring leaf photosynthesis attached to a soil chamber (LI-6400). Our object is to examine balance of carbon in ca. 7 y old (young) and 45 y old (mature) stands of Japanese cedar. Our goal of this study is to investigate carbon cycling on a regional scale using ecological process, remote sensing, and climate observation and modeling analysis as part of the 21st COE program {Satellite Ecology}. This presents the initial results obtained by a process-based measurement since 2004. The study region refers to a cool temperate zone, Asia monsoon climate (36° 08'N, 137° 22'E). In the mature stand, Japanese cedar plantation located in about 10km east of Takayama city, central Japan. The ecological-process research plot was established on the middle of a slope (30m×50m) in November 2004. The slope

  6. Effects of increased nitrogen deposition and rotation length on long-term productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20-30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and about 15-20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1). These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of forest

  7. Effects of Increased Nitrogen Deposition and Rotation Length on Long-Term Productivity of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantation in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Meifang; Xiang, Wenhua; Tian, Dalun; Deng, Xiangwen; Huang, Zhihong; Zhou, Xiaolu; Peng, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. has been widely planted in subtropical China to meet increasing timber demands, leading to short-rotation practices that deplete soil nutrients. However, increased nitrogen (N) deposition offsets soil N depletion. While long-term experimental data investigating the coupled effects related to short rotation practices and increasing N deposition are scarce, applying model simulations may yield insights. In this study, the CenW3.1 model was validated and parameterized using data from pure C. lanceolata plantations. The model was then used to simulate various changes in long-term productivity. Results indicated that responses of productivity of C. lanceolata plantation to increased N deposition were more related to stand age than N addition, depending on the proportion and age of growing forests. Our results have also shown a rapid peak in growth and N dynamics. The peak is reached sooner and is higher under higher level of N deposition. Short rotation lengths had a greater effect on productivity and N dynamics than high N deposition levels. Productivity and N dynamics decreased as the rotation length decreased. Total productivity levels suggest that a 30-year rotation length maximizes productivity at the 4.9 kg N ha−1 year−1 deposition level. For a specific rotation length, higher N deposition levels resulted in greater overall ecosystem C and N storage, but this positive correlation tendency gradually slowed down with increasing N deposition levels. More pronounced differences in N deposition levels occurred as rotation length decreased. To sustain C. lanceolata plantation productivity without offsite detrimental N effects, the appropriate rotation length is about 20–30 years for N deposition levels below 50 kg N ha−1 year−1 and about 15–20 years for N deposition levels above 50 kg N ha−1 year−1. These results highlight the importance of assessing N effects on carbon management and the long-term productivity of

  8. Carbon and water fluxes above a cacao plantation in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, U.; Ibrom, A.

    2003-04-01

    and June 2002 until now eddy-covariance measurements have been performed above a Cacao plantation in Nopu measuring time series of water vapour, CO2, air temperature, three-dimensional wind vector, photosyntetic active radiation and the surface temperature of the Cacao canopy at 10 Hz. Additionally, net radiation balance and soil heat fluxes have been measured. In order to assess the carbon input caused by the humans living in the ecosystem, a mapping of the site area has been carried out, including investigations of consumption of fire wood and use of machines, like generators for example. In order to obtain the energy balance equation of the canopy surface, also the radiation balance and the heat flux into the canopy have to be evaluated.

  9. Partitioning belowground CO2 emissions for a Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by reducing carbon (C) emissions associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however full greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets must be calculated. Consequently, we monitored emissions of N2O, CH4 and CO2 from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually to quantify and partition these emissions and better understand the influence of abiotic factors on SOC and GHG dynamics under Miscanthus. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and the treatments were compared to assess their effects on C inputs and outputs to the soil. Both CH4 and N2O emissions were below detection limits, mainly due to a lack of fertiliser additions and limited management of the agricultural site. However

  10. Infiltration and water balance modeling along a toposequence in a rubber tree plantation of NE Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Seltacho, Siwaporn; Suvanang, Nopmanee; Do, Frederic; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Northeast of Thailand, is a plateau at 200 m AMSL with a typical undulating landscape. Traditionally the lowlands were dedicated to paddy fields and the uplands covered by Dipterocarpus forest. However development of cash crops during the last decades has led to intensive land clearing in the uplands and to modifications at a regional scale of the water balance in the critical zone with increasing runoff and soil erosion. Recent international demand increase for natural rubber motivated many local farmers to shift from these cash crops towards rubber-tree (Heva Brasiliensis) plantations. However these land use changes have been undertaken without considering the climatic and edaphic specificity of the region, which are not well adapted to the growth of rubber tree (rainfall lower than recommended and sandy soils with low fertility). Therefore, in order to assess and try to predict the environmental consequences (water resources, water-table, ..) of the development of rubber tree plantations in this area, a small watershed in the region ok Khon Kaen has been selected to follow the infiltration and to monitor the different components of the water balance along a toposequence. A six years monitoring of the main components of water balance along a toposequence associated to numerical simulation were used to quantify and try to forecast the evolution of the water use and water resources. Unsaturated soil properties were determined at different depths, in various positions along the toposequence. Experimental results supported by modeling of 2D water flow with HYDRUS3D show clearly that infiltration is blocked by a clayey layer on top of the bedrock and conditioned the occurrence of a perched watertable during the rainy seasons. Most of the soil water flow was found to be directed laterally during the rainy season. The deep groundwater was found to be fed from the lower part of toposequence in the thalweg. The transpiration rate measured on the trees at this stage of

  11. [Soil respiration in subtropical forests and model simulation of its relationships with soil temperature and moisture content].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Wang, Bing; Wang, Yu-ru; Yang, Qing-pei

    2010-07-01

    By using Li-6400-09 system, an in situ measurement on the soil respiration, soil temperature, and soil moisture content in three main forest types (evergreen broadleaved forest, Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, and Phyllostachys pubescens forest) in subtropical area of China was conducted, with the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature and moisture content simulated by several models. The C flux of soil respiration in P. pubescens forest, evergreen broadleaved forest, and C. lanceolata plantation was 12.84, 11.70, and 7.12 t C x hm(-2) x a(-1), respectively, and the soil respiration in these three forest types had similar diurnal and seasonal variations, with the maximum value at 11:00-12:00 and the minimum value at 1:00-3:00, and the highest value in August and September while the lowest value in December and January. Van't Hoff equation and Lloyd & Taylor function had less difference in describing the relationships between soil respiration and soil temperature, while the soil respiration rate predicted by Lloyd & Taylor function was smaller than the observed value. Quadratic model and power function model could well simulate the relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture content. Soil moisture content positively or negatively affected soil respiration, but the effects only reached significant level in C. lanceolata plantation. Comparing with single-factor equation, two-factor equation (soil temperature and moisture content) could better describe the responses of soil respiration to changed soil temperature and moisture content. Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that after eliminating the effects of soil temperature and moisture content, forest type had significant effects on soil respiration (R2 = 0.541). Other factors, such as air temperature, air relative humidity, and photosynthetic radiation also affected soil respiration, and the effects of air temperature reached significant level.

  12. [Net carbon exchange and its environmental affecting factors in a forest plantation in Badaling, Beijing of China].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiang; Chen, Wen-Jing; Li, Chun-Yi; Zha, Tian-Shan; Wu, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Jia, Xin

    2013-11-01

    By using eddy covariance technique, a year-round (November, 2011-October, 2012) continuous measurement of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE) was conducted in a 4-year old mixed forest plantation in Badaling of Beijing. The forest plantation ecosystem was a net carbon sink in July and August, but a carbon source in the rest months. The monthly net carbon loss and uptake were the largest in April and July, respectively. The annual net ecosystem productivity was (-256 +/- 21) g C x m(-2) x a(-1), in which, the ecosystem respiration was (950 +/- 36) g C x m(-2) x a(-1), and the gross ecosystem productivity was (694 +/- 17) g C x m(-2) x a(-1). The nighttime NEE increased exponentially with the soil temperature at 10 cm depth, with the estimated temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Q10 ) being 2.2. During the growth season (May-September), the daytime NEE increased with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as described by the Michaelis-Menten rectangular hyperbola. The ecosystem quantum yield varied seasonally, ranging from 0.0219 micromol CO2 x micromol(-1) in May to 0.0506 micromol CO2 x micromol(-1) in July. The maximum carbon assimilation rate and the average daytime respiration followed the seasonal trends of PAR and air temperature. In July and August, vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture played a significant role in determining daytime NEE.

  13. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration. PMID:24019143

  14. Recovery approach affects soil quality in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China: implications for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Quanfa

    2014-02-01

    Plants in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region disappeared due to winter-flooding and prolonged inundation. Revegetation (plantation and natural recovery) have been promoted to restore and protect the riparian ecosystem in recent years. Revegetation may affect soil qualities and have broad important implications both for ecological services and soil recovery. In this study, we investigated soil properties including soil pH values, bulk density, soil organic matter (SOM), soil nutrients and heavy metals, soil microbial community structure, microbial biomass, and soil quality index under plantation and natural recovery in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Most soil properties showed significant temporal and spatial variations in both the plantation and natural recovery areas. Higher contents of SOM and NO3-N were found in plantation area, while higher contents of soil pH values, bulk density, and total potassium were observed in the natural recovery area. However, there were no significant differences in plant richness and diversity and soil microbial community structure between the two restoration approaches. A soil quality index derived from SOM, bulk density, Zn, Cd, and Hg indicated that natural recovery areas with larger herbaceous coverage had more effective capacity for soil restoration.

  15. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, R.

    2006-05-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils and forests is an important strategy of reducing the net increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration by fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, biomass burning, soil cultivation and accelerated erosion. Further, the so-called "missing or fugitive CO2" is also probably being absorbed in a terrestrial sink. Three of the 15 strategies proposed to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations by 2054, with each one to sequester 1 Pg Cyr-1, include: (i) biofuel plantations for bioethanol production, (ii) reforestation, afforestation and establishment of new plantations, and (iii) conversion of plow tillage to no-till farming. Enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is an important component in each of these three options, but especially so in conversion of degraded/marginal agricultural soils to short rotation woody perennials, and establishment of plantations for biofuel, fiber and timber production. Depending upon the prior SOC loss because of the historic land used and management-induced soil degradation, the rate of soil C sequestration in forest soils may be 0 to 3 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Tropical forest ecosystems cover 1.8 billion hectares and have a SOC sequestration potential of 200 to 500 Tg C yr-1 over 59 years. However, increasing production of forest biomass may not always increase the SOC pool. Factors limiting the rate of SOC sequestration include C: N ratio, soil availability of N and other essential nutrients, concentration of recalcitrant macro-molecules (e.g., lignin, suberin), soil properties (e.g., clay content and mineralogy, aggregation), soil drainage, and climate (mean annual precipitation and temperature). The SOC pool can be enhanced by adopting recommended methods of forest harvesting and site preparation to minimize the "Covington effect," improving soil drainage, alleviating soil compaction, growing species with a high NPP, and improving soil fertility including the availability of micro-nutrients. Soil fertility

  17. Factors affecting the remotely sensed response of coniferous forest plantations

    SciTech Connect

    Danson, F.M. ); Curran, P.J. )

    1993-01-01

    Remote sensing of forest biophysical properties has concentrated upon forest sites with a wide range of green vegetation amount and thereby leaf area index and canopy cover. However, coniferous forest plantations, an important forest type in Europe, are managed to maintain a large amount of green vegetation with little spatial variation. Therefore, the strength of the remotely sensed signal will, it is hypothesized, be determined more by the structure of this forest than by its cover. Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) and SPOT-1 HRV data were used to determine the effects of this structural variation on the remotely sensed response of a coniferous forest plantation in the United Kingdom. Red and near infrared radiance were strongly and negatively correlated with a range of structural properties and with the age of the stands but weakly correlated with canopy cover. A composite variable, related to the volume of the canopy, accounted for over 75% of the variation in near infrared radiance. A simple model that related forest structural variables to the remotely sensed response was used to understand and explain this response from a coniferous forest plantation.

  18. Effects of land use on surface–atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko; Misztal, Pawel; Di Marco, Chiara; Skiba, Ute; Ryder, James; Helfter, Carole; Cape, J. Neil; Owen, Sue; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin W.; Coyle, Mhairi; Phillips, Gavin; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; MacKenzie, Rob; Muller, Jennifer; Siong, Jambery; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Giammaria, Franco; Pyle, John A.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports measurements of land–atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO2, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO2, N2O and O3 over a 30 m high rainforest canopy and a 12 m high oil palm plantation in the same region of Sabah in Borneo between April and July 2008. The daytime maximum CO2 flux to the two canopies differs by approximately a factor of 2, 1200 mg C m−2 h−1 for the oil palm and 700 mg C m−2 h−1 for the rainforest, with the oil palm plantation showing a substantially greater quantum efficiency. Total VOC emissions are also larger over the oil palm than over the rainforest by a factor of 3. Emissions of isoprene from the oil palm canopy represented 80 per cent of the VOC emissions and exceeded those over the rainforest in similar light and temperature conditions by on average a factor of 5. Substantial emissions of estragole (1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) from the oil palm plantation were detected and no trace of this VOC was detected in or above the rainforest. Deposition velocities for O3 to the rainforest were a factor of 2 larger than over oil palm. Emissions of nitrous oxide were larger from the soils of the oil palm plantation than from the soils of the rainforest by approximately 25 per cent. It is clear from the measurements that the large change in the species composition generated by replacing rainforest with oil palm leads to profound changes in the net exchange of most of the trace gases measured, and thus on the chemical composition of the boundary layer over these surfaces. PMID:22006962

  19. Effects of land use on surface-atmosphere exchanges of trace gases and energy in Borneo: comparing fluxes over oil palm plantations and a rainforest.

    PubMed

    Fowler, David; Nemitz, Eiko; Misztal, Pawel; Di Marco, Chiara; Skiba, Ute; Ryder, James; Helfter, Carole; Cape, J Neil; Owen, Sue; Dorsey, James; Gallagher, Martin W; Coyle, Mhairi; Phillips, Gavin; Davison, Brian; Langford, Ben; MacKenzie, Rob; Muller, Jennifer; Siong, Jambery; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Giammaria, Franco; Pyle, John A; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2011-11-27

    This paper reports measurements of land-atmosphere fluxes of sensible and latent heat, momentum, CO(2), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NO, NO(2), N(2)O and O(3) over a 30 m high rainforest canopy and a 12 m high oil palm plantation in the same region of Sabah in Borneo between April and July 2008. The daytime maximum CO(2) flux to the two canopies differs by approximately a factor of 2, 1200 mg C m(-2) h(-1) for the oil palm and 700 mg C m(-2) h(-1) for the rainforest, with the oil palm plantation showing a substantially greater quantum efficiency. Total VOC emissions are also larger over the oil palm than over the rainforest by a factor of 3. Emissions of isoprene from the oil palm canopy represented 80 per cent of the VOC emissions and exceeded those over the rainforest in similar light and temperature conditions by on average a factor of 5. Substantial emissions of estragole (1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene) from the oil palm plantation were detected and no trace of this VOC was detected in or above the rainforest. Deposition velocities for O(3) to the rainforest were a factor of 2 larger than over oil palm. Emissions of nitrous oxide were larger from the soils of the oil palm plantation than from the soils of the rainforest by approximately 25 per cent. It is clear from the measurements that the large change in the species composition generated by replacing rainforest with oil palm leads to profound changes in the net exchange of most of the trace gases measured, and thus on the chemical composition of the boundary layer over these surfaces.

  20. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network.

  1. Contributions of a global network of tree diversity experiments to sustainable forest plantations.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, Kris; Vanhellemont, Margot; Auge, Harald; Baeten, Lander; Baraloto, Christopher; Barsoum, Nadia; Bilodeau-Gauthier, Simon; Bruelheide, Helge; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Godbold, Douglas; Haase, Josephine; Hector, Andy; Jactel, Hervé; Koricheva, Julia; Loreau, Michel; Mereu, Simone; Messier, Christian; Muys, Bart; Nolet, Philippe; Paquette, Alain; Parker, John; Perring, Mike; Ponette, Quentin; Potvin, Catherine; Reich, Peter; Smith, Andy; Weih, Martin; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The area of forest plantations is increasing worldwide helping to meet timber demand and protect natural forests. However, with global change, monospecific plantations are increasingly vulnerable to abiotic and biotic disturbances. As an adaption measure we need to move to plantations that are more diverse in genotypes, species, and structure, with a design underpinned by science. TreeDivNet, a global network of tree diversity experiments, responds to this need by assessing the advantages and disadvantages of mixed species plantations. The network currently consists of 18 experiments, distributed over 36 sites and five ecoregions. With plantations 1-15 years old, TreeDivNet can already provide relevant data for forest policy and management. In this paper, we highlight some early results on the carbon sequestration and pest resistance potential of more diverse plantations. Finally, suggestions are made for new, innovative experiments in understudied regions to complement the existing network. PMID:26264716

  2. Food Preferences of the Rubber Plantation Litter Beetle, Luprops tristis, a Nuisance Pest in Rubber Tree Plantations

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Vinod, K.V.

    2009-01-01

    Massive invasion of the litter dwelling beetle, Luprops tristis Fabricius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), numbering about 0.5 to 4 million per residential building following summer showers, and their prolonged stay in a state of dormancy, make them an extreme nuisance in rubber tree plantation belts of the Western Ghats in south India. Food preference of post-dormancy adults, larvae and teneral adults stages towards tender, mature and senescent leaves were assessed in three choice and no choice leaf disc tests. All stages have strong preference towards fallen tender leaves and lowest preference towards senescent leaves indicating that leaf age is a major attribute determining food selection and food preference of L. tristis. Ready availability of the preferred, prematurely fallen, tender rubber tree leaves as a food resource is suggested as being responsible for the exceptionally high abundance of L. tristis in rubber tree plantation belts. PMID:20050783

  3. Energy plantations in the Republic of the Philippines. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Durst, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    Development and management of plantations to support wood-energy programs have been aggressively promoted in the Philippines since 1979. Over 60,000 hectares of energy plantations have been planted under government-supported programs. The paper documents the problems and accomplishments of these programs and describes plantation establishment, maintenance, protection, growth and yield, harvesting, and wood transport. Research priorities for improving energy-farm operations are also suggested.

  4. Slipping through the cracks: rubber plantation is unsuitable breeding habitat for frogs in Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    Behm, Jocelyn E; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province - a hotspot of frog diversity within China - two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that 'slips through the cracks' of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog populations.

  5. Slipping through the Cracks: Rubber Plantation Is Unsuitable Breeding Habitat for Frogs in Xishuangbanna, China

    PubMed Central

    Behm, Jocelyn E.; Yang, Xiaodong; Chen, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of tropical forests into agriculture may present a serious risk to amphibian diversity if amphibians are not able to use agricultural areas as habitat. Recently, in Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province – a hotspot of frog diversity within China – two-thirds of the native tropical rainforests have been converted into rubber plantation agriculture. We conducted surveys and experiments to quantify habitat use for breeding and non-breeding life history activities of the native frog species in rainforest, rubber plantation and other human impacted sites. Rubber plantation sites had the lowest species richness in our non-breeding habitat surveys and no species used rubber plantation sites as breeding habitat. The absence of breeding was likely not due to intrinsic properties of the rubber plantation pools, as our experiments indicated that rubber plantation pools were suitable for tadpole growth and development. Rather, the absence of breeding in the rubber plantation was likely due to a misalignment of breeding and non-breeding habitat preferences. Analyses of our breeding surveys showed that percent canopy cover over pools was the strongest environmental variable influencing breeding site selection, with species exhibiting preferences for pools under both high and low canopy cover. Although rubber plantation pools had high canopy cover, the only species that bred in high canopy cover sites used the rainforest for both non-breeding and breeding activities, completing their entire life cycle in the rainforest. Conversely, the species that did use the rubber plantation for non-breeding habitat preferred to breed in low canopy sites, also avoiding breeding in the rubber plantation. Rubber plantations are likely an intermediate habitat type that ‘slips through the cracks’ of species habitat preferences and is thus avoided for breeding. In summary, unlike the rainforests they replaced, rubber plantations alone may not be able to support frog

  6. Afforestation alters the composition of functional genes in soil and biogeochemical processes in South American grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Berthrong, Sean T; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Pineiro, Gervasio; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Soil microbes are highly diverse and control most soil biogeochemical reactions. We examined how microbial functional genes and biogeochemical pools responded to the altered chemical inputs accompanying land use change. We examined paired native grasslands and adjacent Eucalyptus plantations (previously grassland) in Uruguay, a region that lacked forests before European settlement. Along with measurements of soil carbon, nitrogen, and bacterial diversity, we analyzed functional genes using the GeoChip 2.0 microarray, which simultaneously quantified several thousand genes involved in soil carbon and nitrogen cycling. Plantations and grassland differed significantly in functional gene profiles, bacterial diversity, and biogeochemical pool sizes. Most grassland profiles were similar, but plantation profiles generally differed from those of grasslands due to differences in functional gene abundance across diverse taxa. Eucalypts decreased ammonification and N fixation functional genes by 11% and 7.9% (P < 0.01), which correlated with decreased microbial biomass N and more NH{sub 4}{sup +} in plantation soils. Chitinase abundance decreased 7.8% in plantations compared to levels in grassland (P = 0.017), and C polymer-degrading genes decreased by 1.5% overall (P < 0.05), which likely contributed to 54% (P < 0.05) more C in undecomposed extractable soil pools and 27% less microbial C (P < 0.01) in plantation soils. In general, afforestation altered the abundance of many microbial functional genes, corresponding with changes in soil biogeochemistry, in part through altered abundance of overall functional gene types rather than simply through changes in specific taxa. Such changes in microbial functional genes correspond with altered C and N storage and have implications for long-term productivity in these soils.

  7. Gas transfer between the atmosphere and irrigated sugarcane plantation sites under different rainfall in Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Crow, S. E.; Mudd, R. G.; Youkhana, A.; Nullet, M.; Nakahata, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sugarcane plantation land cover is increasing in area in Brazil, South Asia and the Pacific Islands because of the growing demand for sugar and biofuel production. While a large portion of sugarcane cultivated in Brazil is rain-fed and experiences drought influences on gas exchange, sugarcane in Hawai'i is thought to be buffered from drought effects because it is drip irrigated. Knowledge about carbon sequestration and evapotranspiration rates is fundamental both for the prediction of sugar and biofuel production and for water resource management for the large plantations. To understand gas transfer under spatially and temporally heterogeneous environments, we investigated the leaf- soil- and stand-scale gas transfer processes at two irrigated sugarcane plantation study sites in Hawai'i with contrasting rainfall. Gas and energy transfers were monitored using eddy covariance systems for a full- and later half- crop cycle. Leaf ecophysiological traits were measured for stands of different ages to evaluate the effects of stand age on gas transfer. Carbon sequestration rates (Fc) showed a strong relationship with solar radiation with small differences between sites. Latent heat flux expressed as the evapotranspiration rates (ET) also had a strong relationship with solar radiation, but showed seasonality due to variations in biological control (surface conductance) and atmospheric evaporative demand. The difference in ET and its responses to environments was less clear partly buffered by the differences in the stand age and seasons. The stable Fc-solar radiation relationship despite the variation in surface conductance was partly due to the saturation of net photosynthetic rates with intercellular CO2 concentration and the low sensitivity of net photosynthesis to variations in surface conductance in sugarcane with the C4 photosynthesis pathway. The response of gas transfer to periodic irrigation, rainfall and age-related changes in leaf ecophysiological traits will be

  8. Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Regino; Hódar, José Antonio; Matías, Luís; Mendoza, Irene

    2010-06-01

    This study examines the consequences of adjacent elements for a given patch, through their effects on zoochorous dispersion by frugivorous birds. The case study consists of pine plantations (the focal patch) adjacent to other patches of native vegetation (mixed patches of native forest and shrublands), and/or pine plantations. Our hypothesis is that input of native woody species propagules generated by frugivorous birds within plantations strongly depends on the nature of the surrounding vegetation. To test this hypothesis, we studied frugivorous-bird abundance, seed dispersion, and seedling establishment in nine pine plantation plots in contact with patches of native vegetation. To quantify adjacency arrangement effects, we used the percentage of common border between a patch and each of its adjacent elements. Frugivorous bird occurrence in pine plantations is influenced by the adjacent vegetation: the greater the contact with native vegetation patches, the more abundant were the frugivorous birds within pine plantations. Furthermore, frugivorous birds introduce into plantations the seeds of a large sample of native fleshy-fruited species. The results confirm the hypothesis that zoochorous seed rain is strongly determined by the kind of vegetation surrounding a given plantation. This finding underlines the importance of the composition of the mosaic surrounding plantations and the availability of mobile link species as key landscape features conditioning passive restoration processes. PMID:20597289

  9. High risk of plant invasion in the understory of eucalypt plantations in South China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Dongmei; Huang, Yong; Zhou, Xi-Le; Chen, Bin; Ma, Jinshuang; Yan, Yue-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Eucalypt plantations expand rapidly out of their natural distribution zones, thus inducing a concern on their effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functions. We compare the understory plant diversity of 46 plots of eucalypt plantations, including early and later stages in rotation, with that of 21 plots of contrast vegetation, including other types of plantations and secondary shrub grassland, in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces, South China. Although the overall plant diversity did not change significantly in eucalypt plantations relative to the contrast vegetation, the community structures changed dramatically. The Asteraceae family, which is the most important source of destructive invasive plant species in China, is ranked 3rd (7.42%) and 7th (3.14%) in species importance in the early and later stages in eucalypt plantations, respectively. Nevertheless, Asteraceae is ranked 15th (1.73%) in other types of plantations and 21st (0.94%) in secondary shrub grassland. Significant increases in the richness and frequency of invasive species were also observed in eucalypt plantations. Among the 20 invasive species recorded in the eucalypt plantations, 9 species were destructive invasive species and 7 of these species belonged to Asteraceae. This study highlights an enhanced plant invasion risk in eucalypt plantations in South China, particularly by Asteraceae. PMID:26686825

  10. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period. PMID:26285776

  11. Structure of bird communities in eucalyptus plantations: nestedness as a pattern of species distribution.

    PubMed

    Jacoboski, L I; Mendonça-Lima, A de; Hartz, S M

    2016-04-19

    Replacement of native habitats by tree plantations has increased dramatically in Brazil, resulting in loss of structural components for birds, such as appropriate substrates for foraging and nesting. Tree plantations can also reduce faunal richness and change the composition of bird species. This study evaluated the structure of avian communities in eucalyptus plantations of different ages and in a native forest. We classified species as habitat specialists or generalists, and assessed if the species found in eucalyptus plantations are a subset of the species that occur in the native forest. Forty-one sampling sites were evaluated, with three point counts each, in a native forest and in eucalyptus plantations of four different ages. A total of 71 bird species were identified. Species richness and abundance were higher in the native forest, reflecting the greater heterogeneity of the habitat. The composition of bird species also differed between the native forest and plantations. The species recorded in the plantations represented a subset of the species of the native forest, with a predominance of generalist species. These species are more tolerant of habitat changes and are able to use the plantations. The commercial plantations studied here can serve as a main or occasional habitat for these generalists, especially for those that are semi-dependent on edge and forest. The bird species most affected by silviculture are those that are typical of open grasslands, and those that are highly dependent on well-preserved forests.

  12. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  13. Are pine plantations valid tools for restoring Mediterranean forests? An assessment along abiotic and biotic gradients.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A; Bonet, Francisco J; Zamora, Regino

    2009-12-01

    The ecological impacts of forest plantations are a focus of intense debate, from studies that consider plantations as "biological deserts" to studies showing positive effects on plant diversity and dynamics. This lack of consensus might be influenced by the scarcity of studies that examine how the ecological characteristics of plantations vary along abiotic and biotic gradients. Here we conducted a large-scale assessment of plant regeneration and diversity in plantations of southern Spain. Tree seedling and sapling density, plant species richness, and Shannon's (H') diversity index were analyzed in 442 pine plantation plots covering a wide gradient of climatic conditions, stand density, and distance to natural forests that act as seed sources. Pronounced variation in regeneration and diversity was found in plantation understories along the gradients explored. Low- to mid-altitude plantations showed a diverse and abundant seedling bank dominated by Quercus ilex, whereas high-altitude plantations showed a virtually monospecific seeding bank of Pinus sylvestris. Regeneration was null in plantations with stand densities exceeding 1500 pines/ha. Moderate plantation densities (500-1000 pines/ha) promoted recruitment in compari