Science.gov

Sample records for plants battery chargers

  1. Battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a battery charger for a storage battery having circuitry including a primary charging path consisting of means to reduce the voltage of a power source to a level to be applied to a battery to be charged. It also includes a means to convert power from the power source to a pulsating direct current applied to an SCR and gating it on at the beginning of each selected half cycle and passing the current to the positive terminal of the battery. The improvement in circuitry in the charging path consists of voltage control and time control means of a battery charger, the voltage control means comprises a voltage low pass filter and sensing means, the same being connected to the leads of a battery as a charging input voltage source and having as its output a filtered voltage proportional to the Vmin voltage of a battery, the Vmin voltage being applied to a voltage comparator, means feeding a fixed reference voltage to the comparator, the reference voltage being proportional to an equalization voltage to be impressed upon the battery, whereby when the reference voltage is exceeded by the Vmin voltage from the battery, current flow through the SCR ceases and the voltage in the battery decreases, and when the Vmin voltage is less than the fixed reference voltage, the SCR resumes charging the battery to maintain the battery at its equalization level voltage, and means causing the time control means to run for the time of the equalization charge and to pause and hold its time setting in the event equalization charging ceases prior to the completion of the equalization charging cycle.

  2. Automatic battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Schub, L.

    1984-06-26

    An automatic battery charging circuit for use with battery powered vehicles such as golf carts includes an automatically timed charging switch which is connected in parallel with the conventional manually timed charging switch of the battery charger. The automatically timed charging switch includes an electrical clock connected across the power line of the charger. When the charger is plugged into the power line, the clock closes the terminals of the automatically timed charging switch for a brief period of time on a periodic basis. This prevents the batteries of the vehicle from becoming substantially discharged during extended periods of non-use, thereby increasing the life of the batteries.

  3. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  4. 10 CFR 429.39 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Battery chargers. 429.39 Section 429.39 Energy DEPARTMENT... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.39 Battery chargers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to battery chargers; and...

  5. 10 CFR 429.39 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Battery chargers. 429.39 Section 429.39 Energy DEPARTMENT... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.39 Battery chargers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to battery chargers; and...

  6. 10 CFR 429.39 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Battery chargers. 429.39 Section 429.39 Energy DEPARTMENT... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.39 Battery chargers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to battery chargers; and...

  7. Fuzzy control of battery chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldridge, Jack

    1996-03-01

    The increasing reliance on battery power for portable terrestrial purposes, such as portable tools, portable computers, and telecommunications, provides motivation to optimize the battery charging process with respect to speed of charging and charging cycle lifetime of the battery. Fuzzy control, implemented on a small microcomputer, optimizes charging in the presence of nonlinear effects and large uncertainty in the voltage vs. charge state characteristics for the battery. Use of a small microcontroller makes possible a small, capable, and affordable package for the charger. Microcontroller-based chargers provide improved performance by adjusting both charging voltage and charging current during the entire charging process depending on a current estimate of the state of charge of the battery. The estimate is derived from the zero-current voltage of the battery and the temperature and their rates of change. All of these quantities are uncertain due to the variation in condition between the individual cells in a battery, the rapid and nonlinear dependence of the fundamental electrochemistry on the internal temperature, and the placement of a single temperature sensor within the battery package. While monitoring the individual cell voltages and temperatures would be desirable, cost and complexity considerations preclude the practice. NASA has developed considerable technology in batteries for supplying significant amounts of power for spacecraft and in fuzzy control techniques for the space applications. In this paper, we describe how we are using both technologies to build an optimal charger prototype as a precursor to a commercial version.

  8. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  9. Integrated Inverter And Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1988-01-01

    Circuit combines functions of dc-to-ac inversion (for driving ac motor in battery-powered vehicle) and ac-to-dc conversion (for charging battery from ac line when vehicle not in use). Automatically adapts to either mode. Design of integrated inverter/charger eliminates need for duplicate components, saves space, reduces weight and cost of vehicle. Advantages in other applications : load-leveling systems, standby ac power systems, and uninterruptible power supplies.

  10. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  11. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  12. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  14. 46 CFR 111.15-30 - Battery chargers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery chargers. 111.15-30 Section 111.15-30 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-30 Battery chargers. Each battery charger enclosure must meet § 111.01-9. Additionally, each charger must be suitable...

  15. Ferroresonant flux coupled battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel W. T. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A battery charger for incorporation into an electric-powered vehicle is disclosed. The charger includes a ferroresonant voltage-regulating circuit for providing an output voltage proportional to the frequency of an input AC voltage. A high frequency converter converts a DC voltage supplied, for example, from a rectifier connected to a standard AC outlet, to a controlled frequency AC voltage which is supplied to the input of the ferroresonant circuit. The ferroresonant circuit includes an output, a saturable core transformer connected across the output, and a first linear inductor and a capacitor connected in series across the saturable core transformer and tuned to resonate at the third harmonic of the AC voltage from the high frequency converter. The ferroresonant circuit further includes a second linear inductor connected between the input of the ferroresonant circuit and the saturable core transformer. The output voltage from the ferroresonant circuit is rectified and applied across a pair of output terminals adapted to be connected to the battery to be charged. A feedback circuit compares the voltage across the output terminals with a reference voltage and controls the frequency of the AC voltage produced by the high frequency converter to maintain the voltage across the output terminals at a predetermined value. The second linear inductor provides a highly reactive load in the event of a fault across the output terminals to render the charger short-circuit proof.

  16. Controllers for Battery Chargers and Battery Chargers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmes, John (Inventor); Kersten, Rene (Inventor); Pepper, Michael (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A controller for a battery charger that includes a power converter has parametric sensors for providing a sensed Vin signal, a sensed Vout signal and a sensed Iout signal. A battery current regulator (BCR) is coupled to receive the sensed Iout signal and an Iout reference, and outputs a first duty cycle control signal. An input voltage regulator (IVR) receives the sensed Vin signal and a Vin reference. The IVR provides a second duty cycle control signal. A processor receives the sensed Iout signal and utilizes a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm, and provides the Vin reference to the IVR. A selection block forwards one of the first and second duty cycle control signals as a duty cycle control signal to the power converter. Dynamic switching between the first and second duty cycle control signals maximizes the power delivered to the battery.

  17. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.; Bryant, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Tests are performed on an improved battery charger. The primary purpose of the testing is to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. Tests are developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests show this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  18. Comparison of onboard aircraft Nicad battery chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    A test was conducted at the Applied Technology Laboratory at Fort Eustis, Virginia to establish the performance characteristics of several onboard aircraft NiCad battery chargers. The test assessed performance characteristics of chargers from Utah Research and Development Company, Aerospace Avionics Corp., Eldec Corp., and Chrysler Corp. These performance characteristics were also compared to the battery performance associated with a simulated aircraft bus charging source. Adjunct tests investigated battery maintenance procedures.

  19. Performance of the Lester battery charger in electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Vivian, H.C.; Bryant, J.A.

    1984-04-15

    Tests were performed on an improved battery charger manufactured by Lester Electrical of Nebraska, Inc. This charger was installed in a South Coast Technology Rabbit No. 4, which was equipped with lead-acid batteries produced by ESB Company. The primary purpose of the testing was to develop test methodologies for battery charger evaluation. To this end tests were developed to characterize the charger in terms of its charge algorithm and to assess the effects of battery initial state of charge and temperature on charger and battery efficiency. Tests showed this charger to be a considerable improvement in the state of the art for electric vehicle chargers.

  20. Aging Management Guideline for commercial nuclear power plants: Battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Stroinski, M.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-02-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant battery chargers, inverters and uninterruptible power supplies important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already, experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  1. 14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Station Control Batteries and Battery Chargers, view to the northeast. The original battery charger is the center cabinet on the left side of photograph, with the new charger on the far left of photograph and a circuit breaker unit for the chargers is visible in the center of the photograph. The batteries are visible on three racks through the open doorway. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  2. Ferroresonant Flux-Coupled Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    Portable battery charger operates at about 20 kHz to take advantage of relatively low weight and low acoustical noise of ferroresonant circuits operating in this frequency range. Charger split into stationary unit connected to powerline and mobile unit connected to battery or other load. Power transferred to mobile unit by magnetic coupling between mating transformer halves. Advantage where sparking at electrical connection might pose explosion hazard or where operator disabled and cannot manipulate plug into wall outlet. Likely applications for charger include wheelchairs and robots.

  3. Ripple detecting polarity indicator for battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Castleman, C.V.

    1987-03-31

    A battery charger output cable is described connected with an energized charger, the terminal of the cable embodying circuitry responsive to an AC ripple component in the battery charger output, the circuitry comprised of the following: during an interval of increasing voltage of the ripple component in a battery charger output; a first capacitor responsive to an AC ripple component passing current to the base-emitter junction of a transmitter; a second capacitor discharging current from the base-emitter junction; a correct polarity indicator; the second capacitor diverting current which would otherwise pass through and energize the correct polarity indicator; an incorrect polarity indicator in circuit with the second capacitor being reversely biased relative to the current passing from the second capacitor; during an interval of decreasing voltage of the ripple component in the battery charger output; the first capacitor reversing the direction of the current discharging the same through a second circuit including the second capacitor; the second capacitor having such a greater magnitude of capacitance value than the first capacitor as to pass insufficient voltage to energize the correct polarity indicator and the incorrect polarity indicator being biased relative to the reverse direction of current is energized.

  4. Flux Coupling for Wheelchair Battery Chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Battery-charger concept for wheelchairs includes magnetic-flux coupling instead of electrical connections between power sources and wheelchairs. Concept meant to facilitate operation by patients whose disabilities make it difficult or impossible to maneuver common electrical plugs into or out of ac wall outlets.

  5. Reversible battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tenglong

    Electric power system in today's world is on the verge of significant transformation. For the past few years or so, "Smart grid" has been one of the hottest topics in national news and professional conferences in the electric power industry. The next-generation electricity grid, known as "smart" or "intelligent," is expected to accommodate all generation and storage options, whereupon Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology emerges in Electric and hybrid-electric vehicles and has been a promising technology. This thesis presents a reversible battery charger for electric vehicle with V2G function and associated control strategy for the power flowing between the grid and EV. The reversible battery charger is being proposed to connect the power grid and EV battery group of 12 batteries of 12V in series on an EV of Electric Vehicle Evaluation Lab in University of Massachusetts Lowell. The method uses a matrix converter and bidirectional de-dc converter. The charger was simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK environment. The results are presented to show the charger operation under different mode.

  6. Flux Coupling for Wheelchair Battery Chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Battery-charger concept for wheelchairs includes magnetic-flux coupling instead of electrical connections between power sources and wheelchairs. Concept meant to facilitate operation by patients whose disabilities make it difficult or impossible to maneuver common electrical plugs into or out of ac wall outlets.

  7. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W. ); Aggarwal, S. )

    1992-01-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  8. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    1992-06-01

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized. 5 refs.

  9. Understanding and managing the effects of battery charger and inverter aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, W.; Aggarwal, S.

    An aging assessment of battery chargers and inverters was conducted under the auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. The intentions of this program are to resolve issues related to the aging and service wear of equipment and systems at operating reactor facilities and to assess their impact on safety. Inverters and battery chargers are used in nuclear power plants to perform significant functions related to plant safety and availability. The specific impact of a battery charger or inverter failure varies with plant configuration. Operating experience data have demonstrated that reactor trips, safety injection system actuations, and inoperable emergency core cooling systems have resulted from inverter failures; and dc bus degradation leading to diesel generator inoperability or loss of control room annunication and indication have resulted from battery and battery charger failures. For the battery charger and inverter, the aging and service wear of subcomponents have contributed significantly to equipment failures. This paper summarizes the data and then describes methods that can be used to detect battery charger and inverter degradation prior to failure, as well as methods to minimize the failure effects. In both cases, the managing of battery charger and inverter aging is emphasized.

  10. Full-charge indicator for battery chargers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A full-charge indicator for battery chargers, includes a transistor which is in a conductive state as long as charging current to the battery is not less than a level which indicates that the battery did not reach full charge. When the battery reaches full charge, a voltage drop in a resistor in the charging current path is not sufficient to maintain the transistor in a conducting state, and therefore it is switched off. When this occurs an LED is turned on, to indicate a full charge state of the battery. A photocoupler together with a photocoupler transistor are included. When the transistor is off, the photocoupler activates the photocoupler transistor to shunt out a resistor, thereby reducing the charging current to the battery to a float charging current and prevent the battery from being overcharged and damaged.

  11. Isolation of Battery Chargers Integrated Into Printed Circuit Boards

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, James S.

    2013-11-21

    Present test procedures developed by the Federal Government (10 CFR Part 430 “Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products”) to measure the energy consumption of battery chargers provide no method for the isolation of input power for battery chargers that have been integrated into printed circuit boards internal to electronic equipment. This prevents the measurement of Standby and Off Mode energy consumption. As a result, the energy consumption of battery chargers integrated into the printed circuit board cannot be measured.

  12. 25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Station Control Batteries and Chargers, view to the east. The ARU130HK50 battery charger is visible in left foreground of photograph, with the A-40 backup battery charger visible adjacent to and beyond the ARU130HK50. The racks of 60 KCU-7 lead calcium batteries manufactured by C&D Batteries are visible in the center of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  13. Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) Charger: Spacesuit Battery Charger Design with 2-Fault Tolerance to Catastrophic Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Davies, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Charger design that is 2-fault tolerant to catastrophic has been achieved for the Spacesuit Li-ion Battery with key features. Power supply control circuit and 2 microprocessors independently control against overcharge. 3 microprocessor control against undercharge (false positive: Go for EVA) conditions. 2 independent channels provide functional redundancy. Capable of charge balancing cell banks in series. Cell manufacturing and performance uniformity is excellent with both designs. Once a few outliers are removed, LV cells are slightly more uniform than MoliJ cells. If cell balance feature of charger is ever invoked, it will be an indication of a significant degradation issue, not a nominal condition.

  14. A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium-ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    LITHIUM - ION BATTERIES AND ONE CHARGER PER BATTERY by Frank E. Filler December 2009 Thesis Advisor: Alexander L. Julian...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium - ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery 6. AUTHOR(S) Frank E...The BMS design uses lithium - ion batteries as the energy storage medium and uses one charger per battery for maximum

  15. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  16. A high efficiency 3 kW switchmode battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.; Bosack, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the design approach and status of a high-efficiency switchmode battery charger designed to charge a 108 V battery from the 115 Vac line. The charger contains a transformer isolated boost chopper operating at 20 kHz. The boost inductor current is programmed to follow the ac line voltage such that high power factor operation and low line distortion are obtained.

  17. Compact, Interactive Electric Vehicle Charger: Gallium-Nitride Switch Technology for Bi-directional Battery-to-Grid Charger Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: HRL Laboratories is using gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductors to create battery chargers for electric vehicles (EVs) that are more compact and efficient than traditional EV chargers. Reducing the size and weight of the battery charger is important because it would help improve the overall performance of the EV. GaN semiconductors process electricity faster than the silicon semiconductors used in most conventional EV battery chargers. These high-speed semiconductors can be paired with lighter-weight electrical circuit components, which helps decrease the overall weight of the EV battery charger. HRL Laboratories is combining the performance advantages of GaN semiconductors with an innovative, interactive battery-to-grid energy distribution design. This design would support 2-way power flow, enabling EV battery chargers to not only draw energy from the power grid, but also store and feed energy back into it.

  18. Integral inverter/battery charger for use in electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thimmesch, D.

    1983-01-01

    The design and test results of a thyristor based inverter/charger are discussed. A battery charger is included integral to the inverter by using a subset of the inverter power circuit components. The resulting charger provides electrical isolation between the vehicle propulsion battery and ac line and is capable of charging a 25 kWh propulsion battery in 8 hours from a 220 volt ac line. The integral charger employs the inverter commutation components at a resonant ac/dc isolated converter rated at 3.6 kW. Charger efficiency and power factor at an output power of 3.6 kW are 86% and 95% respectively. The inverter, when operated with a matching polyphase ac induction motor and nominal 132 volt propulsion battery, can provide a peak shaft power of 34 kW (45 ph) during motoring operation and 45 kW (60 hp) during regeneration. Thyristors are employed for the inverter power switching devices and are arranged in an input-commutated topology. This configuration requires only two thyristors to commutate the six main inverter thyristors. Inverter efficiency during motoring operation at motor shaft speeds above 450 rad/sec (4300 rpm) is 92-94% for output power levels above 11 KW (15 hp). The combined ac inverter/charger package weighs 47 kg (103 lbs).

  19. A Battery Charger and State of Charge Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latos, T. S.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charger which has a full wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches, which are programmed to actively shape the input dc line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage is discussed. The power circuit operates at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state of charge software programs. The state of charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictate the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology is a three switch design which utilizes a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  20. Battery charger and state of charge indicator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Latos, T.S.

    1984-04-15

    The battery charger has a full-wave rectifier in series with a transformer isolated 20 kHz dc-dc converter with high frequency switches which are programmed to actively shape the input ac line current to be a mirror image of the ac line voltage. The power circuit is capable of operating at 2 kW peak and 1 kW average power. The BC/SCI has two major subsystems: (1) the battery charger power electronics with its controls; and (2) a microcomputer subsystem which is used to acquire battery terminal data and exercise the state-of-charge software programs. The state-of-charge definition employed is the energy remaining in the battery when extracted at a 10 kW rate divided by the energy capacity of a fully charged new battery. The battery charger circuit is an isolated boost converter operating at an internal frequency of 20 kHz. The switches selected for the battery charger are the single most important item in determining its efficiency. The combination of voltage and current requirements dictated the use of high power NPN Darlington switching transistors. The power circuit topology developed is a three switch design utilizing a power FET on the center tap of the isolation transformer and the power Darlingtons on each of the two ends. An analog control system is employed to accomplish active input current waveshaping as well as the necessary regulation.

  1. Evaluation of lithium-ion synergetic battery pack as battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M.; Eaves, S.S.

    1999-09-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and a battery charger. In this paper, the authors compare the performance of the Synergetic Battery Pack as a battery charger with several simple conventional battery charging circuits via computer simulation. The factors of comparison were power factor, harmonic distortion, and circuit efficiency. The simulations showed that the SBP is superior to the conventional charging circuits since the power factor is unity and harmonic distortion is negligible.

  2. A high-performance transcutaneous battery charger for medical implants.

    PubMed

    Artan, N; Vanjani, Hitesh; Vashist, Gurudath; Fu, Zhen; Bhakthavatsala, Santosh; Ludvig, Nandor; Medveczky, Geza; Chao, H

    2010-01-01

    As new functionality is added to the implantable devices, their power requirements also increase. Such power requirements make it hard for keeping such implants operational for long periods by non-rechargeable batteries. This result in a need for frequent surgeries to replace these batteries. Rechargeable batteries can satisfy the long-term power requirements of these new functions. To minimize the discomfort to the patients, the recharging of the batteries should be as infrequent as possible. Traditional battery charging methods have low battery charging efficiency. This means they may limit the amount of charge that can be delivered to the device, speeding up the depletion of the battery and forcing frequent recharging. In this paper, we evaluate the suitability of a state-of-the-art general purpose charging method called current-pumped battery charger (CPBC) for implant applications. Using off-the-shelf components and with minimum optimization, we prototyped a proof-of-concept transcutaenous battery charger based on CPBC and show that the CPBC can charge a 100 mAh battery transcutaneously within 137 minutes with at most 2.1°C increase in tissue temperature even with a misalignment of 1.3 cm in between the coils, while keeping the battery charging efficiency at 85%.

  3. Will Your Battery Survive a World With Fast Chargers?

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.

    2015-05-04

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that result could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's development of BLAST-V-the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles-to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. We present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. We find that the impact of realistic fast charging on battery degradation is minimal for most drivers, due to the low frequency of use. However, in the absence of active battery cooling systems, a driver's desired utilization of a BEV and fast charging infrastructure can result in unsafe peak battery temperatures. We find that active battery cooling systems can control peak battery temperatures to safe limits while allowing the desired use of the vehicle.

  4. Combination field chopper and battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, R.L.; Crouch, K.E.; Wilson, J.W.A.

    1979-08-13

    A power transistor used in a chopper circuit to control field excitation of a vehicle motor when in a power mode is also used to control charging current from an a-c to d-c rectifier to the vehicle battery when in a battery charging mode. Two isolating diodes and a small high frequency filter inductor are the only elements required in the chopper circuit to reconfigure the circuit for power or charging modes of operation.

  5. Combination field chopper and battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert L.; Crouch, Keith E.; Wilson, James W. A.

    1981-01-01

    A power transistor used in a chopper circuit to control field excitation of a vehicle motor when in a power mode is also used to control charging current from an a-c to d-c rectifier to the vehicle battery when in a battery charging mode. Two isolating diodes and a small high frequency filter inductor are the only elements required in the chopper circuit to reconfigure the circuit for power or charging modes of operation.

  6. 75 FR 16957 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes major revisions to its test procedures for battery chargers and external power supplies. In particular, DOE proposes to insert a new active mode energy consumption test procedure for battery chargers, to assist in the development of energy conservation standards as directed by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. DOE also proposes to......

  7. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    DOEpatents

    Slicker, James M.

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a "flyback" DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  8. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  9. The harmonic impact of electric vehicle battery chargers on residential power distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; O`Connell, R.M.; Brownfield, G.

    1999-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EV), which are powered by battery-driven electric motors, are becoming an ecologically attractive alternative to gasoline driven vehicles. One drawback to them is that the associated battery chargers are power electronic circuits which, because of their non-linear nature, can produce deleterious harmonic effects on the electric utility distribution system. To investigate the harmonic effects of widespread use of EV battery chargers, three different commercially available EV battery chargers are modeled using the injection current method to represent their current waveforms for simulation in a SPICE model of a particular distribution system.

  10. Develop improved battery charger (Turbo-Z Battery Charging System). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    The output of this project was a flexible control board. The control board can be used to control a variety of rapid battery chargers. The control module will reduce development cost of rapid battery charging hardware. In addition, PEPCO's proprietary battery charging software have been pre-programmed into the control microprocessor. This product is being applied to the proprietary capacitive charging system now under development.

  11. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... and General Instructions a. Confidence Intervals b. Test Laboratory Temperature c. Charge Rate Selection d. Battery Selection e. Non-Battery Charging Functions f. Battery Chargers With Protective Circuitry g. Charge Capacity of Batteries With No Rating h. Battery Conditioning i. Rest Period 5. Test...

  12. Portable battery-free charger for radiation dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Manning, Frank W.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is a novel portable charger for dosimeters of the electrometer type. The charger does not require batteries or piezoelectric crystals and is of rugged construction. In a preferred embodiment, the charge includes a housing which carries means for mounting a dosimeter to be charged. The housing also includes contact means for impressing a charging voltage across the mounted dosimeter. Also, the housing carries a trigger for operating a charging system mounted in the housing. The charging system includes a magnetic loop including a permanent magnet for establishing a magnetic field through the loop. A segment of the loop is coupled to the trigger for movement thereby to positions opening and closing the loop. A coil inductively coupled with the loop generates coil-generated voltage pulses when the trigger is operated to open and close the loop. The charging system includes an electrical circuit for impressing voltage pulses from the coil across a capacitor for integrating the pulses and applying the resulting integrated voltage across the above-mentioned contact means for charging the dosimeter.

  13. An SCR inverter with an integral battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thimmeach, D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating an onboard battery charger into the inverter previously developed under a NASA contract is successfully demonstrated. The rated output power of the resulting isolated battery charger is 3.6 kW at 220 Vac with an 86 percent efficiency and a 95 percent power factor. Also achieved are improved inverter efficiency (from 90 to 93 percent at 15 kW motor shaft power), inverter peak power capability (from 26 to 34 kW), and reduced weight and volume of the combined inverter/charger package (47 kg, 49 x 44 x 24 cm). Some major conclusions are that using the inverter commutation circuitry to perform the battery charging function is advantageous, and that the input-commutated thyristor inverter has the potential to be an excellent inverter and battery charger for use in electric vehicle applications.

  14. An SCR inverter with an integral battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thimmeach, D.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating an onboard battery charger into the inverter previously developed under a NASA contract is successfully demonstrated. The rated output power of the resulting isolated battery charger is 3.6 kW at 220 Vac with an 86 percent efficiency and a 95 percent power factor. Also achieved are improved inverter efficiency (from 90 to 93 percent at 15 kW motor shaft power), inverter peak power capability (from 26 to 34 kW), and reduced weight and volume of the combined inverter/charger package (47 kg, 49 x 44 x 24 cm). Some major conclusions are that using the inverter commutation circuitry to perform the battery charging function is advantageous, and that the input-commutated thyristor inverter has the potential to be an excellent inverter and battery charger for use in electric vehicle applications.

  15. Erosion of tooth enamel surfaces among battery chargers and automobile mechanics in Ibadan: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Arowojolu, M O

    2001-01-01

    A cross sectional comparative survey was conducted among battery chargers and automobile mechanics in Ibadan to determine the effect of exposure of acid in form of solution or fumes on tooth enamel wear one hundred and five subjects were recruited and examined for erosion. This number comprised 67 automechanics and apprentices and 38 battery chargers and their apprentices. Other groups of automobile workers sharing the workshops were excluded from the study. All respondents aged between 11 and 68 years of age. Verbal informed consent was taken from all the subjects. One thousand and one hundred teeth were examined using the upper and lower central sextants. One hundred and sixty teeth were found to be missing. The teeth examined comprised 712 teeth of automechanics (88.55%) and 388 teeth of battery chargers (85.08%). Out of the 712 teeth of automechanics, only 23 teeth (3.2%) showed evidence of tooth wear whereas in the battery chargers group, 159 teeth out of 388 teeth (41%) had tooth wear. (P < 0.05). The battery charger group also showed a higher percentage of missing teeth, (14.9%) as against 11.44% of the automechanic group (P > 0.05). This study has shown that battery chargers are subjected to occupational hazard of exposure to highly erosive acids and fumes. Prevention through oral health education targeted at this group of subjects and early diagnosis are very important.

  16. Pulse battery charger employing 1000 ampere transistor switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigerwald, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A pulse charger which uses water-cooled 1000-amp transistor switches has been developed to determine empirically the best methods of rapidly charging large cells in the one- to two-volt range. The pulse charger is capable of delivering a positive current from 0 to 1000 amps and extracting a negative current from 0 to 1000 amps. The charger can supply a 1000-amp DC charge or can switch 1000 amps at a rate of 1000 Hz. Special attention is given to problems associated with rapid switching of high currents through use of transistors.

  17. PEPCO turbo-Z battery charger system. Technical progress report, calendar quarter ending March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.

    1998-04-30

    During the First Quarter of 1998, the engineers working on this Grant have dramatically increased the rate of work. They are developing a Flexible Battery Charger Control Board, a Battery Charger Test Stand, and writing software that can be used with both. The status is as follows: (a) Flexible Battery Charger Control Board -- a preliminary electrical design is complete. They are now investigating how the control design might incorporate provisions for an additional Electric Vehicle charging feature. This additional design is based on SAE J2293 -- Recommended Practice for EV Communications. Investigation of J2293 is being considered for controlling a power supply using proprietary Capacitive Charging Coupler, and controlling the power supply with this control board. (b) Battery Test Stand -- the preliminary hardware design is complete. The design includes some very desirable additions to the specifications, including an AC line source for the charger being tested and a battery simulator. Purchasing of the equipment and materials for the test stand is underway. The engineers have been working in the SAE standards setting committees for Electric Vehicles for several years. In particular, they have been working to set the Capacitive Coupler as the standard for connecting an EV to the utility grid system. Substantial test data has been distributed to the committee members on the Conductive and Inductive Charging Systems. It is their opinion that they have a superior coupling mechanism, and they are proceeding to develop this technology.

  18. An omnipotent Li-ion battery charger with multimode control and polarity reversible techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiann-Jong; Ku, Yi-Tsen; Yang, Hong-Yi; Hwang, Yuh-Shyan; Yu, Cheng-Chieh

    2016-07-01

    The omnipotent Li-ion battery charger with multimode control and polarity reversible techniques is presented in this article. The proposed chip is fabricated with TSMC 0.35μm 2P4M complementary metal-oxide- semiconductor processes, and the chip area including pads is 1.5 × 1.5 mm2. The structure of the omnipotent charger combines three charging modes and polarity reversible techniques, which adapt to any Li-ion batteries. The three reversible Li-ion battery charging modes, including trickle-current charging, large-current charging and constant-voltage charging, can charge in matching polarities or opposite polarities. The proposed circuit has a maximum charging current of 300 mA and the input voltage of the proposed circuit is set to 4.5 V. The maximum efficiency of the proposed charger is about 91% and its average efficiency is 74.8%. The omnipotent charger can precisely provide the charging current to the battery.

  19. 75 FR 56021 - Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies: Public Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... of Standards Rulemaking for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies A. Background B. Current.... Current Rulemaking Process Subsequent to the activities noted above, Congress enacted the Energy... external power supply as ``an external power supply circuit that is used to convert household...

  20. Comparison of on-board aircraft NiCad battery chargers. Report for June 1978-May 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    A test was conducted at the Applied Technology Laboratory at Fort Eustis, Virginia to establish the performance characteristics of several on-board aircraft NiCad battery chargers. The test assessed performance characteristics of chargers from Utah Research and Development Company, Aerospace Avionics Corp., Eldec Corp., and Chrysler Corp. These performance characteristics were also compared to the battery performance associated with a simulated aircraft bus charging source. Adjunct tests investigated battery maintenance procedures.

  1. An area and power-efficient analog li-ion battery charger circuit.

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno; Wentz, Christian T; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2011-04-01

    The demand for greater battery life in low-power consumer electronics and implantable medical devices presents a need for improved energy efficiency in the management of small rechargeable cells. This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger with high energy efficiency. The charger presented here utilizes the tanh basis function of a subthreshold operational transconductance amplifier to smoothly transition between constant-current and constant-voltage charging regimes without the need for additional area- and power-consuming control circuitry. Current-domain circuitry for end-of-charge detection negates the need for precision-sense resistors in either the charging path or control loop. We show theoretically and experimentally that the low-frequency pole-zero nature of most battery impedances leads to inherent stability of the analog control loop. The circuit was fabricated in an AMI 0.5-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process, and achieves 89.7% average power efficiency and an end voltage accuracy of 99.9% relative to the desired target 4.2 V, while consuming 0.16 mm(2) of chip area. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this design represents the most area-efficient and most energy-efficient battery charger circuit reported in the literature.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... standard for battery chargers. 1. Scope This appendix covers the test requirements used to measure battery... generally be determined by trial and error. Since the conditioning step does not require constant-current discharges, the trials themselves may also be counted as part of battery conditioning. 5. Test Measurement...

  3. Improved photovoltaic battery chargers for lower maintenance and higher efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millner, A. R.

    A novel system controller has been developed and tested, suitable for many remote lead acid battery charging applications. The state of charge of the battery is estimated by integrating the battery current, while the optimum amount of equalization charge is simultaneously estimated. The results are bounded by a temperature compensated voltage limit algorithm to ensure convergence of the model to the actual battery being controlled. The battery therefore requires less watering and will probably last longer. The charging mode is further enhanced by a modular high-efficiency switching DC to DC regulator between the source and the battery, driven by a maximum power controller. This allows the photovoltaic array to operate at its optimum voltage, regardless of the battery voltage, enhancing the system output during design-limiting winter months.

  4. Solar bus regulator and battery charger for IMP's H, I, and J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulkovich, J.

    1972-01-01

    Interplanetary Monitoring Probe (IMP) spacecrafts H, I, and J utilize a direct energy transfer (DET) type of power system operating from a solar array source. A shunt type of regulator prevents the bus voltage from exceeding a preset voltage level. The power system utilizes a single differential amplifier with dual outputs to control the battery charge/shunt regulator and the discharge regulator. A two-voltage level, current limited, series charger and a current sensor control battery state of charge of the silver-cadmium battery pack. Premature termination of the battery charge is prevented by a power available gate that also initiates charge current to the battery upon availability of excess power.

  5. A new battery charger/discharger converter. [for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middlebrook, R. D.; Cuk, S.; Behen, W.

    1978-01-01

    A new optimum topology dc-to-dc switching converter is extended to provide bidirectional current flow. The resulting two-quadrant converter can be employed to eliminate the discontinuous current mode in normal unidirectional applications, but is especially suited for spacecraft battery conditioning as a charge-discharge regulator in place of the conventional separate converters. Implementation of the control features and the battery charge current and voltage limits are discussed.

  6. Fuzzy-control-based five-step Li-ion battery charger by using AC impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Aghay Kaboli, Seyed Hamidreza; Mohammadi, Arash; Oladazimi, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    In This paper the previous Li-Ion battery charger techniques are reviewed and compared and the new fuzzy logic battery charging method which is proposed to optimize and improve the battery charger efficiently. According to results of comparison, using the fuzzy control charging system can shorten the charging time with higher efficiency and lower temperature rise. Additionally, we have used optimal Li-ion battery charging frequency by using AC impedance technique which means if the battery is charged by the optimal charging frequency fZmin, that obtain from Bode Plot of the Li-ion battery, the charging time and charging efficiency will improve. Thus using the switching frequency (fZmin) of the battery charger and the fuzzy logic control on the same system can optimize the performance on the charging process. According to the experimental results, the proposed charger can charge the Li-ion batteries with higher efficiency 97.16%, lower temperature rise1.513degree celosias, fast charging period around 50.43 minute and long life cycle. The results in this paper are presented by using MATLAB and dsPIC30F2020 is used as controller applying designed fuzzy logic inside.

  7. Fuzzy-control-based five-step Li-ion battery charger by using AC impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Houshyar; Aghay Kaboli, Seyed Hamidreza; Mohammadi, Arash; Oladazimi, Maysam

    2011-12-01

    In This paper the previous Li-Ion battery charger techniques are reviewed and compared and the new fuzzy logic battery charging method which is proposed to optimize and improve the battery charger efficiently. According to results of comparison, using the fuzzy control charging system can shorten the charging time with higher efficiency and lower temperature rise. Additionally, we have used optimal Li-ion battery charging frequency by using AC impedance technique which means if the battery is charged by the optimal charging frequency fZmin, that obtain from Bode Plot of the Li-ion battery, the charging time and charging efficiency will improve. Thus using the switching frequency (fZmin) of the battery charger and the fuzzy logic control on the same system can optimize the performance on the charging process. According to the experimental results, the proposed charger can charge the Li-ion batteries with higher efficiency 97.16%, lower temperature rise1.513degree celosias, fast charging period around 50.43 minute and long life cycle. The results in this paper are presented by using MATLAB and dsPIC30F2020 is used as controller applying designed fuzzy logic inside.

  8. Consumers power delays new substation construction by controlling electric cart: Battery chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Bombery, M.F.; Duncan, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    During July of 1993, Consumers Power Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA, was surprised by a series of electric system component failures due to overload. The outages resulted in widespread customer dissatisfaction within a 865 acre resort called Sandy Pines. Several conventional solutions were quickly implemented, but projections of continued load growth led to scheduling the construction of a new distribution substation. Current efforts are focusing on load control of electric golf cart battery chargers to shift the peak demand causing the overload and delay or cancel the planned new substation.

  9. Savings Potential of ENERGY STAR(R) External Power Adapters andBattery Chargers

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie; Korn, David; Sanchez, Marla

    2007-02-28

    External power adapters may lose 10 to 70 percent of theenergy they consume, dissipated as heat rather than converted into usefulenergy. Battery charging systems have more avenues for losses: inaddition to power conversion losses, power is consumed by the chargingcircuitry, and additional power may be needed after the battery is fullcharged to balance self-discharge. In 2005, the Environmental ProtectionAgency launched a new ENERGY STAR(R) label for external power supplies(EPSs) that convert line-voltage AC electricity into low-voltage DCelectricity for certain electronic devices. The specification includedpower supplies for products with battery charging functions (e.g. laptopsand cell phones), but excluded others. In January 2006, a separatespecification was issued for battery charging systems contained primarilyin small household appliances and power tools. In addition to the ENERGYSTAR(R) label, the state of California will implement minimum energyperformance standards for EPSs in 2007, and similar standards for EPSsand battery chargers are in development at the national level.Many of theproducts covered by these policies use relatively little power and havemodest per-unit savings potential compared to conventional energyefficiency targets. But with an estimated 1.5 billion adapters and 230million battery charging systems in use in the United States, theaggregate savings potential is quite high. This paper presents estimatesof the savings potential for external power adapters and battery chargingsystems through 2025.

  10. The voice of the customer--Part 2: Benchmarking battery chargers against the Consumer's Ideal Product.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S M; Lane, J P; Stone, V I; Unnikrishnan, N

    1998-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Evaluation and Transfer is exploring how the end users of assistive technology devices define the ideal device. This work is called the Consumer Ideal Product program. In this work, end users identify and establish the importance of a broad range of product design features, along with the related product support and service provided by manufacturers and vendors. This paper describes a method for systematically transforming end-user defined requirements into a form that is useful and accessible to product designers, manufacturers, and vendors. In particular, product requirements, importance weightings, and metrics are developed from the Consumer Ideal Product battery charger outcomes. Six battery charges are benchmarked against these product requirements using the metrics developed. The results suggest improvements for each product's design, service, and support. Overall, the six chargers meet roughly 45-75% of the ideal product's requirements. Many of the suggested improvements are low-cost changes that, if adopted, could provide companies a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

  11. Analysing the usage and evidencing the importance of fast chargers for the adoption of battery electric vehicles

    DOE PAGES

    Neaimeh, Myriam; Salisbury, Shawn D.; Hill, Graeme A.; ...

    2017-06-27

    An appropriate charging infrastructure is one of the key aspects needed to support the mass adoption of battery electric vehicles (BEVs), and it is suggested that publically available fast chargers could play a key role in this infrastructure. As fast charging is a relatively new technology, very little research is conducted on the topic using real world datasets, and it is of utmost importance to measure actual usage of this technology and provide evidence on its importance to properly inform infrastructure planning. 90,000 fast charge events collected from the first large-scale roll-outs and evaluation projects of fast charging infrastructure inmore » the UK and the US and 12,700 driving days collected from 35 BEVs in the UK were analysed. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the relationship between daily driving distance and standard and fast charging and demonstrated that fast chargers are more influential. Fast chargers enabled using BEVs on journeys above their single-charge range that would have been impractical using standard chargers. Fast chargers could help overcome perceived and actual range barriers, making BEVs more attractive to future users. At current BEV market share, there is a vital need for policy support to accelerate the development of fast charge networks.« less

  12. The voice of the customer: consumers define the ideal battery charger.

    PubMed

    Lane, J P; Usiak, D J; Stone, V I; Scherer, M J

    1997-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Evaluation and Transfer is exploring how the users of assistive technology devices define the ideal device. This work is called the Consumer Ideal Product program. The results show what device characteristics are most and least important, indicating where to place the priority on product features and functions from the consumer's perspective. The "voice of the customer" can be used (1) to define the ideal characteristics of a product, (2) to make trade-offs in product design and function improvements based on their relative importance to the consumer, (3) to compare the characteristics of existing products against the characteristics of the ideal product, or (4) to generate a product checklist for consumers to use when making a purchase decision. This paper presents the results of consumers' defining the ideal battery charger. Four focus groups generated the survey's content, then 100 experienced users rated 159 characteristics organized under 11 general evaluation criteria. The consumers placed the highest importance on characteristics from the general evaluation criteria of product reliability, effectiveness, and physical security/safety. The findings should help manufacturers and vendors improve their products and services and help professionals and consumers make informed choices.

  13. A High-Density, High-Efficiency, Isolated On-Board Vehicle Battery Charger Utilizing Silicon Carbide Power Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, B; Barkley, A; Cole, Z; Passmore, B; Martin, D; McNutt, TR; Lostetter, AB; Lee, JS; Shiozaki, K

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents an isolated on-board vehicular battery charger that utilizes silicon carbide (SiC) power devices to achieve high density and high efficiency for application in electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (PHEVs). The proposed level 2 charger has a two-stage architecture where the first stage is a bridgeless boost ac-dc converter and the second stage is a phase-shifted full-bridge isolated dc-dc converter. The operation of both topologies is presented and the specific advantages gained through the use of SiC power devices are discussed. The design of power stage components, the packaging of the multichip power module, and the system-level packaging is presented with a primary focus on system density and a secondary focus on system efficiency. In this work, a hardware prototype is developed and a peak system efficiency of 95% is measured while operating both power stages with a switching frequency of 200 kHz. A maximum output power of 6.1 kW results in a volumetric power density of 5.0 kW/L and a gravimetric power density of 3.8 kW/kg when considering the volume and mass of the system including a case.

  14. Isolated Wired and Wireless Battery Charger with Integrated Boost Converter for PEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L; Tolbert, Leon M

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far are with the dc-dc converters and the charging functionality usually have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. This study features a unique way of combining the wired and wireless charging functionalities with vehicle side boost converter integration and maintaining the isolation to provide the best solution to the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) users. The new performance of the proposed architecture is presented for wired and wireless charging options at different power levels.

  15. A Method for Compensating Customer Voltage Drops due to Nighttime Simultaneous Charging of EVs Utilizing Reactive Power Injection from Battery Chargers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Taku; Kabasawa, Yuichiro; Fukushima, Kentaro; Nemoto, Koshichi; Uemura, Satoshi

    When we consider the global warming, the reduction of CO2 emission is one of the most important problems which require urgent solutions. One option is to integrate low-CO2-emission generators to the grid as much as possible. Another option is to replace inefficient vehicles based on internal-combustion engines with electric ones (EVs). Due to the latter, we can easily estimate that most consumers will charge EVs' batteries at nighttime. Thus, excessive voltage drops due to the nighttime simultaneous charging are supposed to be a possible future problem. This paper proposes a method for compensating the voltage drops by injecting reactive power from EV battery chargers.

  16. Valeri Tokarev and Julie Payette replace battery chargers in the FGB/Zarya module

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-20

    S96-E-5086 (31 May 1999) --- Astronaut Julie Payette and cosmonaut Valery I. Tokarev, mission specialists, are in the process of replacing all 18 of the battery charge/discharge units that support Zarya's six nickel-cadmium batteries. Known by the Russian acronym, "MIRTs," the batteries are thought to have been responsible for voltage problems first detected in January of this year, as Zarya, docked to Unity, orbited Earth. The photo was taken with an electronic still camera (ESC) at 03:15:38 GMT, May 31, 1999.

  17. Comparison of On-Board Aircraft NiCad Battery Chargers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    and the 100% D-O-D were too severe for this type of repetitive cycling. Accordingly, only the 20% D-O-D data is used in the body of this report. The 50...requirements, the battery should be returned to service. 6. The water level adjustment limit should be reexamined for each battery type to determine if...4.19 474 (oo) a~esn jejeM 00 / 0 3 I- 4- 0 0~ CN C4C 48. TABLE A-6. WATER USAGE/CAPACITY - 20% D-O-D, BATERY 2A Water Usage (cc) Cycle Cycle Cycle Cycle

  18. Performance characteristics of a battery charger and state-of-charge indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D.; Klein, J.

    1984-01-01

    A battery charge/state of charge indicator (BC/SCI) system for electric vehicle use was developed. The original and subsequent objectives for the BC/SCI and the rationale for those objectives are described. The requirements generated from the objectives are listed and a description of the BC/SCI is provided. The power section problem, the tests, and the test results are discussed.

  19. Household-battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.; Antenen, A.

    1995-12-31

    Batrec operates a plant for the recycling of used dry batteries with a capacity of 3,000 tons per year. The plant is situated in a tourist area of Switzerland and has complied with all the strict emission restrictions. The process yields four products: FeMn, Zn, Hg and slag. No hazardous waste is produced. All types of batteries can be treated.

  20. Laboratory testing of the Sonnenschein charger, Part number DTL 12040

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, J.E.; Martin, M.E.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes the results of testing the Sonnenschein DTL 12040 battery charger in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) battery laboratory. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the suitability of this charger for charging electric vehicle battery packs made up of Sonnenschein sealed lead acid batteries or possibly other similar batteries. This evaluation consists primarily of identifying the charge algorithm used and evaluating the resulting charge behavior. Other characteristics of the charger that could be significant are also noted. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other terminology used in the test method, please refer to IEEE Standard 1515-2000. a. Accumulated... battery energy. h. Manual on-off switch is a switch activated by the user to control power reaching the... disconnect mains power from the device when a battery is removed from a cradle or charging base or,...

  2. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... between charge and discharge, during which the battery is resting in an open-circuit state in ambient air... integrate or accumulate the input power over the measurement period and this result shall be used as the... battery shall be returned to an open-circuit condition. If current continues to be drawn from the...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... between charge and discharge, during which the battery is resting in an open-circuit state in ambient air... integrate or accumulate the input power over the measurement period and this result shall be used as the... battery shall be returned to an open-circuit condition. If current continues to be drawn from the...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix Y to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Battery Chargers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... condition in which the battery is receiving the main charge, equalizing cells, and performing other one-time... or battery pack is an assembly of one or more rechargeable cells intended to provide electrical... turned on. 3. Test Apparatus and General Instructions: The test apparatus, standard testing...

  5. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators.

    PubMed

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  6. Design of a hybrid battery charger system fed by a wind-turbine and photovoltaic power generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Tseng, Kuo-Ching; Yan, Bo-Yi

    2011-03-01

    This paper is aimed to develop a digital signal processor (DSP) for controlling a solar cell and wind-turbine hybrid charging system. The DSP consists of solar cells, a wind turbine, a lead acid battery, and a buck-boost converter. The solar cells and wind turbine serve as the system's main power sources and the battery as an energy storage element. The output powers of solar cells and wind turbine have large fluctuations with the weather and climate conditions. These unstable powers can be adjusted by a buck-boost converter and thus the most suitable output powers can be obtained. This study designs a booster by using a dsPIC30F4011 digital signal controller as a core processor. The DSP is controlled by the perturbation and observation methods to obtain an effective energy circuit with a full 100 W charging system. Also, this DSP can, day and night, be easily controlled and charged by a simple program, which can change the state of the system to reach a flexible application based on the reading weather conditions.

  7. An Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessary Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, an integrated onboard battery charger and accessary dc-dc converter for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) is presented. The idea is to utilize the already available traction drive inverters and motors of a PEV as the frond converter of the charger circuit and the transformer of the 14 V accessary dc-dc converter to provide galvanic isolation. The topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5 kW charger prototype

  8. Nickel-Cadmium Battery Charger.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-23

    continuity testing. T, . Tempe ratutre control and measurerne it. n. Fiise 4cOntinuity testing. Li U o. Coulometer performance evaluacion . p. Heater...Inc., AFAPf.-Te-72-85, "MaintenruAe,-z Fret, ?atterly Syzem, Model No. EMBCII14C Tiatterv’ Sy ste.ci, Sealed Cell, N’ickel (Cadmium~.1, integral Charge

  9. Powerful, Efficient Electric Vehicle Chargers: Low-Cost, Highly-Integrated Silicon Carbide (SiC) Multichip Power Modules (MCPMs) for Plug-In Hybrid Electric

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-14

    ADEPT Project: Currently, charging the battery of an electric vehicle (EV) is a time-consuming process because chargers can only draw about as much power from the grid as a hair dryer. APEI is developing an EV charger that can draw as much power as a clothes dryer, which would drastically speed up charging time. APEI's charger uses silicon carbide (SiC)-based power transistors. These transistors control the electrical energy flowing through the charger's circuits more effectively and efficiently than traditional transistors made of straight silicon. The SiC-based transistors also require less cooling, enabling APEI to create EV chargers that are 10 times smaller than existing chargers.

  10. A New Integrated Onboard Charger and Accessory Power Converter for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia; Tang, Lixin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is presented for integrating the function of onboard battery charging into the traction drive system and accessory dc-dc converter of a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV). The idea is to utilize the segmented traction drive system of a PEV as the frond converter of the charging circuit and the transformer and high voltage converter of the 14 V accessory dc-dc converter to form a galvanically isolated onboard charger. Moreover, a control method is presented for suppressing the battery current ripple component of twice the grid frequency with the reduced dc bus capacitor in the segmented inverter. The resultant integrated charger has lower cost, weight, and volume than a standalone charger due to a substantially reduced component count. The proposed integrated charger topology was verified by modeling and experimental results on a 5.8 kW charger prototype.

  11. 8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #211, battery equipment room; showing battery racks. The dc power of these batteries is distributed to motor-control centers, the annunciator system, and fire alarm and tripping circuits - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  12. Cost Savings for Manufacturing Lithium Batteries in a Flexible Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produces types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles of the types hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV) and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 per year (30,000 EV batteries and 100,000 HEV batteries). The unit cost savings as calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 8% for the EV battery packs to 23% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach $710 per unit and that of the EV batteries $228 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries and including the BMS. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is $20-24 per m2 of cell area including the cost of the BMS, averaging $21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  13. Cost savings for manufacturing lithium batteries in a flexible plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Ahmed, Shabbir; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2015-06-01

    The flexible plant postulated in this study would produce four types of batteries for electric-drive vehicles - a hybrid (HEV), 10-mile range and 40-mile range plug-in hybrids (PHEV), and a 150-mile range battery-electric (EV). The annual production rate of the plant is 235,000 battery packs (HEV: 100,000; PHEV10: 60,000; PHEV40: 45,000; EV: 30,000). The cost savings per battery pack calculated with the Argonne BatPaC model for this flex plant vs. dedicated plants range from 9% for the EV battery packs to 21% for the HEV packs including the battery management systems (BMS). The investment cost savings are even larger, ranging from 21% for EVs to 43% for HEVs. The costs of the 1.0-kWh HEV batteries are projected to approach 714 per unit and that of the EV batteries to approach 188 per kWh with the most favorable cell chemistries. The best single indicator of the cost of producing lithium-manganate spinel/graphite batteries in a flex plant is the total cell area of the battery. For the four batteries studied, the price range is 20-24 per m2 of cell area, averaging 21 per m2 for the entire flex plant.

  14. Zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C.; Mashikian, Matthew S.

    1981-01-01

    A zinc-chlorine battery plant system and method of redirecting the electrical current around a failed battery module. The battery plant includes a power conditioning unit, a plurality of battery modules connected electrically in series to form battery strings, a plurality of battery strings electrically connected in parallel to the power conditioning unit, and a bypass switch for each battery module in the battery plant. The bypass switch includes a normally open main contact across the power terminals of the battery module, and a set of normally closed auxiliary contacts for controlling the supply of reactants electrochemically transformed in the cells of the battery module. Upon the determination of a failure condition, the bypass switch for the failed battery module is energized to close the main contact and open the auxiliary contacts. Within a short time, the electrical current through the battery module will substantially decrease due to the cutoff of the supply of reactants, and the electrical current flow through the battery string will be redirected through the main contact of the bypass switch.

  15. Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    Contents: Outlook for lead, zinc and cadmium in India; Future for lead production and recycling - a British view; AKERLOW lead recovery plant; Expanded lead battery grids; Resume of first solder seminar in India; Automatic paste soldering adds sparks to zinc-carbon batteries; 122-ton lead battery used for testing BEST facility; Press release on Pb 80; Research and development; Second International Symposium on Industrial and Oriented Basic Electrochemistry; Industry news; Book review and new publications; Battery abstracts.

  16. Examination of a PHEV Bi-Directional Charger System for V2G Reactive Power Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) potentially have the capability to fulfill the energy storage needs of the electric grid by supplying ancillary services such as reactive power compensation. However, in order to allow bidirectional power transfer, the PHEV battery charger should be designed to manage such capability. While many different battery chargers have been available since the inception of the first electric vehicles (EVs), an on-board, conductive charger with bidirectional power transferring capability have recently drawn attention due to their inherent advantages in charging accessibility, ease of use and efficiency. In this study, a reactive power compensation case study using the inverter dc-link capacitor is given when a PHEV battery is under charging operation. Finally, the impact of providing these services on the batteries is also explained.

  17. 7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Perimeter acquisition radar power plant room #202, battery equipment room; showing battery room (in background) and multiple source power converter (in foreground). The picture offers another look at the shock-isolation system developed for each platform - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Power Plant, In Limited Access Area, Southwest of PARB at end of Service Road B, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  18. Pistol-shaped dosimeter charger

    DOEpatents

    Maples, R.A.

    A pistol-shaped charger assembly clamps a cylindrical radiation dosimeter against one edge thereof. A triggerlike lever on the handgrip of the assembly is manually pivoted to actuate a piezoelectric current generator held in the handgrip and thereby charge the dosimeter.

  19. Pistol-shaped dosimeter charger

    DOEpatents

    Maples, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    A pistol-shaped charger assembly clamps a cylindrical radiation dosimeter against one edge thereof. A triggerlike lever on the handgrip of the assembly is manually pivoted to actuate a piezoelectric current generator held in the handgrip and thereby charge the dosimeter.

  20. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  1. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  2. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  3. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery installation. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be in a room that is only for batteries...

  4. Improved battery charger for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Polyphase version of single-phase "boost chopper" significantly reduces ripple and electromagnetic interference (EMI). Drive circuit of n-phase boost chopper incorporates n-phase duty-cycle generator; inductor, transistor, and diode compose chopper which can run on single-phase or three-phase alternating current or on direct current. Device retains compactness and power factors approaching unity, while improving efficiency.

  5. 21 CFR 870.3670 - Pacemaker charger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pacemaker charger. 870.3670 Section 870.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3670 Pacemaker charger. (a...

  6. 21 CFR 870.3670 - Pacemaker charger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pacemaker charger. 870.3670 Section 870.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3670 Pacemaker charger. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 870.3670 - Pacemaker charger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pacemaker charger. 870.3670 Section 870.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3670 Pacemaker charger. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3670 - Pacemaker charger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pacemaker charger. 870.3670 Section 870.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3670 Pacemaker charger. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3670 - Pacemaker charger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pacemaker charger. 870.3670 Section 870.3670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3670 Pacemaker charger. (a...

  10. PHEV-EV Charger Technology Assessment with an Emphasis on V2G Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Bedir, Abdulkadir; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2012-03-01

    More battery powered electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) will be introduced to the market in 2011 and beyond. Since these vehicles have large batteries that need to be charged from an external power source or directly from the grid, their batteries, charging circuits, charging stations/infrastructures, and grid interconnection issues are garnering more attention. This report summarizes information regarding the batteries used in PHEVs, different types of chargers, charging standards and circuits, and compares different topologies. Furthermore, it includes a list of vehicles that are going to be in the market soon with information on their charging and energy storage equipment. A summary of different standards governing charging circuits and charging stations concludes the report. There are several battery types that are available for PHEVs; however, the most popular ones have nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion (Li-ion) chemistries. The former one is being used in current hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), but the latter will be used in most of the PHEVs and EVs due to higher energy densities and higher efficiencies. The chargers can be classified based on the circuit topologies (dedicated or integrated), location of the charger (either on or off the vehicle), connection (conductive, inductive/wireless, and mechanical), electrical waveform (direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac)), and the direction of power flow (unidirectional or bidirectional). The first PHEVs typically will have dedicated, on-board, unidirectional chargers that will have conductive connections to the charging stations or wall outlets and will be charged using either dc or ac. In the near future, bidirectional chargers might also be used in these vehicles once the benefits of practical vehicle to grid applications are realized. The terms charger and charging station cause terminology confusion. To prevent misunderstandings, a more descriptive term

  11. 46 CFR 111.15-5 - Battery installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be as close as possible to the engine or engines. (c) Small batteries. Small size battery... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installation. 111.15-5 Section 111.15-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-5 Battery...

  12. Occupational health programme for lead workers in battery plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook

    The realization of problems resulting from the exposure to undue high lead levels of workers in lead-using industries, particularly in storage battery plants, has given rise to a new occupational health service, the so-called type specific (harmful agent specific) group occupational health. In 1988, the Korean Ministry of Labor designated the Institute of Industrial Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, as an authorized organization to take care of lead workers in lead industries. The following occupational health services are provided by the Institute: (i) physical health examination; (ii) biological monitoring with zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-aminolevulinic acid and blood lead; (iii) respiratory protection with maintenance-free respirators; (iv) measurement of the environmental condition of workplaces; (v) health education. A three-year occupational health programme for lead workers has contributed to improvements in the working conditions of lead industries, particularly in large-scale battery plants, and has decreased the unnecessary high lead burden of workers through on-going medical surveillance with biological monitoring and health education schemes. The strong commitment of both employers and the government to improve the working conditions of lead industries, together with the full cooperation of lead workers, has served to reduce the high lead burdens of lead workers. This decreases the number of lead-poisoning cases and provides more comfortable workplaces, particularly in battery plants.

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  14. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  15. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery construction. (a) A battery cell, when inclined at 40 degrees from the vertical, must not spill electrolyte....

  16. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  17. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery construction. (a) A battery cell, when inclined at 40 degrees from the vertical, must not spill electrolyte....

  18. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery construction. (a) A battery cell, when inclined at 40 degrees from the vertical, must not spill electrolyte....

  19. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery construction. (a) A battery cell, when inclined at 40 degrees from the vertical, must not spill electrolyte....

  20. 46 CFR 111.15-2 - Battery construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery construction. 111.15-2 Section 111.15-2 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-2 Battery construction. (a) A battery cell, when inclined at 40 degrees from the vertical, must not spill electrolyte....

  1. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  2. 46 CFR 111.15-3 - Battery categories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery categories. 111.15-3 Section 111.15-3 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-3 Battery categories. (a) A battery installation is classified as one of three types, based upon power output of...

  3. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  4. Analysis of Voltage and Current Signal Processing in a Li-ion Battery Management System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Pulsed Power, Charger , Buck Converter, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Lithium - ion Batteries 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...Congressional Research Service. July 31, 2000. [3] F. E. Filler, “A Pulsed Power System Design Using Lithium - ion Batteries and One Charger per Battery ...AND CURRENT SIGNAL PROCESSING IN A LI- ION BATTERY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM by Jerome Sean McConnon September 2010 Thesis Co-Advisors

  5. PSO based PI controller design for a solar charger system.

    PubMed

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs).

  6. PSO Based PI Controller Design for a Solar Charger System

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Her-Terng; Lin, Chih-Jer; Liang, Qin-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to global energy crisis and severe environmental pollution, the photovoltaic (PV) system has become one of the most important renewable energy sources. Many previous studies on solar charger integrated system only focus on load charge control or switching Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) and charge control modes. This study used two-stage system, which allows the overall portable solar energy charging system to implement MPPT and optimal charge control of Li-ion battery simultaneously. First, this study designs a DC/DC boost converter of solar power generation, which uses variable step size incremental conductance method (VSINC) to enable the solar cell to track the maximum power point at any time. The voltage was exported from the DC/DC boost converter to the DC/DC buck converter, so that the voltage dropped to proper voltage for charging the battery. The charging system uses constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) method to charge the lithium battery. In order to obtain the optimum PI charge controller parameters, this study used intelligent algorithm to determine the optimum parameters. According to the simulation and experimental results, the control parameters resulted from PSO have better performance than genetic algorithms (GAs). PMID:23766713

  7. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Celso; Myung, Sunghee; Lee, Sangkeum; Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-10

    Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level.

  8. Distributed Sensor Nodes Charged by Mobile Charger with Directional Antenna and by Energy Trading for Balancing

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Celso; Myung, Sunghee; Lee, Sangkeum; Har, Dongsoo

    2017-01-01

    Provision of energy to wireless sensor networks is crucial for their sustainable operation. Sensor nodes are typically equipped with batteries as their operating energy sources. However, when the sensor nodes are sited in almost inaccessible locations, replacing their batteries incurs high maintenance cost. Under such conditions, wireless charging of sensor nodes by a mobile charger with an antenna can be an efficient solution. When charging distributed sensor nodes, a directional antenna, rather than an omnidirectional antenna, is more energy-efficient because of smaller proportion of off-target radiation. In addition, for densely distributed sensor nodes, it can be more effective for some undercharged sensor nodes to harvest energy from neighboring overcharged sensor nodes than from the remote mobile charger, because this reduces the pathloss of charging signal due to smaller distances. In this paper, we propose a hybrid charging scheme that combines charging by a mobile charger with a directional antenna, and energy trading, e.g., transferring and harvesting, between neighboring sensor nodes. The proposed scheme is compared with other charging scheme. Simulations demonstrate that the hybrid charging scheme with a directional antenna achieves a significant reduction in the total charging time required for all sensor nodes to reach a target energy level. PMID:28075372

  9. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  10. Transceiver battery charging apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    George, D.L.; Benson, R.G. Jr.

    1987-08-04

    A battery charger is described for a hand-held transceiver having a rechargeable battery, comprising: a housing having means for receiving the transceiver; connector means for electrically connecting the battery charger to the transceiver, the connector means including a microphone terminal, an RF terminal, a mode control terminal and a charger output terminal; a microphone unit having a microphone and a mode switch, the microphone being electrically coupled to the microphone terminal; multiwire cable means for attaching the microphone unit to the housing; an RF amplifier having an input and an output; an antenna lead connected to the RF amplifier output; mode control means for correspondingly controlling the operating modes of the battery charger and the transceiver for transmit and receive modes, the mode control means having an input connected to the mode switch and an output connected to the mode control terminal; means responsive to the mode control means for coupling the RF terminal to the RF amplifier input during transmit mode and to the antenna lead during receive mode; and charging circuit means for selectively charging the transceiver battery from a source of a first voltage during transmit mode and from a source of a second, higher voltage during receive mode. The charging circuit means has an output connected to the charger output terminal.

  11. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  12. Group 31 and Group 34 Li-ion Battery Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-08

    Unclassified 1 Unclassified United States Army Group 31 and Group 34 Li- ion Battery Specification US Army TARDEC Energy Storage Team...7 1.1.17 Standard Battery Charger ...Requirements The following are requirements for the Li ion rechargeable battery conforming to the Group 31 and Group 34 form factor. These are based on

  13. Charge Efficiency Tests of Lead/Acid Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Current, voltage, and gas evolution measured during charge/discharge cycles. Series of standarized tests for evaluating charging efficiency of lead/acid storage batteries described in report. Purpose of tests to provide information for design of battery charger that allows maximum recharge efficiency for electric-vehicle batteries consistent with other operating parameters, such as range, water loss, and cycle life.

  14. Online impedance spectroscopy of lead acid batteries for storage management of a standalone power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depernet, Daniel; Ba, Oumar; Berthon, Alain

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a contribution to implementation of hybrid power plants in rural areas without electricity in Senegal. Wind and photovoltaic generators coupling is used to benefit from renewable energy resources in this country. Lead acid storage batteries are coupled with the generators to ensure smoothness of the electricity generation. This work is focused in particular on the development of a low cost online impedance spectroscopy method to address the problem of limited lifetime of batteries and the difficulties of their maintenance in isolated areas. Control of static converter associated with the battery is adapted to integrate the functionality of characterization of batteries by impedance spectroscopy. An experimental platform developed in the laboratory has validated the method for online measurement of battery impedance spectrum and to initiate a phase of data monitoring.

  15. 78 FR 58574 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants.'' The guide... with regard to the maintenance, testing, and replacement of vented lead-acid storage batteries in...

  16. 78 FR 15753 - Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... COMMISSION Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear Power..., DG-1269 ``Maintenance, Testing, and Replacement of Vented Lead-Acid Storage Batteries for Nuclear... lead-acid storage batteries in nuclear power plants. DATES: Submit comments by May 13, 2013. Comments...

  17. All-SiC Inductively Coupled Charger with Integrated Plug-in and Boost Functionalities for PEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Tolbert, Leon M

    2016-01-01

    So far, vehicular power electronics integration is limited to the integration of on-board battery chargers (OBC) into the traction drive system and sometimes to the accessory dc/dc converters in plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). These integration approaches do not provide isolation from the grid although it is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections. This is therefore a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. Furthermore, there is no previous study that proposes the integration of wireless charger with the other on-board components. This study features a unique way of combining the wired and wireless charging functionalities with vehicle side boost converter integration and maintaining the isolation to provide the best solution to the plug-in electric vehicle users. The new topology is additionally compared with commercially available OBC systems from manufacturers.

  18. The Impact of Rechargeable Batteries: Quantifying the Cost and Weight for a Marine Infantry Battalion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    new rechargeable battery . The BB-2590 was built as a drop in replacement for BA-5590 batteries in most applications. The BB-2590 is a lithium ion (Li...Burdened Cost Of Fuel, Fully Burdened Cost Of Batteries , Battery , Disposal Cost, Cost Savings, Weight Savings, BA-5590, BB-2590, Battery Charger ...Hazardous Material HF High Frequency HW Hazardous Waste IRB Impact of Rechargeable Batteries JRTC Joint Readiness Training Center LiSO2 Lithium

  19. Air and blood lead levels in lead acid battery recycling and manufacturing plants in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Were, Faridah H; Kamau, Geoffrey N; Shiundu, Paul M; Wafula, Godfrey A; Moturi, Charles M

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of airborne and blood lead (Pb) was assessed in a Pb acid battery recycling plant and in a Pb acid battery manufacturing plant in Kenya. In the recycling plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production sections showed a mean value ± standard deviation (SD) of 427 ± 124 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 59.2 ± 22.7 μg/m(3). In the battery manufacturing plant, full-shift area samples taken across 5 days in several production areas showed a mean value ± SD of 349 ± 107 μg/m(3), while area samples in the office area had a mean ± SD of 55.2 ± 33.2 μg/m(3). All these mean values exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit of 50 μg/m(3) as an 8-hr time-weighted average. In the battery recycling plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 62.2 ± 12.7 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 43.4 ± 6.6 μg/dL. In the battery manufacturing plant, production workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 59.5 ± 10.1 μg/dL, and office workers had a mean blood Pb level ± SD of 41.6 ± 7.4 μg/dL. All the measured blood Pb levels exceeded 30 μg/dL, which is the maximum blood Pb level recommended by the ACGIH(®). Observations made in these facilities revealed numerous sources of Pb exposure due to inadequacies in engineering controls, work practices, respirator use, and personal hygiene.

  20. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  1. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    DOEpatents

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  2. Health and environmental assessment among residents of a community near a battery recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Maramba, N. P.; Panganiban, L. R.; Castille, E. S.; Dioquino, C. C.; Francisco-Rivera, A. T.

    2003-05-01

    A battery-recycling plant in a small town near Manila has been the subject of health complaints, mostly respiratory symptoms among the residents. Records showed that the plant had imported 24,000 units of used batteries and 60% of the load was handled by the recycling plant. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the health and environmental impact of lead battery recycling plant among the residents in the area. Study population was composed of 105 exposed and 41 non-exposed adults and children coming from 12 villages, randomly selected based on a set criteria. Results showed that children were more affected than adults with elevated blood lead levels in 65%, with a mean of 12.9ug/dL (range of 7-25). This was statistically significant (p=0.00). Common complaints were mostly respiratory in nature among the exposed population. These were supported by the physical examination findings together with bluish/grayish gingival deposits. Air and soil monitoring showed elevated lead levels. Analysis revealed that the nearer the residence from the plant, the higher were the blood lead levels and that there was a very good inverse correlation between the ambient air lead levels and the distance of the village from the plant.

  3. Independent evaluation plan (IEP) for sealed nickel-cadmium (NICAD) battery support

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-07

    Test objectives were (1) to evaluate the POC and direct exchange procedures to provide responsive and effective battery support under combat conditions, and (2) to evaluate whether or not the PP-7286/U battery charger can charge the volume and diversity of type batteries under conditions utilizing the POC and established direct exchange procedures.

  4. Single-Switch Equalization Charger Using Multiple Stacked Buck-Boost Converters for Series-Connected Energy-Storage Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Series connections of energy-storage modules such as electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) and lithium-ion batteries result in voltage imbalance because of the nonuniform properties of individual modules. Conventional voltage equalizers based on traditional dc-dc converters require numerous switches and/or transformers, and therefore, their costs and complexity tend to increase. This paper proposes a novel single-switch equalization charger using multiple stacked buck-boost converters. The single-switch operation not only reduces the circuit complexity but also contributes to increasing the reliability. The fundamental operating principles and design procedures of key components are presented in detail. An experimental charge test using a 25W prototype of the proposed equalization charger was performed for four series-connected EDLC modules whose initial voltages were intentionally imbalanced. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed equalization charger could charge the series-connected modules preferentially in the order of increasing module voltage and that all the modules could be charged up to a uniform voltage level.

  5. EV/PHEV Bidirectional Charger Assessment for V2G Reactive Power Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Kisacikoglu, Mithat C; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the available single-phase ac-dc topologies used for EV/PHEV, level-1 and -2 on-board charging and for providing reactive power support to the utility grid. It presents the design motives of single-phase on-board chargers in detail and makes a classification of the chargers based on their future vehicle-to-grid usage. The pros and cons of each different ac-dc topology are discussed to shed light on their suitability for reactive power support. This paper also presents and analyzes the differences between charging-only operation and capacitive reactive power operation that results in increased demand from the dc-link capacitor (more charge/discharge cycles and increased second harmonic ripple current). Moreover, battery state of charge is spared from losses during reactive power operation, but converter output power must be limited below its rated power rating to have the same stress on the dc-link capacitor.

  6. An eco-balance of a recycling plant for spent lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    Salomone, Roberta; Mondello, Fabio; Lanuzza, Francesco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2005-02-01

    This study applies Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to present an eco-balance of a recycling plant that treats spent lead-acid batteries. The recycling plant uses pyrometallurgical treatment to obtain lead from spent batteries. The application of LCA methodology (ISO 14040 series) enabled us to assess the potential environmental impacts arising from the recycling plant's operations. Thus, net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences were examined and hot spots inside the recycling plant were identified. A sensitivity analysis was also performed on certain variables to evaluate their effect on the LCA study. The LCA of a recycling plant for spent lead-acid batteries presented shows that this methodology allows all of the major environmental consequences associated with lead recycling using the pyrometallurgical process to be examined. The study highlights areas in which environmental improvements are easily achievable by a business, providing a basis for suggestions to minimize the environmental impact of its production phases, improving process and company performance in environmental terms.

  7. Lead contamination around a kindergarten near a battery recycling plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jung-Der Wang; Chang-Sheng Jang; Yaw-Huei Hwang; Zueng-Sang Chen

    1992-07-01

    Lead poisoning has been noticed for more than a thousand years. Increased lead absorption and/or impaired neurobehavioral function among children who lived nearby lead smelters were reported in many different countries. In November of 1987, a worker from a lead battery recycling smelter suffered from anemia and bilateral weakness of his extremities. He was diagnosed as lead poisoning at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A subsequent epidemiological survey of the workers from this recycling smelter showed that 31 out of 64 who came for a medical examination suffered from lead poisoning. Since there was a kindergarten next to the factory, we performed this study to determine whether there was an increased lead absorption among children of the exposed kindergarten and its association with the extent of air and soil pollution in the surrounding area. 12 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  8. Ultralife's polymer electrolyte rechargeable lithium-ion batteries for use in the mobile electronics industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuellar, Edward A.; Manna, Michael E.; Wise, Ralph D.; Gavrilov, Alexei B.; Bastian, Matthew J.; Brey, Rufus M.; DeMatteis, Jeffrey

    Ultralife Polymer™ brand batteries for cellular phones as made by Nokia Mobile Phones Incorporated were introduced in July 2000. Characteristics of the UBC443483 cell and UB750N battery are described and related to the power and battery requirements of these cellular phones and chargers. Current, power, and pulse capability are presented as functions of temperature, depth of discharge, and storage at the cell level. Safety protection devices and chargers are discussed at the battery pack level, as well as performance in cellular phones under various wireless communication protocols. Performance is competitive with liquid lithium-ion systems while offering opportunity for non-traditional form factors.

  9. Gaston Planté and his invention of the lead-acid battery-The genesis of the first practical rechargeable battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, P.

    In 1860, the Frenchman Gaston Planté (1834-1889) invented the first practical version of a rechargeable battery based on lead-acid chemistry-the most successful secondary battery of all ages. This article outlines Planté's fundamental concepts that were decisive for later development of practical lead-acid batteries. The 'pile secondaire' was indeed ahead its time in that an appropriate appliance for charging the accumulator was not available. The industrial success came after the invention of the Gramme machine. In 1879, Planté obtained acceptance for his work by publishing a book entitled Recherches sur l' Electricité. He never protected his inventions by patents, and spent much of his fortune on assisting impoverished scientists.

  10. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  11. Fast Equalization for Large Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    that in Figure 7. The cell charger , CH1, is simply a Cosel ZUS251205 DC - DC converter, which has an output rating of 5VDC/4ADC. Because each cell...Wiegman, D. Divan, and D. Novotny (1995), “ Design considerations for charge equalization of an electric vehicle battery system,” IEEE 1995 Applied...VA, June 2002. [8] Y. Lee and G. Cheng (2006) “Quasi-resonant zero-current switching bidirectional converter for battery equalization applications

  12. Assessment of lead bioaccessibility in soils around lead battery plants in East China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zan-fang; Zhang, Zhuo-jun; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Cong-qiang; Li, Fei-li

    2015-01-01

    Soil ingestion is an important human exposure pathway for lead (Pb). A modified physiologically based extraction test was applied to 70 soil samples from five battery plants in East China. The mean values for soil pH, soil organic matter, Fe and Mn concentrations ranged from 5.9% to 8.1, 0.37% to 2.2%, 2.78% to 3.75%, and 507-577 mg kg(-1), respectively, while Pb concentrations ranged widely in 14.3-2000 mg kg(-1). The isotopic ratios of 14 soils from one of the five battery plants formed a straight line in the plot of (208)Pb/(206)Pb vs. (207)Pb/(206)Pb, indicating Pb emissions from the lead battery plant as the dominant anthropogenic source within 200 m. Lead bioaccessibility in the soils ranged from 4.1% to 66.9% in the gastric phase and from 0.28% to 9.29% in the gastrointestinal phase. Multiple step regressions identified modes as BAgastric=-106.8+0.627[Pb]+19.1[Fe]+11.3[SOM], and BAgastrointestinal=-2.852+0.078[Pb].

  13. Charger 1: A New Facility for Z-Pinch Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian; Cassibry, Jason; Cortez, Ross; Doughty, Glen; Adams, Robert; DeCicco, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Charger 1 is a multipurpose pulsed power laboratory located on Redstone Arsenal, with a focus on fusion propulsion relevant experiments involving testing z-pinch diodes, pulsed magnetic nozzle and other related physics experiments. UAH and its team of pulsed power researchers are investigating ways to increase and optimize fusion production from Charger 1. Currently the team has reached high-power testing. Due to the unique safety issues related to high power operations the UAH/MSFC team has slowed repair efforts to develop safety and operations protocols. The facility is expected to be operational by the time DZP 2017 convenes. Charger 1 began life as the Decade Module 2, an experimental prototype built to prove the Decade Quad pinch configuration. The system was donated to UAH by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DRTA) in 2012. For the past 5 years a UAH/MSFC/Boeing team has worked to refurbish, assemble and test the system. With completion of high power testing in summer 2017 Charger 1 will become operational for experimentation. Charger 1 utilizes a Marx Bank of 72 100-kV capacitors that are charged in parallel and discharged in series. The Marx output is compressed to a pulse width of approximately 200 ns via a pulse forming network of 32 coaxial stainless steel tubes using water as a dielectric. After pulse compression a set of SF6 switches are triggered, allowing the wave front to propagate through the output line to the load. Charger 1 is capable of storing 572-kJ of energy and time compressing discharge to less than 250 ns discharge time producing a discharge of about 1 TW of discharge with 1 MV and 1 MA peak voltage and current, respectively. This capability will be used to study energy yield scaling and physics from solid density target as applied to advanced propulsion research.

  14. Impact of Fast Charging on Life of EV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2015-05-03

    Utilization of public charging infrastructure is heavily dependent on user-specific travel behavior. The availability of fast chargers can positively affect the utility of battery electric vehicles, even given infrequent use. Estimated utilization rates do not appear frequent enough to significantly impact battery life. Battery thermal management systems are critical in mitigating dangerous thermal conditions on long distance tours with multiple fast charge events.

  15. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-stationary batteries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, R.; Shao, J.; Krencicki, G.; Giachetti, R.

    1994-03-01

    The Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant stationary batteries important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  16. Ultralong Cycle Life Achieved by a Natural Plant: Miscanthus × giganteus for Lithium Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu; Bi, Xuanxuan; Tao, Ran; Wang, Qingzhen; Yao, Ying; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Cunzhong

    2017-02-08

    Large energy-storage systems and electric vehicles require energy devices with high power and high energy density. Lithium oxygen (Li-O2) batteries could achieve high energy density, but they are still facing problems such as low practical capacity and poor cyclability. Here, we prepare activated carbons (MGACs) based on the natural plant Miscanthus × giganteus (MG) through slow pyrolysis. It possesses a large surface area, plenty of active sites, and high porosity, which are beneficial to the utilization of oxygen electrode in Li-O2 batteries. The MGACs-based oxygen electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 9400 mAh/g at 0.02 mA/cm(2), and long cycle life of 601 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 500 mAh/g) and 295 cycles (with a cutoff capacity of 1000 mAh/g) at 0.2 mA/cm(2), respectively. Additionally, the material exhibits high rate capability and high reversibility, which is a promising candidate for the application in Li-O2 batteries.

  17. Stabilization/solidification of battery debris & lead impacted material at Schuylkill Metals, Plant City, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Anguiano, T.; Floyd, D.

    1997-12-31

    The Schuylkill Metals facility in Plant City Florida (SMPCI) operated as a battery recycling facility for approximately 13 years. During its operation, the facility disposed of battery components in surrounding wetland areas. In March of 1991 the U.S. EPA and SMPCI entered into a Consent Decree for the remediation of the SMPCI site using stabilization/solidification and on-site disposal. In November of 1994, ENTACT began remediation at the facility and to date has successfully stabilized/solidified over 228,000 tons of lead impacted battery components and lead impacted material. The ENTACT process reduces the size of the material to be treated to ensure that complete mixing of the phosphate/cement additive is achieved thereby promoting the chemical reactions of stabilization and solidification. ENTACT has met the following performance criteria for treated material at the SMPCI site: (1) Hydraulic Conductivity less than 1x10{sup -6} cm/s, (2) Unconfined Compressive Strength greater than 50 psi, (3) Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium TCLP Leachability below hazardous levels.

  18. Cadmium exposure pathways in a population living near a battery plant.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Lennart; Persson, Bodil; Brudin, Lars; Grawé, Kierstin Petersson; Oborn, Ingrid; Järup, Lars

    2007-02-15

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the relative impact of different pathways of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure and to evaluate the contribution from locally produced vegetables and root crops to the total dietary intake of Cd. Cadmium in urine was determined for 492 individuals living near a closed down battery factory in Sweden. For each individual we created an environmental exposure-index based on Cd emissions to ambient air and number of years living at various distances from the plant. This information as well as dietary data were collected via questionnaires. Samples of soil, carrots and/or potatoes were collected from 37 gardens and analysed for Cd concentration. Eating home grown vegetables/potatoes, environmental Cd-exposure-index, female gender, age above 30 years and smoking more than one pack of cigarettes daily for at least 10 years were found to be significantly associated with increased urine concentrations of Cd (UCd>1.0 nmol/mmol creatinine). We found a statistically significant relation between Cd in urine and environmental Cd-exposure-index in persons eating home grown vegetables/potatoes regularly. Cd concentrations in home grown carrots, potatoes and in garden soil were highest in the area closest to the factory. Daily consumption of potatoes and vegetables cultivated in the vicinity of the closed battery factory was estimated to increase Cd intake by 18-38%. The present study shows that consumption of locally grown vegetables and root crops was an important exposure pathway, in subjects living near a nickel-cadmium battery plant, whereas direct exposure via ambient air was less important.

  19. Optimal Strategy of Efficiency Power Plant with Battery Electric Vehicle in Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Su, Su; Li, Shunxin; Wang, Wei; Yang, Tiantian; Li, Mengjuan; Ota, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    With the popularity of electric vehicles (EVs), such as plug-in electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs), an optimal strategy for the coordination of BEVs charging is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach incorporates the random behaviours and regular behaviours of BEV drivers in urban environment. These behaviours lead to the stochastic nature of the charging demand. The optimal strategy is used to guide the coordinated charging at different time to maximize the efficiency of virtual power plant (VPP). An innovative peer-to-peer system is used with BEVs to achieve the goals. The actual behaviours of vehicles in a campus is used to validate the proposed approach, and the simulation results show that the optimal strategy can not only maximize the utilization ratio of efficiency power plant, but also do not need additional energies from distribution grid.

  20. An advanced maintenance free aircraft battery system

    SciTech Connect

    Beutler, J.; Green, J.; Kulin, T.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes an advanced aircraft battery system designed to provide 20 years of maintenance free operation with the flexibility for use on all US Air Force aircraft. System, battery, and charger/analyzer requirements are identified. The final design approach and test results are also presented. There are two general approaches to reduce the maintenance cost of batteries. One approach is to develop a disposable battery system, such that after some time interval the battery is simply replaced. The other approach, the subject of this paper, is to develop a battery that does not require any scheduled maintenance for the design life of the aircraft. This approach is currently used in spacecraft applications where battery maintenance is not practical.

  1. Interrelationships of blood lead, zinc protoporphyrin and hemoglobin in tests from one lead battery plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bernhardt, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A period prevalence study examining concurrent PbB, ZPP and Hgb test values from 236 employees of one lead-acid battery manufacturing plant over a six month period was conducted. Fifty-six job categories in the plant were grouped on the basis of proximity and/or similarity of lead exposure. Diagrams of plant layout, the process flow chart, work order, department numbers and biological and environmental data from earlier plant surveys were used in dividing the jobs into five exposure index groups. Length of service with the company was calculated to provide an indication of the duration of occupational exposure to lead. Length of service in the exposure index group was calculated to provide information regarding the duration of exposure as measured by the type of job. Recommendations were made that: 1) a single set of tests not be evaluated in isolation but considered as part of the overall pattern of an individual's laboratory data; 2) ZPP be required by OSHA for periodic monitoring; 3) use of both the PbB and ZPP tests is necessary for biological monitoring at PbB levels less than or equal to 55 ..mu..g/dL; and 4) a PbB value of 40 ..mu..g/dL is a good level to use in determining who will have more frequent biological monitoring for the purpose of OSHA compliance.

  2. Positive matrix factorization as source apportionment of soil lead and cadmium around a battery plant (Changxing County, China).

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian-long; Zhi, Yu-you; Yang, Li-ping; Shi, Jia-chun; Zeng, Ling-zao; Wu, Lao-sheng

    2014-06-01

    Chemical compositions of soil samples are multivariate in nature and provide datasets suitable for the application of multivariate factor analytical techniques. One of the analytical techniques, the positive matrix factorization (PMF), uses a weighted least square by fitting the data matrix to determine the weights of the sources based on the error estimates of each data point. In this research, PMF was employed to apportion the sources of heavy metals in 104 soil samples taken within a 1-km radius of a lead battery plant contaminated site in Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. The site is heavily contaminated with high concentrations of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). PMF successfully partitioned the variances into sources related to soil background, agronomic practices, and the lead battery plants combined with a geostatistical approach. It was estimated that the lead battery plants and the agronomic practices contributed 55.37 and 29.28%, respectively, for soil Pb of the total source. Soil Cd mainly came from the lead battery plants (65.92%), followed by the agronomic practices (21.65%), and soil parent materials (12.43%). This research indicates that PMF combined with geostatistics is a useful tool for source identification and apportionment.

  3. Development Program for 3.0 KW Inverter. Militarized Inverter for Use with Fuel Cell or Battery Power Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-15

    considerations to cost., reliability, maintainability, weight. size and efficiency. TheJ applicati6n) of this portable,. rugged Inverter is to replace miechan...task per Purchase Description EED 76 022501 to design 3.0 KW Silent Lightweight Electrical Energy Plant (SLEEP) Inverter. A prototype of the Inverter was... Lightweight Electrical Energy Plant (SLEEP) Inverter. The Invertex’s 35-60 VDC input will be from a fuel cell or battery and supplies ac voltages at

  4. Opportunities for optimizing EV battery performance, battery specific power, and vehicle equivalent electrical circuit considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, W. C.; Driggans, R. L.; Christianson, C. C.

    This paper addresses the possibilities for improving the interfaces between the battery, drive train, and charger in the design of EVs for commercial fleet uses. It shows that the optimum power condition may occur at about 75 percent of the open circuit voltage rather than the maximum power point of about 50 percent of the open circuit voltage. This paper proposes a need to determine the specifications for battery specific power (W/kg) by taking into account the loss characteristics of the motor and final drive in addition to the battery loss characteristics.

  5. Basics and advances in battery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.P.; Bolin, W.D.

    1995-03-01

    One of the most common components in both the utility and industrial/commercial power system is the station battery. In many cases, the original design is marginal or inadequate; the maintenance and testing is practically nonexistent; but the system is called upon during emergency conditions and is expected to perform flawlessly. This paper will begin with the basic battery theory starting with the electrochemical cell. A working knowledge of the battery cell is important to understand typical problems such as hydrogen production, sulfating, and battery charging. The paper will then lead into a discussion of some of the common batteries and battery chargers. While this paper will concentrate primarily on the lead acid type of battery, the theory can be utilized on other types such as the Nickel-Cadmium. A reference will be made to industry standards and codes which are used for the design, installation, and maintenance of battery systems. Along with these standards will be a discussion of the design considerations, maintenance and testing, and, finally, some advanced battery system topics such as individual battery cell voltage equalizers and battery pulsing units. The goal of this paper is to provide the reader with a basic working understanding of a battery system. Only with that knowledge can a person be expected to design and/or properly maintain a battery system which may be called upon during an emergency to minimize the effects of a normal power outage, to minimize personnel hazards and to reduce property damage.

  6. DC Fast Charger Usage in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Shawn; Smart, John

    2015-02-01

    This document will describe the use of a number of Direct Current Fast Charging Stations throughout Washington and Oregon as a part of of the West Coast Electric Highway. It will detail the usage frequency and location of the charging stations INL has data from. It will also include aggregated data from hundreds of privately owned vehicles that were enrolled in the EV Project regarding driving distance when using one of the West Coast Electric Highway fast chargers. This document is a white paper that will be published on the INL AVTA website.

  7. Architectural innovation foresight of thermoelectric generator charger integrated portable power supply for portable consumer electronic device in metropolitan market: The case study of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maolikul, S.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Chavarnakul, T.

    2012-06-01

    In the context of information and communication technology (ICT) trend for worldwide individuals, social life becomes digital and portable consumer electronic devices (PCED) powered by conventional power supply from batteries have been evolving through miniaturization and various function integration. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) were hypothesized for its potential role of battery charger to serve the shining PCED market. Hence, this paper, mainly focusing at the metropolitan market in Thailand, aimed to conduct architectural innovation foresight and to develop scenarios on potential exploitation approach of PCED battery power supply with TEG charger converting power from ambient heat source adjacent to individual's daily life. After technical review and assessment for TEG potential and battery aspect, the business research was conducted to analyze PCED consumer behavior for their PCED utilization pattern, power supply lack problems, and encountering heat sources/sinks in 3 modes: daily life, work, and leisure hobbies. Based on the secondary data analysis from literature and National Statistical Office of Thailand, quantitative analysis was applied using the cluster probability sampling methodology, statistically, with the sample size of 400 at 0.05 level of significance. In addition, the qualitative analysis was conducted to emphasize the rationale of consumer's behavior using in-depth qualitative interview. Scenario planning technique was also used to generate technological and market trend foresight. Innovation field and potential scenario for matching technology with market was proposed in this paper. The ingredient for successful commercialization of battery power supply with TEG charger for PCED market consists of 5 factors as follows: (1) PCED characteristic, (2) potential ambient heat sources/sinks, (3) battery module, (4) power management module, and the final jigsaw (5) characteristic and adequate arrangement of TEG modules. The foresight outcome for

  8. 10 CFR 54.21 - Contents of application-technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Each application must contain the following information: (a) An integrated plant assessment (IPA). The..., batteries, breakers, relays, switches, power inverters, circuit boards, battery chargers, and power...

  9. 10 CFR 54.21 - Contents of application-technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Each application must contain the following information: (a) An integrated plant assessment (IPA). The..., batteries, breakers, relays, switches, power inverters, circuit boards, battery chargers, and power...

  10. 10 CFR 54.21 - Contents of application-technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Each application must contain the following information: (a) An integrated plant assessment (IPA). The..., batteries, breakers, relays, switches, power inverters, circuit boards, battery chargers, and power...

  11. 10 CFR 54.21 - Contents of application-technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Each application must contain the following information: (a) An integrated plant assessment (IPA). The..., batteries, breakers, relays, switches, power inverters, circuit boards, battery chargers, and power...

  12. 10 CFR 54.21 - Contents of application-technical information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Each application must contain the following information: (a) An integrated plant assessment (IPA). The..., batteries, breakers, relays, switches, power inverters, circuit boards, battery chargers, and power...

  13. Diagnosis and restoration of Li-Ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirpichnikova, I. M.; Korobatov, D. V.; Martyanov, A. S.; Sirotkin, E. A.; Solomin, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the results of testing the LT-LFP.300.11.01 Li-Ion cells under different conditions of charge by stable and pulse width modulation current. The shown study proves the possibility of approaching the diagnosis of battery cell before multi stage charging cycles. This approach helps to determine the real cell state of charge, which is important for the charger in turn for the determination of the initial current value at the very first stage of charge. Using the trickle charge algorithm, each battery cell may be charged individually in accordance with its initial state of charge, chemical condition and temperature. This approach should use a special charger acceptable for multi-cell charge or diagnosis of individual cells with a balancing apparatus. The same approach could be used for battery restoration.

  14. Mariner Mars 1971 battery design, test, and flight performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogner, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The design, integration, fabrication, test results, and flight performance of the battery system for the Mariner Mars spacecraft launched in May 1971 are presented. The battery consists of 26 20-Ah hermetically sealed nickel-cadmium cells housed in a machined magnesium chassis. The battery package weighs 29.5 kg and is unique in that the chassis also serves as part of the spacecraft structure. Active thermal control is accomplished by louvers mounted to the battery baseplate. Battery charge is accomplished by C/10 and C/30 constant current chargers. The switch from the high-rate to low-rate charge is automatic, based on terminal voltage. Additional control is possible by ground command or onboard computer. The performance data from the flight battery is compared to the data from various battery tests in the laboratory. Flight battery data was predictable based on ground test data.

  15. Quantifying the Effect of Fast Charger Deployments on Electric Vehicle Utility and Travel Patterns via Advanced Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, E.; Neubauer, J.; Burton, E.

    2015-02-01

    The disparate characteristics between conventional (CVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in terms of driving range, refill/recharge time, and availability of refuel/recharge infrastructure inherently limit the relative utility of BEVs when benchmarked against traditional driver travel patterns. However, given a high penetration of high-power public charging combined with driver tolerance for rerouting travel to facilitate charging on long-distance trips, the difference in utility between CVs and BEVs could be marginalized. We quantify the relationships between BEV utility, the deployment of fast chargers, and driver tolerance for rerouting travel and extending travel durations by simulating BEVs operated over real-world travel patterns using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V). With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, BLAST-V has been developed to include algorithms for estimating the available range of BEVs prior to the start of trips, for rerouting baseline travel to utilize public charging infrastructure when necessary, and for making driver travel decisions for those trips in the presence of available public charging infrastructure, all while conducting advanced vehicle simulations that account for battery electrical, thermal, and degradation response. Results from BLAST-V simulations on vehicle utility, frequency of inserted stops, duration of charging events, and additional time and distance necessary for rerouting travel are presented to illustrate how BEV utility and travel patterns can be affected by various fast charge deployments.

  16. Elevated blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels of children near a battery-recycling plant in Haina, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Kaul, B; Mukerjee, H

    1999-01-01

    A survey of children from a community adjacent to an auto-battery-recycling smelter in Haina, the Dominican Republic, revealed alarming elevations of blood lead (B-Pb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) compared with controls. The authors recommend follow-up confirmation and treatment of severely lead-poisoned children, shutdown of the plant, controlled disposal of the hazardous waste from the site, and relocation of the community.

  17. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... must identify the subject matter (``Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Energy Conservation... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... proposed rulemaking to establish energy conservation standards for battery chargers and external power...

  18. United States Marine Corps (USMC) Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS) rechargeable battery trade-off study. Technical report, June-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, S.M.; Albert, N.F.

    1992-09-18

    Cost estimates for USMC SINCGARS usage of BB-5590/U Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (LiSO[sub 2]) Batteries, BA-590/U Sealed Lead-Acid Batteries, and BB-490/U Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cad) Batteries. Estimates encompass battery costs, charger costs as applicable, and disposal costs. Annual battery-related costs were estimated for USMC usage of mix of LiSO[sub 2] and Ni-Cad batteries ranging from 100% use of LiSO[sub 2] batteries to 100% use of Ni-Cad batteries; and for mix of LiSO[sub 2] and Lead-Acid batteries over the same range. Estimated hourly battery-related costs are $2.66 per hour for LiSO[sub 2] batteries $0.34 for Ni-Cad batteries, and $0.30 for Lead-Acid batteries. Disposal related regulations and related documents are discussed and included in Appendices.

  19. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  20. 20V, 40 Ah Lithium Ion Polymer Battery for the Spacesuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Wilburn, Monique; Hall, Dan; Roth, Peter; Das Gupta, Sankar; Jacobs, Jim; Bhola, Rakesh; Milicic, Gordan; Vandemeer, Dave

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Consider a new battery design for EMU. Results: a) Electrovaya s aerospace cell production line is improving, but must further improve to achieve acceptable reliability; b) Completed functional, vibration, and thermal cycling of LIB; c) So far, electrical safety tests have produced good results; d) Completed functional, vibration, thermal cycling, power quality and EMI of LIB Charger; e) Completed CDR on 9/23/04; and f) Manufacturing Readiness Review for flight cell/battery production scheduled for Dec 04.

  1. Comparison of a synergetic battery pack drive system to a pulse width modulated AC induction motor drive for an electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A.; Salameh, Z.M.; Eaves, S.S.

    1999-06-01

    A new battery configuration technique and accompanying control circuitry, termed a Synergetic Battery Pack (SBP), is designed to work with Lithium batteries, and can be used as both an inverter for an electric vehicle AC induction motor drive and as a battery charger. In this paper, the performance of a Synergetic Battery Pack during motor drive operation is compared via computer simulation with a conventional motor drive which uses sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) to determine its effectiveness as a motor drive. The study showed that the drive efficiency was compatible with the conventional system, and offered a significant advantage in the lower frequency operating ranges. The voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) of the SBP was significantly lower than the PWM drive output, but the current THD was slightly higher due to the shape of the harmonic spectrum. In conclusion, the SBP is an effective alternative to a conventional drive, but the real advantage lies in its battery management capabilities and charger operation.

  2. Design and test of lithium-alloy/iron monosulfide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Chilenskas, A.A.; Biwer, R.L.; DeLuca, W.H.

    1986-04-01

    A program has been initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute to examine the feasibility of using the Li-alloy/FeS battery for electric-vehicle propulsion. In the first phase of the program, a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Gould Reserch Center resulted in the design, fabrication, and testing of two full-scale 12-V modules and related battery components at Argonne's National Battery Test Laboratory. The design of the module and battery components was based upon a van battery design study supported by the US Department of Energy. The objective of the Phase I program was to provide test data to the battery developers applicable to cell and module development, insulated case design, heating/cooling subsystem design, and charger development.

  3. Lithium/iron sulfide batteries: Development and demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, G.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1987-08-01

    This volume contains two reports, each dealing with progress in the development of the lithium/iron-sulfide battery. The first report, from Gould, deals directly with the construction of cells and batteries; the second report, from Argonne National Laboratories, deals with the engineering and design of a thermal enclosure and a battery charger for the secondary battery system. Results of construction and testing of two nine-cell battery models are presented along with the beneficial effects caused by engineering changes in the ratio of positive to negative reactants. Results of design and construction of a thermal enclosure and of cycling of the lithium/iron-sulfide battery in the enclosure under an SAE driving profile are presented.

  4. New Lithium-ion Polymer Battery for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, J. A.; Darcy, E. C.

    2004-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit currently has a silver-zinc battery that is 20.5 V and 45 Ah capacity. The EMU's portable life support system (PLSS) will draw power from the battery during the entire period of an EVA. Due to the disadvantages of using the silver-zinc battery in terms of cost and performance, a new high energy density battery is being developed for future use, The new battery (Lithium-ion battery or LIB) will consist of Li-ion polymer cells that will provide power to the EMU suit. The battery design consists of five 8 Ah cells in parallel to form a single module of 40 Ah and five such modules will be placed in series to give a 20.5 V, 40 Ah battery. Charging will be accomplished on the Shuttle or Station using the new LIB charger or the existing ALPS (Air Lock Power Supply) charger. The LIB delivers a maximum of 3.8 A on the average, for seven continuous hours, at voltages ranging from 20.5 V to 16.0 V and it should be capable of supporting transient pulses during start up and once every hour to support PLSS fan and pump operation. Figure 1 shows the placement of the battery in the backpack area of the EMU suit. The battery and cells will undergo testing under different conditions to understand its performance and safety characteristics.

  5. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  6. Low wireless power transfer using Inductive Coupling for mobile phone charger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fareq, M.; Fitra, M.; Irwanto, M.; Hasan, Syafruddin; Arinal, M.

    2014-04-01

    A wireless power transfer (WPT) using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger is studied. The project is offer to study and fabricate WPT using inductive coupling for mobile phone charger that will give more information about distance is effect for WPT performance and WPT is not much influenced by the presence of hands, books and types of plastics. The components used to build wireless power transfer can be divided into 3 parts components, the transceiver for power transmission, the inductive coils in this case as the antenna, receiver and the rectifier which act convert AC to DC. Experiments have been conducted and the wireless power transfer using inductive coupling is suitable to be implemented for mobile phone charger.

  7. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studies the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study is conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it is found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  8. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studied the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study was conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16,000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it was found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  9. A Single-Switch Equalization Charger for Series-Connected Energy Storage Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Series-connected energy storage cells require cell equalizers in order to mitigate cell voltage imbalance. Conventional cell equalizers, however, consist of a number of switches or transformers that are considered not preferable in the viewpoint of circuit complexity and reliability. This paper proposes an equalization charger that consists of a single switch and passive components. Experimental performance tests showed that series-connected EDLCs could be charged up to the uniform voltage level by the proposed equalization charger though the initial voltages of the EDLCs were imbalanced.

  10. On the reaction in the lead-acid battery (as the special review-article by the 2005' Gaston Planté Medal recipient)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takehara, Zen-ichiro

    It is my great pleasure to be awarded with the 2005' Gaston Planté Medal for significant contribution to the development of lead-acid battery science and technology. I would like to thank most heartily to Prof. D. Pavlov of Chairman, and all members of the Organic Committee of LABAT'2005 for the best treatment to select me as a 2005' Gaston Planté Medallist.

  11. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    O`Sullivan, G.; Bonn, R.; Bower, W.

    1994-07-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT`s with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  12. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  13. A Survey of Power Source Options for a Compact Battery Charger for Soldier Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) S. Gilman, D. Chu, B. Geil, B. Morgan, and T. Podlesak 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ARL-TR-4693 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY... PBI ) Membrane 7 3.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) 7 4. Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) 9 5. Thermoelectrics 10 6. Summary 11 7. Conclusions 13 8

  14. Investigation of Tantalum Wet Slug Capacitor Failures in the Apollo Telescope Mount Charger Battery Regulator Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. F.; Wiedeman, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation describes the capacitor failures and to identify the cause of the failure mechanism. Early failures were thought to have happened because of age and/or abuse since the failed capacitors were dated 1967. It is shown that all 1967 capacitors were replaced with 1972 capacitors.

  15. 77 FR 18477 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... standards on individual consumers are generally positive. For example, the estimated average life-cycle cost... on individual consumers are generally positive. For example, the estimated average life-cycle cost... Nation (energy savings, positive NPV of consumer benefits, consumer LCC savings, and emission...

  16. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant.

    PubMed

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-10-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  17. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices. PMID:27818730

  18. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Volume 7, Zinc-chloride battery plant description, cost estimate, credible accident and efficiency assessment: Final report for the period September 1978-May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.

    1985-06-05

    This document describes the zinc-chloride battery as the basic unit in the development of a battery load-leveling facility that will accumulate the output of base-load generation during periods of low demand and provide a supply of energy for periods of high demand. The plant is 100 MWh. (DLC)

  19. Lithium-ion Battery Charge Methodologies Observed with Portable Electronic Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Commercial lithium-ion batteries in portable electronic equipment has been used by NASA for space applications since 1999. First battery that was certified for flight and flown for Shuttle use was the Canon BP 927 (2.7 Ah) battery pack. Since then, numerous portable equipment with li-ion batteries have been certified and flown and remain on-orbit for crew usage. Laptops (two generations with third one being worked on now) Camcorder Camera PDA 2 versions (second one being li-ion polymer cells) Satellite Phone Due to expense and time, certified batteries are used with different equipment with the help of adapters or by working with the manufacturer of the equipment to build the appropriate battery compartment and connector. Certified and dedicated chargers are available on Shuttle and on the ISS for safe charging.

  20. An electric vehicle propulsion system's impact on battery performance: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozek, J. M.; Smithrick, J. J.; Cataldo, R. C.; Ewashinka, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of two types of batteries, lead-acid and nickel-zinc, was measured as a function of the charging and discharging demands anticipated from electric vehicle propulsion systems. The benefits of rapid high current charging were mixed: although it allowed quick charges, the energy efficiency was reduced. For low power (overnight) charging the current wave shapes delivered by the charger to the battery tended to have no effect on the battery cycle life. The use of chopper speed controllers with series traction motors resulted in a significant reduction in the energy available from a battery whenever the motor operates at part load. The demand placed on a battery by an electric vehicle propulsion system containing electrical regenerative braking confirmed significant improvment in short term performance of the battery.

  1. Removal of sulfuric acid mist from lead-acid battery plants by coal fly ash-based sorbents.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yuehong; Wei, Xiangyu; Fang, Yu; Lan, Bingyan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-04-09

    Sorbents from coal fly ash (CFA) activated by NaOH, CaO and H2O were prepared for H2SO4 mist removal from lead-acid battery plants. The effects of parameters including temperature, time, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid during sorbent preparation were investigated. It is found that the synthesized sorbents exhibit much higher removal capacity for H2SO4 mist when compared with that of raw coal fly ash and CaO except for H2O activated sorbent and this sorbent was hence excluded from the study because of its low capacity. The H2SO4 mist removal efficiency increases with the increasing of preparation time length and temperature. In addition, the ratios of CFA/activator and water/solid also impact the removal efficiency, and the optimum preparation conditions are identified as: a water/solid ratio of 10:1 at 120 °C for 10h, a CFA:CaO weight ratio of 10:1, and a NaOH solution concentration of 3 mol/L. The formation of rough surface structure and an increased surface area after NaOH/CaO activation favor the sorption of H2SO4 mist and possible sorption mechanisms might be electrostatic attractions and chemical precipitation between the surface of sorbents and H2SO4 mist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of effluents from a car battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria on water, soil, and food qualities.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Asomugha, Rose; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Anisi, C N; Obi, Ejeatuluchukwualo; Dioka, Chudi Emma

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of effluents from a car battery manufacturing plant in Nnewi, Nigeria, on water, soil, and food qualities. The authors analyzed heavy metals mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and nickel in tap and cassava waters, soil, dried cassava tuber, and edible fruit samples from the company, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Other parameters the authors analyzed include pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity (SAL), total hardness (TH), biological oxygen demand (BOD), volatile and non-volatile solids, and bacterial and fungal loads of the soil samples. Results show that lead had the highest concentration in all the samples, with the soil samples having the highest lead concentration (38-12 ppm, 102 ppm) and the water samples having the lowest (0.02-0.20 ppm). Mercury had the lowest concentration (<0.0002 ppm) in all the samples. Soil sample B had the highest concentration of all the metals tested. Cassava water had higher levels of EC, SAL, TH, BOD, and volatile and nonvolatile solids, but lower pH than tap water. Bacterial loads were higher than fungal loads in all the soil samples. Because there was moderate contamination of the environment by some of the metals studied, with lead being exceptionally high and above the specified international standards, the authors recommend control measures to reduce lead exposure to the local populace within and around this industry.

  3. Active Device-Less Voltage Equalization Charger Using Capacitors, Diodes, and an AC Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Koji

    Conventional cell/module voltage equalizers or equalization chargers based on traditional dc-dc converters require numerous switches or transformers as the number of series connections increases; therefore, their cost and complexity tend to increase and their reliability decreases as the number of connections increases. This paper proposes a novel voltage equalization charger that consists only of passive components such as capacitors, diodes, and a transformer. The fundamental operating principle, major features, and derivation of equivalent dc circuits are presented. A symmetrical configuration is also proposed to mitigate the RMS current flowing through energy storage cells in the charging process. Simulations and experimental charging and cycle tests were performed on series-connected electric double-layer capacitor modules to demonstrate the equalization performance. The experimental and simulation results were in good agreement, and the voltage imbalances were gradually eliminated as time elapsed even during charge-discharge cycling.

  4. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L; Tolbert, Leon M

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.1% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~320 W/ .

  5. Integrated Charger with Wireless Charging and Boost Function for PHEV and EV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Campbell, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Integrated charger topologies that have been researched so far with dc-dc converters and the charging functionality have no isolation in the system. Isolation is an important feature that is required for user interface systems that have grid connections and therefore is a major limitation that needs to be addressed along with the integrated functionality. The topology proposed in this paper is a unique and a first of its kind topology that integrates a wireless charging system and the boost converter for the traction drive system. The new topology is also compared with an on-board charger system from a commercial electric vehicle (EV). The ac-dc efficiency of the proposed system is 85.05% and the specific power and power density of the onboard components is ~455 W/kg and ~302 W/ .

  6. [Study on spectra pretreatment in near infrared spectroscopy analysis using charger coupled device detector].

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Yuan, H; Lu, W

    2000-10-01

    The effects of spectra pretreatment method and parameters to signal noise ratio and calibration models quality in near-infrared spectroscopy analysis using charger coupled device(CCD) detector have been studied and discussed. To attain higher signal noise ratio, in the range of 700-1,100 nm, using 2048 pixels CCD, we suggest that the optimal gaps of smoothing first derivative treatment of spectra are 9 points, and the gap of second derivative treatment is 19 points.

  7. Hydraulic Diagnostic Monitoring System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-02

    vehicle, and it would also provide charging access to the NI-CAD batteries using a dedicated ground support charger . Both improvements were incorporated...A dedicated battery charger was fabricated but seldom used since, after subsequent initial charging, the ship’s electrical buss maintained the... battery charger completed at Plant 14 " ELT stops functioning - suspected relay " Generated EO 128FT80006 which installs second high-intensity light

  8. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P. Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Methods Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (i.e. albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1–5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. Results At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~ 0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1 % w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. Conclusions The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs. PMID:25823649

  9. Production of Highly Charged Pharmaceutical Aerosols Using a New Aerosol Induction Charger.

    PubMed

    Golshahi, Laleh; Longest, P Worth; Holbrook, Landon; Snead, Jessica; Hindle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Properly charged particles can be used for effective lung targeting of pharmaceutical aerosols. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of a new induction charger that operates with a mesh nebulizer for the production of highly charged submicrometer aerosols to bypass the mouth-throat and deliver clinically relevant doses of medications to the lungs. Variables of interest included combinations of model drug (albuterol sulfate) and charging excipient (NaCl) as well as strength of the charging field (1-5 kV/cm). Aerosol charge and size were measured using a modified electrical low pressure impactor system combined with high performance liquid chromatography. At the approximate mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol (~0.4 μm), the induction charge on the particles was an order of magnitude above the field and diffusion charge limit. The nebulization rate was 439.3 ± 42.9 μl/min, which with a 0.1% w/v solution delivered 419.5 ± 34.2 μg of medication per minute. A new correlation was developed to predict particle charge produced by the induction charger. The combination of the aerosol induction charger and predictive correlations will allow for the practical generation and control of charged submicrometer aerosols for targeting deposition within the lungs.

  10. Ac resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to preimary power requency

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1979-12-07

    An ac resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a pulse forming network (PFN), is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase ac power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  11. AC Resonant charger with charge rate unrelated to primary power frequency

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Harold

    1982-01-01

    An AC resonant charger for a capacitive load, such as a PFN, is provided with a variable repetition rate unrelated to the frequency of a multi-phase AC power source by using a control unit to select and couple the phase of the power source to the resonant charger in order to charge the capacitive load with a phase that is the next to begin a half cycle. For optimum range in repetition rate and increased charging voltage, the resonant charger includes a step-up transformer and full-wave rectifier. The next phase selected may then be of either polarity, but is always selected to be of a polarity opposite the polarity of the last phase selected so that the transformer core does not saturate. Thyristors are used to select and couple the correct phase just after its zero crossover in response to a sharp pulse generated by a zero-crossover detector. The thyristor that is turned on then automatically turns off after a full half cycle of its associated phase input. A full-wave rectifier couples the secondary winding of the transformer to the load so that the load capacitance is always charged with the same polarity.

  12. Technical Progress Report for PEPCO: Turbo-Z Battery Charging System

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-22

    The authors are entering the final phase of development for this project. Work has been imparted to define the components of the flexible battery charger control board. Detailed analog and digital circuits are complete. Improved analog to digital and digital to analog converters have been selected for use with the control board. The control board schematics are complete and construction of the hardware is in progress. The programming of the circuit board modules is underway. The documentation and circuit schematic drawings are in process. The test stand has added the integration of a dedicated fast computer/microprocessor to control the test stand. This will allow measurements to be taken and recorded more often. This has required modification of the software. The software is being debugged. The modules to be controlled by the test stand microprocessor include the charger module, the battery simulator, the discharge pulse, and discharger. Integrating these components will greatly enhance design and testing. An SCR charger power module has been has been designed, built, and debugged. The circuits for the battery simulator and discharge pulse have been detailed and debugged. The discharge pulse characteristics have been defined and designed. The charger power and discharge pulse modules can be used with either the test stand or the flexible control board. This work is the result of extensive catalog and internet research for the test stand and control board components. The documentation for the project is underway. It is important to have this documentation for reference purposes. Also, the drawing schematics will help with future projects, and they will help with flow-charting the projects for all parties involved. The drawings and some output parameters as of June 1999 are attached.

  13. Current balancing for battery strings

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, James H.

    1985-01-01

    A battery plant is described which features magnetic circuit means for balancing the electrical current flow through a pluraliircuitbattery strings which are connected electrically in parallel. The magnetic circuit means is associated with the battery strings such that the conductors carrying the electrical current flow through each of the battery strings pass through the magnetic circuit means in directions which cause the electromagnetic fields of at least one predetermined pair of the conductors to oppose each other. In an alternative embodiment, a low voltage converter is associated with each of the battery strings for balancing the electrical current flow through the battery strings.

  14. Recent progress in lithium/iron sulfide battery development

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, D.L.; Steunenberg, R.K.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A joint effort by Argonne National Laboratory ANL and industrial subcontractors aimed at the development of high-temperature lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric-vehicle propulsion and stationary energy storage is described. The battery cells have lithium-alloy (Li-Al or Li-Si) negative electrodes, iron sulfides (FeS or FeS/sub 2/) positive electrodes, and molten LiCl-KCl electrolyte. A 40 kW-hr electric vehicle battery, designated as Mark IA, was fabricated in 1979. During startup heating prior to electrical testing, a short circuit developed in one of the modules, causing a progressive failure of all the cells in the module. In the subsequent Mark II program, various improvements are being made in the cells and battery hardware to eliminate the potential failure mechanisms. In the cell development effort, multiplate cells having as many as three positive and four negative electrodes have been fabricated and tested successfully. In the battery development area, work is in progress on thin, high-efficiency thermal insulation to be used in the battery containment vessel. A charger-equilizer concept was developed, in which the major portion of the charge is added to the battery as a whole, and then the individual cells are charged to a predetermined cutoff voltage. A charging system that incorporates this concept has been tested.

  15. Microcomputer technology applications: Charger and regulator software for a breadboard programmable power processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Software programs are described, one which implements a voltage regulation function, and one which implements a charger function with peak-power tracking of its input. The software, written in modular fashion, is intended as a vehicle for further experimentation with the P-3 system. A control teleprinter allows an operator to make parameter modifications to the control algorithm during experiments. The programs require 3K ROM and 2K ram each. User manuals for each system are included as well as a third program for simple I/O control.

  16. Research, development, and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report for 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Work performed during Oct. 1, 1979 to Sept. 30, 1980 for the development of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion is described. During this report period many of the results frpm Globe Battery's design, materials and process development programs became evident in the achievement of the ISOA (Improved State of Art) specific energy, specific power, and energy efficiency goals while testing in progress also indicates that the cycle life goal can be met. These programs led to the establishment of a working pilot assembly line which produced the first twelve volt ISOA modules. Five of these modules were delivered to the National Battery Test Laboratory during the year for capacity, power and life testing, and assembly is in progress of three full battery systems for installation in vehicles. In the battery subsystem area, design of the acid circulation system for a ninety-six volt ISOA battery pack was completed and assembly of the first such system was initiated. Charger development has been slowed by problems encountered with reliability of some circuits but a prototype unit is being prepared which will meet the charging requirements of our ninety-six volt pack. This charger will be available during the 1981 fiscal year.

  17. Experimental determination of the steady-state charging probabilities and particle size conservation in non-radioactive and radioactive bipolar aerosol chargers in the size range of 5-40 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinger, Peter; Szymanski, Wladyslaw W.

    2015-04-01

    Three bipolar aerosol chargers, an AC-corona (Electrical Ionizer 1090, MSP Corp.), a soft X-ray (Advanced Aerosol Neutralizer 3087, TSI Inc.), and an α-radiation-based 241Am charger (tapcon & analysesysteme), were investigated on their charging performance of airborne nanoparticles. The charging probabilities for negatively and positively charged particles and the particle size conservation were measured in the diameter range of 5-40 nm using sucrose nanoparticles. Chargers were operated under various flow conditions in the range of 0.6-5.0 liters per minute. For particular experimental conditions, some deviations from the chosen theoretical model were found for all chargers. For very small particle sizes, the AC-corona charger showed particle losses at low flow rates and did not reach steady-state charge equilibrium at high flow rates. However, for all chargers, operating conditions were identified where the bipolar charge equilibrium was achieved. Practically, excellent particle size conservation was found for all three chargers.

  18. Occupational health education and collaboration for reducing the risk of lead poisoning of workers in a battery manufacturing plant in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lormphongs, Srirat; Morioka, Ikuharu; Miyai, Nobuyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroichi; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Thiramanus, Thirapong; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2004-10-01

    We provided occupational health education as training to all workers (N=31) and managers, and collaborated with them against reducing the risk of lead poisoning of workers at an assembly section in a battery manufacturing plant in Bangkok, Thailand in 2002. After occupational health education, many workers (80.6-100.0%) noticed and understood the toxicity of lead and the importance of protection against it. Many workers regularly wore long sleeved shirt and trousers, and used the appropriate mask all day long. They changed the attitude toward their work and improved personal hygiene, for example no smoking in the workplace, washing their hands by a detergent before drinking water or having lunch, and taking a bath after the work. They especially took off working clothes at an office outside the workplace and washed them everyday. The average blood lead level of the workers significantly (P=0.002) reduced from 32.7 microg/dl to 22.4 microg/dl, although airborne lead level in the workplace remained unchanged with before conditions. From these results occupational health education and collaboration between workers and managers were effective tools to reduce the risk of lead poisoning of workers in a battery manufacturing plant.

  19. A solarized Brayton engine based on turbo-charger technology and the DLR receiver

    SciTech Connect

    Gallup, D.R.; Kesseli, J.B.

    1994-06-01

    Northern Research and Engineering Corp. (NREC) is currently under contract to Sandia National Laboratories to solarize a 30 kWe Brayton engine that is based on turbo-charger technology. This program is also supported by the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), which is supplying the solar receiver through an agreement with the International Energy Agency/SolarPACES. The engine is a low pressure, highly recuperated engine. The turbo-machinery is built up from commercial turbo-chargers, which ensures low cost and high reliability. A combustor will be included in the system to allow for full power production during cloud transients. Current estimates are that the engine/alternator thermal-to-electric efficiency will be 30+%. The solar receiver to be supplied by DLR will be an advanced version of their VOBREC volumetric receiver. This receiver has a parabolic quartz window and ceramic foam absorber. The estimated efficiency of the receiver is 90+%. Sandia has developed an economic model to estimate the levelized energy cost (LEC) of energy produced by dish/engine systems. The model includes both the operating characteristics of the dishes and engines as well as a detailed economic model. The results of the analysis indicate that the dish/Brayton systems compare favorably with dish/Stirling systems.

  20. Design and performance evaluation of a small unipolar aerosol charger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y. Y.; Wang, H. Q.; Sun, Q.; Qin, F. H.; Gui, H. Q.; Liu, J. G.; Wang, J.; Lü, L.; Kong, D. Y.; Yu, T. Z.

    2017-06-01

    A small unipolar aerosols charger system is designed by using corona discharge technology. The performance is evaluated and calibrated in this paper. This system has two main components, one is the corona discharge which adopt tip - arc structure, and the another is high voltage constant current control circuit based on the weak current feedback adjustable as the corona current control part, which ensure that ion concentration remain stable in the process of discharge. The experimental results show that negative corona discharge is better than the positive corona discharge in the same discharge corona current. The intrinsic charging efficiency get better with corona current increases, which can as high as 99% when the negative discharge corona current is 3 µA. However the extrinsic charging efficiency change with corona current change, it got the best performance in the corona current 1.5µA at different particle size in this paper. This small and simple design of the unipolar charger system is suitable for portable aerosol classifier based on electrical mobility techniques.

  1. FY14 Milestone: Simulated Impacts of Life-Like Fast Charging on BEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Smith, Kandler; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Fast charging is attractive to battery electric vehicle (BEV) drivers for its ability to enable long-distance travel and quickly recharge depleted batteries on short notice. However, such aggressive charging and the sustained vehicle operation that results could lead to excessive battery temperatures and degradation. Properly assessing the consequences of fast charging requires accounting for disparate cycling, heating, and aging of individual cells in large BEV packs when subjected to realistic travel patterns, usage of fast chargers, and climates over long durations (i.e., years). The U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office has supported NREL's development of BLAST-V 'the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles' to create a tool capable of accounting for all of these factors. The authors present on the findings of applying this tool to realistic fast charge scenarios. The effects of different travel patterns, climates, battery sizes, battery thermal management systems, and other factors on battery performance and degradation are presented. The primary challenge for BEV batteries operated in the presence of fast charging is controlling maximum battery temperature, which can be achieved with active battery cooling systems.

  2. Fine particle removal performance of a two-stage wet electrostatic precipitator using a nonmetallic pre-charger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Hwang, Kyu-Dong; Oh, Won-Seek; Yoo, Seong-Yeon; Oda, Tetsuji

    2011-12-01

    A novel two-stage wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been developed using a carbon brush pre-charger and collection plates with a thin water film. The electrical and particle collection performance was evaluated for submicrometer particles smaller than 0.01- 0.5 micrometer in diameter by varying the voltages applied to the pre-charger and collection plates as well as the polarity of the voltage. The collection efficiency was compared with that calculated by the theoretical models. The long-term performances of the ESP with and without water films were also compared in tests using Japanese Industrial Standards dust. The experimental results show that the carbon brush pre-charger of the two-stage wet ESP had approximately 10% particle capture, while producing ozone concentrations of less than 30 ppb. The produced amounts of ozone are significantly lower than the current limits set by international agencies. The ESP also achieved a high collection rate performance, averaging 90% for ultrafine particles, as based on the particle number concentration at an average velocity of 1 m/sec corresponding to a residence time of 0.17 sec. Higher particle collection efficiency for the ESP can be achieved by increasing the voltages applied to the pre-charger and the collection plates. The decreased collection efficiency that occurred during dust loading without water films was completely avoided by forming a thin water film on the collection plates at a water flow rate of 6.5 L/min/m(2).

  3. Katech (Lithium Polymer) 4-Passenger NEV - Range and Battery Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort; D. Karner

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) received a Neighborhood Electric Vehicle (NEV) from the Korea Automotive Technology Institute (KATECH) for vehicle and battery characterization testing. The KATECH NEV (called the Invita) was equipped with a lithium polymer battery pack from Kokam Engineering. The Invita was to be baseline performance tested by AVTA’s testing partner, Electric Transportation Applications (ETA), at ETA’s contract testing facilities and test track in Phoenix, Arizona, to AVTA’s NEVAmerica testing specifications and procedures. Before and during initial constant speed range testing, the Invita battery pack experienced cell failures, and the onboard charger failed. A Kokamsupplied off-board charger was used in place of the onboard charger to successfully perform a constant speed range test on the Invita. The Invita traveled a total of 47.9 miles in 1 hour 47 minutes, consuming 91.3 amp-hours and 6.19 kilowatt-hours. The Kokam Engineering lithium polymer battery was also scheduled for battery pack characterization testing, including the C/3 energy capacity, dynamic stress, and peak power tests. Testing was stopped during the initial C/3 energy capacity test, however, because the battery pack failed to withstand cycling without cell failures. After the third discharge/charge sequence was completed, it was discovered that Cell 6 had failed, with a voltage reading of 0.5 volts. Cell 6 was replaced, and the testing sequence was restarted. After the second discharge/charge sequence was complete, it was discovered that Cell 1 had failed, with its voltage reading 0.2 volts. At this point it was decided to stop all battery pack testing. During the discharge cycles, the battery pack supplied 102.21, 94.34, and 96.05 amp-hours consecutively before Cell 6 failed. After replacing Cell 6, the battery pack supplied 98.34 and 98.11 amp-hours before Cell 1 failed. The Idaho National Laboratory managed these

  4. Battery separators.

    PubMed

    Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Zhengming John

    2004-10-01

    The ideal battery separator would be infinitesimally thin, offer no resistance to ionic transport in electrolytes, provide infinite resistance to electronic conductivity for isolation of electrodes, be highly tortuous to prevent dendritic growths, and be inert to chemical reactions. Unfortunately, in the real world the ideal case does not exist. Real world separators are electronically insulating membranes whose ionic resistivity is brought to the desired range by manipulating the membranes thickness and porosity. It is clear that no single separator satisfies all the needs of battery designers, and compromises have to be made. It is ultimately the application that decides which separator is most suitable. We hope that this paper will be a useful tool and will help the battery manufacturers in selecting the most appropriate separators for their batteries and respective applications. The information provided is purely technical and does not include other very important parameters, such as cost of production, availability, and long-term stability. There has been a continued demand for thinner battery separators to increase battery power and capacity. This has been especially true for lithiumion batteries used in portable electronics. However, it is very important to ensure the continued safety of batteries, and this is where the role of the separator is greatest. Thus, it is essential to optimize all the components of battery to improve the performance while maintaining the safety of these cells. Separator manufacturers should work along with the battery manufacturers to create the next generation of batteries with increased reliability and performance, but always keeping safety in mind. This paper has attempted to present a comprehensive review of literature on separators used in various batteries. It is evident that a wide variety of separators are available and that they are critical components in batteries. In many cases, the separator is one of the major factors

  5. Are combined AOPs effective for toxicity reduction in receiving marine environment? Suitability of battery of bioassays for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as an ecotoxicological assessment.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Garduño, B; Rueda-Márquez, J J; Manzano, M A; Garrido-Pérez, C; Martín-Díaz, M L

    2016-03-01

    Ecotoxicological assessment of three different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents D1, D2 and D3 was performed before and after tertiary treatment using combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). A multibarrier treatment (MBT) consisting of microfiltration (MF), hydrogen peroxide photolysis (H2O2/UVC) and catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO) was applied for all effluents. Sparus aurata, Paracentrotus lividus, Isochrysis galbana and Vibrio fischeri, representing different trophic levels, constituted the battery of bioassays. Different acute toxicity effects were observed in each WWTP effluents tested. The percentage of sea urchin larval development and mortality fish larvae were the most sensitive endpoints. Significant reduction (p < 0.05) of effluent's toxicity was observed using a classification pT-method after MBT process. Base on obtained results, tested battery of bioassays in pT-method framework can be recommended for acute toxicity preliminary evaluation of WWTP effluents for the marine environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility and safety design of a patient compliance-free, inductive implant charger.

    PubMed

    Theodoridis, Michael P; Mollov, Stefan V

    2014-10-01

    This article presents the design of a domestic, radiofrequency induction charger for implants toward compliance with the Federal Communications Commission safety and electromagnetic compatibility regulations. The suggested arrangement does not impose any patient compliance requirements other than the use of a designated bed for night sleep, and therefore can find a domestic use. The method can be applied to a number of applications; a rechargeable pacemaker is considered as a case study. The presented work has proven that it is possible to realize a fully compliant inductive charging system with minimal patient interaction, and has generated important information for consideration by the designers of inductive charging systems. Experimental results have verified the validity of the theoretical findings.

  7. Feasibility study for the upgrade of a coke oven battery at the Sidex Steel Plant in Romania. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-30

    This study, conducted by USX Engineers and Consultants (UEC), Inc., was funded by the US Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of UEC`s study concerning the reconstruction of No. 7 Coke Oven Battery operated by Sidex, S.A. at Galati, Romania. This is Volume 2 and it consists of the following: (1) Introduction; (2) Executive Summary; (3) Current Site Conditions; (4) Specifications; (5) Project Capital Cost Estimates and Project Schedule; (6) Financial Information and Cost Analysis; and (7) Environmental Assessment.

  8. A selective equalizer for NiMH batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, A.; Stuart, T. A.

    A unique method has been developed to equalize nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery packs using a new selective equalizer. This equalizer detects batteries either at a very low state of charge (SOC) or at an extremely high SOC. In this system a set of electromechanical relays is connected in a matrix to route boost current to the weaker batteries. The relay switching is controlled by a 32 bit microcontroller, and the boost current is supplied by a boost charger. Once a weak battery is detected, it is scheduled for a specific boost time by a special "Round Robin" (RR) algorithm. The equalizer was tested on a pack of 12 series connected 12 V 93 ampere hour (Ah) NiMH batteries. Test results show that the equalizer was able to re-balance an artificially unbalanced pack, and the capacity was increased by 27% within six charge-discharge cycles. Results indicate the number of cycles required to re-balance the pack was significantly reduced by using this technique.

  9. THERMAL BATTERY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    THERMAL BATTERIES, PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING)), DESIGN, ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, CHLORINE, LITHIUM, ELECTRODES, GAS ANALYSIS , CALIBRATION, IMPURITIES, PRESSURE, POLARIZATION, GRAPHITE, DIFFUSION, CONTROL SYSTEMS.

  10. power battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunyun, Zhang; Guoqing, Zhang; Weixiong, Wu; Weixiong, Liang

    2014-07-01

    Under hard acceleration or on a hill climb of (hybrid) electronic vehicles, the battery temperature would increase rapidly. High temperature decreases the battery cycle life, increases the thermal runaway, and even causes a battery to explode, that making the management of battery temperature an important consideration in the safety using of electronic vehicles. A study of increasing heat transfer area from the beginning design phase has been conducted to determine and enhance the heat dissipation on the battery surface. Both experiment and simulation methods were used to analyze the cooling performance under identical battery capacities and heights. Optimal external dimensions and cell sizes with the consideration of better battery workability was obtained from the analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were investigated in order to regulate the battery temperature under safety operating range. It was found that the temperature of the experiment battery would be controlled under safety critical when the cell was designed for 180 mm × 30 mm × 185 mm sizes and the surface heat transfer coefficient was 20 W m-2 K-1 at least.

  11. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Volume 6, Zinc-Bromide battery plant description, cost estimate credible accident and efficiency assessment: Part 1, Energy Research Corporation battery design: Final report for the period September 1978-May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.

    1985-06-05

    This document describes the ERC zinc-bromide battery module as the basic unit in the development of a battery load-leveling facility that will accumulate the output of base-load generation during periods of low demand and provide power for periods of high demands. (DLC)

  12. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  13. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  14. 78 FR 18253 - Request for Information on Evaluating New Products for the Battery Chargers and External Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... proposed rulemaking in order to discuss any new findings, propose alternative energy conservation standard... revise its analysis. If a revised analysis supports an alternative proposed energy conservation standards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR...

  15. Fine Particle Removal Performance of a Two-Stage Wet Electrostatic Precipitator Using a Nonmetallic Pre-Charger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Joon; Han, Bangwoo; Kim, Yong-Jin; Hwang, Kyu-Dong; Oh, Won-Seok; Yoo, Seong-Yeon; Oda, Tetsuji

    2011-12-01

    A novel two-stage wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) has been developed using a carbon brush pre-charger and collection plates with a thin water film. The electrical and particle collection performance was evaluated for submicrometer particles smaller than 0.01∼0.5 μm in diameter by varying the voltages applied to the pre-charger and collection plates as well as the polarity of the voltage. The collection efficiency was compared with that calculated by the theoretical models. The long-term performances of the ESP with and without water films were also compared in tests using Japanese Industrial Standards dust. The experimental results show that the carbon brush pre-charger of the two-stage wet ESP had approximately 10% particle capture, while producing ozone concentrations of less than 30 ppb. The produced amounts of ozone are significantly lower than the current limits set by international agencies. The ESP also achieved a high collection rate performance, averaging 90% for ultrafine particles, as based on the particle number concentration at an average velocity of 1 m/sec corresponding to a residence time of 0.17 sec. Higher particle collection efficiency for the ESP can be achieved by increasing the voltages applied to the pre-charger and the collection plates. The decreased collection efficiency that occurred during dust loading without water films was completely avoided by forming a thin water film on the collection plates at a water flow rate of 6.5 L/min/m 2 . [Box: see text].

  16. Dental erosion and sulfuric ion exposure levels in individuals working with sulfuric acid in lead storage battery manufacturing plant measured with mouth-rinse index.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Yuji; Takaku, Satoru; Okawa, Yoshikazu; Matsukubo, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate dental erosion in employees working with sulfuric acid at a lead storage battery manufacturing plant and level of personal exposure to sulfuric ions, we measured sulfuric ion concentrations in the mouth rinse of those employees. We also measured exposure levels from air samples obtained from 2 employees from the same plant who did not work with sulfuric acid using a portable air sampler. At the same time, we collected and compared their mouth rinses with those from other employees. More specifically, we measured and compared sulfuric ion, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, along with pH levels from the mouth rinse of these two groups. Positive correlations were found between sulfuric ion and calcium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), calcium and magnesium concentrations (r=0.61, p<0.005), Ca/Mg and calcium concentrations (r=0.64, p<0.005), and sulfuric ion and magnesium concentrations (r=0.55, p<0.005). Negative correlations were found between sulfuric ion concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.31, p<0.01), and magnesium concentrations and pH levels (r=-0.32, p<0.01). This suggests that mouth rinse from employees working with sulfuric acid could function as an indicator of sulfuric ion concentration in the work environment. Furthermore, this could lead to the development of a more accurate indicator of individual exposure.

  17. A one-wire'' battery monitoring system with applications to on-board charging for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, D. . Kenneth E. Johnson Research Center)

    1990-10-08

    A novel on-board charge system which utilizes a One-Wire'' system for voltage monitoring is discussed and test results obtained using the system are presented. The system consists of a 20 kHz high frequency charger, an algorithm for charging lead-acid batteries with gelled electrolyte, such that gassing is avoided, the control system to implement this charge algorithm and a one-wire battery monitoring system to provide cell/module voltage information to the battery charge controller. Prototype elements of the system have been tested and the system was installed into an EVA Pacer electric vehicle. Charge tests are performed and data taken with the system installed. All elements of the system functioned properly under user conditions. In particular, the charger demonstrated good efficiency, near unity power factor and full programmability. The charge controller functioned reliably and without flaw. The one-wire monitoring system which permits monitoring of cell/module voltages in a battery pack without an extensive conventional wire harness has proven effective and voltage measurements have taken fast enough for control of charging. It was found that for the purpose of voltage monitoring under driving conditions, the system in its present form is too slow.

  18. A one-wire battery monitoring system with applications to on-board charging for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Dieter

    1990-10-01

    A on-board charge system which utilizes a one-wire system for voltage monitoring is discussed and test results obtained using the system are presented. The system consists of the following: (1) a 20 kHz high frequency charger; (2) a charge algorithm for lead-acid batteries with gelled electrolyte, such that gassing is avoided; (3) the control system to implement this charge algorithm; and (4) a one-wire battery monitoring system to provide cell/module voltage information to the battery charge controller. Prototype elements of the system have been tested and the system was installed into an EVA Pacer electric vehicle. Charge tests are performed and data taken with the system installed. All elements of the system functioned properly under user conditions. In particular, the charger demonstrated good efficiency, near unity power factor and full programmability. The charge controller functioned reliably and without flaw. The one-wire monitoring system which permits monitoring of cell/module voltages in a battery pack without an extensive conventional wire harness has proven effective and voltage measurements were taken fast enough for control of charging. It was found that for the purpose of voltage monitoring under driving conditions, the system in its present form is too slow.

  19. Earth Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphillmore » into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  20. Earth Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    It’s the bane of renewable energy. No matter how efficient photovoltaic cells become or how much power a wind turbine can capture, someone will counter with, “What happens when the sun goes down and wind doesn’t blow?” And the person who poses that question uses it as an argument in favor of traditional baseload power. While it’s true that the way the electrical grid has developed in North America and Europe doesn’t lend itself to the start-and-stop, opportunistic nature of wind and solar, there are ways to meet the challenge. Electricity can be stored in batteries or water pumped uphill into reservoirs when power generation exceeds demand, to be tapped when needed. Unfortunately, utility-scale battery storage is prohibitively expensive, and pumped hydro is possible only in particular geographic locations. What is needed is a large-scale, distributed, dispatchable energy storage system that can smooth out a renewable energy generation profile that changes by the minute as well as over the course of the day or the season. Colleagues from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Ohio State University (led by Jeffrey Bielicki), and the University of Minnesota (led by Jimmy Randolph), and I have developed a system that can do all that. What’s more, this system actually sequesters carbon dioxide—a gas implicated in global climate change—as part of its normal operation. Furthermore, we have modeled our system and found that, if it can be successfully demonstrated in the field, it could provide utility-scale diurnal and seasonal energy storage (many hundreds of MWe) and dispatchable power, while permanently sequestering CO2 from industrial-scale fossil-energy power plants. Certainly, an energy storage system is only as clean or as green as the primary generation it’s working with. But it is going to be difficult to implement solar or wind power to a degree high enough to make a difference in global carbon dioxide emissions without utility

  1. Paintable battery.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  2. Paintable Battery

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations. PMID:22745900

  3. Paintable Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Neelam; Galande, Charudatta; Miranda, Andrea; Mathkar, Akshay; Gao, Wei; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Vlad, Alexandru; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-06-01

    If the components of a battery, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte and the current collectors can be designed as paints and applied sequentially to build a complete battery, on any arbitrary surface, it would have significant impact on the design, implementation and integration of energy storage devices. Here, we establish a paradigm change in battery assembly by fabricating rechargeable Li-ion batteries solely by multi-step spray painting of its components on a variety of materials such as metals, glass, glazed ceramics and flexible polymer substrates. We also demonstrate the possibility of interconnected modular spray painted battery units to be coupled to energy conversion devices such as solar cells, with possibilities of building standalone energy capture-storage hybrid devices in different configurations.

  4. Operational experience and performance characteristics of a valve-regulated lead-acid battery energy-storage system for providing the customer with critical load protection and energy-management benefits at a lead-recycling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. W.

    The Power Control Division of GNB Technologies, commissioned on May 13, 1996 a new facility which houses a 5-MW battery energy-storage system (BESS) at GNB's Lead Recycling Centre in Vernon, CA. When the plant loses utility power (which typically happens two or three times a year), the BESS will provide up to 5 MW of power at 4160 VAC in support of all the plant loads. Since the critical loads are not isolated, it is necessary to carry the entire plant load (maximum of 5 MVA) for a short period immediately following an incident until non-critical loads have been automatically shed. Plant loading typically peaks at 3.5 MVA with critical loads of about 2.1 MVA. The BESS also provides the manufacturing plant with customer-side-of-the-meter energy management options to reduce its energy demand during peak periods of the day. The BESS has provided a reduction in monthly electric bills through daily peak-shaving. By design, the battery can provide up to 2.5 MWh of energy and still retain 2.5 MWh of capacity in reserve to handle the possibility of a power outage in protecting the critical loads for up to 1 h. By storing energy from the utility during off-peak hours of the night in the batteries when the cost is low (US4.5¢ per kWh), GNB can then discharge this energy during high demand periods of the day (US14.50 per kW). For example, by reducing its peak demand by 300 kW, the lead-recycling centre can save over US4000 per month in its electric bills. The BESS at Vernon represents a first large-scale use of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries in such a demanding application. This paper presents a summary of the operational experience and performance characteristics of the BESS over the past 2 years.

  5. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-25

    As part of the overall Solvent Refined Coal (SRC-1) project baseline being prepared by International Coal Refining Company (ICRC), the RUST Engineering Company is providing necessary input for the Outside Battery Limits (OSBL) Facilities. The project baseline is comprised of: design baseline - technical definition of work; schedule baseline - detailed and management level 1 schedules; and cost baseline - estimates and cost/manpower plan. The design baseline (technical definition) for the OSBL Facilities has been completed and is presented in Volumes I, II, III, IV, V and VI. The OSBL technical definition is based on, and compatible with, the ICRC defined statement of work, design basis memorandum, master project procedures, process and mechanical design criteria, and baseline guidance documents. The design basis memorandum is included in Paragraph 1.3 of Volume I. The baseline design data is presented in 6 volumes. Volume I contains the introduction section and utility systems data through steam and feedwater. Volume II continues with utility systems data through fuel system, and contains the interconnecting systems and utility system integration information. Volume III contains the offsites data through water and waste treatment. Volume IV continues with offsites data, including site development and buildings, and contains raw materials and product handling and storage information. Volume V contains wastewater treatment and solid wastes landfill systems developed by Catalytic, Inc. to supplement the information contained in Volume III. Volume VI contains proprietary information of Resources Conservation Company related to the evaporator/crystallizer system of the wastewater treatment area.

  6. Lithium battery technology

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatasetty, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on the use of lithium in electric batteries. Topics considered include solvents for lithium battery technology, transport properties and structure of nonaqueous electrolyte solutions, primary lithium batteries, lithium sulfur dioxide batteries, lithium oxyhalide batteries, medical batteries, ambient-temperature rechargeable lithium cells, high-temperature lithium batteries, and lithium ion-conducting solid electrolytes.

  7. Utilities and offsites design baseline. Outside Battery Limits Facility 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1984-05-25

    Volume 2 contains flowsheets and equipment specifications for the following parts of the plant: cooling water systems, process water supply, potable water supply, nitrogen system, compressed air system, flares, incinerators, fuels and interconnecting systems (pipes). The instrumentation requirements are included. (LTN)

  8. Follow-up screening of lead-poisoned children near an auto battery recycling plant, Haina, Dominican Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, B; Sandhu, R S; Depratt, C; Reyes, F

    1999-01-01

    In August 1997 we performed a follow-up survey of 146 lead-poisoned children from a community near a previously active auto battery recycling smelter in Haina near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Our follow-up survey confirmed a severe incidence of elevated blood lead (BPb) and erythrocyte protoporphyrin/zinc protoporphyrin (EP-ZnPP) levels. The mean BPb level was 32 micrograms/dL and the mean EP-ZnPP level was 128 micrograms/dL. The frequency distribution of BPb showed that only 9% of the children had BPb levels below the currently acceptable 10 micrograms/dL threshold level, 23% had between 10 and 19 micrograms/dL, 40% had between 20 and 39 micrograms/dL, 27% had between 40 and 99 micrograms/dL, and the remainder had > 100 micrograms/dL. These findings are significantly greater than the mean BPb and EP-ZnPP levels of 14 and 35 micrograms/dL, respectively, in a comparison group of 63 children in Barsequillo, 4 miles away. BPb frequency distributions for these groups were < 10 micrograms/dL (42%), 10-19 micrograms/dL (32%), and 20-39 micrograms/dL (16%); in the remaining 10%, BPb levels were between 40 and 99 micrograms/dL. Similarly, the corresponding frequency distribution of EP-ZnPP levels in Haina children were proportional to the severity of lead poisoning and significantly higher than those of the Barsequillo comparison group. This study reveals that at least 28% of Haina children require immediate treatment; of these, 5% with lead levels > 70 micrograms/dL are also at risk for severe neurologic sequelae, and urgent action is imperative. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10544160

  9. Aerosol particle charger and an SO/sub 2/ reactor using energetic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Two properties of energetic electrons in gas, their high specific ionization and their production of radicals and other chemically active specie, have promising applications to the cleanup of flue gas from coal combustion. The copious ionization has been used in a test particle charger to electrically charge 1 and 3 ..mu..m particles for subsequent removal by electrostatic precipitation. Particle charge greater than 5 times the theoretical ionic charging value for 1 ..mu..m particles have been observed in a bi-electrode electron beam precharger in which the beam energy is matched with the electrode spacing. In another test device, pulsed streamer coronas have been used to release and to energize electrons which promote gas phase chemical reactions and remote sulfur dioxide from humid air with high efficiency. The energized electrons produce oxidant radicals and chemically active specie which convert the SO/sub 2/ into sulfuric acid mist. While reported separately here, the two applications of energetic electrons may be amenable to combination in an integrated system for the combined treatment of flue gas.

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide

  11. Button batteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stomach and intestines without causing any serious damage. How well someone does depends on the type of battery they swallowed and how quickly they receive treatment. The faster medical help is given, the better the chance for recovery.

  12. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  13. Effects of lead exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers involved in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Barman, Tapu; Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of Pb exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers exposed to Pb during lead-acid battery plant process. Platelet indices and blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 male workers. BLLs were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Platelet indices in the samples were quantified by using the Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer. The levels of platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT) and mean platelet mass (MPM) were significantly decreased and platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and mean platelet volume were increased with an increase in BLLs. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the platelet count (β -0.143, P=0.005), PCT (β -0.115, P=0.023) and MPM (β -0.110, P=0.030) were negatively associated with BLLs and P-LCR (β 0.122, P=0.016) was positively associated with BLLs. The variable of body mass index showed a positive association with PCT (β 0.105, P=0.032) and MPM (β 0.101, P=0.039). The results of the study may indicate that lead exposure may impair coagulation function through endothelial tissue injury and reduction of nitric oxide.

  14. Coordinated Control Strategy of a Battery Energy Storage System to Support a Wind Power Plant Providing Multi-Timescale Frequency Ancillary Services

    DOE PAGES

    Tan, Jin; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-02-02

    With increasing penetrations of wind generation on electric grids, wind power plants (WPPs) are encouraged to provide frequency ancillary services (FAS); however, it is a challenge to ensure that variable wind generation can reliably provide these ancillary services. This paper proposes using a battery energy storage system (BESS) to ensure the WPPs' commitment to FAS. This method also focuses on reducing the BESS's size and extending its lifetime. In this paper, a state-machine-based coordinated control strategy is developed to utilize a BESS to support the obliged FAS of a WPP (including both primary and secondary frequency control). This method takesmore » into account the operational constraints of the WPP (e.g., real-time reserve) and the BESS (e.g., state of charge [SOC], charge and discharge rate) to provide reliable FAS. Meanwhile, an adaptive SOC-feedback control is designed to maintain SOC at the optimal value as much as possible and thus reduce the size and extend the lifetime of the BESS. In conclusion, the effectiveness of the control strategy is validated with an innovative, multi-area, interconnected power system simulation platform that can mimic realistic power systems operation and control by simulating real-time economic dispatch, regulating reserve scheduling, multi-area automatic generation control, and generators' dynamic response.« less

  15. Zebra batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudworth, J. L.

    By using molten sodium chloroaluminate as secondary electrolyte, a series of solid transition metal chlorides can be used as positive electrodes in cells with sodium as the negative and beta-alumina as the solid electrlyte. Nickel chloride is preferred and Zebra batteries based on this cell reaction have been developed to the pilot-line production stage. The batteries have a number of features which make them attractive for electric-vehicle applications. Thus, the cells can be assebled in the discharged state eliminating the need to handle liquid sodium. By locating the positive electrode inside the beta-alumina tube, square cell cases can be used giving maximum packing efficiency in batteries. The absence of corrosion in the cell leads to a long life and high reliability. For electric-vehicle applications safety is very imporant, and crash testing has shown that even serious damage to the battery in a crash situation would not present a significant additional hazard to the driver or passengers. The remaining technical challenges are to increase the specific power of the battery towards the end of discharge and to demonstrate that the processes, which have been developed for cell and battery production, are capable of meeting the cost targets.

  16. Hybrid Microgrid Model based on Solar Photovoltaics with Batteries and Fuel Cells system for intermittent applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Maxx

    Microgrids are a subset of the modern power structure; using distributed generation (DG) to supply power to communities rather than vast regions. The reduced scale mitigates loss allowing the power produced to do more with better control, giving greater security, reliability, and design flexibility. This paper explores the performance and cost viability of a hybrid grid-tied microgrid that utilizes Photovoltaic (PV), batteries, and fuel cell (FC) technology. The concept proposes that each community home is equipped with more PV than is required for normal operation. As the homes are part of a microgrid, excess or unused energy from one home is collected for use elsewhere within the microgrid footprint. The surplus power that would have been discarded becomes a community asset, and is used to run intermittent services. In this paper, the modeled community does not have parking adjacent to each home allowing for the installment of a privately owned slower Level 2 charger, making EV ownership option untenable. A solution is to provide a Level 3 DC Quick Charger (DCQC) as the intermittent service. The addition of batteries and Fuel Cells are meant to increase load leveling, reliability, and instill limited island capability.

  17. Passive hybridization of a photovoltaic module with lithium-ion battery cells: A model-based analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, Stella; Weißhar, Björn; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2017-04-01

    Standard photovoltaic battery systems based on AC or DC architectures require power electronics and controllers, including inverters, MPP tracker, and battery charger. Here we investigate an alternative system design based on the parallel connection of a photovoltaic module with battery cells without any intermediate voltage conversion. This approach, for which we use the term passive hybridization, is based on matching the solar cell's and battery cell's respective current/voltage behavior. A battery with flat discharge characteristics can allow to pin the solar cell to its maximum power point (MPP) independently of the external power consumption. At the same time, upon battery full charge, voltage increase will drive the solar cell towards zero current and therefore self-prevent battery overcharge. We present a modeling and simulation analysis of passively hybridizing a 5 kWp PV system with a 5 kWh LFP/graphite lithium-ion battery. Dynamic simulations with 1-min time resolution are carried out for three exemplary summer and winter days using historic weather data and a synthetic single-family household consumer profile. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the system. The passive hybrid allows for high self-sufficiencies of 84.6% in summer and 25.3% in winter, which are only slightly lower than those of a standard system.

  18. Evaluation of a Diffusion Charger for Measuring Aerosols in a Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Vosburgh, Donna J. H.; Ku, Bon Ki; Peters, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The model DC2000CE diffusion charger from EcoChem Analytics (League City, TX, USA) has the potential to be of considerable use to measure airborne surface area concentrations of nanoparticles in the workplace. The detection efficiency of the DC2000CE to reference instruments was determined with monodispersed spherical particles from 54 to 565.7nm. Surface area concentrations measured by a DC2000CE were then compared to measured and detection efficiency adjusted reference surface area concentrations for polydispersed aerosols (propylene torch exhaust, incense, diesel exhaust, and Arizona road dust) over a range of particle sizes that may be encountered in a workplace. The ratio of surface area concentrations measured by the DC2000CE to that measured with the reference instruments for unimodal and multimodal aerosols ranged from 0.02 to 0.52. The ratios for detection efficiency adjusted unimodal and multimodal surface area concentrations were closer to unity (0.93–1.19) for aerosols where the majority of the surface area was within the size range of particles used to create the correction. A detection efficiency that includes the entire size range of the DC2000CE is needed before a calibration correction for the DC2000CE can be created. For diesel exhaust, the DC2000CE retained a linear response compared to reference instruments up to 2500mm2 m−3, which was greater than the maximum range stated by the manufacturer (1000mm2 m−3). Physical limitations with regard to DC2000CE orientation, movement, and vibration were identified. Vibrating the DC2000CE while measuring aerosol concentrations may cause an increase of ~35mm2 m−3, whereas moving the DC2000CE may cause concentrations to be inflated by as much as 400mm2 m−3. Depending on the concentration of the aerosol of interest being measured, moving or vibrating a DC2000CE while measuring the aerosol should be avoided. PMID:24458322

  19. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  20. Lead/acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    Lead/acid batteries are produced in sizes from less than 1 to 3000 Ah for a wide variety of portable, industrial and automotive applications. Designs include Planté, Fauré or pasted, and tubular electrodes. In addition to the traditional designs which are flooded with sulfuric acid, newer 'valve-regulated" designs have the acid immolibized in a silica gel or absorbed in a porous glass separator. Development is ongoing worldwide to increase the specific power, energy and deep discharge cycle life of this commercially successful system to meet the needs of new applications such as electric vehicles, load leveling, and solar energy storage. The operating principles, current status, technical challenges and commercial impact of the lead/acid battery are reviewed.

  1. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  2. Space Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Space Command SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE BATTERY APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE ...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ... release , distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  3. Digital Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubler, Alfred

    2009-03-01

    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler, http://server10.how-why.com/blog/

  4. Re-creation of aerosol charge state found near HV power lines using a high voltage corona charger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. C.; Wright, M. D.; Biddiscombe, M. F.; Underwood, R.; Usmani, O. S.; Shallcross, D. E.; Henshaw, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    Corona ionisation from AC HV power lines (HVPL) can release ions into the environment, which have the potential to electrically charge pollutant aerosol in the atmosphere. It has been hypothesised that these charged particles have an enhanced probability of being deposited in human airways upon inhalation due to electrostatic attraction by image charge within the lung, with implications for human health. Carbonaceous aerosol particles from a Technegas generator were artificially charge-enhanced using a corona charger. Once generated, particles were passed through the charger, which was either on or off, and stored in a 15 litre conducting bag for ∼20 minutes to observe size and charge distribution changes over time. Charge states were estimated using two Sequential Mobility Particle Sizers measuring the size and mobility distributions. Charge-neutral particles were measured 7 times and positive particles 9 times, the average charge-neutral value of x was 1.00 (sd = 0.06) while the average positive value was 4.60 (0.72). The system will be used to generate positive or charge neutral particles for delivery to human volunteers in an inhalation study to assess the impact of charge on ultrafine (size < 100 nm) particle deposition.

  5. Batteries: Overview of Battery Cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, Marca M

    2010-07-12

    The very high theoretical capacity of lithium (3829 mAh/g) provided a compelling rationale from the 1970's onward for development of rechargeable batteries employing the elemental metal as an anode. The realization that some transition metal compounds undergo reductive lithium intercalation reactions reversibly allowed use of these materials as cathodes in these devices, most notably, TiS{sub 2}. Another intercalation compound, LiCoO{sub 2}, was described shortly thereafter but, because it was produced in the discharged state, was not considered to be of interest by battery companies at the time. Due to difficulties with the rechargeability of lithium and related safety concerns, however, alternative anodes were sought. The graphite intercalation compound (GIC) LiC{sub 6} was considered an attractive candidate but the high reactivity with commonly used electrolytic solutions containing organic solvents was recognized as a significant impediment to its use. The development of electrolytes that allowed the formation of a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) on surfaces of the carbon particles was a breakthrough that enabled commercialization of Li-ion batteries. In 1990, Sony announced the first commercial batteries based on a dual Li ion intercalation system. These devices are assembled in the discharged state, so that it is convenient to employ a prelithiated cathode such as LiCoO{sub 2} with the commonly used graphite anode. After charging, the batteries are ready to power devices. The practical realization of high energy density Li-ion batteries revolutionized the portable electronics industry, as evidenced by the widespread market penetration of mobile phones, laptop computers, digital music players, and other lightweight devices since the early 1990s. In 2009, worldwide sales of Li-ion batteries for these applications alone were US$ 7 billion. Furthermore, their performance characteristics (Figure 1) make them attractive for traction applications such as hybrid

  6. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  7. Metal-Air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

    2011-08-01

    Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

  8. Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Report summarizes results of test on "near-term" electrochemical batteries - (batteries approaching commercial production). Nickel/iron, nickel/zinc, and advanced lead/acid batteries included in tests and compared with conventional lead/acid batteries. Batteries operated in electric vehicles at constant speed and repetitive schedule of accerlerating, coasting, and braking.

  9. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  10. Battery Safety Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Batteries commonly used in flashlights and other household devices produce hydrogen gas as a product of zinc electrode corrosion. The amount of gas produced is affected by the batteries' design and charge rate. Dangerous levels of hydrogen gas can be released if battery types are mixed, batteries are damaged, batteries are of different ages, or…

  11. Lead/acid battery recycling and the new Isasmelt process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramus, K.; Hawkins, P.

    The recovery of lead/acid batteries has long been practised for economic reasons. More recently, battery recovery has also been influenced by environmental concerns, both in the general community and within the recycling plants. These influences will probably increase in the future. With these factors in mind, Britannia Refined Metals Ltd. introduced new technology for battery recycling at its Northfleet, UK operations in 1991. A process description of the Britannia Refined Metals Secondary Lead Operation, the reasons for selecting an Engitec CX battery breaking plant in combination with an Isasmelt Paste Smelting Furnace, and commissioning and current operation of the plant are discussed.

  12. Battery depletion monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.

    1982-01-26

    A cmos inverter is used to compare pacemaker battery voltage to a referenced voltage. When the reference voltage exceeds the measured battery voltage, the inverter changes state to indicate battery depletion.

  13. An electrostatic CMOS/BiCMOS Lithium ion vibration-based harvester-charger IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Erick Omar

    Self-powered microsystems, such as wireless transceiver microsensors, appeal to an expanding application space in monitoring, control, and diagnosis for commercial, industrial, military, space, and biomedical products. As these devices continue to shrink, their microscale dimensions allow them to be unobtrusive and economical, with the potential to operate from typically unreachable environments and, in wireless network applications, deploy numerous distributed sensing nodes simultaneously. Extended operational life, however, is difficult to achieve since their limited volume space constrains the stored energy available, even with state-of-the-art technologies, such as thin-film lithium-ion batteries (Li Ion) and micro-fuel cells. Harvesting ambient energy overcomes this deficit by continually replenishing the energy reservoir and, as a result, indefinitely extending system lifetime. In this work, an electrostatic harvester that harnesses ambient kinetic energy from vibrations to charge an energy-storage device (e.g., a battery) is investigated, developed, and evaluated. The proposed harvester charges and holds the voltage across a vibration-sensitive variable capacitor so that vibrations can induce it to generate current into the battery when capacitance decreases (as its plates separate). The challenge is that energy is harnessed at relatively slow rates, producing low output power, and the electronics required to transfer it to charge a battery can easily demand more than the power produced. To this end, the system reduces losses by time-managing and biasing its circuits to operate only when needed and with just enough energy while charging the capacitor through an efficient quasi-lossless inductor-based precharger. As result, the proposed energy harvester stores a net energy gain in the battery during every vibration cycle. Two energy-harvesting integrated circuits (IC) were analyzed, designed, developed, and validated using a 0.7-im BiCMOS process and a 30-Hz

  14. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance.

  15. The Design and Tests of Battery Power Supply System for Pulsed Flat-Top Magnets in WHMFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, T. H.; Lv, Y. L.; Tang, J. X.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. Y.; Li, L.; Pan, Y.

    2013-03-01

    A capacitor bank power supply of 14.8 MJ is built in Wuhan National Pulsed High Magnetic Field Center (WHMFC). Another pulse generator power supply of 100 MJ/100 MVA is expected to be finished by the end of August, 2012. These power supplies can drive pulsed magnets with a magnetic field of 50 T to 80 T and a pulse duration of 15 ms to 1000 ms (Li et al. in IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 18:596, 2008). In addition to that, a new battery bank power supply system is also designed. This system can output a maximum voltage of 1000 V, a maximum current of 40 kA and a pulse duration of 2 s to feed pulsed flat-top magnets of 40 T/2 s. This power supply consists of battery bank and its charger, thyristor DC switch and its forced commutation, DC breaker, control system, Crowbar, PWM controller and magnet. The battery bank uses 945 lead-acid batteries and its modular design makes it easy to modify the voltage and current of the power supply by changing the connections of the batteries based on the requirement of single-coil, double-coil and triple-coil magnets. The design and primary tests of the battery power supply system will be introduced in this paper (Schillig et al. in IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 10:526, 2000).

  16. Steam-Power-Plant Operator (light, heat & power) 952.782-040--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service Teneral Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  17. Piezonuclear battery

    DOEpatents

    Bongianni, Wayne L.

    1992-01-01

    A piezonuclear battery generates output power arising from the piezoelectric voltage produced from radioactive decay particles interacting with a piezoelectric medium. Radioactive particle energy may directly create an acoustic wave in the piezoelectric medium or a moderator may be used to generate collision particles for interacting with the medium. In one embodiment a radioactive material (.sup.252 Cf) with an output of about 1 microwatt produced a 12 nanowatt output (1.2% conversion efficiency) from a piezoelectric copolymer of vinylidene fluoride/trifluorethylene.

  18. Lithium batteries: Status, prospects and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scrosati, Bruno; Garche, Jürgen

    Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

  19. Galileo Probe Battery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagarin, B. P.; Taenaka, R. K.; Stofel, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusions of the Galileo probe battery system are: the battery performance met mission requirements with margin; extensive ground-based and flight tests of batteries prior to probe separation from orbiter provided good prediction of actual entry performance at Jupiter; and the Li-SO2 battery was an important choice for the probe's main power.

  20. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  1. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  2. Quick charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  3. Battery cell for a primary battery

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, A.

    1984-12-11

    A battery cell for a primary battery, particularly a flat cell battery to be activated on being taken into use, e.g., when submerged into water. The battery cell comprises a positive current collector and a negative electrode. A separator layer which, being in contact with the negative electrode, is disposed between said negative electrode and the positive current collector. A depolarizing layer containing a depolarizing agent is disposed between the positive current collector and the separate layer. An intermediate layer of a porous, electrically insulating, and water-absorbing material is disposed next to the positive current collector and arranged in contact with the depolarizing agent.

  4. Health risk assessment of various metal(loid)s via multiple exposure pathways on children living near a typical lead-acid battery plant, China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-01

    Manufacture of lead-acid batteries is of widespread interest because of its emissions of heavy metals and metalloids into environment, harming environmental quality and consequently causing detrimental effects on human health. In this study, exposure pathways and health risks of children to heavy metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, As, etc) were investigated based on field sampling and questionnaire. Pb was one of the most abundant elements in children's blood, with an elevated blood lead level of 12.45 μg dL(-1). Soil/dust and food were heavily polluted by targeted metal(loid)s. Food ingestion accounted for more than 80% of the total exposure for most metal(loid)s. The non-cancer risks to children were 3-10 times higher than the acceptable level of 1, while the cancer risks were 5-200 times higher than the maximum acceptable level of 1.0 × 10(-4). The study emphasized the significance of effective environmental management, particularly to ensure food security near battery facilities.

  5. PV based converter with integrated charger for DC micro-grid applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salve, Rima

    This thesis presents a converter topology for photovoltaic panels. This topology minimizes the number of switching devices used thereby reducing power losses that arise from high frequency switching operations. The control strategy is implemented using a simple microcontroller that implements the proportional plus integral control. All the control loops are closed feedback loops hence minimizing error instantaneously and adjusting efficiently to system variations. The energy management between three components, namely, the photovoltaic panel, a battery and a DC link for a microgrid is shown distributed over three modes. These modes are dependent on the irradiance from the sunlight. All three modes are simulated. The maximum power point tracking of the system plays a crutial role in this configuration as it is one of the main challenge tackled by the control system. Various methods of MPPT are discussed and the Perturb and Observe method is employed and is described in detail. Experimental results are shown for the maximum power point tracking of this system with a scaled down version of the panel's actual capability.

  6. Measuring the Benefits of Public Chargers and Improving Infrastructure Deployments Using Advanced Simulation Tools: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Eric; Neubauer. Jeremy; Burton, Evan

    2015-02-01

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory developed BLAST-V -- the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles. The addition of high-resolution spatial-temporal travel histories enables BLAST-V to investigate user-defined infrastructure rollouts of publically accessible charging infrastructure, as well as quantify impacts on vehicle and station owners in terms of improved vehicle utility and station throughput. This paper presents simulation outputs from BLAST-V that quantify the utility improvements of multiple distinct rollouts of publically available Level 2 electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) in the Seattle, Washington, metropolitan area. Publically available data on existing Level 2 EVSE are also used as an input to BLAST-V. The resulting vehicle utility is compared to a number of mock rollout scenarios. Discussion focuses on the estimated number of Level 2 stations necessary to substantially increase vehicle utility and how stations can be strategically sited to maximize their potential benefit to prospective electric vehicle owners.

  7. Ionene membrane battery separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  8. Battery cell feedthrough apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, T.D.

    1995-03-14

    A compact, hermetic feedthrough apparatus is described comprising interfitting sleeve portions constructed of chemically-stable materials to permit unique battery designs and increase battery life and performance. 8 figs.

  9. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  10. Batteries: Widening voltage windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kang; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-10-01

    The energy output of aqueous batteries is largely limited by the narrow voltage window of their electrolytes. Now, a hydrate melt consisting of lithium salts is shown to expand such voltage windows, leading to a high-energy aqueous battery.

  11. Auto Battery Safety Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... inside the battery to spill through the vents. Use a battery carrier when available and always handle with extreme care. This publication is copyrighted. This sheet may be ... reprint, excerption or use is not permitted without written consent. Because of ...

  12. Abuse tests on sealed lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    LOESCHER,DOUGLAS H.; CRAFTS,CHRIS C.; UNKELHAEUSER,TERRY M.

    2000-03-01

    Abuse tests were conducted on the lead-acid batteries used to power electrical testers used at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant. Batteries were subjected to short circuits, crushes, penetrations, and drops. None of the observed responses would be a threat to nuclear explosive safety in a bay or cell at Pantex. Temperatures, currents, and damage were measured and recorded during the tests.

  13. Lead batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    The design, development, components, fabrication, chemistry, and testing of lead batteries are cited in this compilation of federally-funded research. Specific applications for spacecraft, consumer products, and electric vehicles are covered. Studies on lead recovery from battery scrap are covered. Several abstracts on lead toxicity in industrial plants are also cited.

  14. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Volume 4, Lead-acid battery plant description, cost estimate, credible accident and efficiency assessment: Final report for the period September 1978-May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Morphet, J.H. Jr.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.

    1985-06-05

    This report is part of a general study with the purpose of evaluating solutions to the problem of meeting a fluctuating demand for power by electric utilities. It describes the GNB Batteries, Inc. lead-acid battery as the basic unit in the development of a battery load-leveling facility. (DLC)

  15. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  16. Battery Review Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Chester

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form: NASA Battery Review Board Charter; membership, board chronology; background; statement of problem; summary of problems with 50 AH standard Ni-Cd; activities for near term programs utilizing conventional Ni-Cd; present projects scheduled to use NASA standard Ni-Cd; other near-term NASA programs requiring secondary batteries; recommended direction for future programs; future cell/battery procurement strategy; and the NASA Battery Program.

  17. Handbook of Battery Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besenhard, J. O.

    1999-04-01

    Batteries find their applications in an increasing range of every-day products: discmen, mobile phones and electric cars need very different battery types. This handbook gives a concise survey about the materials used in modern battery technology. The physico-chemical fundamentals are as well treated as are the environmental and recycling aspects. It will be a profound reference source for anyone working in the research and development of new battery systems, regardless if chemist, physicist or engineer.

  18. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  19. Asian Battery Forecast Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-12-31

    A forecast of battery production in Asia is described. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market, Asian economic growth has the potential to result in the battery market matching or possibly exceeding that of North America.

  20. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  1. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  2. Assessment of mid-term growth assumptions and learning rates for comparative studies of CSP and hybrid PV-battery power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breyer, Christian; Afanasyeva, Svetlana; Brakemeier, Dietmar; Engelhard, Manfred; Giuliano, Stefano; Puppe, Michael; Schenk, Heiko; Hirsch, Tobias; Moser, Massimo

    2017-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to present a solid foundation of capex projections for the major solar energy technologies until the year 2030 for further analyses. The experience curve approach has been chosen for this capex assessment, which requires a good understanding of the projected total global installed capacities of the major solar energy technologies and the respective learning rates. A literature survey has been conducted for CSP tower, CSP trough, PV and Li-ion battery. Based on the literature survey a base case has been defined for all technologies and low growth and high growth cases for further sensitivity analyses. All results are shown in detail in the paper and a comparison to the expectation of a potentially major investor in all of these technologies confirmed the derived capex projections in this paper.

  3. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a "base" load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  4. Development Of A Control Moment Gyroscope Controlled, Three Axis Satellite Simulator, With Active Balancing For The Bifocal Relay Mirror Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Batteries .................................... 17 4. External Power............................... 18 5. Battery Charger .............................. 18...Figure 15. Gel cell battery ................................. 18 Figure 16. Battery chargers ................................. 19 Figure 17. Sun sensor...composed of the power switch box, power switching electronics assembly, batteries , external power and external battery charger . At a zero-torque, CMG rotors

  5. Power Management for Fuel Cell and Battery Hybrid Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Jared Robert

    As electric powered unmanned aerial vehicles enter a new age of commercial viability, market opportunities in the small UAV sector are expanding. Extending UAV flight time through a combination of fuel cell and battery technologies enhance the scope of potential applications. A brief survey of UAV history provides context and examples of modern day UAVs powered by fuel cells are given. Conventional hybrid power system management employs DC-to-DC converters to control the power split between battery and fuel cell. In this study, a transistor replaces the DC-to-DC converter which lowers weight and cost. Simulation models of a lithium ion battery and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell are developed and integrated into a UAV power system model. Flight simulations demonstrate the operation of the transistor-based power management scheme and quantify the amount of hydrogen consumed by a 5.5 kg fixed wing UAV during a six hour flight. Battery power assists the fuel cell during high throttle periods but may also augment fuel cell power during cruise flight. Simulations demonstrate a 60 liter reduction in hydrogen consumption when battery power assists the fuel cell during cruise flight. Over the full duration of the flight, averaged efficiency of the power system exceeds 98%. For scenarios where inflight battery recharge is desirable, a constant current battery charger is integrated into the UAV power system. Simulation of inflight battery recharge is performed. Design of UAV hybrid power systems must consider power system weight against potential flight time. Data from the flight simulations are used to identify a simple formula that predicts flight time as a function of energy stored onboard the modeled UAV. A small selection of commercially available batteries, fuel cells, and compressed air storage tanks are listed to characterize the weight of possible systems. The formula is then used in conjunction with the weight data to generate a graph of power system weight

  6. Chemically rechargeable battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, James E. (Inventor); Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Batteries (50) containing oxidized, discharged metal electrodes such as an iron-air battery are charged by removing and storing electrolyte in a reservoir (98), pumping fluid reductant such as formalin (aqueous formaldehyde) from a storage tank (106) into the battery in contact with the surfaces of the electrodes. After sufficient iron hydroxide has been reduced to iron, the spent reductant is drained, the electrodes rinsed with water from rinse tank (102) and then the electrolyte in the reservoir (106) is returned to the battery. The battery can be slowly electrically charged when in overnight storage but can be quickly charged in about 10 minutes by the chemical procedure of the invention.

  7. Scintillator based beta batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Tiernan, Timothy C.; Shirwadkar, Urmila; O'Dougherty, Patrick; Freed, Sara; Hawrami, Rastgo; Squillante, Michael R.

    2013-05-01

    Some long-term, remote applications do not have access to conventional harvestable energy in the form of solar radiation (or other ambient light), wind, environmental vibration, or wave motion. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) is carrying out research to address the most challenging applications that need power for many months or years and which have undependable or no access to environmental energy. Radioisotopes are an attractive candidate for this energy source, as they can offer a very high energy density combined with a long lifetime. Both large scale nuclear power plants and radiothermal generators are based on converting nuclear energy to heat, but do not scale well to small sizes. Furthermore, thermo-mechanical power plants depend on moving parts, and RTG's suffer from low efficiency. To address the need for compact nuclear power devices, RMD is developing a novel beta battery, in which the beta emissions from a radioisotope are converted to visible light in a scintillator and then the visible light is converted to electrical power in a photodiode. By incorporating 90Sr into the scintillator SrI2 and coupling the material to a wavelength-matched solar cell, we will create a scalable, compact power source capable of supplying milliwatts to several watts of power over a period of up to 30 years. We will present the latest results of radiation damage studies and materials processing development efforts, and discuss how these factors interact to set the operating life and energy density of the device.

  8. Handling difficult materials: Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Malloy, M.

    1994-09-01

    Batteries run the gamut from tiny button cells to the large, lead-acid batteries used in automobiles. While these two extremes pose some of the highest environmental risks of the battery waste stream and are the targets of many recycling programs, recycling technology has yet to catch up with the bulk of the less-harmful, consumer-oriented, dry-cell batteries, used in everything from flashlights and radios to toys and other essentials of modern life. Major US battery firms are spending millions of dollars working with European and Japanese companies to seek more efficient technologies to recycle dry-cell batteries. The next step in the recycling evolution may be to reclaim the metals in alkaline batteries as secondary metals.

  9. Alkaline quinone flow battery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaixiang; Chen, Qing; Gerhardt, Michael R; Tong, Liuchuan; Kim, Sang Bok; Eisenach, Louise; Valle, Alvaro W; Hardee, David; Gordon, Roy G; Aziz, Michael J; Marshak, Michael P

    2015-09-25

    Storage of photovoltaic and wind electricity in batteries could solve the mismatch problem between the intermittent supply of these renewable resources and variable demand. Flow batteries permit more economical long-duration discharge than solid-electrode batteries by using liquid electrolytes stored outside of the battery. We report an alkaline flow battery based on redox-active organic molecules that are composed entirely of Earth-abundant elements and are nontoxic, nonflammable, and safe for use in residential and commercial environments. The battery operates efficiently with high power density near room temperature. These results demonstrate the stability and performance of redox-active organic molecules in alkaline flow batteries, potentially enabling cost-effective stationary storage of renewable energy. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Silicon Carbide Radioisotope Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybicki, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The substantial radiation resistance and large bandgap of SiC semiconductor materials makes them an attractive candidate for application in a high efficiency, long life radioisotope battery. To evaluate their potential in this application, simulated batteries were constructed using SiC diodes and the alpha particle emitter Americium Am-241 or the beta particle emitter Promethium Pm-147. The Am-241 based battery showed high initial power output and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 16%, but the power output decayed 52% in 500 hours due to radiation damage. In contrast the Pm-147 based battery showed a similar power output level and an initial conversion efficiency of approximately 0.6%, but no degradation was observed in 500 hours. However, the Pm-147 battery required approximately 1000 times the particle fluence as the Am-242 battery to achieve a similar power output. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of battery and suggestions for future improvements will be discussed.

  11. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.441 - Batteries and battery charging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batteries and battery charging. 1926.441 Section 1926.441... for Special Equipment § 1926.441 Batteries and battery charging. (a) General requirements—(1) Batteries of the unsealed type shall be located in enclosures with outside vents or in well ventilated...

  16. Electric-vehicle batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Henry; Gross, Sid

    1995-02-01

    Electric vehicles that can't reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900's electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car's worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today's electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors in their prototype Impact, for example, used starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon's new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda traveled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck traveled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour.

  17. Sewage-Plant Operator (any ind.), Water-Treatment-Plant Operator (waterworks) 954.782; Sewage-Plant Operator (sanitary ser.), Waste-Treatment-Plant Operator (sanitary ser.) 955.782, I 955.782--Technical Report on Development of USTES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  18. The 1975 GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1975 Goddard Space Flight Center Battery Workshop are presented. The major topics of discussion were nickel cadmium batteries and, to a lesser extent, nickel hydrogen batteries. Battery design, manufacturing techniques, testing programs, and electrochemical characteristics were considered. The utilization of these batteries for spacecraft power supplies was given particular attention.

  19. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  20. A desalination battery.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Mauro; Wessells, Colin D; Cui, Yi; La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-02-08

    Water desalination is an important approach to provide fresh water around the world, although its high energy consumption, and thus high cost, call for new, efficient technology. Here, we demonstrate the novel concept of a "desalination battery", which operates by performing cycles in reverse on our previously reported mixing entropy battery. Rather than generating electricity from salinity differences, as in mixing entropy batteries, desalination batteries use an electrical energy input to extract sodium and chloride ions from seawater and to generate fresh water. The desalination battery is comprised by a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod positive electrode and Ag/AgCl negative electrode. Here, we demonstrate an energy consumption of 0.29 Wh l(-1) for the removal of 25% salt using this novel desalination battery, which is promising when compared to reverse osmosis (~ 0.2 Wh l(-1)), the most efficient technique presently available.

  1. Asian battery forecast report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyeth, R.

    1995-08-01

    A forecast battery production in Asia is a particularly relevant subject for an Australian lead man to speak of as the majority of our own business is in the region. While total consumption of battery units still does not match that of the North American market of some 80-85 million units per annum, Asian economic growth in the next decade has the potential to result in the battery market matching or even exceeding the above figures.

  2. Satellite battery testing status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, R.; Hall, S.

    1986-01-01

    Because of the large numbers of satellite cells currently being tested and anticipated at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NAVWPNSUPPCEN) Crane, Indiana, satellite cell testing is being integrated into the Battery Test Automation Project (BTAP). The BTAP, designed to meet the growing needs for battery testing at the NAVWPNSUPPCEN Crane, will consist of several Automated Test Stations (ATSs) which monitor batteries under test. Each ATS will interface with an Automation Network Controller (ANC) which will collect test data for reduction.

  3. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  4. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  5. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  6. Viking lander spacecraft battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking Lander was the first spacecraft to fly a sterilized nickel-cadmium battery on a mission to explore the surface of a planet. The significant results of the battery development program from its inception through the design, manufacture, and test of the flight batteries which were flown on the two Lander spacecraft are documented. The flight performance during the early phase of the mission is also presented.

  7. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, Mark S.; Shlomo, Golan; Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range.

  8. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-09-01

    The group of techniques that as a class are referred to as synthetic battery cycling are described with reference to spacecraft battery systems. Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system.

  9. Comparison between an unipolar corona charger and a polonium-based bipolar neutralizer for the analysis of nanosized particles and biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Laschober, Christian; Kaufman, Stanley L; Reischl, Georg; Allmaier, Günter; SzymanskiWladyslaw, W

    2006-05-01

    In this work we present results on the charging efficiency of nanoparticles by means of a corona based unipolar charging unit. This device was designed to replace a Po210 bipolar charger unit in a commercial electrospray aerosol generator (TSI Mod 3480). The charging efficiency has been investigated for negative and positive charged particles of various chemical composition in the size range between 5 and 18 nm. The corona current has been found to be the most influential operation parameter on the charging efficiency. With a positive electrospray droplet charge and a negatively-biased corona needle, a rapidly decreasing yield of singly positively charged aerosol particles with increasing corona current was found. An increasing yield of negatively charged particles was observed with increasing current of the corona process. Providing appropriate corona settings nanoparticles with charge levels similar to these obtained with a Po210 charger were found. At optimal corona settings the yield of singly charged particles was found to be two to four times higher for negative and positive particles compared to bipolar charging. This gain in the charging efficiency increases directly the sensitivity of analysis and enhances all measurement and manipulation processes of airborne nanoparticles for which electrical charging is required.

  10. Nonleaking battery terminals.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45% KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a KOH electrolyte in a plastic case are considered.

  11. Battery Thermal Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Keyser, Matthew; Saxon, Aron; Powell, Mitchell; Shi, Ying

    2016-06-07

    This poster shows the progress in battery thermal characterization over the previous year. NREL collaborated with U.S. DRIVE and USABC battery developers to obtain thermal properties of their batteries, obtained heat capacity and heat generation of cells under various power profiles, obtained thermal images of the cells under various drive cycles, and used the measured results to validate thermal models. Thermal properties are used for the thermal analysis and design of improved battery thermal management systems to support achieve life and performance targets.

  12. Electronically configured battery pack

    SciTech Connect

    Kemper, D.

    1997-03-01

    Battery packs for portable equipment must sometimes accommodate conflicting requirements to meet application needs. An electronically configurable battery pack was developed to support two highly different operating modes, one requiring very low power consumption at a low voltage and the other requiring high power consumption at a higher voltage. The configurable battery pack optimizes the lifetime and performance of the system by making the best use of all available energy thus enabling the system to meet its goals of operation, volume, and lifetime. This paper describes the cell chemistry chosen, the battery pack electronics, and tradeoffs made during the evolution of its design.

  13. Nonleaking battery terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, W. E.; Nagle, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Three different terminals were designed for usage in a 40 ampere/hour silver zinc battery which has a 45 percent KOH by weight electrolyte in a plastic battery case. Life tests, including thermal cycling, electrical charge and discharge for up to three years duration, were conducted on these three different terminal designs. Tests for creep rate and tensile strength were conducted on the polyphenylene oxide (PPO) plastic battery cases. Some cases were unused and others containing KOH electrolyte were placed on life tests. The design and testing of nonleaking battery terminals for use with a potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte in a plastic case are discussed.

  14. Technical and economic assessments of electrochemical energy storage systems: Volume 5, Sodium sulfur battery plant description, cost estimate, credible accident and efficiency assessment: Part 1, General Electric/Chloride Silent Power Ltd. battery design: Final report for the period September 1978-May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, J.; Binas, G.; Del Monaco, J.L.; Pandya, D.A.; Sharp, T.E.

    1985-06-05

    This document describes the General Electric Co./Chloride Silent power Limited (CSPL) Sodium-Sulfur (Beta) battery as the basic unit in the development of a battery load-leveling facility, that will store the output of base-load generation during periods of low demand and provide a supply of energy for periods of high demand.

  15. Electric vehicle battery research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    High energy battery technology for electric vehicles is reviewed. The state-of-the-art in conventional batteries, metal-gas batteries, alkali-metal high temperature batteries, and organic electrolyte batteries is reported.

  16. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  17. Battery for vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, M.

    1984-04-24

    In a battery of a vehicle such as motorcycle, the bottom is indented at both ends in the longitudinal direction; i.e., with respect to both end portions, in the longitudinal direction of the bottom, the middle portion protrudes downwardly, so that the battery is more advantageously accommodated in the triangular space formed by the motorcycle frame.

  18. Aerospace applications of batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    1993-01-01

    NASA has developed battery technology to meet the demanding requirements for aerospace applications; specifically, the space vacuum, launch loads, and high duty cycles. Because of unique requirements and operating environments associated with space applications, NASA has written its own standards and specifications for batteries.

  19. Batteries: Getting solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yong-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Materials with high ionic conductivity are urgently needed for the development of solid-state lithium batteries. Now, an inorganic solid electrolyte is shown to have an exceptionally high ionic conductivity of 25 mS cm-1, which allows a solid-state battery to deliver 70% of its maximum capacity in just one minute at room temperature.

  20. The GSFC Battery Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on electric storage batteries are presented. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) a low cost/standardization program, (2) test and flight experience, (3) materials and cell components, and (4) new developments in the nickel/hydrogen system. The application of selected batteries in specific space vehicles is examined.

  1. Battery thermal management unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  2. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  3. Chargeur de batterie avec isolation galvanique et absorption sinusoïale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabasté, D.; Malartre, J. M.; Glaize, C.

    1995-11-01

    After a brief recall of converters conventionally used for battery chargers, this work stressed about a new structure with sinusoidal line current and galvanic insulation by a high frequency transformer working at 1 kW. The theoretical presentation is followed by the design problems, particularly over voltage on switches and transformations ratio choice. We describe next a power part converter model, and at last the experimental results. Après un bref rappel des structures classiquement utilisées pour les chargeurs de batteries, nous proposons l'étude d'une nouvelle structure à absorption sinusoïdale et isolement galvanique par transformateur haute fréquence fonctionnant à une puissance de 1 kW. A la suite d'une présentation théorique, nous passons à l'étude des principaux problèmes liés à la réalisation de ce convertisseur, principalement les surtensions aux bornes des interrupteurs et le choix d'un rapport de transformation présentant le meilleur compromis. Une modélisation de la partie puissance est ensuite décrite, avant de passer aux résultats obtenus.

  4. Improved transistorized AC motor controller for battery powered urban electric passenger vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peak, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    An ac motor controller for an induction motor electric vehicle drive system was designed, fabricated, tested, evaluated, and cost analyzed. A vehicle performance analysis was done to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of ac motor and ac controller requirements. The power inverter is a three-phase bridge using power Darlington transistors. The induction motor was optimized for use with an inverter power source. The drive system has a constant torque output to base motor speed and a constant horsepower output to maximum speed. A gear shifting transmission is not required. The ac controller was scaled from the base 20 hp (41 hp peak) at 108 volts dec to an expanded horsepower and battery voltage range. Motor reversal was accomplished by electronic reversal of the inverter phase sequence. The ac controller can also be used as a boost chopper battery charger. The drive system was tested on a dynamometer and results are presented. The current-controlled pulse width modulation control scheme yielded improved motor current waveforms. The ac controller favors a higher system voltage.

  5. Intelligent uninterruptible power supply system with back-up fuel cell/battery hybrid power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yuedong; Guo, Youguang; Zhu, Jianguo; Wang, Hua

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an intelligent uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with a hybrid power source that comprises a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a battery. Attention is focused on the architecture of the UPS hybrid system and the data acquisition and control of the PEMFC. Specifically, the hybrid UPS system consists of a low-cost 60-cell 300 W PEMFC stack, a 3-cell lead-acid battery, an active power factor correction ac-dc rectifier, a half-bridge dc-ac inverter, a dc-dc converter, an ac-dc charger and their control units based on a digital signal processor TMS320F240, other integrated circuit chips, and a simple network management protocol adapter. Experimental tests and theoretical studies are conducted. First, the major parameters of the PEMFC are experimentally obtained and evaluated. Then an intelligent control strategy for the PEMFC stack is proposed and implemented. Finally, the performance of the hybrid UPS system is measured and analyzed.

  6. A wireless power interface for rechargeable battery operated neural recording implants.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Principe, Jose C; Bashirullah, Rizwan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated analog front-end for wireless powering and recharging of miniature Li-ion batteries used in implantable neural recording microsystems. DC signal extraction from a wireless carrier is accomplished using Schottky barrier contact diodes with lower forward voltage drop for improved efficiency. The battery charger employs a new control loop that relaxes comparator resolution requirements, provides simultaneous operation of constant-current and constant-voltage loops, and eliminates the external current sense resistor from the charging path. The accuracy of the end-of-charge detection is primarily determined by the voltage drop across matched resistors and current-sources and the offset voltage of the sense comparator. Experimental results in 0.6 mum bulk CMOS technology indicate that +/- 1.3% (or +/-20 microA) end-of-charge accuracy can be obtained under worst-case conditions for a comparator offset voltage of +/-5mV. The circuits occupy 1.735 mm(2) with a power dissipation of 8.4 mW when delivering a load current of 1.5 mA at 4.1 V (or 6.15 mW) for an efficiency of 73%

  7. Technical and legal considerations and solutions in the area of battery charging for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juda, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of protecting health of residents of urbanized areas from the effect of excessive particulate matter and toxic components of car exhaust gases imposes the need of introduction of clean electric vehicles to the market. The increasing market availability of electric vehicles, especially in the segment of short-range (neighborhood) vehicles is followed by development of new and advanced infrastructure solutions. This also applies to the increasingly popular hybrid vehicles PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). However, problems with the existing designs are primarily associated with limited driving range on a single battery charge, the density of charging stations in urban and suburban area, energy system efficiency due to increased electricity demand and the unification of solutions for charging stations, on-board chargers and the necessary accessories. Technical solutions are dependent on many factors, including the type and size of battery in the vehicle and access to power grid with increased load capacity. The article discusses the legal and technical actions outlined in the above directions. It shows the available and planned solutions in this area.

  8. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  9. Polyacene (PAS) batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yata, Shizukuni

    1995-12-31

    Human activity has been recognized to seriously influence the earth`s environment. Therefore, a clean battery with long-life and safe-use is important and its demand has increased at present. Of the ``clean`` batteries proposed, polymer batteries are the best candidate for environment-friendly and highly-reliable because they do not contain a toxic heavy metal such as cadmium and mercury. The author has developed polyacenic semiconductor (PAS) materials prepared from pyrolytic treatment of phenol-formaldehyde resin. PAS is a conductive polymer which can be doped to either P-type or N-type quite successfully and is extremely resistant to oxidation, chemicals and heat. Because PAS can be doped with both electron acceptors and donors, it is possible to design an all polymer battery using PAS for both electrodes. By taking advantage of stability of PAS, PAS battery can embody greater and longer-lasting reliability than conventional secondary batteries. Usually, lithium metal, which is used in the lithium secondary batteries for an anode-active material, makes dendrites during charging/discharging cycles, which limits the life of the batteries to a few dozen cycles. Furthermore, the dendrites of lithium metal have a safety problem because of its reactivity with water. An investigation of a new anode-material aiming to replace the lithium metal with another safety electrode, is one of the major trend, in secondary batteries. In this paper, the author first describes the structure and the properties of the PAS material, and second its application as an electrode material for rechargeable batteries.

  10. Mathematical Storage-Battery Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.; Aston, M.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical formula represents performance of electrical storage batteries. Formula covers many battery types and includes numerous coefficients adjusted to fit peculiarities of each type. Battery and load parameters taken into account include power density in battery, discharge time, and electrolyte temperature. Applications include electric-vehicle "fuel" gages and powerline load leveling.

  11. Battery equalization active methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Milanes-Montero, M. Isabel; Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Many different battery technologies are available for the applications which need energy storage. New researches are being focused on Lithium-based batteries, since they are becoming the most viable option for portable energy storage applications. As most of the applications need series battery strings to meet voltage requirements, battery imbalance is an important matter to be taken into account, since it leads the individual battery voltages to drift apart over time, and premature cells degradation, safety hazards, and capacity reduction will occur. A large number of battery equalization methods can be found, which present different advantages/disadvantages and are suitable for different applications. The present paper presents a summary, comparison and evaluation of the different active battery equalization methods, providing a table that compares them, which is helpful to select the suitable equalization method depending on the application. By applying the same weight to the different parameters of comparison, switch capacitor and double-tiered switching capacitor have the highest ratio. Cell bypass methods are cheap and cell to cell ones are efficient. Cell to pack, pack to cell and cell to pack to cell methods present a higher cost, size, and control complexity, but relatively low voltage and current stress in high-power applications.

  12. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  13. Assessment of battery technologies for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, E.Z. ); Henriksen, G.L. )

    1990-02-01

    This document, Part 2 of Volume 2, provides appendices to this report and includes the following technologies, zinc/air battery; lithium/molybdenum disulfide battery; sodium/sulfur battery; nickel/cadmium battery; nickel/iron battery; iron/oxygen battery and iron/air battery. (FI)

  14. Self-Organizing Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-16

    devise (e.g., electrochromics as well as batteries). ITO has also been found to be electrochemically stable in lithium battery electrolytes and to...1- 0.0 ~ glass powder -. 1.0 + ~~~~~~solvent ...................... -2.0 22, a 4.0 6.0 8.0 log frequency (Hz) Figure 4. Impedance spectroscopy...electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic displays, and certain types of sensors are fundamentally based on the separation of

  15. BEEST: Electric Vehicle Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    BEEST Project: The U.S. spends nearly a $1 billion per day to import petroleum, but we need dramatically better batteries for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEV) to truly compete with gasoline-powered cars. The 10 projects in ARPA-E’s BEEST Project, short for “Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation,” could make that happen by developing a variety of rechargeable battery technologies that would enable EV/PHEVs to meet or beat the price and performance of gasoline-powered cars, and enable mass production of electric vehicles that people will be excited to drive.

  16. Battery scanning system

    SciTech Connect

    Dieu, L.F.

    1984-11-20

    A battery scanning system which is capable of monitoring and displaying the voltage of each cell in a battery or upon command provides the cell voltage distribution by displaying the cell number and voltage value of highest and lowest cell. The system has a digital logic system, display, input switches for operator generated variables, an alarm, relays, relay selection gates, an optically coupled isolation amplifier, power source and an analog-digital converter. The optically coupled analog amplifier electrically isolates the system from the battery so that large voltage offsets will not adversely affect the automatic measuring of the cells.

  17. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  18. Battery utilizing ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Yahnke, M.S.; Shlomo, G.; Anderson, M.A.

    1994-08-30

    A thin film battery is disclosed based on the use of ceramic membrane technology. The battery includes a pair of conductive collectors on which the materials for the anode and the cathode may be spin coated. The separator is formed of a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane impregnated with electrolyte so that electrical separation is maintained while ion mobility is also maintained. The entire battery can be made less than 10 microns thick while generating a potential in the 1 volt range. 2 figs.

  19. Sealed nickel cadmium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raudszus, W.; Kiehne, H. A.; Cloke, F. R.

    1982-10-01

    The design, manufacture, and application of maintenance-free sealed NiCd batteries are surveyed. The principles of electrochemical power supplies and the history of the development of NiCd cells are reviewed. The batteries produced by Varta Batterie AG are presented; topics discussed include design parameters, electrical and physical characteristics, performance under adverse conditions, type range, production, and quality control. Application techniques, including cell-type choice, charging units and charging circuits, and the construction of standby power supplies, are considered, with reference to national and international standards of performance and classification. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  20. Advanced Thermal Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    demonstrated that a thermal battery with a LiAl alloy anode, a NaAlCl4 anolyte , and a catholyte made primarily with MoCl5 was at least feasible. However, the...Varying Amounts of Mg Arranged In order Of Increasing Magnesiun 33 Battery Test Data For Batteries Made With 102 Anodes That Contained Anolyte and LiAl...1.75 gm anolyte , and 1.9 grams catholyte, to prepare the first McO 3 cells. The cells averaged 0.081 inches thick. These cells were tested on the

  1. Synthetic battery cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of interactive computer graphics is suggested as an aid in battery system development. Mathematical representations of simplistic but fully representative functions of many electrochemical concepts of current practical interest will permit battery level charge and discharge phenomena to be analyzed in a qualitative manner prior to the assembly and testing of actual hardware. This technique is a useful addition to the variety of tools available to the battery system designer as he bridges the gap between interesting single cell life test data and reliable energy storage subsystems.

  2. Synthetic battery cycling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Leibecki, H.F.; Thaller, L.H.

    1982-01-01

    Synthetic battery cycling makes use of the fast growing capability of computer graphics to illustrate some of the basic characteristics of operation of individual electrodes within an operating electrochemical cell. It can also simulate the operation of an entire string of cells that are used as the energy storage subsystem of a power system. The group of techniques that as a class have been referred to as Synthetic Battery Cycling is developed in part to try to bridge the gap of understanding that exists between single cell characteristics and battery system behavior.

  3. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  4. Thrust Augmentation Study of Cross-Flow Fan for Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Overall experimental setup and major components .........................................62 Figure 45. TP1340C balancer and ALL STATE battery charger ...Figure 63. TP1340C balancer and ALL STATE battery charger ......................................74 Figure 64. TP batteries and extension leads...Balancer • 1x All State Battery Charger • Electrical Wires 62 C. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Figure 44. Overall experimental setup and major components

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  7. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  8. Thermal battery degradation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Missert, Nancy A.; Brunke, Lyle Brent

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse reflectance IR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to investigate the effect of accelerated aging on LiSi based anodes in simulated MC3816 batteries. DRIFTS spectra showed that the oxygen, carbonate, hydroxide and sulfur content of the anodes changes with aging times and temperatures, but not in a monotonic fashion that could be correlated to phase evolution. Bands associated with sulfur species were only observed in anodes taken from batteries aged in wet environments, providing further evidence for a reaction pathway facilitated by H2S transport from the cathode, through the separator, to the anode. Loss of battery capacity with accelerated aging in wet environments was correlated to loss of FeS2 in the catholyte pellets, suggesting that the major contribution to battery performance degradation results from loss of active cathode material.

  9. Corrugated battery electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccallum, J.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  10. Honeycomb battery plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaer, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Performance of porous electrodes in batteries and other electrochemical cells is greatly improved when supports for active material have pores of uniform size, extending completely through electrodes, from side to side, with no interconnections between pores.

  11. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  12. OAO battery data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaston, S.; Wertheim, M.; Orourke, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Summary, consolidation and analysis of specifications, manufacturing process and test controls, and performance results for OAO-2 and OAO-3 lot 20 Amp-Hr sealed nickel cadmium cells and batteries are reported. Correlation of improvements in control requirements with performance is a key feature. Updates for a cell/battery computer model to improve performance prediction capability are included. Applicability of regression analysis computer techniques to relate process controls to performance is checked.

  13. Battery formation charging apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.L.

    1987-08-04

    An apparatus is describe for charging electric storage batteries, the apparatus comprising: (a) a host computer for providing charging information to and receiving status information from at least one slave computer by means of a data link; and (b) at least one control module coupled to the slave computer for applying charging current to at least one electric storage battery in response to instructions received from the slave computer, and for providing feedback and status information to the slave computer.

  14. Battery packaging - Technology review

    SciTech Connect

    Maiser, Eric

    2014-06-16

    This paper gives a brief overview of battery packaging concepts, their specific advantages and drawbacks, as well as the importance of packaging for performance and cost. Production processes, scaling and automation are discussed in detail to reveal opportunities for cost reduction. Module standardization as an additional path to drive down cost is introduced. A comparison to electronics and photovoltaics production shows 'lessons learned' in those related industries and how they can accelerate learning curves in battery production.

  15. Lead-acid battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

  16. Waste product profile: Household batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C. )

    1994-04-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of profiles -- brief, factual listings of the solid waste management characteristics of materials in the waste stream. These profiles highlight a product, explain how it fits into integrated waste management systems, and provide current data on recycling and markets for the product. This profile does not cover wet cell lead-acid batteries such as car batteries. Household batteries include primary batteries, which cannot be recharged, and secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Household batteries are available in many sizes including bottom, AAA, AA, C, D, N, and 9-volt. In 1991, 3.8 billion household batteries, or 145,000 tons, were incinerated or landfilled in the US. Due to a limited number of programs collecting batteries, the recycling rate is very small. An EPA study estimated than in 1989, 52% of the cadmium and 88% of the mercury in MSW came from household batteries.

  17. Strain measurement based battery testing

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk

    2017-05-23

    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  19. Hubble Space Telescope battery background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standlee, Dan

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the MSFC Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Contract; HST battery design requirements; HST nickel-hydrogen battery development; HST nickel-hydrogen battery module; HST NiH2 battery module hardware; pressure vessel design; HST NiH2 cell design; offset non-opposing vs. rabbit ear cell; HST NiH2 specified capacity; HST NiH2 battery design; and HST NiH2 module design.

  20. COBE battery overview: History, handling, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph format: Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) mission background; battery background and specifications; cell history; battery mechanical/structural design; battery test data; and flowcharts of the various battery approval procedures.

  1. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Large lead/acid batteries for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, R.

    Lead/acid batteries are suitable for a multitude of utility applications. This paper presents some examples where large lead/acid batteries have been used for frequency regulation, load levelling and solar power applications. The operational experiences are given together with a discussion about the design and technical specialities of these batteries. In 1986, a 17 MW/14 MWh battery was installed at BEWAG in Berlin which, at that time, was the largest lead/acid battery in the world. Designed to strengthen Berlin's 'island' system, it was used since the beginning of 1987 for frequency regulation and spinning reserve. In December 1993, when Berlin was connected to the electricity grid, frequency regulation was no longer required but the battery was still used for spinning reserve. For many years, the industrial battery plant of Hagen in Soest has used a large lead/acid battery for load levelling. The experience gained during more than ten years shows that load levelling and peak shaving can be a marked benefit for customers and utilities with regard to reducing their peak demand. In the summer of 1992, a 216 V and 2200 Ah lead/acid battery with positive tubular plates and gelled electrolyte was installed at a solar power plant in Flanitzhutte, a small village in the south of Germany which is not connected to the electricity grid. A report is given of the first years of use and includes a discussion about the best charge strategy for such gel batteries when used for solar power applications.

  3. Battery Vent Mechanism And Method

    DOEpatents

    Ching, Larry K. W.

    2000-02-15

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  4. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, Thomas J.; Ching, Larry K. W.; Baer, Jose T.; Swan, David H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve.

  5. Battery venting system and method

    DOEpatents

    Casale, T.J.; Ching, L.K.W.; Baer, J.T.; Swan, D.H.

    1999-01-05

    Disclosed herein is a venting mechanism for a battery. The venting mechanism includes a battery vent structure which is located on the battery cover and may be integrally formed therewith. The venting mechanism includes an opening extending through the battery cover such that the opening communicates with a plurality of battery cells located within the battery case. The venting mechanism also includes a vent manifold which attaches to the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes a first opening which communicates with the battery vent structure opening and second and third openings which allow the vent manifold to be connected to two separate conduits. In this manner, a plurality of batteries may be interconnected for venting purposes, thus eliminating the need to provide separate vent lines for each battery. The vent manifold may be attached to the battery vent structure by a spin-welding technique. To facilitate this technique, the vent manifold may be provided with a flange portion which fits into a corresponding groove portion on the battery vent structure. The vent manifold includes an internal chamber which is large enough to completely house a conventional battery flame arrester and overpressure safety valve. In this manner, the vent manifold, when installed, lessens the likelihood of tampering with the flame arrester and safety valve. 8 figs.

  6. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  7. Controlled battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, D.B.

    1991-07-02

    This patent describes a controlled battery charging system for charging a battery having terminals. It comprises: a transformer having a primary coil connected to a source of alternating current, and a secondary coil having output leads and a center tap, full wave rectifier means connected to the output leads to the secondary coil, the rectifier means including a pair of gate controlled rectifiers having direct current output leads, a battery charging circuit connected to the output leads to the rectifiers and having output means electrically contacting the terminals of a battery to be charged, a unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit connected to the rectifiers to trigger the gate controlled rectifiers into conduction to produce a DC charging current in the charging circuit, an electronic current limiting control circuit comprising a current limiting amplifier having a positive input, a negative input, and an output, a resistive line connected to center tap, a negative input lead connecting the center tap to the negative input of the current limiting amplifier, voltage input means connected to the positive input for supplying a voltage to the current limiting amplifier more positive than a voltage supplied to the negative input, voltage supply means connecting the current limiting amplifier to the battery charging circuit, and control means connecting the output of the current limiting amplifier to the unijunction relaxation oscillator circuit operative to turn off the DC charging circuit when the charging current exceeds a predetermined current value.

  8. Circulating current battery heater

    DOEpatents

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N.; Stuart, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    A circuit for heating energy storage devices such as batteries is provided. The circuit includes a pair of switches connected in a half-bridge configuration. Unidirectional current conduction devices are connected in parallel with each switch. A series resonant element for storing energy is connected from the energy storage device to the pair of switches. An energy storage device for intermediate storage of energy is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and one of the switches. The energy storage device which is being heated is connected in a loop with the series resonant element and the other switch. Energy from the heated energy storage device is transferred to the switched network and then recirculated back to the battery. The flow of energy through the battery causes internal power dissipation due to electrical to chemical conversion inefficiencies. The dissipated power causes the internal temperature of the battery to increase. Higher internal temperatures expand the cold temperature operating range and energy capacity utilization of the battery. As disclosed, either fixed frequency or variable frequency modulation schemes may be used to control the network.

  9. Energizing the batteries for electric cars

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, L.

    1993-07-01

    This article reports of the nickel-metal-hydride battery and its ability to compete with the lead-acid battery in electric-powered vehicles. The topics of the article include development of the battery, the impetus for development in California environmental law, battery performance, packaging for the battery's hazardous materials, and the solid electrolyte battery.

  10. Relativity and the mercury battery.

    PubMed

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Pyykkö, Pekka

    2011-10-06

    Comparative, fully relativistic (FR), scalar relativistic (SR) and non-relativistic (NR) DFT calculations attribute about 30% of the mercury-battery voltage to relativity. The obtained percentage is smaller than for the lead-acid battery, but not negligible.

  11. Bigger niche for small batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Teschler, L.

    1981-09-24

    Batteries have improved dramatically in the past few years. Disposable, nonrechargeable batteries, for instance, now store more electrical power and have longer shelf lives than ever before. Moreover, rechargeable batteries can now operate reliably at high temperatures and for as long as 10 years. New chemistries based on lithium have made many of these improvements possible. Some advances have been aimed at improving miniature batteries like those found in watches and hearing aids. Disposable battery technology is even being applied in back-up power sources for volatile memory. Battery life in some new disposables is long enough - on the order of several years - that disposable batteries are sometimes more desirable than installing rechargeable batteries and the charging circuits they require.

  12. High energy density aluminum battery

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  13. Externally heated thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1991-04-01

    A thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode (e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy), a cathode (e.g., composed of iron disulfide), and an electrolyte (e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic) with the electrolyte inactive at ambient temperature but activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating is presented. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices in a system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components to vent an ordnance case in order to prevent its explosion in a fire.

  14. Ordnance thermal battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracchia, Louis; Vetter, Ronald F.; Rosenlof, Darwin

    1993-04-01

    This invention pertains to thermal battery activated by external heat comprising an anode, e.g., composed of a lithium-aluminum alloy, a cathode, e.g., composed of iron disulfide, and an electrolyte, e.g., a lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutectic, the electrolyte being inactive at ambient temperature but being activated by melting at a predetermined temperature when exposed to external heating. The battery can be used as a sensor or to ignite pyrotechnic and power electronic devices, in system for reducing the hazard of ordnance exposed to detrimental heating. A particular application is the use of the battery to activate a squib to function in conjunction with one or more other components, to vent an ordnance case, preventing its explosion in a fire.

  15. Intelligent battery charging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, Hobert R., Jr.

    1991-09-01

    The present invention is a battery charging system that provides automatic voltage selection, short circuit protection, and delayed output to prevent arcing or pitting. A second embodiment of the invention provides a homing beacon which transmits a signal so that a battery powered mobile robot may home in on and contact the invention to charge its battery. The invention includes electric terminals isolated from one another. One terminal is grounded and the other has a voltage applied to it through a resistor connected to the output of a DC power supply. A voltage scaler is connected between the resistor and the hot terminal. An On/Off controller and a voltage mode selector sense the voltage provided at the output of the voltage scaler.

  16. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  17. Microfluidic redox battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  18. Slim Battery Modelling Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.

    2011-10-01

    Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells and batteries. The Saft Li-ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the battery performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. Based on the mission profile, satellite power system characteristics, the model proposes the various battery configurations. For each configuration, the model gives the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, thermal dissipations and cell failures. For the GEO/MEO missions, eclipse and solstice periods can include specific profile such as plasmic propulsion fires and specific balancing operations. For LEO missions, the model is able to simulate high power peaks to predict radar pulses. Saft's main customers have been using the SLIM model available in house for two years. The purpose is to have the satellite builder power engineers able to perform by themselves in the battery pre-dimensioning activities their own battery simulations. The simulations can be shared with Saft engineers to refine the power system designs. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on all the VES and MPS cells. In comparing with more than 10 year lasting life tests, the accuracy of the model from a voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at end Of Life. In addition, thethe comparison with in-orbit data has been also done. b This paper will present the main features of the SLIM software and outputs comparison with real life tests. b0

  19. Design and simulation of a fast-charging station for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing interest in green technologies in transportation, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) have proven to be the best short-term solution to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Despite such interest, conventional vehicle drivers are still reluctant in using such a new technology, mainly because of the long duration (4-8 hours) required to charge PHEV batteries with the currently existing Level I and II chargers. For this reason, Level III fast-charging stations capable of reducing the charging duration to 10-15 minutes are being considered. The present thesis focuses on the design of a fast-charging station that uses, in addition to the electrical grid, two stationary energy storage devices: a flywheel energy storage and a supercapacitor. The power electronic converters used for the interface of the energy sources with the charging station are designed. The design also focuses on the energy management that will minimize the PHEV battery charging duration as well as the duration required to recharge the energy storage devices. For this reason, an algorithm that minimizes durations along with its mathematical formulation is proposed, and its application in fast charging environment will be illustrated by means of two scenarios.

  20. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  1. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  2. Magellan battery operations: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timmerman, Paul J.; Glueck, Peter R.

    1991-01-01

    The Magellan Spacecraft's mission to map Venus's surface provides a unique application for Nickel-Cadmium batteries. An overview of the spacecraft, power subsystem, battery, and mission requirements are presented. The reliability and performance of the batteries were extensively studied with a comprehensive test and analysis program. Actual data for cruise and a limited number of mapping orbits is also presented.

  3. Batteries, from Cradle to Grave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael J.; Gray, Fiona M.

    2010-01-01

    As battery producers and vendors, legislators, and the consumer population become aware of the consequences of inappropriate disposal of batteries to landfill sites instead of responsible chemical neutralization and reuse, the topic of battery recycling has begun to appear on the environmental agenda. In the United Kingdom, estimates of annual…

  4. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  5. Battery-Charge-State Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivian, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    Charge-state model for lead/acid batteries proposed as part of effort to make equivalent of fuel gage for battery-powered vehicles. Models based on equations that approximate observable characteristics of battery electrochemistry. Uses linear equations, easier to simulate on computer, and gives smooth transitions between charge, discharge, and recuperation.

  6. Battery-powered electric bicycles

    SciTech Connect

    Morchin, W.C.

    1994-12-31

    Electric bicycles powered with today`s nickel-metal hydride batteries offer a 100 km range between recharges and have a potential of 300 km when polymer batteries become available. The author discusses the development of the electric bicycle, presents a mathematical model, and considers general requirements. The available battery powered electric bicycles are listed and some test comparisons are given. 4 refs.

  7. Batteries: Discharging the right product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Sampson; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-03-01

    The chemistry of the discharge products of metal-oxygen batteries is related to the battery's efficiency but knowledge of their formation mechanism is incomplete. Now, the initial discharge product in sodium-oxygen batteries is shown to be sodium superoxide, which undergoes dissolution and then transforms to sodium peroxide dihydrate.

  8. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  9. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, displays a piece of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  10. CubeSat Batteries

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-11

    Daniel Perez, Ph.D., a graduate student from the University of Miami, prepares layers of the prototype structure for a new solid-state battery in the Prototype Laboratory at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The size of the battery is so small that it could be a prime candidate for use in microsatellites, including CubeSats. Researchers at Kennedy are collaborating with experts at the University of Miami. The university partnership is funded through the Small Spacecraft Technology Program, in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate.

  11. Kurt Goldstein's test battery.

    PubMed

    Eling, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Kurt Goldstein was a founder of clinical neuropsychology. This thesis is illustrated with a description of Goldstein's test battery that he used as a screening instrument in a special clinic for soldiers in World War I. Parts of the battery were also used for neuropsychological rehabilitation. Goldstein's early work in Germany focused on both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. He was interested in how individuals go about compensating for their deficits, The notion of ecological validity (Lebenswahr vs Lebensfremd), only becoming widely popular in the nineteen-eighties, played an important role in Goldstein's selection of test procedures.

  12. The changing battery industry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This report provides an economic and technological assessment of the electrical battery industry, highlighting major trends. Among those systems considered are lithium-based, sodium-sulfur nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, zinc-chloride, conductive polymer, and redox cells. Lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, and manganese dioxide-based batteries and direct solar power and fuel cells are discussed in relation to these new techniques. New applications, including electric vehicles, solar power storage, utility load leveling, portable appliances, computer power and memory backup, and medical implants are discussed. Predictions and development scenarios for the next twenty years are provided for the U.S. market.

  13. Cure for the AA battery blues. Six-volt battery pack from previously discarded Polaroid batteries.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, G D; Riddick, L

    1988-09-01

    The Polaroid Polapulse batteries obtained from exhausted Polaroid 600 or Polaroid SX-70 film cassettes can be used to power a 6-V camera flash. A method for attaching these previously discarded batteries is described.

  14. An engineered method for the repair of coke oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dohle, H.; Ehmke, R.

    1996-12-31

    Improved sales figures in steel making industry and the consequently higher demand for blast furnace coke more recently not only led to a lot of new plant construction projects but also to a vivid growth in repair projects. Sales problems experienced in the past combined with the reluctant attitude to invest in new battery construction projects exerted a negative influence on the age structure of coke plants worldwide. In the US, for example, 58% of the steel companies` coke ovens and 72% of the merchant coke ovens are over 20 years old. The structural status and thus the service life expectancy of a coke oven battery surely do not alone depend on the coke oven battery`s age, but in particular on its total coke production and on the operating and maintenance practice of its operators. More stringent pollution control codes and regulations call for optimum maintenance, particularly for older coke oven plants, considering both technical and economic aspects. The target is to maintain the operability of coke ovens for a lot more years by implementing the best suitable maintenance and repair methods. On condition that appropriate maintenance and repair methods are initiated in time and with care and diligence, the service life of a coke oven battery can be prolonged substantially. A selection of repair and modernization programs developed by TSOA is described and explained.

  15. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  16. Analysis of batteries for use in photovoltaic systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, A; Kapner, M

    1981-02-01

    An evaluation of 11 types of secondary batteries for energy storage in photovoltaic electric power systems is given. The evaluation was based on six specific application scenarios which were selected to represent the diverse requirements of various photovoltaic systems. Electrical load characteristics and solar insulation data were first obtained for each application scenario. A computer-based simulation program, SOLSIM, was then developed to determine optimal sizes for battery, solar array, and power conditioning systems. Projected service lives and battery costs were used to estimate life-cycle costs for each candidate battery type. The evaluation considered battery life-cycle cost, safety and health effects associated with battery operation, and reliability/maintainability. The 11 battery types were: lead-acid, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, nickel-hydrogen, lithium-iron sulfide, calcium-iron sulfide, sodium-sulfur, zinc-chlorine, zinc-bromine, Redox, and zinc-ferricyanide. The six application scenarios were: (1) a single-family house in Denver, Colorado (photovoltaic system connected to the utility line); (2) a remote village in equatorial Africa (stand-alone power system); (3) a dairy farm in Howard County, Maryland (onsite generator for backup power); (4) a 50,000 square foot office building in Washington, DC (onsite generator backup); (5) a community in central Arizona with a population of 10,000 (battery to be used for dedicated energy storage for a utility grid-connected photovoltaic power plant); and (6) a military field telephone office with a constant 300 W load (trailer-mounted auxiliary generator backup). Recommendations for a research and development program on battery energy storage for photovoltaic applications are given, and a discussion of electrical interfacing problems for utility line-connected photovoltaic power systems is included. (WHK)

  17. Rechargeable lead-acid batteries.

    PubMed

    1990-09-01

    Batteries used in medical equipment, like their counterparts in consumer products, attract little attention until they fail to function effectively. In some applications, such as in emergency medical devices, battery failure can have fatal consequences. While modern batteries are usually quite reliable, ECRI has received 53 written problem reports and countless verbal reports or questions related to battery problems in hospitals during the past five years. This large number of reports is due, at least in part, to the enormous quality of batteries used to operate or provide backup power in contemporary hospital equipment. As part of an ongoing evaluation of rehabilitation assistive equipment, ECRI has been studying the performance of 12 V rechargeable deep-cycle lead-acid batteries used in powered wheelchairs. During the course of this evaluation, it has become apparent that many professionals, both clinical and industrial, regard batteries as "black box" devices and know little about proper care and maintenance--and even less about battery selection and purchase. Because equipment performance and reliability can be strongly influenced by different battery models, an understanding of battery characteristics and how they affect performance is essential when selecting and purchasing batteries. The types of rechargeable batteries used most commonly in hospitals are lead-acid and nickel-cadmium (nicad), which we compare below; however, the guidance we provide in this article focuses on lead-acid batteries. While the examples given are for high-capacity 12 V deep-cycle batteries, similar analyses can be applied to smaller lead-acid batteries of different voltages.

  18. Zinc-redox battery: A technology update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollandsworth, R. P.

    Since 1977, scientists at Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc., have been developing the Zinc-Redox Battery for large-scale electrical energy storage. The current state of technology for this battery has demonstrated a number of positive features: (1) high energy efficiency (82.6 +/- 4.4%) demonstrated for more than 754 cycles with a low-cost alpha-methyl styrene membrane; (2) minimal environmental concerns because the only toxic reactant is 2N sodium hydroxide, and thus low projected balance-of-plant costs; and (3) good cell performance over a wide range of discharge rates with cell IR being the main determinant of energy efficiency. Current studies have focused on zinc electrode performance parameters, high current density discharge evaluation, and low-cost membrane cycle-life performance.

  19. Progress in electrochemical storage for battery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, F. E.; Hennigan, T. J.; Palandati, C. F.; Cohn, E.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to improve electrochemical systems for space use relate to: (1) improvement of conventional systems; (2) development of fuel cells to practical power systems; and (3) a search for new systems that provide gains in energy density but offer comparable life and performance as conventional systems. Improvements in sealed conventional systems resulted in the areas of materials, charge control methods, cell operations and battery control, and specific process controls required during cell manufacture. Fuel-cell systems have been developed for spacecraft but the use of these power plants is limited. For present and planned flights, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium systems will be used. Improvements in nickel-cadmium batteries have been applied in medical and commercial areas.

  20. Battery testing for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hund, T.

    1996-11-01

    Battery testing for photovoltaic (PV) applications is funded at Sandia under the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Photovoltaic Balance of Systems (BOS) Program. The goal of the PV BOS program is to improve PV system component design, operation, reliability, and to reduce overall life-cycle costs. The Sandia battery testing program consists of: (1) PV battery and charge controller market survey, (2) battery performance and life-cycle testing, (3) PV charge controller development, and (4) system field testing. Test results from this work have identified market size and trends, PV battery test procedures, application guidelines, and needed hardware improvements.

  1. Battery electrode growth accommodation

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, Gerald K.; Andrew, Michael G.; Eskra, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    An electrode for a lead acid flow through battery, the grids including a plastic frame, a plate suspended from the top of the frame to hang freely in the plastic frame and a paste applied to the plate, the paste being free to allow for expansion in the planar direction of the grid.

  2. Advanced thermal batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. M.

    1980-03-01

    The feasibility of building thermal batteries with cells composed of an anode of LiAl alloy, a cathode of a heavy metal chloride, and a NaAlCl4 electrolyte has been demonstrated. During the further investigation of this system some interesting problems have developed and had to be studied. The particle size growth of the catholyte developed into a major storage problem. MoCl5 was found to form a volatile catholyte which is not suited for thermal battery use. As a result of this problem other catholyte materials were experimented with. CuCl2 is the most successful alternate to MoCl5. Some alternate binder materials have been investigated: kaolin clay, Illinois Mineral Amorphous Silica, and magnesia. Some alternate electrolytes have been investigated including NaAlCl4 (containing 52 m/o AlCl3), LiAlCl4 and KCl-LiCl. This work indicates that each material has unique properties which lend themselves to a particular application. Among the alternate cathode materials experimented with are CrCl3, a number of heavy metal oxides, fluorocarbon, TiS2, TiS3, and sulfur. Some alternate process investigated have been freon blending, adding materials to the anode, cell and battery desiccation and filling batteries with an inert atmosphere.

  3. Rechargeable zinc halogen battery

    SciTech Connect

    Spaziante, P.M.; Nidola, A.

    1980-01-01

    A rechargeable zinc halogen battery has an aqueous electrolyte containing ions of zinc and halogen and an amount of polysaccharide and/or sorbitol sufficient to prevent zinc dendrite formation during recharging. The electrolyte may also contain trace amounts of metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, and lead. 7 tables.

  4. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  5. Challenges for rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodenough, J. B.; Kim, Youngsik

    Strategies for Li-ion batteries that are based on lithium-insertion compounds as cathodes are limited by the capacities of the cathode materials and by the safe charging rates for Li transport across a passivating SEI layer on a carbon-based anode. With these strategies, it is difficult to meet the commercial constraints on Li-ion batteries for plug-in-hybrid and all-electric vehicles as well as those for stationary electrical energy storage (EES) in a grid. Existing alternative strategies include a gaseous O 2 electrode in a Li/air battery and a solid sulfur (S 8) cathode in a Li/S battery. We compare the projected energy densities and EES efficiencies of these cells with those of a third alternative, a Li/Fe(III)/Fe(II) cell containing a redox couple in an aqueous solution as the cathode. Preliminary measurements indicate proof of concept, but implementation of this strategy requires identification of a suitable Li +-ion electrolyte.

  6. Solar batteries: a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, M.

    1981-01-01

    A bibliography with 621 references is presented on solar batteries. Listings are alphabetical according to the author's name and all types of solar cells (organic and inorganic) are considered as well as articles of general interest in the area. In addition, an author index and a journal index are included. (MJJ)

  7. Secondary alkaline batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBreen, J.

    1984-03-01

    The overall reactions (charge/discharge characteristics); electrode structures and materials; and cell construction are studied for nickel oxide-cadmium, nickel oxide-iron, nickel oxide-hydrogen, nickel oxide-zinc, silver oxide-zinc, and silver oxide-cadmium, silver oxide-iron, and manganese dioxide-zinc batteries.

  8. Batteries: Imaging degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearing, Paul R.

    2016-11-01

    The degradation and failure of Li-ion batteries is strongly associated with electrode microstructure change upon (de)lithiation. Now, an operando X-ray tomography approach is shown to correlate changes in the microstructure of electrodes to cell performance, and thereby predict degradation pathways.

  9. Batteries: Sieving the ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serre, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The major obstacle in the development of Li-S batteries is the undesired dissolution of polysulfide intermediates produced during electrochemical reactions. Now, a metal-organic framework-based separator is shown to mitigate the problem, leading to stable long cycles.

  10. Strong lightweight battery housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Unit holds fifteen cells weighing 1.3 kilogram each, withstands vibration continuously, can be pressurized to 25 psig (175 x 1000 N/M to the 2nd power). Unit offers potential of low-cost fabrication and increased accessibility to enclosed battery cells. Device may double as utility chest for tool storage and other items.

  11. Strong lightweight battery housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perreault, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Unit holds fifteen cells weighing 1.3 kilogram each, withstands vibration continuously, can be pressurized to 25 psig (175 x 1000 N/M to the 2nd power). Unit offers potential of low-cost fabrication and increased accessibility to enclosed battery cells. Device may double as utility chest for tool storage and other items.

  12. 18. Yards & Docks Drawing 112,447 (463A1) (1931), 'Battery Overhaul ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Yards & Docks Drawing 112,447 (463-A-1) (1931), 'Battery Overhaul Bldg., Acid Mixing Plant & Misc. Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  13. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  14. Production of automotive batteries in Russia and other members of the CIS: status, problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatenko, V.; Gagarinov, V.

    At present, the total capacity for the production of automotive lead/acid batteries in Russia and other members of the CIS is 10 million units per annum. This capcity should be increased by 4.7 million units in 1996. Nevertheless, environmental problems, plant modernization and shortage of raw materials are expected to cause a decrease in the existing rate of battery production. Russia imported 1.5 million batteries in 1993. The future strategy of the Russian battery industry is two-fold: an expansion of exports; a focus on smaller battery sizes (up to 60 Ah). A major problem lies in the fact that the present market consists predominantly of small consumers that are spread over vast distances. It is therefore critical to establish an effective, new infrastructure for battery distribution.

  15. A multi-port power electronics interface for battery powered electric vehicles: Application of inductively coupled wireless power transfer and hybrid energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Matthew Kelly

    Climate change, pollution, and geopolitical conflicts arising from the extreme wealth concentrations caused by fossil fuel deposits are just a few of the side-effects of the way that we fuel our society. A new method to power our civilization is becoming more and more necessary. Research for new, more sustainable fuel sources is already underway due to research in wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro power. However this focus is mainly on stationary applications. A large portion of fossil fuel usage comes from transportation. Unfortunately, the transition to cleaner transportation fuels is being stunted by the inability to store adequate amounts of energy in electro-chemical batteries. The idea of charging while driving has been proposed by many researchers, however several challenges still exist. In this work some of these challenges are addressed. Specifically, the ability to route power from multiple sources/loads is investigated. Special attention is paid to adjusting the time constant of particular converters, namely the battery and ultra-capacitor converters to reduce the high frequency and high magnitude current components applied to the battery terminals. This is done by developing a closed loop model of the entire multi-port converter, including the state of charge of the ultra-capacitors. The development of closed loop models and two experimental testbeds for use as stationary vehicle charging platforms with their unique set of sources/loads are presented along-side an on-board charger to demonstrate the similarities and differences between stationary charging and mobile charging. Experimental results from each are given showing that it is not only possible, but feasible to utilize Inductively Coupled Wireless Power Transfer (ICWPT) to charge a battery powered electric vehicle while driving and still protect the life-span of the batteries under the new, harsher conditions generated by the ICWPT system.

  16. Modular Battery Charge Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert; Gonzalez, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to masterless, distributed, digital-charge control for batteries requiring charge control has been developed and implemented. This approach is required in battery chemistries that need cell-level charge control for safety and is characterized by the use of one controller per cell, resulting in redundant sensors for critical components, such as voltage, temperature, and current. The charge controllers in a given battery interact in a masterless fashion for the purpose of cell balancing, charge control, and state-of-charge estimation. This makes the battery system invariably fault-tolerant. The solution to the single-fault failure, due to the use of a single charge controller (CC), was solved by implementing one CC per cell and linking them via an isolated communication bus [e.g., controller area network (CAN)] in a masterless fashion so that the failure of one or more CCs will not impact the remaining functional CCs. Each micro-controller-based CC digitizes the cell voltage (V(sub cell)), two cell temperatures, and the voltage across the switch (V); the latter variable is used in conjunction with V(sub cell) to estimate the bypass current for a given bypass resistor. Furthermore, CC1 digitizes the battery current (I1) and battery voltage (V(sub batt) and CC5 digitizes a second battery current (I2). As a result, redundant readings are taken for temperature, battery current, and battery voltage through the summation of the individual cell voltages given that each CC knows the voltage of the other cells. For the purpose of cell balancing, each CC periodically and independently transmits its cell voltage and stores the received cell voltage of the other cells in an array. The position in the array depends on the identifier (ID) of the transmitting CC. After eight cell voltage receptions, the array is checked to see if one or more cells did not transmit. If one or more transmissions are missing, the missing cell(s) is (are) eliminated from cell

  17. Advanced Battery Manufacturing (VA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, Jeremy

    2012-09-30

    LiFeBATT has concentrated its recent testing and evaluation on the safety of its batteries. There appears to be a good margin of safety with respect to overheating of the cells and the cases being utilized for the batteries are specifically designed to dissipate any heat built up during charging. This aspect of LiFeBATT’s products will be even more fully investigated, and assuming ongoing positive results, it will become a major component of marketing efforts for the batteries. LiFeBATT has continued to receive prismatic 20 Amp hour cells from Taiwan. Further testing continues to indicate significant advantages over the previously available 15 Ah cells. Battery packs are being assembled with battery management systems in the Danville facility. Comprehensive tests are underway at Sandia National Laboratory to provide further documentation of the advantages of these 20 Ah cells. The company is pursuing its work with Hybrid Vehicles of Danville to critically evaluate the 20 Ah cells in a hybrid, armored vehicle being developed for military and security applications. Results have been even more encouraging than they were initially. LiFeBATT is expanding its work with several OEM customers to build a worldwide distribution network. These customers include a major automotive consulting group in the U.K., an Australian maker of luxury off-road campers, and a number of makers of E-bikes and scooters. LiFeBATT continues to explore the possibility of working with nations that are woefully short of infrastructure. Negotiations are underway with Siemens to jointly develop a system for using photovoltaic generation and battery storage to supply electricity to communities that are not currently served adequately. The IDA has continued to monitor the progress of LiFeBATT’s work to ensure that all funds are being expended wisely and that matching funds will be generated as promised. The company has also remained current on all obligations for repayment of an IDA loan and lease

  18. New electric-vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Oman, H.

    1994-12-31

    Electric vehicles that can`t reach trolley wires need batteries. In the early 1900`s electric cars disappeared when owners found that replacing the car`s worn-out lead-acid battery costs more than a new gasoline-powered car. Most of today`s electric cars are still propelled by lead-acid batteries. General Motors` Impact, for example, uses starting-lighting-ignition batteries, which deliver lots of power for demonstrations, but have a life of less than 100 deep discharges. Now promising alternative technology has challenged the world-wide lead miners, refiners, and battery makers into forming a consortium that sponsors research into making better lead-acid batteries. Horizon`s new bipolar battery delivered 50 watt-hours per kg (Wh/kg), compared with 20 for ordinary transport-vehicle batteries. The alternatives are delivering from 80 Wh/kg (nickel-metal hydride) up to 200 Wh/kg (zinc-bromine). A Fiat Panda travelled 260 km on a single charge of its zinc-bromine battery. A German 3.5-ton postal truck travelled 300 km with a single charge in its 650-kg (146 Wh/kg) zinc-air battery. Its top speed was 110 km per hour. 12 refs.

  19. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) and Battery Management System (BMS) for Grid-Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lawder, M. T.; Suthar, B.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Hoff, C. M.; Leitermann, O.; Crow, M. L.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Subramanian, V. R.

    2014-05-07

    The current electric grid is an inefficient system that wastes significant amounts of the electricity it produces because there is a disconnect between the amount of energy consumers require and the amount of energy produced from generation sources. Power plants typically produce more power than necessary to ensure adequate power quality. By taking advantage of energy storage within the grid, many of these inefficiencies can be removed. Advanced modeling is required when using battery energy storage systems (BESS) for grid storage in order to accurately monitor and control the storage system. Battery management systems (BMS) control how the storage system will be used and a BMS that utilizes advanced physics-based models will offer for much more robust operation of the storage system. The paper outlines the current state of the art for modeling in BMS and the advanced models required to fully utilize BMS for both lithium-ion batteries and vanadium redox-flow batteries. In addition, system architecture and how it can be useful in monitoring and control is discussed. A pathway for advancing BMS to better utilize BESS for grid-scale applications is outlined.

  20. SMM parallel battery operation in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, R.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel battery system for the SMM spacecraft is described. The battery system performance as a function of lifetime over orbit was evaluated. The following equipment performance specifications were examined during a typical orbit: battery current and discharges, voltage limitations, battery temperature variations, and current sensor performance. Tabulated battery performance data is also included.

  1. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  2. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  3. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  4. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  5. 46 CFR 120.354 - Battery installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Battery installations. 120.354 Section 120.354 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.354 Battery installations. (a) Large batteries. Each large battery installation must be located in a locker, room or enclosed box solely dedicated to the storage of batteries...

  6. Development of battery powered 100 kV dc power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Rishi; Shyam, A.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2006-10-01

    The increased interest in pulsed power field applications has generated the need for development of compact and remotely operated chargers driven by rechargeable batteries. With this objective, a compact and portable dc to dc Converter has been developed which has an output rating of 100kV, 0.4mA. The high voltage generation scheme uses a hybrid approach. The overall idea behind implementation of hybrid concept is to optimize voltage upliftment with suitable techniques for maximizing power delivered per unit volume. The proposed converter provides this feature and uses flyback converter in association with Cockcroft-Walton Multiplier [M. Jullian, Cockcroft-Walton Multiplier Optimum Design Guide V2.0, August 2005 (http//www.blazelabes.com)] for the generation of 100kV dc from 12V dc source, i.e., normal battery. In the first stage 12V dc is modulated/chopped into series of high frequency pulses by pulse width modulator and then increased in level up to 16kVpp by step up flyback transformer. Further by using n stage half wave series Cockcroft-Walton multiplier the voltage is stepped up to the level of 100kV. As switching device, state of the art metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor has been used. The obtained voltage multiplier cascade efficiency is 82.64%, whereas overall power conversion efficiency of the charging power supply is 85.47%. The control unit has been fiber optically isolated from high voltage unit due to safety consideration. The presented article explores complete design and development approach of compact and portable 100kV dc power supply which can be used for a variety of applications such as x-ray generation, ion implantation, charge particle acceleration, radio isotope production, etc.

  7. 77 FR 20688 - Seventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the seventh meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  8. 77 FR 8325 - Sixth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Batteries and Battery Systems, Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of the sixth meeting of RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Batteries and Battery...

  9. 78 FR 38093 - Thirteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal... Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY... Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. DATES: The meeting...

  10. 78 FR 55773 - Fourteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 225, Rechargeable Lithium Battery and Battery Systems...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S... Lithium Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to... Battery and Battery Systems--Small and Medium Size DATES: The meeting will be held October 1-3, 2013, from...

  11. Block copolymer battery separator

    DOEpatents

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. Battery charging stations

    SciTech Connect

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  13. The nuclear battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozier, K. S.; Rosinger, H. E.

    The evolution and present status of an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited program to develop a small, solid-state, passively cooled reactor power supply known as the Nuclear Battery is reviewed. Key technical features of the Nuclear Battery reactor core include a heat-pipe primary heat transport system, graphite neutron moderator, low-enriched uranium TRISO coated-particle fuel and the use of burnable poisons for long-term reactivity control. An external secondary heat transport system extracts useful heat energy, which may be converted into electricity in an organic Rankine cycle engine or used to produce high-pressure steam. The present reference design is capable of producing about 2400 kW(t) (about 600 kW(e) net) for 15 full-power years. Technical and safety features are described along with recent progress in component hardware development programs and market assessment work.

  14. The environmentally safe battery

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.; Brown, N.E.

    1991-01-01

    There are three aspects to an environmentally safe battery. The first deals with the manufacturing process, the second with the use of environmentally friendly materials, and the third with the disposal and/or recycling of spent units. In this paper, several ongoing programs at Sandia National Laboratories that relate to the environmentally conscious manufacturing of batteries, are discussed. The solvent substitution/elimination program is a two-pronged effort, aimed at identifying new solvents which are compatible with the environment, while at the same time developing dry process cleaning technology. The joining program is evaluating new solvents for flux removal as well as the development of fluxless soldering processes. In the area of welding, new cleaning processes are under study. Chemical microsensors are under development that are capable of identifying and quantifying single chemical species. These sensors have been used to monitor and improve processes using toxic/hazardous solvents. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  15. Polyvinyl alcohol battery separator containing inert filler. [alkaline batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol battery separator is disclosed. A particulate filler, inert to alkaline electrolyte of an alkaline battery, is incorporated in the separator in an amount of 1-20% by weight, based on the weight of the polyvinyl alcohol, and is dispersed throughout the product. Incorporation of the filler enhances performance and increases cycle life of alkaline batteries when compared with batteries containing a similar separator not containing filler. Suitable fillers include titanates, silicates, zirconates, aluminates, wood floor, lignin, and titania. Particle size is not greater than about 50 microns.

  16. Smart battery controller for lithium sulfur dioxide batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, Terrill; Bard, Arnold; Testa, Bruce; Shader, William

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  17. Smart battery controller for lithium/sulfur dioxide batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Atwater, T.; Bard, A.; Testa, B.; Shader, W.

    1992-08-01

    Each year, the U.S. Army purchases millions of lithium sulfur dioxide batteries for use in portable electronics equipment. Because of their superior rate capability and service life over a wide variety of conditions, lithium batteries are the power source of choice for military equipment. There is no convenient method of determining the available energy remaining in partially used lithium batteries; hence, users do not take full advantage of all the available battery energy. Currently, users replace batteries before each mission, which leads to premature disposal, and results in the waste of millions of dollars in battery energy every year. Another problem of the lithium battery is that it is necessary to ensure complete discharge of the cells when the useful life of the battery has been expended, or when a hazardous condition exists; a hazardous condition may result in one or more of the cells venting. The Electronics Technology and Devices Laboratory has developed a working prototype of a smart battery controller (SBC) that addresses these problems.

  18. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    c . THIS PAGE U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code...cells vs. lithium foil 3.2 C abric annot be used as cathodes since it can act as an anode and short the battery. Instead, a metal bstrate is...theoretical values. Increasing the volume athode The cathodes must be electrically conductive and structurally robust. Carbon f c su permeable thin film of

  19. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  20. Modular Battery Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M (Inventor); Gonzalez, Marcelo C (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Some embodiments of the present invention describe a battery including a plurality of master-less controllers. Each controller is operatively connected to a corresponding cell in a string of cells, and each controller is configured to bypass a fraction of current around the corresponding cell when the corresponding cell has a greater charge than one or more other cells in the string of cells.

  1. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  2. Silver-Zinc Batteries,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1965-06-01

    ANTIDOTES. Obtain medical attention at once. 3ive large quantities of water and a weak acid solution , such as vinegar , lemon juice or orange juice ...wash the affected area with large quantities of water. Neutral ize with vinegar , lemon juice or 5 percent solution of acetic acid and wash with water...for aircraft app lications. However , technolo gical advances in the alkaline f a m i l y of batteries have introduced new electrochemical sys tems

  3. Batteries not included.

    PubMed

    Hand, F; McDowell, D; Gillick, J

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of oesophageal lodgement of ingested button batteries (BB) in young children. In one case the diagnosis and subsequent treatment was made in a timely fashion and the patient suffered no sequelae. In the second case there was a delay in diagnosis and the patient subsequently suffered both early and late complications. The purpose of this report is to highlight theingestion importance of the correct management of suspected BB ingestion.

  4. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large battery...

  5. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large battery...

  6. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large battery...

  7. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large battery...

  8. 46 CFR 111.15-10 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-10 Ventilation. (a) General. Each room, locker, and box for storage batteries must be arranged or ventilated to prevent... with the battery charger so that the battery cannot be charged without ventilation. (c) Large battery...

  9. A polyoxometalate flow battery

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Harry D.; Hudak, Nicholas S.; Fang, Xikui; Anderson, Travis M.

    2013-08-01

    A redox flow battery utilizing two, three-electron polyoxometalate redox couples (SiVV3WVI9O407–/SiVIV3WVI9O4010- and SiVIV3WVI9O4010-/SiVIV3WV3WVI6O4013-) was investigated for use in stationary storage in either aqueous or non-aqueous conditions. The aqueous battery had coulombic efficiencies greater than 95% with relatively low capacity fading over 100 cycles. Infrared studies showed there was no decomposition of the compound under these conditions. The non-aqueous analog had a higher operating voltage but at the expense of coulombic efficiency. The spontaneous formation of these clusters by self-assembly facilitates recovery of the battery after being subjected to reversed polarity. Polyoxometalates offer a new approach to stationary storage materials because they are capable of undergoing multi-electron reactions and are stable over a wide range of pH values and temperatures.

  10. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  11. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  12. Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Yvette B.; Mccall, Kurt E.

    1992-01-01

    The Nickel Cadmium Battery Expert System-2, or 'NICBES-2', which was used by the NASA HST six-battery testbed, was subsequently converted into the Nickel Hydrogen Battery Expert System, or 'NICHES'. Accounts are presently given of this conversion process and future uses being contemplated for NICHES. NICHES will calculate orbital summary data at the end of each orbit, and store these files for trend analyses and rules-generation.

  13. Membranes in Lithium Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed. PMID:24958286

  14. Six meter coke battery renovation at Great Lakes Division, National Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Sperner, F.A.; Kalinowsky, R.P. )

    1993-01-01

    In 1990, National Steel Corporation initiated the renovation of its No. 5 Battery Facility to reduce Great Lakes Division dependency on outside coke sources by producing enough coke to meet 60% of Great Lakes Division needs. The renovation of the No. 5 Coke Battery and associated By-Product Plant required work in the Battery, Oven Machinery, Coal Handling, Coke Handling and By-Product Plants No. 3 and No. 2. The paper briefly describes the scope of the renovations, then describes the equipment, modifications made, and results of modifications for the following: coal handling system, oven battery (heating, structural design, and process control), oven machinery (U-tube car, pusher machine, on spot door machine, hood car, and quench car), coke handling, and by-products plant (tar and liquor system, primary cooling, exhausters and tar precipitators, secondary gas cooling/ammonia scrubbing, light oil system, waste water treatment and benzene emission controls, and computerized control system).

  15. Mobile Vehicle Teleoperated Over Wireless IP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-13

    This requires charg- ing both the computer batteries and the truck batteries . The truck batteries can be plugged into the charger by unplug- ging them...on the charger (figure 5). Repeat this for the batteries on the other side of the truck. 2. Make sure the computer batteries are charged. The... chargers can be plugged directly into the batteries . 3. Turn on truck using the 2 power switches located in the rear left wheel well. 4. Wait 2 minutes for

  16. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N.Srinivasa

    2004-01-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future. PMID:16943934

  17. Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PRIMARY BATTERIES , TEMPERATURE, LITHIUM , CATHODES, ELECTRODES, PROTECTIVE COATINGS, PLATINUM, NICKEL, SULFUR, STORAGE, GOLD, RELIABILITY(ELECTRONICS...CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, CARBON BLACK, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, THIONYL CHLORIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY).

  18. ZEBRA battery meets USABC goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustmann, Cord-H.

    In 1990, the California Air Resources Board has established a mandate to introduce electric vehicles in order to improve air quality in Los Angeles and other capitals. The United States Advanced Battery Consortium has been formed by the big car companies, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Department of Energy in order to establish the requirements on EV-batteries and to support battery development. The ZEBRA battery system is a candidate to power future electric vehicles. Not only because its energy density is three-fold that of lead acid batteries (50% more than NiMH) but also because of all the other EV requirements such as power density, no maintenance, summer and winter operation, safety, failure tolerance and low cost potential are fulfilled. The electrode material is plain salt and nickel in combination with a ceramic electrolyte. The cell voltage is 2.58 V and the capacity of a standard cell is 32 Ah. Some hundred cells are connected in series and parallel to form a battery with about 300 V OCV. The battery system including battery controller, main circuit-breaker and cooling system is engineered for vehicle integration and ready to be mounted in a vehicle [J. Gaub, A. van Zyl, Mercedes-Benz Electric Vehicles with ZEBRA Batteries, EVS-14, Orlando, FL, Dec. 1997]. The background of these features are described.

  19. Summary of LDEF battery analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

    1992-01-01

    Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

  20. Electrodes for sealed secondary batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boies, D. B.; Child, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    Self-supporting membrane electrode structures, in which active ingredients and graphite are incorporated in a polymeric matrix, improve performance of electrodes in miniature, sealed, alkaline storage batteries.

  1. Trends in cardiac pacemaker batteries.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Venkateswara Sarma; Ilankumaran, V; Rao, N Srinivasa

    2004-10-01

    Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  2. An ampere-hour meter for batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, B. D.

    1973-01-01

    Up-down counter records charge as well as discharge in tests of rechargeable batteries. System uses reversible counter preset to represent 100% charge. As battery discharges, total count decreases; as battery is recharged, counter moves back to 100% indication.

  3. The lead-acid battery industry in China: outlook for production and recycling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xi; Wu, Yufeng; Gong, Yu; Zuo, Tieyong

    2015-11-01

    In 2013, more than four million (metric) tons (MT) of refined lead went into batteries in China, and 1.5 MT of scrap lead recycled from these batteries was reused in other secondary materials. The use of start-light-ignition (SLI), traction and energy storage batteries has spread in China in recent decades, with their proportions being 25.6%, 47.2% and 27.2%, respectively, in 2012. The total production of these batteries increased from 296,000 kVAh in 2001 to 205.23 MkVAh in 2013, with manufacturing located mainly in the middle and eastern provinces of the country. In this paper, we find that the market share of SLI batteries will decrease slightly, the share of traction batteries will continuously increase with the emergence of clean energy vehicles, and that of energy storage batteries will increase with the development of the wind energy and photovoltaic industries. Accounting for lead consumption in the main application industries, and the total social possession, it is calculated that used lead batteries could generate 2.4 MT of scrap lead in 2014, which is much higher than the 1.5 MT that was recycled in 2013. Thus, the current recycling rate is too low. It is suggested that while building large-scale recycling plants, small-scale plants should be banned or merged. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Industrial batteries in the electric power system of 'Electricité de France'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnol, P.

    More than 5000 industrial batteries are operating in the different power plants, substations and distribution centres of 'Electricité de France' (EDF). 2 V lead/ acid and 1.2V alkaline systems are used for different stationary stand-by applications: power station control, communication, etc. In nuclear plants, these batteries are part of the ultimate safety system ensuring the safe control of the reactor. The operating conditions of the industrial batteries at EDF, the different related battery technologies and the testing methods used to assess their operating ability are described. For selection, batteries undergo electric, seismic and ageing tests. Ageing sequences involve successive floating phases at a high temperature. Results on absorptive glass mat valve-regulated lead/acid battery testing are given. On-line monitoring methods are studied in order to evaluate the remaining available autonomy of the battery according to its state of ageing. In addition to these stand-by applications, EDF is also investigating the potential of future energy and quality applications of stationary batteries such as load levelling or storage of energy produced from renewable sources.

  5. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  6. Competitive systems - Ambient temperature rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.

    Recent in designs of aqueous electrolyte secondary batteries are presented. Operation principles, performance characteristics, and applications of various types of lead/acid batteries, alkaline electrolyte batteries, flow batteries, and battery/fuel cell hybrids (such as metal/air and hydrogen/metal oxide systems) are discussed. Consideration is given to the relative importance of such battery parameters as deep discharge capability, freedom from maintenance, shelf life, and cost, depending upon the specific application.

  7. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  8. Battery Cell Balancing System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Francis J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A battery cell balancing system is operable to utilize a relatively small number of transformers interconnected with a battery having a plurality of battery cells to selectively charge the battery cells. Windings of the transformers are simultaneously driven with a plurality of waveforms whereupon selected battery cells or groups of cells are selected and charged. A transformer drive circuit is operable to selectively vary the waveforms to thereby vary a weighted voltage associated with each of the battery cells.

  9. Development of nickel hydrogen battery expert system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiva, Sajjan G.

    1990-10-01

    The Hubble Telescope Battery Testbed employs the nickel-cadmium battery expert system (NICBES-2) which supports the evaluation of performances of Hubble Telescope spacecraft batteries and provides alarm diagnosis and action advice. NICBES-2 also provides a reasoning system along with a battery domain knowledge base to achieve this battery health management function. An effort to modify NICBES-2 to accommodate nickel-hydrogen battery environment in testbed is described.

  10. FLUXNET2015 Dataset: Batteries included

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Papale, D.; Agarwal, D.; Trotta, C.; Chu, H.; Canfora, E.; Torn, M. S.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis datasets have become one of the signature products of the FLUXNET global network. They are composed from contributions of individual site teams to regional networks, being then compiled into uniform data products - now used in a wide variety of research efforts: from plant-scale microbiology to global-scale climate change. The FLUXNET Marconi Dataset in 2000 was the first in the series, followed by the FLUXNET LaThuile Dataset in 2007, with significant additions of data products and coverage, solidifying the adoption of the datasets as a research tool. The FLUXNET2015 Dataset counts with another round of substantial improvements, including extended quality control processes and checks, use of downscaled reanalysis data for filling long gaps in micrometeorological variables, multiple methods for USTAR threshold estimation and flux partitioning, and uncertainty estimates - all of which accompanied by auxiliary flags. This "batteries included" approach provides a lot of information for someone who wants to explore the data (and the processing methods) in detail. This inevitably leads to a large number of data variables. Although dealing with all these variables might seem overwhelming at first, especially to someone looking at eddy covariance data for the first time, there is method to our madness. In this work we describe the data products and variables that are part of the FLUXNET2015 Dataset, and the rationale behind the organization of the dataset, covering the simplified version (labeled SUBSET), the complete version (labeled FULLSET), and the auxiliary products in the dataset.

  11. Identifying and Overcoming Critical Barriers to Widespread Second Use of PEV Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-02-01

    Both the market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and deployment of grid-connected energy storage systems are presently restricted by the high cost of batteries. Battery second use (B2U) strategies--in which a single battery first serves an automotive application, then is redeployed into a secondary market--could help address both issues by reducing battery costs to the primary (automotive) and secondary (electricity grid) users. This study investigates the feasibility of and major barriers to the second use of lithium-ion PEV batteries by posing and answering the following critical B2U questions: 1. When will used automotive batteries become available, and how healthy will they be? 2. What is required to repurpose used automotive batteries, and how much will it cost? 3. How will repurposed automotive batteries be used, how long will they last, and what is their value? Advanced analysis techniques are employed that consider the electrical, thermal, and degradation response of batteries in both the primary (automotive) and secondary service periods. Second use applications are treated in detail, addressing operational requirements, economic value, and market potential. The study concludes that B2U is viable and could provide considerable societal benefits due to the large possible supply of repurposed automotive batteries and substantial remaining battery life following automotive service. However, the only identified secondary market large enough to consume the supply of these batteries (utility peaker plant replacement) is expected to be a low margin market, and thus B2U is not expected to affect the upfront cost of PEVs.

  12. [Micro fabricated enzyme battery].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Karube, I

    1996-10-01

    Although various work has been done in the field of implantable micro actuators such as artificial organs and micro surgery robots, a suitable electric power supply for these is yet to be developed. For this purpose a micro fabricated enzyme fuel cell was developed which uses glucose contained in the human body as a fuel. In order to obtain enough voltage each cell was formed as part of a serial array on a silicon wafer. Glucose solution enters the cells by a capillary effect. In this article fuel cells already developed using biocatalysts are described, and the future possibility of a micro fabricated enzyme battery is discussed.

  13. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-01-01

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 108 tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes. PMID:23836636

  14. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Boyes, John D.; De Anda, Mindi Farber; Torres, Wenceslao

    1999-08-11

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The Puerto Rico facility is presently the largest operating battery storage system in the world and has successfully provided frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reseme to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. However, the facility has suffered accelerated cell failures in the past year and PREPA is committed to restoring the plant to full capacity. This represents the first repowering of a large utility battery facility. PREPA and its vendors and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation, which are summarized in this paper.

  15. Battery system with temperature sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  16. Scientists View Battery Under Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    2015-04-10

    PNNL researchers use a special microscope setup that shows the inside of a battery as it charges and discharges. This battery-watching microscope is located at EMSL, DOE's Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory that resides at PNNL. Researchers the world over can visit EMSL and use special instruments like this, many of which are the only one of their kind available to scientists.

  17. Lithium batteries for pulse power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, Laszlo

    New designs of lithium batteries having bipolar construction and thin cell components possess the very low impedance that is necessary to deliver high-intensity current pulses. The research and development and understanding of the fundamental properties of these pulse batteries have reached an advanced level. Ranges of 50 to 300 kW/kg specific power and 80 to 130 Wh/kg specific energy have been demonstrated with experimental high-temperature lithium alloy/transition-metal disulfide rechargeable bipolar batteries in repeated 1- to 100-ms long pulses. Other versions are designed for repetitive power bursts that may last up to 20 or 30 s and yet may attain high specific power (1 to 10 kW/kg). Primary high-temperature Li-alloy/FeS2 pulse batteries (thermal batteries) are already commercially available. Other high-temperature lithium systems may use chlorine or metal-oxide positive electrodes. Also under development are low-temperature pulse batteries: a 50-kW Li/SOCl2 primary batter and an all solid-state, polymer-electrolyte secondary battery. Such pulse batteries could find use in commercial and military applications in the near future.

  18. Redox Flow Batteries, a Review

    SciTech Connect

    Knoxville, U. Tennessee; U. Texas Austin; U, McGill; Weber, Adam Z.; Mench, Matthew M.; Meyers, Jeremy P.; Ross, Philip N.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-07-15

    Redox flow batteries are enjoying a renaissance due to their ability to store large amounts of electrical energy relatively cheaply and efficiently. In this review, we examine the components of redox flow batteries with a focus on understanding the underlying physical processes. The various transport and kinetic phenomena are discussed along with the most common redox couples.

  19. Computerized Investigations of Battery Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinrichsen, P. F.

    2001-01-01

    Uses a computer interface to measure terminal voltage versus current characteristic of a variety of batteries, their series and parallel combinations, and the variation with discharge. The concept of an internal resistance demonstrates that current flows through the battery determine the efficiency and serve to introduce Thevenin's theorem.…

  20. What Do Battery Testers Test?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chagnon, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities to determine whether it is better to test dry cells with an ammeter than with a voltmeter and how best to test alkaline batteries. Discusses classification of disposable testers as instruments. Concludes that a laboratory voltmeter gives a good indication of the condition of an alkaline cell while carbon batteries are best…